The rebellion of an Afghan woman against Taliban oppression revealed through Kamila`s struggles in Gayle Tzemach Lemmon`s The Dressmaker of Khair Khana - USD Repository

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE REBELLION OF AN AFGHAN WOMAN AGAINST TALIBAN OPPRESSION REVEALED THROUGH KAMILA’S STRUGGLES IN GAYLE TZEMACH LEMMON’S THE DRESSMAKER OF KHAIR KHANA AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By AUGUSTINA KRESIA AGASI Student Number : 104214022 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE REBELLION OF AN AFGHAN WOMAN AGAINST TALIBAN OPPRESSION REVEALED THROUGH KAMILA’S STRUGGLES IN GAYLE TZEMACH LEMMON’S THE DRESSMAKER OF KHAIR KHANA AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By AUGUSTINA KRESIA AGASI Student Number : 104214022 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI “...talent means nothing, while experience, acquired in humility and with hard work, means everything.” - Patrick Süskind, Perfume: The Story of a Murderer- vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI This thesis is dedicated to My forever motivator and hero, daddy My guardian angel, mommy My lovely brother and sister viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I send my greatest thanks and gratitude to Almighty Jesus Christ, for His great love, blessing, guidance and strength that He gives to me every day. He guides and accompanies me in every single step in doing all things. I truly believe that He has arranged everything which has happened and will happen in my life in His perfect time arrangement. I would like to give my great gratitude to Dra. A.B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D. for her attention, guidance and support throughout the process of this thesis writing. I would like to say thank to my co-advisor Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A for the suggestions which are very helpful. I also would like to thank Ni Luh Putu Rosiandani, S.S, M.Hum for her support so that I can finish my thesis. My deepest gratitude is dedicated to my parents, my brother, my sister, and my big family who always support, pray, and believe in me for what I am doing. I am very lucky and blessed to have them as my family. I thank Anggi Arumsari and Maria Yessy Christy to always support and strengthen me to face all hard days, especially in doing my thesis. I thank Steve Kamevan for his endless love and support in every single day. I also thank Priska, Wawan, Ray, Cindy, Anna, Sinta, Tyas, Key, Chyntia, Jejes, and all my class A classmates who always help, cherish, and show me many great adventures. Last but not least, I would like to thank all my friends and everyone who intentionally or unintentionally helps and supports me for all this time, whose names I cannot mention in this acknowledgments page. Augustina Kresia Agasi ix

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE .................................................................................................................... ii APPROVAL PAGE .......................................................................................................... iii ACCEPTANCE PAGE .................................................................................................... iv LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ............... v STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ................................................................................. vi MOTTO PAGE .................................................................................................................. vii DEDICATION PAGE ....................................................................................................... viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................................. ix TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................. x ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................... xii ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................................... xiii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 1 A. Background of the Study ........................................................................................ 1 B. Problem Formulation ............................................................................................. 7 C. Objectives of the Study ................................................................................ 7 D. Definition of Terms ........................................................................................ 8 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................................ 10 A. Review of Related Studies ............................................................................. 10 B. Review of Related Theories ........................................................................... 13 1. Theory of Character ............................................................................. 13 2. Theory of Characterization ................................................................... 13 3. Theory of Radical-Libertarian Feminism ............................................. 15 4. Theory of Patriarchy ............................................................................. 19 C. Review on Historical Background ................................................................. 20 1. The Role of Afghan Women ................................................................. 20 2. Taliban Regime ..................................................................................... 23 D. Theoretical Framework .................................................................................. 26 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................................ 28 A. Object of the Study......................................................................................... 28 B. Approach of the Study .................................................................................. 29 C. Method of the Study ...................................................................................... 31 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ............................................................................................. 33 A. The Description of Kamila ............................................................................ 34 1. Kamila as an Afghan woman ............................................................. 34 2. Kamila as a daughter .......................................................................... 40 B. The Taliban Oppression toward Kamila as an Afghan Woman which is seen through Kamila’s Struggle ..................................................................... 46 C. The Rebellion of Kamila as an Afghan Woman against Taliban Oppression ..................................................................................................... 53 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ........................................................................................ 67 BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................. 71 x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX ........................................................................................................................ 74 xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT AGASI, AUGUSTINA KRESIA. The Rebellion of an Afghan Woman against Taliban Oppression Revealed through Kamila’s Struggles in Gayle Tzemach Lemmon’s The Dressmaker of Khair Khana. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Gayle Tzemach’s The Dressmaker of Khair Khana tells about the struggle of an Afghan woman, Kamila, who struggles to keep her family survival and to maintain her freedom under Taliban regime. Taliban regime is a cruel regime that tortures Afghan people, especially women. Kamila has to suffer because the Taliban apply rules that eliminate women’s freedom and productive life. Realizing that her life should go back to normal, she decides to rebel against Taliban’s strict rules. This research focuses on revealing Kamila’s rebellion against Taliban oppression through her struggles. In this research, there are three questions related to the topic. The first question is how the character and the roles of Kamila are described in the novel, the second question is how Taliban oppression is depicted through Kamila’s struggles, and the third question is how Kamila’s rebellion as an Afghan woman is revealed in the novel. In analyzing the questions the writer conducts library research. The primary source is the novel The Dressmaker of Khair Khana itself while the secondary sources are some theoretical books, the sites from internet, and other sources that support the research. The approach that is used in this research is radical-libertarian feminist perspective because this research aims to show Kamila’s rebellion to reject patriarchal system that oppresses her to be a passive and unproductive woman. From the analysis, first, it shows that Kamila as an Afghan woman is educated, open-minded, and determined. She is also described as a risk taker. Second, as a daughter she is described as a responsible, obedient, brave, caring, and determine person. In her family, Kamila is also described as a leader and decision maker. Furthermore, Kamila has to struggle to live a productive life under Taliban regime. Kamila’s struggles are seen through her suffering in undergoing her own life and in maintaining other women’s freedom. Hence, she rebels against the Taliban by creating new perspective for being “true” woman, becoming androgynous woman, and empowering women. xii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK AGASI, AUGUSTINA KRESIA. The Rebellion of an Afghan Woman against Taliban Oppression Revealed through Kamila’s Struggles in Gayle Tzemach Lemmon’s The Dressmaker of Khair Khana. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. The Dressmaker of Khair Khana karya Gayle Tzemach menceritakan tentang perjuangan seorang wanita Afghanistan, Kamila yang berjuang untuk menjaga hidup keluarganya dan mempertahankan kebebasan selama rezim Taliban. Kamila harus menderita karena Taliban membatasi kebebasan dan kehidupan produktif wanita. Menyadari bahwa hidupnya harus kembali seperti semula, ia memutuskan untuk memberontak melawan aturan Taliban yang mengekang tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap pemberontakan Kamila melawan penindasan Taliban melalui perjuangannya. Pada penelitian ini terdapat tiga pertanyaan yang berkenaan pada topik. Pertama, bagaimana karakter dan peranan Kamila digambarkan dalam novel, yang kedua bagaimana penindasan Taliban tergambar melalui perjuangan-perjuangan Kamila, dan yang ketiga bagaimana pemberontakan Kamila sebagai seorang wanita Afghanistan terungkap di dalam novel. Dalam menganalisa pertanyaan tersebut, penulis melakukan studi pustaka. Sumber utama adalah novel The Dressmaker of Khair Khana sedangkan sumber pendukung adalah beberapa buku teori, situs internet, dan sumber lain yang mendukung penilitian. Pendekatan yang digunakan adalah radikal liberal feminis karena penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan pemberontakan Kamila menolak sistem patriarki yang menekan ia untuk menjadi wanita yang pasif dan tidak produktif. Dari hasil analisis, pertama, Kamila adalah seorang wanita Afghanistan yang terpelajar, berpikiran terbuka, dan bertekad kuat. Dia digambarkan sebagai pengambil resiko. Kedua, ia digambarkan sebagai anak perempuan yang bertanggung jawab, patuh, berani, peduli, dan tegas. Kamila digambarkan sebagai seorang pemimpin dan pengambil keputusan. Kamila harus berjuang untuk hidup produktif dibawah kekuasaan rezim Taliban. Perjuangan Kamila terlihat dari penderitaanya dalam menjalani hidupnya sendiri dan dalam menegakkan kebebasan wanita lainnya. Oleh karena itu, ia memberontak melawan Taliban dengan menciptakan perspektif baru tentang menjadi wanita seutuhnya, menjadi wanita androgini, dan memperdayakan wanita. xiii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of The Study Every nation has its own process to develop. The process of developing a nation can bring the nation’s condition to have a better or worse future. Usually, there are many factors that cause the development of a nation. They are politics, religions, humanity, relationship, and other factors. Those factors also affect citizen’s life, whether they can live in peaceful life or not. One of the nations that has passed through the process is Afghanistan. The process that this nation experienced in the past was very difficult. Many wars and violations happened during the process. Because of that, Afghanistan had experienced many changes, especially in political and humanity aspects. Since Afghanistan was invaded by Soviet in 1979 to 1989, the war was declared at that time. Because of that situation, this country was covered by terrified atmosphere (Iacopino, 1998:1). This war caused not only the loss of 15.000 troops, but also the violation of human rights and freedom. The subsequent civil war, fueled by support from neighboring countries and other regional powers for various factions following the collapse of the Soviet-backed regime in 1992, witnessed extensive abuses by the armed factions vying for power, including the virtual destruction of the capital city, Kabul, from rocket shelling, aerial bombardment and mortaring. Indiscriminate use of force, torture, killing in detention of both civilians and combatants, the extensive laying of antipersonnel landmines, and the arbitrary exercise of 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 authority principally through military force characterized Afghanistan for much of this period (Iacopino, 1998:1). Although the Mujahedeen could beat the Russian army and kick them out from the country, it did not mean that the war ended. The real tension actually happened when some of secret Afghan rebels called Taliban began their action. The Taliban was motivated by the zeal of Islam and the belief that they were ordained to bring stability in Afghanistan. They also wanted to bring Islam’s rule back to their land (http://www.afghangovernment.com/briefhistory.htm) (March29, 2014). They began to occupy many vital spots in the country. They set many strict rules based on strict Islam rules. They did not hesitate to torture or even kill people who broke the rule. This incident brought many negative effects for Afghan people, especially for women. Afghanistan for many years had changed to be the worst place for women and children to live in. Its strict rules and power actually failed the development of the country because it brought depressing and devastating change for women (Iacopino, 1998:2). Many writers and artists have been inspired in developing this situation to many stories, poets, songs, and even movies. The situation and condition of women during Taliban’s war have become the important issue for many years even up to now. Through literature this issue can be delivered and understood by many people around the world. According to Wellek and Warren in Theory of Literature, literature is made from many inspiring moments, place,

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 experience, and other things which can give people information about a social situation of a certain place. Literature can obviously take the place of many things-of travel or sojourn in foreign lands, of direct experience, vicarious life; and it can be used by historian as a social document (Wellek and Warren, 1956:22). Literature also ―imitates life‖ (Wellek and Warren, 1956:89) which means through literature, the reader can know and understand what kind of society and social condition that are written in the story. The reader also can feel, imagine and understand what kind of experiences that the characters have. Novel as one of a kind of literature which according to Drs. E. Van De Laar and Dr. N. Schoonderwoerd in An Approach to English Literature can introduce the reader into a living world. A Novel is a kind of art work that introduce people into many experiences in the world (Laar and Schoonderwoerd,1957:163). Gayle Tzemach Lemmon in The Dressmaker of Khair Khana has packed an inspiring and interesting story about the oppression of the Taliban toward Afghan women and their struggles toward it. The story is written based on true story of a Sidiqi family and community in a district named Khair Khana. The family, especially Kamila becomes the center of the story. She is the founder of Kaweyan business consultancy that gives entrepreneurship skills to Afghan. Today, Sidiqi runs a business consultancy called Kaweyan, which teaches entrepreneurship skills to Afghan people around the country (http://www.npr.org) (March 29, 2014).

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 Women in the Taliban regime are prohibited to work, pursue high education, walk alone outside their house, or even laugh and talk to men who are not their husband or relatives. They also have to wear burqa, a bodylength covering with only a mesh opening to see and breathe through. The Taliban issued edicts forbidding women to work outside the home, attend school, or to leave their homes unless accompanied by a husband, father, brother, or son. In public, women must be covered from head to toe in a burqa, a body-length covering with only a mesh opening to see and breathe through. (Iacopino, 1998:2). That situation gives repression toward women in Afghanistan. Their productive life such as working, studying, even talking are banned by the rules. Women only have to do feminine things such as; obeying their husband, father, or brother, approving whatever their husband or father speaks, and covering all their body and head. If they break the rules, they can be beaten or even killed by the Taliban. Health and job access are also banned for women. Women were brutally beaten, publicly flogged, and killed for violating Taliban decrees. Even after international condemnation, the Taliban made only slight changes. Some say it was progress when the Taliban allowed a few women doctors and nurses to work, even while hospitals still had segregated wards for women. In Kabul and other cities, a few home school for girls operated in secret (March 29, 2014). From quotation above, it shows that women cannot do something wrong and violate the Taliban’s rules. If they break the rules, they can lose their life. All the members of the Taliban are men which means that the Taliban uses the power of men, ―The Taliban is comprised of young men and boys of Afghan descent who have hardly lived in Afghan society‖

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 (http://www.feminist.org) (March 29, 2014). This situation becomes worst since men have absolute power over women in Afghanistan. It means that the patriarchy system is practiced very strictly in Afghanistan. Based on the facts above, the writer is interested in choosing the Taliban oppression toward women and the rebellion actions that they do against the oppression as the topics of the study. Many women suffer from the inhuman rules that the Taliban sets up. The Taliban which consists of men control every personal life aspect that women have. It means patriarchal system is applied in that situation. The rules that are forced also create a social system. The social system which is run by Taliban as male’s organization control the entire female’s life. The Taliban really eliminates women’s freedom and productive lives in society. They have to face the vicious and cruel situation day by day that make them mute and silent. Men create system where they use female’s characteristics as their justification to make women helpless and weak. The situation where Afghan women have to suffer under Taliban regime then motivates them to do something that can help them to survive from the oppression. Afghan women who once worked before the arrival of Taliban then try to do some activities that help them to regain their productive life even though they have to live under the pressure of Taliban. Elaheh Rostami Povey in Afghan Women Identity and Invasion states that for some professional women who remain in Afghanistan, they do some survival strategies which are based on forming networks and groups of solidarity with

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 poorer women. By doing this, they build the foundation that is essential for their survival (Povey, 2007: 28-29). Based on their struggle over the oppression, the writer then interests in showing and analyzing what kind of survival strategies that Afghan women do in Taliban regime which actually imply the rebellious actions. It is because what they do does not have similar purpose and goal with the Taliban’s rules. This situation also becomes the interest of radical-libertarian feminist which is according to Rosemarie Tong in Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction, focuses on rejection of patriarchal society’s assumption that there is connection and similarity between one’s sex (male and female) and one’s gender (masculine or feminine) which leads the society to develop system that uses rigid gender roles to keep women being passive and unproductive (Tong, 2009:64). In other words, radical-libertarian feminist rejects domination by men toward women through social system that disempowers women. The writer is interested in choosing The Dressmaker of Khair Khana as the subject of the study because the novel is based on true story. The story is written by a Western writer. Lemmon took several years to do the research on the life of a Afghan family before and after the arrival of Taliban. The story tells about a woman character named Kamila who struggles from Taliban oppression and then rebels against the rules in order to survive. Her struggles in the story can be the representative of women’s struggles that are done by Afghan women in Taliban regime. It is because the setting of

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 place in the story is Khair Khana (one of the district in Kabul). All the characters are also the real community of the district. To specify the study, the writer focuses on one of the main characters who can reveal the related points that are analyzed. The main character that writer uses is Kamila. The writer analyzes how Kamila’s characterization can reflect her struggles as a woman who is repressed by Taliban rules. Through her struggles, the writer then wants to show some rebellious actions that Kamila does in order to survive and to reject Taliban inhuman treatment through radical-libertarian feminist point of view. Hopefully this study can enrich our knowledge and understanding about other kinds of rebellion that Afghan women do by using radical-libertarian feminist perspective in Taliban era in order to get freedom, rights and fair treatment. B. Problem Formulation 1. How is Kamila described in novel? 2. How is the Taliban oppression depicted through Kamila’s struggles in the novel? 3. How is the rebellion of Kamila, as an Afghan woman, against the Taliban oppression revealed in the novel? C. Objectives of the Study The writer focuses on three problems that are stated above as the objectives of study. First, the writer wants to know the description of Kamila

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 in the novel. Second, the writer wants to know how the Taliban oppression is depicted through Kamila’s struggle during the Taliban regime. Third, from the explanation of how Kamila struggles under the Taliban oppression, the writer tries to figure what things that she does or thinks that can reflect the rebellion toward the Taliban oppression. D. Definition of Terms In this part, the writer gives the clear explanation about some important related terms that are stated previously in problem formulation. 1. Oppression According to The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary, oppression has the meaning of burdening some people and keeping them in subjugation and unjust by using harsh treatments of force or authority; tyrant. Oppression is then divided into two, which are mentally and physically (Morris, 1996:1633) 2. Taliban According to Merriam Webster Concise Encyclopedia, Taliban is a political and religious faction and militia that came to power in Afghanistan in the mid-1990s. Following the Soviet Union's 1989 withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Taliban (Persian: ―Students‖)—whose name refers to the Islamic religious students who formed the group's main recruits—arose as a popular reaction to the chaos that gripped the country. In 1994–1995, under the leadership of Mullah Mohammad

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 Omar, the Taliban extended its control in Afghanistan from a single city to more than half the country, and in 1996 it captured Kabul and instituted a strict Islamic regime. By 1999, the Taliban controlled most of Afghanistan but failed to win international recognition of its regime because of its harsh social policies—which included the almost complete removal of women from public life—and its role as a haven for Islamic extremists (http://www.merriam-webster.com) (March 30, 2014). 3. Rebellion According to Camus as cited by Elizabeth Ann Barlett in Rebellious Feminism: Camus’s Ethic of Rebellion and Feminist Thought, rebellion is the action that does not only involve a negative activity of resisting oppression, but also involves the positive way to affirm human dignity, solidarity, friendship, justice, liberation, and beauty. (Barlett, 2004:1).

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies The Dressmaker of Khair Khana is the first novel that Gayle Tzemach Lemmon writes which based on long research of what Afghan women experienced during the Taliban regime. Through the story, Gayle tries to share about Afghan women experiences when they have to follow the strict Taliban rules, what they have to do to make them survive from injustice and muteness and how they keep their own family‘s safety under Taliban‘s violence. In this novel, the writer analyzes activities that an Afghan woman do during the regime that actually are the form of rebellion against the Taliban which is revealed through one of main characters, Kamila. Unfortunately, this novel has not been discussed yet by many researchers. Because of that, the writer is difficult to find the source and information that discuss the same novel. In this part of the study, the writer tries to review some related studies and comments that have been written by other people which can support this analysis. In Yudith Mariran Tresnowati‘s thesis entitled Latifa’s Liberation during the Taliban Era in Afghanistan as seen in Her Work My Forbidden Face, she discusses an Afghan woman named Latifa who has to struggle under Taliban regime. 10

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 Latifa hates the situation in which she is banned from doing everything. She often curses the Taliban because she has to stay at home and does not do anything. She is an active girl who cannot stay at home. She likes to do something challenging for instance studying English, making magazine, reading books, or doing sports. It is shocking for her because from an active girl she suddenly has to be a passive girl. Latifa shall have a big curiosity about the things around her (Tresnowati, 2004:43). According to the quotation above, Tresnowati states that Latifa as an Afghan woman is banned for every outdoor activity. Latifa experiences the stressful situation in her life. She, as an active girl who has a high dream cannot get her freedom in doing everything she likes. The Taliban‘s rule actually gives bad impact for women. Tresnowati emphasizes that the rule makes Latifa as an Afghan woman becomes passive and unproductive. Another researcher who discusses the struggle of Afghan women during Taliban regime is Orzala Ashraf Nemat. In her paper entitled Afghan Women at the Crossroads: Agents of Peace-Or Its Victims? Women who had been educated as teachers or public service officers turned their houses into secret home based literacy classes or homebased schools. From Herat to Nangarhar to Balkh, clandestine literacy classes were going on. By Taliban decree, such home schooling was forbidden, but local communities found ways to justify their girls‘ attending these invisible schools—mainly, to give them religious education (Nemat, 2011:14). According to Nemat, before the Taliban takes power, Afghan women previously have education and jobs. Because the Taliban forbids women to get education, then they do something that actually breaks the rules. They open secret home-based schools that can maintain and give other women freedom to get education. For Afghan women, education is important. In the contrary, the Taliban does not allow women to get education.

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 Nemat also argues that Afghan women during Taliban regime suffer from two radical and extreme ideologies that Taliban give to them. Afghan people in general and women in particular went through two ideologically radical extremes—one side trying to ―liberate‖ and ―free‖ them from their traditions by government decree, with the pendulum then swinging to the other extreme of imprisoning them in their houses and severely restricting their mobility (Nemat, 2011:15). Afghan women try their best not to be trapped in Taliban ideology as if it gives women freedom from previous capitalist government-Soviet, while actually it makes them mute as neglected human who only have to be silent in their home. They try to rebel to get their own liberation and true freedom as human and as women. From other previous studies, it is shown that Afghan women have to struggle during Taliban regime. They have no choice instead of doing every risky activities to make them survive. The writer then tries to develop more about other activities by using radical-libertarian feminist point of view that Afghan women do during Taliban regime to make them survive. The writer is interested in analyzing the struggle of one of the main characters named Kamila who must follow Taliban rules which oppress her and the rebellious actions and ideas that she has in order to survive. This study is different from previous studies because the media and elements that the writer uses. The writer uses the different novel entitled The Dressmaker of Khair Khana by Gayle Tzemach Lemmon which is based on the true story as the media to analyze the study and uses intrinsic element of a novel which is the character to reveal the rebellion of Afghan women in

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 Taliban regime. Thus, this analysis is different from the previous study, but it is still related. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Character Theory of character can be used to answer the first problem. By understanding the theory, the character of Kamila can be analyzed. M.H Abrams in Glossary of Literary Terms states Characters are the persons presented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expressed in what they say the dialogue and by what they do the action. A character remains stable or changes, the reader of traditional and realistic work except ―consistency‖ –the character should not suddenly break off and act in a way not plausibly grounded in his or her temperament as we have already come to know it (Abrams, 1993:23). According to Abrams, character is an element in literary work that can be interpreted by the reader. A character‘s characteristic can change or remain stable. This change can be analyzed in novel through various experiences that he or she experiences through his/her environment or society. 2. Theory of Characterization To analyze further about the character in the plot, theory of characterization from Understanding Unseen: an Introduction of English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Student by Murphy can be used. The writer only uses eight theories from nine theories in finding character personality and characterization in a novel. First is a character as seen by another. Here according to Murphy, the author tries to describe the character

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 through another character‘s point of view and opinions. Through this way, the readers can get the description of a character directly from others. Second is the description of a character through her/his speech. The author gives the description of a character through her/his speech in which the character involved. By using this way, we can understand the characterization through what the character says. Whenever a character speaks, whenever she/he is having conversation with another, whenever she/he puts forward an opinion, so the character can give the clue about what her/his characterization to the reader. Third is through a character‘s past life. By understanding a character‘s past life, the readers can learn something. Here the author also gives clues related to the events at that time that have helped to shape a character‘s character. Fourth is conversation of others. Through the conversation between other characters, the author wants to reveal the information about the character through other characters conversation that involved about her/him. Fifth is reaction. The author gives clues about a character‘s personality through her/his reaction to various situations and events. Here the readers can understand about a character‘s personality by knowing how the character gives reaction to various situations and events that happen at that time. Sixth is direct comment. Through author‘s direct comment, the author gives his personal comment or opinion on the character, so the reader can understand a character‘s characterization directly. Seventh is Thoughts. The author gives the readers information and understanding about the character‘s personality from different thoughts directly of other characters. Eighth is Mannerism. Here the reader

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 can get some clues by knowing the author‘s description of a character‘s personality through his/her mannerism, habits, and many more in the novel (Murphy, 1972:161-173). Through those ways, the author can make the readers aware and understand about the personality and characteristic of a character which the author tries to deliver to. The readers also can understand the main idea about who and what kind of character that the author wants to say. 3. Theory of Radical-Libertarian Feminism This thesis tries to show the rebellion of inequality of gender. Therefore, it is important to understand the general idea about feminism which is equality. Both of women and men have same freedom to be free. Jo Freeman in Women: The Feminist Perspective says that either men or women are born to be free and to want to place equally. They have the same rights in front of God. (Freeman, 1975:439). Therefore, women should have the same rights as men to be treated equally. Unfortunately, women are still treated differently. Jane Pitcher and Imelda Whelehan in Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Study says that women suffer social and/or material inequitites because of their biological identity. Based on this situation, feminism then tries to challenge it (Pitcher and Whelehan, 2004:48). Peter Barry in Beginning Theory, states that feminism concerns about how women‘s role and images are constructed by the society and how those representation can affect literary works and culture. All the methods are used to reconstruct the acceptable versions of being feminine (Barry, 2002:122).

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 Deborah L Madsen in Feminist Theory and Literary Practice states that feminist literary theory has three main aims. First is to show the readers about the issue of patriarchal power that has structured in society. Second is to re-establish various achievements of women. Third is to find the new perspective about women and theory that shapes our lives (Madsen, 2000:15). Particularly, this thesis deals with the unequal treatment that women get in patriarchal society because they are considered as inferior people who are powerless and useless. Madsen argues that the existance of women and men forms ‗sex class‘ which is assigned to biological aspects. The division of gender roles which is based on ‗sex class‘ then triggers inequality which affects other oppressions toward women economically, culturally and socially. This situation then occurs radical feminist theory that tries to oppose the oppression toward women which is based on sex class. This theory tries to show how women as different sex from men accept different treatment in society. The aim of this radical feminist theory is to emphasize in ―destroying‖ sex-class system by showing and proving that women have the same power to struggle with men. The agent who suppresses women‘s movement is the supremacy privileges that men have over women (Madsen, 2000:153). Radical feminist then splits into two parts which are radical-libertarian feminist and radical-cultural feminist. This thesis uses radical-libertarian feminist theory because it discusses about the struggle of a woman to regain her freedom to free from the oppression of Taliban rule. The rule constracts

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 the role that women do not have freedom to choose their own role. They only have to live in domestic sphere without having freedom to live in public sphere. Gayle Rubin, a radical-libertarian feminist in Rosemarie Tong‘s Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction states that radicallibertarian feminist theory has a goal to free women from the constraints of female biology. It emphasizes that just because a woman has biological features it does not mean that she is destined to exhibit only feminine characteristics. Women can choose their own gender role and identity whether they want to be masculine or feminine. They also can mix and match those two identities and roles as they desire to (Tong, 2009:63). According to radical-feminist perspective, a woman has to become an androgynous person who embodies both (good) masculine and (good) feminine characteristics. Therefore, a woman can be survived and freed from men domination (Tong, 2006:50). According to Tong, the difference between radical-libertarian feminist with other feminist schools is only in the matter of perspective, approaches, and frameworks that feminists have to be used to shape both their explanations for women‘s oppression and their solutions for the elimination of its oppression (Tong, 2006:1). Radical feminist is the renewal of feminist action from the old movement in the first wave movement called traditional liberal feminism. This kind of feminism first concerns to give liberation for women to get their freedom from the gender discrimination publicly.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 However, many of modern feminists think that this movement does not enough to completely undo women‘s oppression. Therefore, radical feminist grows with more comprehensive and detail perspectives in seeing the reason of women‘s oppression. Radical feminists starts to claim that patriarchal system is the root of the oppression. Then, this movement grows bigger and occurs various perspectives and concerns. One of them is radical-libertarian feminist which focuses on sex, gender, and reproduction as the locus for the development of feminist thought. Radical-libertarian feminist asks other feminists to think that woman should be androgyny in order to survive from the oppression. However, other schools of feminist such as radical-cultural feminist and anti-androgynists reject that notion. They assume that patriarchy does not respect and treat feminine qualities lowly (Tong, 2006: 2-3). Therefore, there are still many debates on some schools of feminist regarding on their understanding and opinions. In conclusion, radical-libertarian feminist is fighting in changing the perception that women are helpless just because they do not have same biology structure like men. They promote the deconstruction of text that shows patriarchal role and criticize the sex-class system that still exist in society which actually give restriction toward women‘s freedom in choosing their own destiny and role in society.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 4. Theory of Patriarchy Patriarchal system is the root of oppression toward women. Jane and Imelda in Fifty Key Concepts say that feminist uses patriarchy to refer the domination over women using stereotype of masculine traits in studying gender (Jane and Imelda, 2004:93). Walby as cited by Jane and Imelda says that patriarchy is a system constructed by society which is practiced by men to dominate, to oppress and to exploit women. Moreover, he says that men in patriarchy system oppress women through six aspects such as in family, productive life, work, state, violence, sexuality, and culture. All of those oppressions make women cannot get their freedom to live either in public or private life. Women‘s activities in public are made difficult. Instead, they have to stay in home and do only household matters under men pressure (2004:95). Adrienne Rich as cited by Hester Eisenstein in Contemporary Feminist Thought also emphasizes that through patriarchy, men have power through force, direct pressure, ritual, tradition, law, language, customs, etiquette, education, and the division of labor to determine what women should and should not do in society (Eisenstein, 1983:5). To realize their control, men then construct gender role and behavior which are based on sex. Women then are associated with feminine traits and men are associated with masculine traits. Millet as cited by Hester says that if women want to be seen as ―normal‖, they have to be passive, while for men it means active. Society constracts that men have instrumental traits, such as tenacious, aggressive,

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 curious, ambitious, planul, responsible, original, and competitive while women have expressive traits, such as affectionate, obedient, responsive to sympathy and approval, cheerful, kind and friendly. The pressure of patriarchal system in society then forces women to perform the expressive role and to be passive so that they can be accepted in society. In contrary, men perform the instrumental role (Eisenstein, 1983:8). C. Review on Historical Background 1. The Role of Afghan Women According to Shaista Wahab and Barry Youngerman in A Brief History of Afghanistan, citizens of Afghanistan are called Afghans, ―a term that originally referred to Pasthun alone‖ (Wahab and Youngerman, 2007:13). It is because Pashtun is the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan which the population is up to 40 percent. Because of the domination of Pashtun, all the code of ethics that are practiced in Afghanistan based on ―Pasthunwali‖ or Pashtun‘s way of life (Wahab and Youngerman, 2007: 4). Even there are many ethnic groups, Islam as the largest religion can be the unifier between those ethnics. Afghan people hold their tribal tradition and religious very strongly. They often make their rules and laws based on the combination of the culture‘s value which is ―Pasthunwali‖ and religion which is Islam. According to traditional Afghanistan culture, Afghan women both in rural and urban area have different role in society. All domestic tasks are

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 done by women. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Embers in Countries and Their Cultures Volume 1 state Male and female roles are strongly differentiated. The public sphere is the domain of men, and the domestic one is the realm of women. Women take care of young children, cook for the household, and clean the house (Ember and Embers, 2001:7). Ember and Embers also say that Afghan women are not allowed to involve in public activities and also to give opinions or decisions. However, they give big contribution to households if their male relatives go to war. They are given task to guard the home and children. Women have never participated publicly in decision making processes. They are admonished to be modest and obey the orders of their fathers, brothers, and husbands. Nevertheless, as guardians of family honor, women have more power. Nomadic and peasant women play an important role in the domestic economy and are not secluded in the same way as many urban women (Ember and Embers, 2001:7). Commonly, Afghan women in rural and urban area live under patriarchal system because they are controlled by the older men. Older men have absolute authority toward their entire family members. Linda Merrill, Donald Paxson, and Thomas Tobey in An Introduction to Afghanistan Culture state that characteristically, the Afghan family is endogamous because they are permitted to practice parallel and cross-cousin marriage, patriarchal because the highest authority is owned by male elders, patrilineal because the inheritance will be inherited through the male line and patriotic because girl moves to husband's place of residence after the marriage (Merril et al, 2006:7).

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 They also state that Afghan women are the property for their family, because of that they cannot go outside the family without permission. A woman belongs to her family and should not be available, in any sense, to outsiders. The male has the right to make decisions that control female behavior and it is done to preserve male prestige and family honor. Women‘s independence is not encouraged and the families‘ social standing may suffer if the women do not remain dependent and submissive to her husband‘s rules (Merril et al, 2006:78). Afghan women also have to hold family‘s dignity so they will not ruin their family‘s name. Women have to follow all their husband‘s rules and have to lean upon them. However, women can get their rights to be equal with men in pursuing education and job after King Amanullah‘s starting movement toward Afghan women independency. Melvin Ember and Carol R. Embers in Countries and Their Cultures Volume 1 state that women who lived in urban area had more freedom to seek their rights because between 1919 and 1929, King Amanullah succeded in promoting female empowerenment. During King Amanullah period, many schools, universities, and work places were opened widely for women. This trend then continued during the Communist government. Many of women who lived in urban area were able to study in universities (Ember and Embers, 2001:7). Unfortunately, Nancy Dupree as cited by Sultan Barakat and Gareth Wardell in Capitalizing on Capacities of Afghan Women: Women’s Role in Afghanistan’s Reconstruction and Development says that their freedom are not accepted by religious conservative group. Dupree notes that the group protested toward unveiled women students in short skirts at

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 Kabul universities and threw them with acid. Urban women then responded it by demonstrating as a group for the first time. They then built the antigovernment protests in 1970s as their emancipation movement (Barakat and Wardell, 2011:11). 2. Taliban Regime Afghanistan once had been invaded by Soviet. According to Elaheh Rostami Povey in Afghan Women Identity and Invasion, during the Soviet invasion, women in Kabul and few other major cities worked as scientists, pharmacist, teachers, medical doctors and civil servants (Povey, 2007:12). However, the invasion was driven away by Mujahedeen. In the beginning, Mujahedeen was the rebellious group that was built by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and the United States in order to bring back peace and freedom to Afghanistan. Unfortunately after Soviet invasion ended, they used strict rule which was based on Sharia as their basis ideology and led Afghanistan to civil war. They also used their strict rule for women to make women return to the traditional values and norms. They tortured and raped women. This situation then made the chaos in Afghanistan (Povey, 2007:20). Povey also states that the young Mujahedeen generation felt that their precursor could not bring stability and righteousness in Afghanistan. Because of that, they began to search for a solution and decided to make a new plan to restore peace, to enforce strict Sharia ‘a (Islamic) law and to disarm Afghan people (Povey, 2007: 22-23).

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 In the mid-1990s, some Pashtun people who declared themselves as ―holy fighter‖ then formed a new group called the ―Taliban‖ (Akhtar, 2008: 56). Cory Gunderson in Afghanistan’s struggles states that Taliban members were the students of Islamic school or commonly called as Madrassa. Most of them were not educated. Even they could not read and write. They were only taught to memorize the Koran. Their goal was to purify their country to be a pure Islamic nation (Gunderson, 2004:35). They made strict laws which were the combination of ―Sharia‖ which was written in Koran (Islamic law) and ―Pasthunwali‖. Nasreen Akhtar in International Journal of World Peace Vol. XXV No.4 December 2008 states that Taliban members used their own conservative ideology and attitude in interpreting ―Sharia‖ and ―Pasthunwali‖ law. As the result, their interpretation created law which restrained not only women‘s freedom, but also men‘s freedom (Akhtar, 2008:8). One of their conservative and controversial rules was about the prohibition to get education for women. Mawlawi Said Shahidkhayl, the Taliban undersecretary of education in Robert D.Crews and Amin Tarzi‘s The Taliban and The Crisis of Afghanistan states The education of girls requires a jurisprudential ruling (fatwa) that would fix its path and its limits. As for women working outside the house, the text concerning that is clear and the matter is incontrovertible. For when the Koran says ‗stay in your houses‘ [33:33]; the feminine imperative is used], the issue requires no further discussion and we have nothing to do but obey‖ (Crews and Tarzi, 2009:141).

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 The Taliban closed all schools for women because according to the Taliban, women could not be given right to get education. It was because according to their interpretation, there was no verse in Koran which showed that women were allowed to get education. Unfortunately, the Taliban did not discuss that verse furthermore. They only picked some parts of the sentences from Koran that they could understand easily without reading the whole context and content of Koran. It was because they could not read and write. It assumes that Taliban members are not educated. They do not have any knowledge about other disciplines instead of Koran. This fact then implies that the Taliban only can interpret some Koran‘s verses based on their instinct and their own understanding without compare it with other disciplines, such as philosophy, sociology, and others. This also means that their interpretation of Koran is still superficial which makes the result of the interpretation is wrong then harms many people. The Taliban was able to put their control in Afghanistan by using a system. They used their armies to occupy some important positions in government. They used system which was called a ―shadow government‖. According to the Atlantic Council in Stefanie Nijssen‘s Government in Afghanistan, shadow government is a parallel political power structure which can be associated with the official government apparatus. The Taliban was estimated to have a total of 60.000-70.000 active members, with only a small portion was mobilized for fighting (Nijssen, 2011:1).

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 By having thousands of armies, the Taliban used their power to control Afghanistan government. They used a system where they could use their armies to control the political power structure and the population at once in the same time. They were able to replace the official government instruments by the guardian of the Taliban‘s soldiers. D. Theoretical Framework In this part the writer explains the application of theories in answering the problems of the study. All related studies and related theories are useful to be used as instruments to analyze problem formulation in this study. The reviews which are mainly taken from internet and books are important to be used in the writer‘s analysis. The first related theory is the theory of character and characterization. These theories are used to answer problem number one which is how Kamila‘s character is described in The Dressmaker of Khair Khana. The second related theory is the theory of radical-libertarian feminism. This theory is used to give description and basic idea of how the unequal treatments and rights are given to Kamila during Taliban regime. Theory of patriarchy is used to answer problem number two because patriarchal system is the basic system that the Taliban uses in controlling Kamila‘s life as an Afghan woman. Those two theories; radical-libertarian feminism and patriarchy can help the writer to show the rebellion of Kamila as an Afghan woman against the unfair treatment and oppression. Therefore, those two related theories also

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 can be used to answer problem number three. The historical background of Afghan women and Taliban regime can be used to answer problem formulation two and three because they give description of what kind of tradition, culture value, law, and rule that Kamila has to follow as an Afghan woman before and during Taliban regime.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of this study is a novel entitled The Dressmaker of Khair Khana by Gayle Tzemach Lemmon. The hardcover edition of this book was published in 2011 by HarperCollins Publishers in New York. The writer used another edition that was published in 2012. That edition was also published by HarperCollins Publisher in New York. This novel consists of 256 pages and 9 chapters. This novel becomes New York Times best seller novel. This novel tells a true story about a heroine woman, Kamila who has to struggle in order to survive under Taliban regime by opening a tailoring business. The setting of this story based on the true event, which is Taliban regime. This novel shares the successful and dramatic story about Kamila’s struggle to create a new job opportunity for herself and other women in her community. Kamila becomes a young entrepreneur who dares to risk her life in order to get financial support for her family’s life. Her journey to be an entrepreneur is not easy. She has to act secretly because the Taliban does not allow women to have contact with the outside world. Her own life can be taken by the Taliban if she is discovered doing something which violates the rules. Her family financial condition which is continuously decreasing makes her to think that she has to do something even though she knows that what she is doing is very difficult. 28

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 Fortunately, Kamila’s belief of her hope and devotion to her religion can make her to achieve what she and her community need; opportunity to be productive. Until now, Kamila still actively spreads her hope and voice to other Afghan people to get their right and freedom. She opened her business consultancy service named Kaweyan Business Development Services (KBDS) in 2004. Through KBDS, she tries to develop professionalism in business. She becomes an inspiration of how a woman can survive even in the most repressing situation. B. Approach of the Study Feminist approach is the appropriate approach in analyzing this study because the focus of the study of Lemmon’s The Dressmaker of Khair Khana is to show the rebellion against the unfair treatment of patriarchal society toward women which is revealed by the female character in the novel. Maggie Humm in Contemporary Feminist Literary Criticism, states that “Feminist criticism addresses social ideologies and practices shape literary text,” (1994: viii). Feminist criticism is used to show some problems which concern on women’s position and women’s role in society. By using feminist criticism, the writer can emphasize the issue about feminism in literary work. McManus in Classics and Feminism: Gendering the Classics, states “Feminist approach is an approach that the major purpose is to revise our way of considering history, society, literature, etc. So that neither male nor female is taken as normative, but both are seen as equally conditioned by the gender constructions of their culture” (1997:58).

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 According to the quotation above, feminist approach is used to revise our way of thinking that women and men do not have the equal opportunity and freedom in all aspects of life. This approach is also used to show various rebellious actions that women do to reject the oppression and to achieve their freedom and equality with men. The fundamental source of unfair treatment toward women is from the system that is set in society. System has a dominant role to determine someone’s position and role in society. If the system is held by men and it is set to discriminate and eliminate women’s existence, then women’s freedom will always be controlled and dominated by men. Radical-libertarian feminist approach is used to analyze the oppression of women’s freedom which is caused by male-dominated system. According to Rosemarie Tong in Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction, the aim of radical-libertarian feminist is to end the male’s domination and privilege on women. The theory also aims to reconstruct the notion that women do not only posses feminine traits, but also masculine traits. Women can have both masculine and feminine characteristics, or in another word, women have to be androgynous in order to maintain their freedom. By possessing both qualities, women’s role that is constructed by patriarchal society class can be revised and destroyed. It is because the role is based on sex classification. (2009:2). Therefore, radical-libertarian feminist is used to show the rebellion of women to get their freedom and equality from unfair system that uses sex differences as their principle to gain domination.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 C. Method of the Study The writer uses library research as the method of this study. The writer collects data from books of literature, theories, and some other books that might complete this analysis. The writer also uses other information source such as online sources. In analyzing this study, the writer uses the novel entitled The Dressmaker of Khair Khana by Gayle Tzemach Lemmon as the primary source. The secondary source are several books such as Glossary of Literary Terms and Understanding Unseen’s: An Introduction of English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas which help the writer to understand how to analyze a character, Beginning Theory by Peter Barry, A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature by Guerin et al, Feminist Theory and Literary Practice by Deborah L Madsen, Feminist Thought A More Comprehensive Introduction by Rosemarie Tong that contains some feminist and radical feminist theories, Sexual Politics by Kate Millet, Fifty Key Concepts by Jane and Imelda, Contemporary Feminist Thought by Hester Eisenstein which contains of patriarchy theory, A Brief History of Afghanistan by Shaista Wahab and Barry Youngerman, Countries and Their Cultures Volume 1 by Melvin Ember and Carol R, Feminism and Islamic Fundamentalism: The Limits of Postmodern Analysis by Haideh Moghissi, The Veil and the Male Elite: a Feminist Interpretation on Women’s Right in Islam by Fatima Mernissi, An Introduction to Afghanistan Culture by Linda Merrill, Donald Paxson, and Thomas Tobey which reveal some facts about women role in

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 Afghanistan and Islam for many years ago until now, Afghanistan’s struggles by Cory Gunderson and International Journal of World Peace Vol. XXV No.4 December 2008 by Nasreen Akhtar which give some information about Taliban regime. To answer the problem formulation the writer used some steps. First, the writer read the novel for several times for the deep and clear understanding about what the novel was about. By understanding the content of the novel, the writer found the issue about Taliban oppression toward women and the rebellious actions that women did at that time, then the writer formulated it into some questions. Second, the writer collected some data to support the study. The writer used reliable sources, such as books and internet to help the writer to understand the character and the theory well. By doing this way, the writer tried to answer the problem formulation, such as: describing the character in the novel, explaining Taliban oppression through the character’s struggles, and finding the rebellious actions that the character did to survive in Taliban regime.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter aims to answer the three problems that are stated in the first chapter. There are three parts in this chapter. The focus of the first part is to answer the first problem which is the description of Kamila as the main character in Gayle Tzemach Lemmon’s The Dressmaker of Khair Khana, who is the victim of Taliban’s inhuman rule toward Afghan women. The description of Kamila’s characterization is analyzed by applying the theory of character and characterization. In M.J Murphy’s Understanding Unseen: an Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Student states there are nine ways in analyzing a character’s description. Direct comment, conversation with others, speech, thought, mannerism, and past life are some ways that the writer applies in answering the first problem. After analyzing the description of Kamila’s characterization in the novel, the focus of the second part is to discuss how the oppressions are depicted through Kamila’s sufferings under Taliban regime. Then the third part focuses on how Kamila shows her action to rebel against the situation that represses her and her family. 33

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 A. The Description of Kamila 1. Kamila as an Afghan woman In The Dressmaker of Khair Khana, Kamila is described as an educated, open minded, innovative, responsible and brave Afghan woman. First, Kamila as an educated woman. Kamila lives and grows up in one of urban cities in Afghanistan, Kabul, where modernity has already spread throughout the city. In Kabul, there are many schools and universities. Before the Taliban takes power over all cities in Afghanistan, including Kabul and other urban cities, everyone, without any gender exception is given the same opportunity to get education. Even so, not all Afghan women can have opportunity to get education, especially women in rural area. It is because their families still hold strong patriarchal tradition. The tradition says that only men can get education, whereas women cannot get education. Fortunately, Kamila grows in a family who has high concern toward education. Kamila is given opportunity to finish her study by her father in Sayed Jamaluddin’s two-year course before the Taliban takes control the city, “She was the second woman in her family to finish Sayed Jamaluddin’s two-year course” (Lemmon, 2012:2). Based on author’s direct description about Kamila, it is shown that Kamila is an educated woman. However, Kamila has to struggle in keeping her spirit to study during the Taliban era. She has to receive the fact that she cannot continue her study because the Taliban closes all schools for women. She ached for her old life, which had been filled with school and friends. And she found it painful to imagine the world outside going on uninterrupted without her or any of Kabul’s women...she could not stay indoor with nothing but empty time for much longer there had to be a

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 way to study or to work, even if the universities remained off-limits (Lemmon, 2012:29). Based on quotation above, it shows that Kamila feels depressed because she cannot continue her study. She struggles to accept the reality that she is not able to pursue her education. As an educated woman, this kind of restriction makes Kamila depressed. Because of that, she tries to search the way that makes herself keeps learning something in order to maintain her productivity. Furthermore, Kamila’s style of dress which is different from common uneducated Afghan women shows her educated quality. Like most educated women in Kabul, she usually wore her scarf draped casually over her hair and across her shoulders. But today was different; if the Taliban really were on their way to Kabul they would be demanding that women be entirely covered in the full-length burqa, known in Dari as a chadri; it concealed not just the head but the entire face (Lemmon, 2012:11). From quotation above, it shows that Kamila is one of the educated Afghan women in Kabul. Before Taliban takes control, she and other educated women never cover their entire body. They just cover their hair with short veil. However, since the Taliban forces them to use burqa, Kamila does not have other choice instead follows the rules. She has to struggle to use the clothes that makes her hard to move and see. Second, Kamila is seen as an open-minded Afghan woman. It can be seen through author’s description about Kamila. With her new teaching certificate in hand, Kamila would soon begin her studies at Kabul Pedagogical Institute...After two years, she would earn a bachelor’s degree and begin her teaching career there in Kabul. She hoped to become professor of Dari or perhaps even literature one day (Lemmon, 2012:3).

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 By earning the teaching certificate, Kamila has strong foundation to go further and to build her dream to be a professor in literature. It is shown through Kamila’s way of thinking. She is described as an open-minded woman because she has openness toward her goal and role as an independent woman someday. She has her own desire to choose her own career so that she can earn money by herself to support both her life and family. She does not think about activity which only can be done at home, such as cooking and taking care family. Instead of that, she thinks about her future to get higher degree and job. It also shows that she as a woman has a perspective that as a woman she can determine what she has to do for her own future and how she will achieve that. However, her desire and goal to be an independent woman are vanish because the Taliban closes all job accesses for women. The Taliban forces women to stay indoor without doing any public activity. Kamila found herself growing more and more restless. How long can I just sit here?... The Taliban issued more edicts...: “We kindly request all our Afghan sisters to not apply for any job... otherwise, if they were chased, threatened, and investigated by us” (Lemmon, 2012:44-47). Taliban’s rule that aims to close all offices for women shows that Afghan women are not given opportunity to be productive and independent. If women dare to seek job, they will be beaten and put into the jail. This situation makes Kamila has to struggle in maintaing her life to survive and her goal to be independent even though she does not have access to public activity.

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 There is another reason why Kamila can be seen as an open minded woman. It is because she does not really follow the Afghanistan tradition. One of them is in the matter of wearing clothes. Before the Taliban comes, she likes to use Western style of clothing and let her head uncovered by veil. Her action is not like most other traditional Afghan women in rural area who have to cover their head. Her open minded character and different behavior in society show her different understanding toward traditional culture which lead her to do the different action in society. However, since Taliban comes, she has to use burqa. Kabul’s women were known for stretching the sartorial limits of their traditional country, and Kamila was no exception...many Kabuli women traveled the cosmopolitan capital in Western clothing, their heads uncovered (Lemmon, 2012:2). Kamila succeeds in developing her tailoring business. Nevertheless, she does not forget about other people suffering. After she has been able to empower herself to be productive again by earning money for her family, Kamila then tries to find way to extend her goal to also empower other women. Kamila’s concern over other women’s suffering which is similar to hers then grows her attention toward her “sisters” destiny. She feels responsible to help these women to survive. It can be seen through Kamila’s thought about her community. At first Kamila was too moved to speak. Everyone who had remained in Kabul had a similar story, and lately she had been feeling a growing sense of responsibility to do as much as she possibly could to help. Her father had told her, and her religion had taught her, that she had a duty to support as many as she was able. Right now that meant she must quickly build upon the modest successes they had achieved so far. This business was her best-and right now her only-hope for helping her community (Lemmon, 2012:111).

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 Based on the quotation above, it shows her attitude toward other women’s problem in her society. She can feel the depression of her “sisters” who cannot continue their daily life as usual. Her concern about other women’s condition then pushes her to do more things to save them. She feels that this is her duty to help as many people as she can. The realization of her responsibility and duty then motivates her to struggle in helping other women as many as possible. She ables to share her responsibility not only for her family, but also for other women in the district. This responsibility then motivates her to struggle for others and to risk her own safety in order to fight for other women’s freedom and productive life. Third, Kamila is described as a risk-taker woman. It is because, after the Taliban takes Kamila’s rights, she realizes that she has to do something to save her own life and others life. Kamila then decides to choose her role as a woman who dares to risk her own life to fight for other women’s goodness in her community. She also can find innovative way to empower them. By having high responsibility toward her community, Kamila then dares to empower other Afghan women who have the same struggle with her by opening tailoring school and employing them. She can find a solution to make their life back to be productive and able to earn money. She now received visits almost daily from young women who were trying to help out their families. Most of them were girls whose high school and university studies had been cut short by the Taliban’s arrival... an idea occurred to Kamila. We are seamstresses yes, but we are also teachers. Isn’t it there a way we could use both talents to help even more women? We should start a school. For young women, who would learn to sew and embroider with us? We will teach them valuable skills that they can use here or with other women (Lemmon, 2012: 113-114).

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 Based on quotation above it is shown that Kamila’s character as a risk taker woman. She has confidence that her business gives good impact for other women in her district. Those women do not only come to work, but they also learn some skills that will useful for them to support their family. She does not want her sisters to live uselessly waiting for the Taliban to go. She realizes that the Taliban will still rule for long time and they will still violate women. She dares to open tailoring school to teach women while she and other women are forbidden to pursue education. She also dares to employ the women while they are forbidden to work. She does not only open the tailoring school and employee women, she also joins UN to participate in an organization running by some foreigners under UN’s funding. She joins it because she has idea to extent more possibilities to empower other women in Khair Khana to be productive again. By joining UN, she can get more information and lessons from professionals all over the countries. Therefore, she can use what she has learned to empower women better than before. From her idea, it shows that she has desire to change women’s position in society to be accepted in public sphere even though they are still confined by the Taliban’s power. After all, she was just a girl from Khair Khana and here was a chance to be part of a program led by professionals in Japan and Switzerland and United States... she was amazed that Habitat was managing to create opportunities at a time when it seemed that every door for women was closing. And she couldn’t imagine saying no to this chance, given the miserable state of her city (Lemmon, 2012:184).

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 Even though the activity is very dangerous since the Taliban does not allow Afghan women to have any activity outside their house moreover to work with foreigner, Kamila without tremble accepts the invitation. It can be seen through her conversation with Mahbooba and Hafiza, Afghan women who work secretly in the organization and Kamila’s thought about the program. When Mahbooba asked, “Will you join us? Kamila didn’t have to think about her answer. “Oh yes.” She replied. “I’m definitely interested.” “Kamila Jan, of course there are risks, but this program is really making a difference. It’s almost all that’s left out there for women now; you know that...Kamila assured the women that she would take to heart everything they had said and that she considered it an honor even to be considered for such a post with so prestigious an organization (Lemmon, 2012: 183184). Based on the conversation above, it is shown through Kamila’s response toward the invitation that she is a risk taker who does not fear about the risk as long as she can get the opportunity to be more useful for her community. Even though according to common tradition in Afghanistan, woman should not do risky things because she is seen as a valuable property in family, Kamila does not be troubled by such tradition. She does not need to think about the possible danger that may happen to her because she believes that what she does is for the goodness and improvement of her skill to give more hope for other people, especially women. 2. Kamila as a daughter Kamila in The Dressmaker of Khair Khana is described as a responsible, obedient, brave, and determined daughter. She is also depicted as a leader and decision-maker in the family.

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 First, Kamila is described as a responsible and obedient daughter. As the second daughter in her family, she realizes her role and responsibility toward her parents. Kamila’s father is already retired. Because of that, her father is not able to work. Besides that her father is also one of the armies who once had fought to defeat the Taliban. This situation then makes Kamila’s father cannot do anything except hiding himself from the chase of the Taliban. Kamila’s father then goes to Pakistan in order to keep his family safe. Seeing the condition that her father is no longer productive, she begins to search the way to help her parents. As a daughter, she feels that she has responsibility toward her family’s life. She has deep depression whenever she sees hard thing happens to people whom she loves. She struggles to find a way to help her family out from the problem. It can be seen through her thought when she sees her family condition which becomes poorer. The Sidiqi family needed help now. If only she could come up with a plan that would allow her to earn money while staying within the Taliban’s rules, Kamila thought, she could take the pressure off Najeeb and her father. She felt just how much her family needed her, and knew she had to find a way to do her part (Lemmon 2012:50-51). According to Kamila’s thought, it can be seen that Kamila feels the pressure that represses her family. By feeling this kind of feeling, it shows that Kamila actually feels depression toward the condition of her family. It also shows that she puts great care and attention toward her family’s life. Her thought about finding some ways to earn money shows her desire and struggle to protect her family from the downturn. As a daughter she also realizes that she has a duty to take the pressure that oppresses her father. Therefore, it shows that Kamila is

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 an obedient and responsible daughter. She realizes her “part” or role as a daughter by showing her loyalty and responsibility in helping her parents who are helpless because of the situation. She also realizes that as a daughter, she has responsibility to help her parents out from that repressed situation. Therefore, she struggles in helping her parents to search the way out. Second, Kamila as a daughter is also described as a brave and determined person. She has strong determination in helping her family. Although she realizes that the Taliban’s rules prohibit her to work and to go out from her house, but her determination keeps her struggling on what she should strive and doing on what she should do to support her family. She is also a brave daughter because she risks her own safety to protect her family and to work. She believes that if she struggles for her parents’ interest, she regards herself as a good daughter in front of God’s eyes. She regards herself for being able to realize her duty on her parents, “Her work would help her her family, which was a sacred obligation of Islam. And she firmly believed her faith would protect her and keep her safe” (Lemmon, 2012:65-66). Her determination and bravery in helping her family are seen when she wants to discuss her idea to work with her sister, Malika who lives away from her. She struggles in combating her fear of things that may happen to her while she is walking outside the house. It can be seen through the conversation between her and her older sister when Kamila can go to her sister’s house safely to discuss the possible way to earn money. Malika worried about her sister taking such risks, but she knew the family needed income. It was the best option Kamila had.

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 “Yes, of course I’ll help...” But there were conditions. “You have to follow my rules, Kamila. Number one: never go out alone, as you did today...Taliban are always watching, that you are never invisible. You just have to be watchful every second you’re outside okay?” “Definitely,” Kamila said... Malika looked at her, unconvinced. She wasn’t sure her strong-willed sister had ever stopped to think about the consequences once she set her mind on something.” Malika realized that it would be pointless to stand in her sister’s way, no matter how worried she was. She could tell by Kamila’s tone of absolute certainty that she had already decided to go forward with her plan anyway-with or without her help (Lemmon, 2012:57-58). From the conversation above, it reveals some clues of Kamila’s characters. When her sister warns her about the dangerous things and the consequences that may happen to her, she is still firm with her decision. When Kamila has set something to do, then that thing must be done, whatever the risk that may endanger her way. She is determined to do her plan with or without help from her sister, although her sisters are afraid of Kamila’s safety. The Taliban clearly states that women cannot go outside house for working without protection of mahram or male relatives. If women dare to work and go outside house without mahram, they can be beaten or put to jail. Nevertheless Kamila has determination in helping her parent’s financial to stay stable. Kamila decides to help her family by becoming a seamstress and risks her life to search an order from customer outside her house. She struggles in finding job opportunity in order to earn money so that the family can survive. “I am going to sell it,” Kamila answered with a big smile... “Why you? And why there?” Saaman asked...”Can’t someone else sell it for you? You know what things are like now; you could be beaten or taken to jail just for leaving the house at the wrong time...”

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 As Saaman expected, Kamila had no intention of backing down from her plan...Anyway, she asked her sisters, if she didn’t go, and who would? Her work would help her family (Lemmon, 2012:66). Based on what Saaman, Kamila’s sister says in the conversation, it shows us Kamila’s determination toward what she has to do for her family sake. Saaman clearly states the consequences that may happen to Kamila if she is proven to violate the Taliban’s rules. Nevertheless, Kamila decides that she has to get order from the shops, otherwise she and the rest of family cannot eat and survive. She knows that there must be consequences for her, if the Taliban catches her. However, she is ready to face it because she believes that helping her family is her responsibility. Therefore, it shows Kamila’s determination and bravery. Kamila’s bravery is also shown in her role in family. Kamila shows her courage to visit her parents in order to give the money which she gets from doing the business. She is told as a fool girl by her father because she takes risk by travelling alone to her parents hiding place. It can be shown through her father’s conversation with Kamila. Kamila had dared to make the journey so she could bring her parents some of the money the girls had earned from their sewing business...”Kamila Jan, that is foolish,” Mr.Sidiqi said. “A young girl like you traveling by yourself and taking such risks...” (Lemmon, 2012; 167). From the conversation above, it shows that Kamila is a brave daughter who is willing to face risk even death for only giving the money from her business to her father. She can drive her fear away because of her love to help her parents to survive.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 Kamila does not only possess characteristics that make her is seen as a good daughter, but she also plays double roles that are important in her family. The first role is as a leader and the second is as a decision-maker. At the beginning of story, Kamila is told as a lucky daughter because she grows up in a family who has great care toward her future. Her father gives Kamila chance to get education. Her father also gives Kamila freedom to choose her own future. Kabul, he thought at the time, offered his nine girls the best chance of good education. And education, he believed, was critical to his children’s, his family’s and his country’s future (Lemmon, 2012:8). Kamila’s father does not differ his children’s gender. He gives all his children the best education he can give. Kamila as a daughter is not restricted by strict tradition where she as a female should only stay at home and do household activities. It is shown through Kamila’s privilege as a daughter that she is given the freedom from her father to choose her own role, whether she wants to be educated and independent or to be uneducated and dependent. Her freedom in the family does not stay long. Her father is forced to leave the family. By the departure of her father and mother, Kamila and her other siblings automatically loss a figure of decision maker and a leader in the family. It is because the task in making decision and leading the family usually are the tasks of a father. Because Kamila is the second daughter who has responsibility to protect other younger siblings, her father then gives a trust for her to be a decisionmaker and leader. Her father’s decision is in contrast with Afghanistan’s

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 culture. It is because according to the tradition, a daughter does not have any freedom in taking her father’s roles. Father is the only person who can control all family members. “They all need you, the girls especially, and I am counting on you to guide them, and to be their example...I am sure you will be a good leader for your sisters. And I know you will make me proud, just as you always have” (Lemmon, 2012:37). Kamila’s father entrusts his other children safety under Kamila’s protection. As a daughter, Kamila is given the task in protecting and guiding all her sisters to live in good life. She has to struggle in protecting her family without a figure and protection of a father. However, because Kamila has determination to help her father she accepts the tasks. Kamila as an obedient daughter also shows her loyalty toward her father by accepting and doing what her father orders for her, “He was counting on her. And so were her sisters. She had to find a way to take care of her family” (Lemmon, 2012:37-38). B. The Taliban Oppression toward Kamila as an Afghan Woman which is seen through Kamila’s Struggle. In this part, the writer is going to describe how Kamila’s struggles are depicted through the description of Kamila’s characterization and social roles using feminist and radical-libertarian feminist perspective. Through the analysis of Kamila’s struggles, we can see how Taliban’s oppression is shown. As it has been shown previously in the first problem formulation, the first struggle that Kamila has to face is her struggle to maintain her own freedom and safety under Taliban’s regime. She suffers pressure inside herself because she is

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 forced to follow the Taliban’s strict rules. The rules do not stand for Kamila’s interests as a woman, because of that the rules cause misery for her. She is also forced to be someone who she does not like, which is a Taliban’s version of a “normal” woman. The Taliban makes the rules that restrict Kamila’s movement. She is prohibited to go outside house, forced to use burqa or chadri (long veil) in public, and permitted to work. It can be seen through Kamila’s suffering when she has to follow the rules, Women will stay at home Women are not permitted to work Women must wear the chadri in public For many women, however including Kamila and her four sisters, the clothing restrictions were the least of their problems. The worst was that they had no place left to go; they had been banished to their living rooms (Lemmon, 2012:26). Based on the quotation above, it shows that the Taliban puts many restrictions that make Kamila does not have access to live the life outside her house. However, the most frustrating restriction that makes Kamila frustrating is the requirement to follow Taliban’s standard rules to be a “normal” woman. The Taliban sees a woman to be “normal” if she stays at home without involving herself in working matter. This standard then forces Kamila to be silent. She also has to be a polite woman by covering her body by burqa. Thus, silence and politeness are behaviors that according to patriarchal society must be possessed by women. These behaviors actually are not possessed by Kamila. It can be seen through her role in society before the Taliban comes. But privately she was sick at heart. She ached for her old life, which had been filled with school and friends. And she found it painful to imagine

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 the world outside going on uninterrupted without her or any of Kabul’s women (Lemmon, 2012:29). Based on the quotation, before the Taliban controls Afghanistan, Kamila has freedom to have same opportunity like men to have education and career. By having education and career, it shows that Kamila as a woman actually possess behaviors as a man, which are educated and open-minded. However, since the Taliban uses their power to construct norms that as a “normal” woman, woman supposes to be silent and polite. This situation causes a conflict and pressure inside Kamila’s mind. She actually wants to maintain her freedom to be free in achieving everything that she desires. However, she has to struggle to do that. Because of the contrast norms in the society, Kamila feels afraid and depressed. By following the Taliban’s rules, it means that she will lose her freedom to be able to get education, to pursue her career, and to involve in various public activities. Based on Kamila’s struggle, it shows the Taliban’s rules oppress Kamila’s freedom in determining her own role in society as a woman. It shows that the Taliban applies patriarchal role toward Kamila by forcing her to behave and act like a “normal” traditional Afghan woman. Being “normal” here means that Kamila has to be obedient, calm and silent as possible. Kamila is forced to behave according to Afghanistan’s tradition and Islamic law which require women to be silent and calm without nothing to do and to be polite without showing any single parts of body in front of public. This oppression then makes Kamila have no other choice except following the rule in order to survive.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 Kamila feels depression about the life that has to be passed. Kamila’s family has to be separated because Kamila’s father has to leave his family. As a father he has to take an action for the family’s safety and survival. The only choice is to choose someone to become the leader in the family. Kamila as the second oldest sister is chosen to be the leader and the responsible person for the family’s survival. Although Kamila has a responsible and caring attitude, she never thinks that she will be chosen as the leader to decide what to do and as the responsible person to feed the family. Before the Taliban comes, she only thinks about her own survival and goal. She only focuses on her study and her future to work as a professor. Kamila faced just one major obstacle: she had no idea how to sew. Until now she had been focused of her books and her studies and had never shown any interest in sewing, even though her mother was an expert tailor, having learned from her own mother when she was growing up in the north (Lemmon, 2012:52). Kamila is only interested in her own will before the Taliban controls Afghanistan. By realizing her will it shows that she has consciousness about her life choice. However, she forces herself to learn something that does not suit to her own will, while she actually does not have desire to do that. She is forced to learn how to sew in order to be able to open opportunity to earn money, “Kamila paused for a second, marshalling the points in her argument: I was never meant to be a tailor; you know that. It’s the business and the management that I’m good at, that I really enjoy” (Lemmon, 2012:186).

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 Kamila realizes from the beginning of Taliban regime, she will lose her freedom in choosing her own destiny. She will be forced to do something that she does not intend to do. However, she has to live a life that has already been constructed. Because of the situation, she is forced to work on field that she does not like in order to survive. From the obstacle that prevents her, it shows that Kamila has to lose her freedom in choosing her life path to learn what she wants to learn and to earn what she deserves to earn because of the situation that forces her to earn money, “I don’t want to break the rules or cause problems for anyone; I just need to work for our family. And Malika, I am going mad without nothing to do. I have to be useful again” (Lemmon, 2012:58). Through Kamila’s statement, it shows that she realizes her task as a daughter who has responsibility in helping the family to earn money. She as a daughter wants to be “used” by her family. She voluntarily wants to help her family. She also feels desperate because inside of her mind, she has desire to be recognized a reliable person, but she also has to follow the rule to be seen as a normal woman. Her desperation shows that she is oppressed by the Taliban’s rules which confine her to be only a silent woman who has to stay at home and something that she does not like. From Kamila’s struggle in maintaining her own freedom, safety, and role as a woman, it shows that the Taliban’s rules affect Kamila’s freedom in choosing her own will, whether to be a “normal” woman as constructed by the Taliban or to be a “free” woman as desired by Kamila herself.

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 Second struggle that Kamila has to face is the struggle to maintain other women’s freedom in her community. As it is shown from Kamila’s description as an educated, open minded, innovative, responsible and brave woman and her role as a risk taker in her society, it shows the reason why she wants to struggle for others. The reason is that she wants to realize her task and responsibility in helping as many women as she can. She can feel the same fate that she and other women have. They become passive and unproductive because they cannot do activities that can make them active and productive, “Kamila realized how desperately the girls needed something else to focus on. They didn’t just need income; they needed a purpose” (Lemmon, 2012:69). Through Kamila’s thought, it shows that by living under Taliban regime, she and other women do not have goal in their life. It is because they have to live only based on the Taliban’s “goal” that women should behave like “normal” women. However, the “normality” that the Taliban expects from women actually represses Kamila and the other women. Kamila has desire to help women to be productive in earning money. However, her desire is restricted by the Taliban’s rules. Since women are prohibited to work and to have any interaction outside their house, Kamila then has to risk her own safety in order to realize her desire. Kamila’s first start is by opening tailoring school and employing women to work as seamstresss. Unfortunately, Kamila’s struggle to fight for other women’s rights to have productive life is restricted by Taliban’s brutality. It is shown through Kamila’s experience when she is intercepted by the Taliban’s army and is accused for

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 being a “despicable” woman, “How can you call yourself a Muslim? What kind of family are you from? This is a disgrace.” The barrel of his AK-47 now hovered just inches from Kamila’s forehead” (Lemmon, 2012:199). By accusing Kamila as a woman who does not have disgrace, it shows that the Taliban sees Kamila’s bravery as an inappropriate behavior that should not be possessed by a “normal” woman. Again, it shows contrast perspective for being a “normal” woman between the Taliban and Kamila. Kamila as a woman chooses to be brave, which in society is associated to men. Her bravery is used in fighting other women’s rights. However, the Taliban uses their power to intimidate Kamila’s bravery. From Kamila’s struggle to maintain other women freedom, it shows that the Taliban uses its rules to make women weak and powerless. They make women to be passive and unproductive, so that they can control women as they wish. By using feminist prespective that is used in analyzing Kamila’s struggles, it shows an issue of patriarchal power that has structured in Afghan society. Through Kamila’s struggle in maintaing her and other women’s freedom and survival under Taliban’s oppression, it shows that there is practice of patriarchal society in Afghanistan society in Taliban regime which oppresses almost all Afghan women, including Kamila.

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 C. The Rebellion of Kamila as an Afghan woman against Taliban oppression. In this part, the writer explains why and how Kamila as an Afghan woman does some activities that imply rebellious action against Taliban oppression which are seen through feminist and radical-libertarian feminist point of view. Kamila as the main character in the novel lives in patriarchal society where men use radical Islamic ideology and army’s power to make strict rules that oppress women. From Kamila’s struggles, it shows that women’s life is less valued by men. Kamila as an Afghan woman is treated unfairly by the Taliban’s rules which forbid her to do all basic life such as working, going outside house without men’s protection and getting education. The Taliban as the ruler sees women as the weak and the sin bearer. The Taliban uses sex/gender system as their rules justification. They use sex/gender system as their basis to purify Afghanistan from sin. From the first and second problem formulation, we can see that Kamila exhibits some traits and social roles that are not common for traditional Afghan woman. First, Kamila is seen as an educated woman because she can get her education. Second, she is described as an open-minded and determined woman. Third, Kamila is seen as a responsible, determined, obedient, and brave daughter because she realizes her task to always help and protect her parents. Fourth, she is also described as a caring and responsible sister because she always gives great care toward her sisters.

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 Throgh the description of Kamila’s characters and roles inside and outside her private sphere, it can be said that she possesses some roles and characters that are possessed by men commonly. The traits such as open-minded, determined, innovative, responsible, and brave are the traits which according to patriarchal society are only exhibited by men. However, naturally Kamila has been given by God those traits which are used by Kamila in living her life. It is fair if Kamila can live using her natural traits as a woman. Unfortunately, Taliban does not accept the situation where a woman is naturally given some “male” traits. They refuse it by making rules that confine women’s natural traits. Male and female roles are strongly differentiated. The public sphere is the domain of men, and the domestic one is the realm of women. Women take care of young children, cook for the household, and clean the house (Ember and Embers, 2001:7). Taliban takes control and applies their strict rules which are based on Sharia and “Pasthunwali” values over Afghan women. According to “Pasthunwali” code, women are not allowed to do any public activities. Women are forced to obey their duty and to stay passive. Hence, Taliban creates a society using patriarchal system. Afghan people, especially women live under strict patriarchy culture which allow men to control entire aspects of women life. ... code of ethics known as Pashtunwali (Pashtuns’ way of life) ... the customary law of the Pashtuns, is practised among eastern Pashtuns as part of their system of values and norms. According to Pashtunwali, it is the absolute duty of men to protect the respectability of women and to protect the integrity of the homeland. This does not imply that women stay passive (Povey, 2007:4).

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 Kamila’s natural traits as a woman are confined and repressed by Taliban. Kamila does not only have to struggle in maintaing her natural traits as a woman, she also have to struggle in determining her own path as a woman. Her bright future and dream suddenly have to disappear because she is forced to accept the reality that she cannot have a good job because the Taliban closes all accesses for women to get job and forbids women to work. She is also forced to do something that she does not like to survive. It is because since the Taliban takes power the economic conditions is unstable which forces Kamila to work as everything in order to be freed from poverty. She is also forced to behave as a passive woman which she does not desire to be. She realizes that she does not want to live under the oppression. Therefore, since the Taliban’s rules eliminates her rights a free human in her own land, she chooses to rebel against it. The beginning of Kamila’s rebellion is that Kamila creates a new goal and perspective as a “true” woman. Kamila realizes that she has the constrasting behaviour and life path with “normal” woman that the Taliban forces. She has consciousness that as a “true” woman, she is actually given equal rights by God. Women and men are given same moral obligations and same general rights in guarding chastity, integrity, personal honor and respect by God. For Kamila, being a “true” woman means she is able to determine her own path without any obstruction from men. It is because women and men are given the same freedom in front of God’s eyes. By having that kind of perspective, Kamila than shows her goal which is similar to feminist theory. She has the same spirit and perspective that as a woman, she is

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 worthy to get equal rights like a man. The equal rights to be honored, treated and respected as a woman. She refuses to be seen and treated as Taliban’s “property” that can be kept nicely inside the house. She also refuses to be a “normal” woman who always has to be silent and passive. In this point, Kamila realizes her goal to be free and productive through her perspective of being a “true” woman. She also realizes as a daughter, she has to find a way to solve the problem that her parents face. She realizes that she and her family needs income to make them keep alive. She also realizes that she and her sisters cannot live in passive life without nothing to do. They need a purpose and goal so that they can use their ability to have better life so that they can stand in that situation and cannot be affected by the strict rule, “Kamila realized how desperately the girls needed something else to focus on. They didn’t just need income; they needed a purpose” (Lemmon, 2012:69). This kind of thought shows Kamila’s different point of view of what the Taliban’s rules cause. She thinks that what the Taliban does toward her and her sisters actually does not give any positive impact for their life. The Taliban’s rules precisely make them live in unproductive life and blur their purpose in life. Kamila’s thought then can be indicated as rebellious thought because through it shows her own intersects perspective toward the recent condition that she experiences. In The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms, “Rebellion means against somebody or something or the action of resisting authority or control,” (Baldick, 1991:971). It means that rebellion is the action that is done by

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 someone who wants to resist the control or authority. The world rebel means “To resist authority or control or to protest strongly against something,” (Baldick, 1991:971). The beginning of Kamila’s way to survive under Taliban regime is by creating a new thought which indicates that she does not want to accept Taliban rules which control her life. She tries through her idea and perspective to resist Taliban authority which control her basic life unfairly. After she finds her goal and perspective, Kamila then uses her natural “male” traits to start a new activity that implies her rebellion toward the oppression. She continues her rebellion by doing the next step of her rebellion series. Kamila’s next step is the modification of her patriarchal roles to be an androgynous woman. She chooses to play three roles that are actually assosiated with a man only. By possessing some masculine characteristics, such as; brave, determined, responsible, and open-minded, she challenges herself to play role as a risk-taker, leader, and decision-maker. Those roles are played inside and outside her private sphere. By playing the roles, Kamila as a woman embodies male characteristics and enganges those in various actions. Through her “new identity” as an androgyny, Kamila shows her rejection toward Taliban perspective that a woman only has to be passive and silent. She proves that she can act like a man acts and do what a man does. First, as a leader and decision-maker. Since the arrival of Taliban, the economic condition of Kamila’s family has decreased day by day. Kamila who has given the position as a leader and decision-maker by her father then decides

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 to work. Even though the Taliban clearly states that women cannot work and go outside their house, Kamila determines in her decision, “Why you? And why there?” Saaman asked...”You know what things are like now; you could be beaten or taken to jail just for leaving the house at the wrong time” (Lemmon, 2012:64). Most of other women including her sisters do not dare to break the rule because of the terrible consequences that possibly happen. However, because Kamila plays role as a leader and decision maker in her family, she decides to be strong and keeps being hard to think in finding the way out, “Anyway, she asked her sisters, if she didn’t go, who would? Her work would help her family was a sacred obligation of Islam” (Lemmon, 2012:66). Kamila as a leader is also expert in motivating her sisters. She can lead her sisters to be productive and active again. She asks all her sisters to join her to work. She believes by gaining help from all her sisters, their business can be run smoothly. By keep working actually Kamila wants to make herself and her sisters can forget about depression that repress them, so that they can stay positive and active. A sense of purpose drove the discussion, and Kamila saw clearly that the business had become the main focus of their days. Together they had found a way to be productive in spite of their confinement. And with so much work in front of them, they almost forgot about all the problems of the world outside (Lemmon, 2012; 100). Her effort in finding the way to raise herself and her sisters’ spirit to continue a productive life shows her good ability to be a leader. She does not want to live in passive life just like what the Taliban wants. Kamila refuses to sit

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 in silence so that she waits for the Taliban to give her freedom to be active again. By leading and giving her sisters spirit to work, actually Kamila rebels against the injustice treatment of the Taliban. Her optimistic and spirit have awaken her sisters’ desire to work together in order to survive and to reject Taliban oppression over them. Even though Kamila still works inside her house, actually she has already built a mindset that as woman and a child who is responsible to help family, she has to able to be an independent and productive woman. By doing that, she is able to show to the world that she has a dignity as a human being. Kamila is able in leading her family to survive and getting success in the business without control and assistance of man. She is able to earn money by her own way without her father or brother’s interruption and influence. Although she still has to go out with her younger brother assistance as mahram in order to be not caught by the Taliban, but that is only the camouflage for her to be able to do the business. Kamila had agreed on the spot, unable to refuse a neighbor’s entreaty. She knew the girl to be a lovely child, respectful and well behaved, and she felt for her mother, who was clearly carrying a heavy burden. But there was another benefit to having her around: she could serve as a mahram who could go out in the street and see what was happening when Rahim was at class or away from home (Lemmon, 2012:126). Nevertheless, Kamila can continue her outing when she accepts an underage young girl to help her. The girl becomes her mahram because an underage girl is able to move freely by the Taliban. It means that without assistance of men as her controller, Kamila can take the charge to be a responsible woman and daughter in her family in earning money.

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 Second, as a risk-taker. Kamila risks her life to earn money for her family and to empower other women in her district. She dares to take “dangerous” path which is not easy to do. She realizes by using her bravery, she can be able to break the Taliban’s restriction. She is brave enough to fight for her own freedom and other women’s freedom through the risk that she takes. She risks her safety by creating job opportunity for herself, opening tailoring school, and employing women. Through all risky activities that Kamila has done, it shows that she uses the “male” behaviour, bravery, to survive and to refuse Taliban oppression towards her. She uses her roles to realize her refusal toward the oppression. Kamila chooses to take “dangerous” actions in order to free herself and other women from the repression. By taking “dangerous” path, it actually shows Kamila’s intention to modify the roles. It is because commonly and traditionally, women in patriarchal society are forbidden to take dangerous action. Under Taliban regime, women should be accompanied by mahram or male relative whenever they are going out in order to evade women from criminality. Kamila’s bravery in playing her role as a risk-taker is shown through some events. For example, she is asked by some of members of foreign community forum which is created by UN to join a forum. Kamila directly accepts the offer because the forum has various programs which are beneficial to help more women. Nevertheless, her noble desire is not supported by her sister, Malika. It is because the Taliban clearly forbids any Afghan woman to work with foreigner. However Kamila does not care with the consequences that might

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 happen to her if she is caught. Her determination, solidarity, and empathy push her to help more women. “What do you think will happen to me, your other sisters, if you are caught? And to my husband, the father of these twins? They punish the men in the family, too, you know...” “I have to,” Kamila said ... “God will help me because I am going to help my community. I put my life in the hands of Allah and I am sure he will keep me safe because this is work for his people. I must do this. I hope you’ll understand one day (Lemmon, 2012:187-188). Her determination in joining the foreign community forum shows her role as a risk-taker to rebel toward the injustice that the Taliban does over she and all her sisters’ life. She dares to risk her own life for other women’s sake. She does not think about her own life and her family’s prohibition. Her hope and goal is to help other women to be able to survive and undergo their live under Taliban oppression. Kamila has created new perspective for being a “true” woman and modified a “new identity” as an androgynous woman. By having new perspective and roles in society, she then extends her notion towards other women in her district. She then continues her rebellion by empowering other women. She realizes that as an Afghan woman, she has desire and responsibility to release her “sisters” out from Taliban oppression. She rejects the oppression not only over her, but also over the community. At first Kamila was too moved to speak. Everyone who had remained in Kabul had a similar story, and lately she had been feeling a growing sense of responsibility to do as much as she possibly could to help. Her father had told her, and her religion had taught her, that she had a duty to support as many as she was able. Right now that meant she must quickly build upon the modest successes they had achieved so far. This business was her best – and right now her only- hope for helping her community (Lemmon, 2012; 111).

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 Kamila feels that she and other women have the similar fate as the inferior class who are intimidated by Taliban rules which make them live in unproductive life. Without working, these women cannot feed their family. She has compassion toward her other “sisters” who have the same suffering as hers. This condition grows Kamila’s concern toward her community’s present and future life. Her perspective and empathy make her to help as many women as possible to be able to be active and happy again. Because of her perspective that a woman has to get equal rights and freedom in living a life, she extends her rebellion by creating a tailoring school for many women in her district. An idea occurred to Kamila...we should start a school...we we’ll teach them valuable skills that they can use here or with other women...we won’t have to turn anyone away. Even the young one who have no experience and aren’t qualified to work yet can join our training program and work for a salary helping use with our orders as soon as they are able. If we have our own school, then no one who comes to our gate will leave without a job. (Lemmon, 2012:113-114). The goal of the school is to teach other women to have tailoring skill. By having such skill, Kamila hopes that those women can have spirit and get opportunity be productive. This way shows that Kamila rebels for her community – her “sisters”. She does not want to waste other women’s opportunity to be able to work and help their family to survive under Taliban’s oppression. Each week Kamila was growing more sure of herself and her sisters’ sewing skills...The group had gained experience and grown its team of seamstresses, and the girls were learning to handle the bigger jobs that clients were offering now that they had proven themselves to be reliable

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 and professional...She now received visits almost daily from young women who were trying to help out their family (Lemmon, 2012:112113). Responsibility in earning money traditionally and commonly becomes activity that is performed by men. However, because of economic pressure by the Taliban, these Afghan women then do not have any choice instead they have to risk themselves to take their male relative’s responsibility in earning money. If women do not take part to help their male relatives to earn money, their family cannot survive. Seeing the condition, Kamila then helps and encourages them. Through Kamila’s effort in motivating other women to be able to be productive and in teaching them valuable skill that can be used by them to earn living, Kamila then proves that as a woman, she and the others can become reliable and professional worker. Kamila, through her empowerment can show us that women also possess responsible and competitive traits which are commonly only possessed by men. Kamila wants to prove that as Afghan women, they are able to stand on their own feet through their skills, experience, and professionalism. She and other women through Kamila’s business can show the society that women also can be reliable and professional in working. Therefore, Kamila actually has done rebellious action through her empowerment toward other Afghan women. Through her empowerment program, she engages other women to believe in themselves that they can be reliable and professional as seamstresses. It can be seen through the result of her program, that Afghan women are able to achieve trust from their clients. In the other words, Kamila refuses Taliban’s

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 social construction about the rules that prohibit women to work because women are supposed to live inside their house. Based on Kamila’s notion and goal in rebelling from Taliban oppression, it shows the same notion and goal as feminism goal which is to fight women oppression that causes inequity which is based on male-dominated system. Feminists also fight to get the equality of freedom that should be owned by both men and women. Either men and women are born to be free and to want to place equally. They have the same rights in front of God’s eyes (Freeman, 1975:439). Kamila’s rebellion in her attempt to create new perspective of being “true” woman, to choose to be an androgynous woman, and to empower other Afghan women show her aim to struggle for her and her “sisters” freedom to be productive and active in society. It does not the matter of the same opportunity that women and men should get which becomes Kamila’s interests, but more to get the same recognition and valuing over what women can do for the society. Feminist literary theory also aims to show the reader about the issue of patriarchal power that has structured in society (Madsen, 2000:15). Through Kamila’s struggle to maintain her freedom and survival under Taliban oppression, it shows that there is practice of patriarchal society in Afghanistan society in Taliban regime which oppresses almost all Afghan women, including Kamila. This theory also establishes various achievements that can be achieved by women in society (Madsen, 2000:15). This goal is shown through Kamila’s success. First in empowering herself to be productive again and second in

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 65 extending her empowerment to other women to be productive and useful for their family. Feminism also tries to find the new perspective about women that can renew our perspective about them in life (Madsen, 2000:15). Through Kamila’s rebellion it shows us new perspective about the struggle of being women who are oppressed by such inhuman ruler who force their own interpretation selfishly over them. However, Kamila’s way to get her “equality” as a woman is not merely same as the general way of feminism which uses the sameness in getting opportunity to be free like men. By using radical-libertarian feminism perspective which emphasizes that woman can choose their own gender role and identity without has to be confined in assumption that a woman should exhibit only feminine traits (Tong, 2009:63) , we can see that; first Kamila tries to show her way is more focused on how her natural behaviors and traits as a “true” woman cannot be used as the Taliban’s justification and foundation to oppress women, second Kamila wants to show how she as a woman can show her existence who is not useless and powerless, and third Kamila also wants to show how she as a woman can break the social construction. She chooses to be an androgynous woman who can play both masculine and feminine characteristics. Therefore, she can choose what she should and should not do in her life. Based on Kamila’s there ways of rebellion, it shows that there is a parallel goal and perspective that are used by radical-libertarian feminist with Kamila’s

(79) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 66 goal in rebelling. Radical-libertarian feminist emphasizes on the equal freedom in determining woman’s destiny and roles, whether she wants to be masculine, feminine, or androgynous (possessing both masculine and feminine characteristics) (Tong, 2006:50). Therefore, Kamila’s goal and perspective are similar to radical-libertarian feminist’s goal and perspective, because she fights in showing her existance as a “true” woman, proving her ability to be productive and free, and choosing her own role in order to determine her own destiny.

(80) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This part has purpose to show the conclusion from the analysis of Gayle Tzemach Lemmon’s novel The Dressmaker of Khair Khana. The writer concludes that this novel reflects the rebellion of Afghan women who are repressed by Taliban oppression which is seen through the main character’s struggles, Kamila. In this study, there are three problems that are analyzed and answered. The first problem is the main character’s characterization. The theory that writer uses are theory of character by M.H Abrams and theory of characterization by Murphy. After applying those theories, it can be concluded that Kamila has description of characteristics which can lead her to have rebellious acts. First, as an Afghan woman she is described as an educated woman which is seen through her education background, although she cannot continue her study because the Taliban closes school for women. She is an open minded woman which is seen based on her openness toward Western tradition and her disengagement toward strict rural Afghanistan tradition. She is a determined woman which is seen through her determination in struggling to be productive and active even though she should live under Taliban oppression. She also shares her determination by having responsibility and innovation through her contribution in reviving other Afghan women’s spirit to be productive, professional, and reliable. 67

(81) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 68 As an Afghan woman she is also seen as a risk taker. It is because she risks her life in creating activities that can empower herself and other women which aim to maintain their freedom under Taliban regime. Second, as a daughter she is described as a responsible, obedient, brave, caring, and determine daughter. After her father and mother departure, the family loses a figure who can lead and protect the family. Because of Kamila’s father trust toward Kamila, he then gives the responsibility in leading and protecting the whole family to Kamila. As an obedient and responsible daughter, she accepts this responsibility because she realizes without any force that she has a task as a daughter to help her father. Kamila as a daughter also plays double roles as a leader and decision maker. Through those roles, it reveals her struggles and qualities as a brave determined and caring person. She is willing to struggle so that she can ease her parent’s burden. The second problem is Taliban oppression which is depicted through Kamila’s struggles in the novel. The writer uses radical-libertarian feminist perspective in analyzing this problem. Kamila is oppressed by the Taliban’s rule. The rules are based on Taliban’s own interpretation of Sharia’s law and “Pasthunwali” values. The rules reflect patriarchal system. Kamila as an Afghan woman experiences oppression which affects her freedom inside and outside of Kamila’s self. The Taliban’s rules that force women to live only inside their house actually bring instability toward economic situation. Kamila and her family then have to live under poverty. In order to survive,

(82) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 69 inevitably she has to do every kind of job that not only allows her to be seen as a “normal” woman without breaking the rules, but also enables her to earn sufficient money to survive. Hence, she has to struggle to work in field that she does not like which is as seamstress. Therefore, the Taliban’s rules oppress Kamila’s state of mind because she loses her freedom in choosing her own life to be lived on. By seeing other women’s condition who suffer the same repression, she then also struggles for it. Many of Afghan women in her district have education and job before Taliban takes power. Unfortunately, they have to suffer because the Taliban forces them to behave only like “normal” traditional women. Outside herself, she has to fight the Taliban’s rules that oppress her and other women to be passive and unproductive. She struggles in maintaining her and her “sisters” freedom to be valued and recognized as women who are capable in determining their own destiny and path. Through Kamila’s struggles over Taliban’s oppression, the writer leads the answer for the third problem which is Kamila’s rebellion as an Afghan woman against Taliban oppression. By realizing the oppression that happens to her, she then creates some activities and undergoes some roles that are aimed to escape her and her “sisters” from the condition that confines them. First, she is able to create new perspective about being a “true” woman. She realizes that to be a “true” woman, she has to get her rights and freedom which by God has been given fairly between men and women. Second, she chooses to be an androgynous woman by playing men roles. Those are risk taker, leader, and decision maker both in her

(83) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 70 family and community. Therefore, by possessing those roles, actually Kamila has done the modification of patriarchal roles that is practiced by the Taliban to disempower women. Third, she is able to promote her notion for being a “true” woman to be valued through the empowernment activities for other women. She opens the opportunity for them to join the training and working as seamstress. Based on the rebellion that she does, she does the positive type of rebellion. It is because she does not rebel by damaging any infrastructure or challenging Taliban authority. Kamila is able to evoke and lead the rebellion of other Afghan women through positive activities, roles, and perspective to be free, productive, reliable, and valuable women.

(84) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. Glossary of Literary Terms Sixth Edition. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1993. Akhtar, Nasreen. “Afghanistan, Pakistan Taliban”. International Journal of World Peace Vol. XXV No.4 (December 2008): pp. 49-73. International Journal. (http://edvardas.home.mruni.eu/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/PakistanAfghanistan-and-the-Taliban.pdf). March 29, 2014. Baldick, Chris.ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Barakat, Sultan and Gareth Wardell. Capitalizing on Capacities of Afghan Women: Women’s Role in Afghanistan’s Reconstruction and Development. Geneva: Recovery and Reconstruction Department, 2011. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory (Second Edition). New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. Bartlett, Elizabeth Ann. Rebellious Feminism: Camus’s Ethic of Rebellion and Feminist Thought. United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Crews, Robert D and Amin Tarzi. The Taliban and the Crisis of Afghanistan. USA: Harvard University Press, 2009. Eisenstein, Hester. Contemporary Feminist Thought. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co, 1983. Ember, Melvin and Carol R. Embers. Countries and Their Cultures Volume 1 Afghanistan to Czech Republic. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. Freeman, Jo. Women: The Feminist Perspective First Edition. USA: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1975. Gunderson, Cory. Afghanistan’s struggles. USA: ABDO & Daughters, 2004. Iacopino, Vincent. The Taliban's War on Women: A Health and Human Rights Crisis in Afghanistan. New York: Physicians for Human Rights, 1998. Laar, E. Van De and N.H.G. Schoonderwoerd. An Approach to English Literature, Netherlands: L.C.G. Malmberg, 1957. 71

(85) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 72 Lemmon, Gayle Tzemach. The Dressmaker of Khair Khana: Five Sisters, One Remarkable Family, and the Woman Who Risked Everything to Keep Them Safe. New York: Harper Perennial, 2012. Madsen, Deborah L. Feminist Theory and Literary Practice. London: Pluto Press, 2000. Morris, William, S. Stevenson Smith and Robert W Voorhees. The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary. Naples: Trident Reference Publishing, 1996. Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseen: an Introduction of English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Student. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1972. Nemat, Orzala Ashraf. Afghan Women at the Crossroads: Agents of Peace-Or Its Victims? New York: The Century Foundation, 2011. Nijssen, Stefanie. The Taliban’s shadow government in Afghanistan. Virginia: Civil Military Fusion Center, 2011. Pilcher, Jane and Imelda Whelehan. Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies. Trowbridge: The Cromwell Press Ltd, 2004. Povey, Elaheh Rostami. Afghan Women Identity and Invasion. London: Zed Books Ltd, 2007. Shakir, M.H.ed. The Qur’an: A Translation. New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an, 1993. Tong, Rosemarie Putnam. Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction Third Edition. Colorado: Westview Press, 2009. Tresnowati, Yudith Mariran. “Latifa’s Liberation during the Taliban Era in Afghanistan as seen in Her Work My Forbidden Face”. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2004. Wahab, Shaista and Barry Youngerman. A Brief History of Afghanistan. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature Third Edition. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1956.

(86) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 73 Online Reference: Merrill, Linda, Donald Paxson and Thomas Tobey. An Introduction to Afghanistan Culture. n.p. 2006. (http://afghanag.ucdavis.edu/country-info/cultureand-working-locally/Man_Afghan_Culture_CWTI.pdf). March 29, 2014. Ritscher, Adam. A Brief History of Afghanistan. n.p. (http://www.afghangovernment.com/briefhistory.htm). March 29, 2014. n.d. In Kabul, A ‘Dressmaker’ Sows Entrepreneurial Seeds. n.p. March 15, 2011. (http://www.npr.org/2011/03/15/134533995/in-kabul-a-dressmaker-sowsentrepreneurial-seeds). March 29, 2014. Campaign for Afghan Women & Girls. n.p. (http://www.feminist.org/afghan/taliban_women.asp). March 29, 2014. n.d Merriam Webster Concise Encyclopedia. n.p. n.d (http://www.merriamwebster.com) March 30, 2014.

(87) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX The Summary of The Dressmaker of Khair Khana The novel tells about a true story of an Afghan family, the Sidiqi, who live in Khair Khana, one of districts in Kabul which is an urban city in Afghanistan. The family consists of nine people, Mr.Sidiqi, his wife, his five daughters and two sons. Mr.Sidiqi is an army retiree who once works for Mujaheddin, whereas his wife stays at home as a housewife. Malika is the oldest sister in the family. She has already married. Kamila is the second sister in the family. Before Taliban takes power, the family lives well and happy. The family is also depicted as an educated family. Their good life is suddenly destroyed by the arrival of the Taliban. By the power that is possessed by Taliban, this group then creates rules that threaten and haunt every citizens in Afghanistan, including the Sidiqi. Mr.Sidiqi who has understood about Taliban’s hatred toward Mujaheddin tries to seek the way out to keep his family survive. He then decides to isolate himself out from Kabul with his wife and his oldest son, Najeeb. Because of his decision, he then chooses Kamila who has just finished her education to be responsible for the family. Kamila who really loves her father and mother then accepts her father’s request. The economic situation in Afghanistan since the Taliban takes control becomes unstable. Kamila then tries to find solution to work so that she can earn money for the family. 74

(88) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 75 It is not an easy task, because she has to work without be discovered by the Taliban. It is because the Taliban orders all Afghan women to stay at home without working and going out. If they break the rules, their life will be at stake. Kamila then finds a work that is able to be done inside the house. She decides to be a seamstress. Even though she does not like it, she decides to do it. She then comes to Malika, her oldest sister who masters tailoring and asks her to teach Kamila. After learning about tailoring, Kamila then encourages herself to sell it to Lychee Myriam, one of bazaars in Kabul. Her journey in searching customer and selling the sewing is very dangerous. She has to experience many difficulty during her journey. Fortunately, she is able to pass it. In the end, she can sell her sewing and find customers. During her business, she is helped by all her sisters and brother. Day by day her business grows bigger. One by one, her neighbors hear rumor about Kamila’s business. Many of them, especially women then in throngs come to Kamila by requesting a job for them. Seeing the condition, Kamila then accepts them to work with her. Moreover, she opens tailoring school to teach them how to sew. Kamila does not satisfy in this point. She is expanding her effort to empower other women by joining an international humanitarian organization which is run by United Nation. Her desire in joining the group is opposed by Malika, her oldest sister. Malika does not want her sister to act more than what Kamila has done. It is because Taliban starts to suspect what Kamila does at her house.

(89) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 76 However, Kamila does not accept Malika’s prohibition. Kamila precisely goes through the difficulty and joins the community. Unfortunately, Kamila can join the community only for several months. It is because the Taliban succeeds to reveal the action. Kamila then is prohibited to come again to the community. Moreover, one day during Kamila’s trip to attend the community, she is intercepted by Taliban’s army. She is threatened and mugged. Fortunately, she is able to be released by the army because they do not find any fault from her. Since that day, Kamila decides to quit from the community. She also returns to focus on her tailoring school and business. Kamila then succeeds in running her business. However, she, her family and other women do not know until when the Taliban will control Afghanistan. What they can do is only waiting until the time comes when Taliban is able to be expelled from Afghanistan. Kamila and other people are only praying and believing in their faith that God will always protect them. She believes that one day her beloved country will be peaceful again.

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