The reasons of anomic suicide committed by Will Traynor as seen in Jojo Moyes` me before you - USD Repository

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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI THE REASONS OF ANOMIC SUICIDE COMMITTED BY WILL TRAYNOR AS SEEN IN JOJO MOYES’ ME BEFORE YOU AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By SAVIRA KHOERUNNISA SEJATI Student Number: 144214055 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI THE REASONS OF ANOMIC SUICIDE COMMITTED BY WILL TRAYNOR AS SEEN IN JOJO MOYES’ ME BEFORE YOU AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By SAVIRA KHOERUNNISA SEJATI Student Number: 144214055 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019 ii

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(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI For my beloved Papa Jesus and Papa Koen Loen, in heaven. I dedicate this thesis to you. I hope I make you proud. viii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to thank my beloved Father, Jesus Christ, for His grace and unconditional love to me. He is always with me in the ups and downs in my life. I am truly grateful to have Dr. Enny Anggraini as my thesis advisor and Maria Ananta Tri Suryandari, S.S., M.Ed. as my thesis co-advisor for their guidance and patience to encourage me to finish my thesis. Their advice always helps me to do my best for this thesis. My gratitude also goes to the lecturers and all the faculty members of English Letters Sanata Dharma University, especially Mbak Ninik for the help and support. I am also grateful to have my main support systems; my aunt, Kuku, my sister, Ufi, my brother, Kharel, and my mom for their supports and prayers for me to finish my thesis. My biggest gratitude goes to my father, who I believe always supports and motivates me to finish my college from up there. I would like to thank my second support systems; Shella, my ‘soulmate’ during this college life and also Aven, Theo, Kara, Febri who always accompany me and remind me to finish my thesis. I also want to thank all of my Kenyil friends and everyone who plays an important role in my life that I could not mention one by one for cheering me up during my struggle to finish this thesis. Savira Khoerunnisa Sejati ix

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE..................................................................................................... ii APPROVAL PAGE ...................................................................................... . iii ACCEPTANCE PAGE .................................................................................... iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY .................................................................. v LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH . vi MOTTO PAGE................................................................................................ vii DEDICATION PAGE ................................................................................... viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................. ix TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................. x ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... xii ABSTRAK ....................................................................................................... xiii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ...................................................................... 1 A. Background of the Study ............................................................................ 1 B. Problem Formulation ................................................................................. 4 C. Objectives of the Study .............................................................................. 4 D. Definition of Terms ................................................................................... 4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................. 7 A. Review of Related Studies ......................................................................... 7 B. Review of Related Theories ...................................................................... 10 1. Theory of Character and Characterization ............................................ 10 2. Theory of Choleric Temperament ......................................................... 14 3. Theory of Motivation ........................................................................... 14 4. Theory of Suicide ................................................................................ 17 5. Theory of Conflict ............................................................................... 20 C. Theoretical Framework ............................................................................ 21 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ............................................................... 23 A. Object of the Study .................................................................................. 23 B. Approach of the Study ............................................................................. 24 C. Method of the Study ................................................................................. 25 x

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ........................................................................... 27 A. Characteristics of Will Traynor in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You ................ 27 1. Will Traynor was an adventurous and passionate person ..................... 29 2. Will is choleric .................................................................................... 32 3. Will is sarcastic and cranky ................................................................. 33 4. Will is pessimistic and discouraged ..................................................... 37 B. The reasons that motivate Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide as seen in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You ................................................................. 39 1. The lack of human needs that cannot be fulfilled by Will Traynor ....... 40 2. Will Traynor’s reasons to commit suicide ........................................... 47 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ...................................................................... 58 REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 61 xi

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT SEJATI, SAVIRA KHOERUNNISA. (2019). The Reasons of Anomic Suicide Committed by Will Traynor as seen in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma. This research discusses Jojo Moyes’ novel entitled Me Before You. The writer uses the movie tie-in edition of the novel which was published on 26 April 2016 by Penguin Books. It is an interesting story because it tells about the main male character’s steady decision, Will, to end his life through assisted suicide even though people around him try to show him that life is still worth living. This research is conducted because the novel discusses about assisted suicide and this novel pro to assisted suicide which causes pros and cons among the readers of this novel. It is interesting to get deeper understanding about reason of Will’s decision to commit suicide through assisted suicide and to tolerate the decision to commit suicide through assisted suicide. There are two problems to solve in this research. The first is how Will’s characteristics are described and the second is the reasons that motivate Will’s anomic suicide. The method used in this research is library research encompassing the novel of Me Before You as the primary data. Then, books of literature and psychology, theses, journals, and also articles from the internet were taken to support the analysis. The writer used psychological approach to analyze this research. The writer applied some theories to answer the research questions; theory of character and characterization, theory of choleric temperament, theory of motivation, theory of conflict, and theory of suicide. The analysis in this research produces some findings. The finding reveals that Will was an adventurous and passionate person. From his personal traits, Will is described as a choleric man, sarcastic, cranky, pessimistic, and discouraged. These characteristics are affected by the condition faced by Will after the accident. In the second analysis, the finding reveals that the inability of Will to fulfil his human needs becomes the factors which provide him the idea to end his life through assisted suicide. The decision of committing suicide is categorized as anomic suicide because Will cannot deal with the great change in his life. He loses his meaning and hope in life and it makes him feel useless. The conflicts faced by Will also affect his decision to commit suicide. Key words: anomic suicide, assisted suicide xii

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK SEJATI, SAVIRA KHOERUNNISA. (2019). The reasons of Anomic Suicide Committed by Will Traynor as seen in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You. Yogyakarta. Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Penelitian ini membahas tentang novel Jojo Moyes berjudul Me Before You. Penulis menggunakan novel yang merupakan edisi setelah film Me Before You dirilis yang diterbitkan pada 26 April 2016 oleh Penguin Books. Novel ini memiliki cerita yang menarik karena ini menceritakan tentang keputusan kukuh karakter pria utama, Will, untuk mengakhiri hidupnya dengan bantuan orang lain walaupun orang disekitarnya mencoba untuk menunjukkan padanya bahwa hidup masih layak untuk dijalani. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena novel ini membahas tentang bunuh diri dengan bantuan orang lain yang mana novel ini pro dengan hal tersebut sehingga menyebabkan pro dan kontra diantara para pembaca novel tersebut. Hal ini menarik untuk mendapatkan pemahaman lebih mengenai alasan Will untuk bunuh diri dengan bantuan orang lain dan untuk memaklumi keputusan tersebut. Ada dua rumusan yang harus diselesaikan dalam penelitian ini, yang pertama yaitu bagaimana karakteristik dari Will digambarkan dan yang kedua adalah alasan yang memotivasi Will untuk melakukan bunuh diri yang tergolong dalam bunuh diri anomik. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah studi pustaka meliputi novel Me Before You sebagai data utama. Kemudian, buku-buku mengenai literatur dan psikologi, skripsi, jurnal, dan juga artikel dari internet juga digunakan untuk mendukung analisis ini. Penulis menerapkan pendekatan psikologis untuk menganalisis penelitian ini. Penulis telah menerapkan beberapa teori untuk menyelesaikan rumusan masalah; teori karakter dan karakterisasi, teori temperamen koleris, teori motivasi, teori konflik, dan teori bunuh diri. Analisis dari penelitian ini menghasilkan beberapa kesimpulan. Kesimpulan tersebut mengungkapkan bahwa Will adalah seorang yang dulunya berjiwa petualang dan penuh gairah. Dari ciri kepribadiannya, Will digambarkan sebagai seorang yang koleris, sarkastik, mudah marah, pesimis, dan kurang percaya diri atau kecil hati. Karakteristik tersebut dipengaruhi oleh kondisi yang dihadapi Will setelah kecelakaan yang menimpanya. Dalam analisis kedua, diungkapkan bahwa ketidakmampuan Will untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusianya menjadi faktorfaktor yang menimbulkan ide bagi Will untuk mengakhiri hidupnya dengan bantuan dari orang lain. Keputusan Will untuk bunuh diri tergolong dalam bunuh diri anomik karena dia tidak dapat menghadapi perubahan besar dalam hidupnya. Dia kehilangan arti dan harapan dalam hidup. Konflik yang dihadapi oleh Will juga memengaruhi keputusannya untuk bunuh diri. Kata kunci: anomic suicide, assisted suicide xiii

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Novel is the most popular literary genre. Many people enjoy reading novel because it represents their lives. When reading a novel, people will usually get carried away with the plot of the novel, imagining what is portrayed in the novel, or perhaps imagining themselves to be one of the characters in the novel. Novel as an example of literary works can be used by the author of the novel itself to express his or her feeling, protest, or point of view towards his or her society or environment where he or she lives. There is a statement which says that the greatest novel reflects life which consists of many elements; just as life is a mixture of joy, disappointment, hope, humor, sorrow, and success (Murphy, 1972, p.133). A primary assumption of the novel is that it will report the actions of individual characters with sufficient and abundant details to create the illusion of authenticity to the material facts of everyday world. Therefore, one word most often used to describe the novel is the word “realistic”. (Rohrberger & Woods,1971, p.29). Why is it said that the word “realistic” is the most often word used to describe a novel? Because as mentioned before, novel is a picture of human’s action. In the novel, a character with all its action equals to human’s life. In other words, novel is an adaptation of everything which happened in our surroundings that is written into stories with the imagination development of its authors. A novel may also represent the author as the main character and the author’s background of life. It can be the experience or setting 1

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 which is adapted from the author’s life. It can also be the author’s idea or imagination which is written as a piece of literary work. As the most popular literary genre, novel is widely used as an object of analysis. Therefore, the writer is interested to analyze a novel as the object of this research entitled Me Before You written by Jojo Moyes which firstly published in 2012. However, the writer uses the movie tie-in edition of the novel as the main object which was published in 2016. The reason why this novel is interesting for the writer to be analyzed is because according to some surveys found in the internet, there are pros and cons related to the storyline of the novel which the main male character commits suicide through assisted suicide, the focus of the pros and cons is the existence of assisted suicide. Some people agree with it, but others are opposed to assisted suicide. They even assume that it is a murder. Every novel must necessarily present a certain view of life and of some of the problems of life (Hudson, 1910, p.131). In this case, this novel presents a view about assisted suicide chosen by the main male character to end his life. This decision, which is also approved by the family, becomes the beginning of the pros and cons. The writer analyzes the reasons why the main male character in the novel decides to end his life through assisted suicide seen from how the character is portrayed in the novel and the motivation that makes the character decides to commit suicide. This novel is about the ordinary life of an energetic English-woman named Louisa Clark who becomes a caregiver of a man named Will Traynor who used to have an adventurous life but now wheelchair-bound and must live by relying on

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 others after an accident. Initially, Louisa does not like Will's personality and how Will treats her by his words. As time passes, they become friends and fall in love. The interesting part is when Louisa finds out that Will decides to commit suicide through assisted suicide in a suicide organization called Dignitas. Louisa does many things to show that life is still worth living and she hopes Will will change his mind. But at the end of the story, Will sticks to his decision to commit suicide. In doing something, people must be motivated to do it. In this case, the main male character must be motivated to commit suicide. Generally, suicide is a familiar phenomenon, it can happen everywhere and every time. People who decide to commit suicide certainly have their own reasons. People who decide to commit suicide usually think that suicide is the last thing to do to solve their problems which can be seen from some cases reported around us. Not only ordinary people but also famous people like authors, artists, or even politicians end their life through tragical ways. It means that anyone can commit suicide as they want. Me Before You is chosen as a research object because of its interesting story about the life of a total paralyzed man who decides to commit suicide. Although people around him try to show that life is still worth living, he does not want to change his mind. There are some reasons behind the character’s decision to commit suicide and this story makes the writer realize how much we should be grateful for life and we also have to respect others’ stance. In this study, the writer wants to know how Will Traynor is described in the novel and the reasons that motivate Will Traynor to commit suicide in Me Before You. There must be a reason for someone in doing the action of ending his or her

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 life. It can be influenced by the emotion, environment, treatment, or maybe depression because of the situation that someone never expects. This study also aims to elucidate aspects which are the reasons why the main male character of the novel decides to commit suicide. B. Problem Formulation There are two problems of this study as the main points that are analyzed into two questions: 1. How are Will Traynor’s characteristics described in Moyes’ Me Before You? 2. What are the reasons that motivate Will Traynor’s anomic suicide in Moyes’ Me Before You? C. Objectives of the Study As the problems mentioned in the problem formulation above, there are some objectives to be achieved. Firstly, the purpose of this research is to know how the characteristics of Will Traynor are described in the novel. Secondly, this research is conducted to comprehend the reasons that motivate Will Traynor to commit suicide at the end of the story in the novel entitled Me Before You written by Jojo Moyes. D. Definition of Terms To avoid misunderstanding in this study, there are some important terms that are needed to be comprehended in this research. The first is definition of character. According to Abrams (1981), a character is the person presented in dramatic or narrative works who is interpreted by the readers as being endowed with moral dispositional qualities that are expressed in

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 5 what they say which is the dialogue and what they do which is the action (p.21). In this study, a character refers to the person in the novel of Jojo Moyes entitled Me Before You. The second is definition of motivation. Gerring and Zimbardo (2002) state that motivation is the process of starting, directing and maintaining physical and psychological activities towards a certain goal. According to Drever (1975), there will always be a motive and need in doing an action. Motive and need are related to each other and they stimulate a person to do something that we called motivation. In this study, motivation refers to Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide. The third definition of terms is the definition of assisted suicide. Durkheim (1951) says that suicide is not an illness, but the term used to describe the act of taking one’s own life and it occurs when individuals are less engaged and feel more isolated from their communities. Assisted suicide is the process by which an individual is provided, by another person or persons, with the means and the assistance (via drugs or equipment) to commit suicide. The key difference between assisted suicide and suicide is the word assisted. The person wants to die and has involved someone else in this endeavour (Haigh, 2011, p.36). In other words, assisted suicide means the act of killing one self because the individual who has terminally ill deliberate hastening his or her own death with assistance from someone else for example a doctor, family member, or another individual. In this study, assisted suicide refers to the action of Will Traynor to take his own life through a suicide organization called Dignitas.

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 6 The last definition of terms is the definition of Quadriplegia. Basically, quadriplegia means that once spinal cord is severed or severely damaged, all nerve control of the body, both sensory and motor, is lost from the neck down and cannot be repaired. Quadriplegia is paralysis caused by injury or illness. “Quad” means four and “plegia” means paralysis. This paralysis affects all four of body’s extremities (Maxwell, 1971, p.10). In other words, quadriplegia means the loss of use of limbs and torso. Maxwell also states that people with quadriplegia are entirely dependent on others for the rest of their life, for every physical activity. In this study, quadriplegia refers to the condition of Will Traynor, who is a C5-6 quadriplegic. C5-6 is a level of the damage to the brain or the spinal cord and quadriplegic is a person who has quadriplegia.

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter consists of three parts. They are review of related studies, review of related theories and theoretical framework. The first point is review of related studies which provides some studies with similar discussion with this research that has been previously conducted. The second point is review of related theories which provides theories that support the research. The last point is theoretical framework which describes the contribution of the theories which support the analysis of this research. A. Review of Related Studies The first related study is a research that has been previously conducted. It has a similar discussion with this research. The writer is from English Language Education Study Program namely Thomas Damian Wali with his research entitled The Meaning of Hanna’s Decision to Commit Suicide as Reflected in Bernard Schlink’s The Reader. In his research, the writer focuses on how the character of Hanna is described in the novel and the meaning of Hanna’s decision to commit suicide. The writer uses the theory of character and characterization to analyze how the character of Hanna is described in the novel. He finds out that Hanna’s characters portray a self-oriented life and sacrifice for love which makes a person always think superiorly than others. In analysing the meaning of Hanna’s decision to commit suicide, the writer uses the theory of motivation and theory of psychological psychology. In his conclusion, he states that Hanna’s decision to 7

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 commit suicide is the result of being alone, dependent, unloved, uneducated, and selfish. He also states that Hanna’s characterizations and her journeys of life are directed to the final decision to commit suicide as her own destiny. The first related study is helpful for this research because in this research, the writer also focuses on the characterization of a character, Will Traynor, described in the novel. The writer uses the same theory to analyze the characterization of Will Traynor. There is a difference in analyzing the decision to commit suicide between this research and Thomas Damian’s research. In this research, the writer finds out the reasons of Will Traynor’s decision that motivate him to commit suicide. The second related study is also a research that has been conducted before by English Language Education Study Program student namely Bonaventura Jiwantara Adhi Nugraha entitled The Reason of Okonkwo in Committing Suicide as Seen in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart. In this research, the writer focuses on how Okonkwo is characterized and the reasons of Okonkwo to commit suicide. To analyze how Okonkwo is characterized, the writer uses the theory of characterization and theory of personalities. He finds out that Okonkwo is described as a bad temperamental person. He uses theory of motivation and theory of suicide to analyze the reason why Okonkwo decides to commit suicide and he finds out that it is because Okonkwo has difficulties in facing his life with his condition. The second related study supports this research because it has the same topic about committing suicide. The writer uses this second related study to support the analysis by using the same theory which is theory of characterization by Murphy to

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 analyze how Will Traynor is characterized in the novel. Theory of motivation and theory of suicide are used to analyze the reason why Will Traynor decides to commit suicide. The third related study is an article entitled “I’d Rather Die than Live This Way” written by Rosemary Ferdinand in a journal entitled “The American Journal of Nursing”. In this article, the writer discusses a woman named Jean Lincoln who has AIDS. She focuses on how to take care of a terminally ill patient who expresses suicidal ideation. In the article, the writer also provides some possible reasons why a terminally ill patient often thinks to end his or her life and how to guide and help him or her to overcome feelings that lead to suicide such as being isolated from the social environment that cause a fear of living ‘out of touch’, physical inability to perform daily activities as before, unrelieved pain, depression, and the loss of hope because oftentimes, people in severe illness think that their life is not worth anymore and they will never be recovered. The writer also tells about how to face a patient who directly or indirectly plans to commit suicide. From the caregiver side, the writer explains how a caregiver convinces the patient to prefer receiving life rather than ending his or her life. Few patients with terminally illness or loss of their physical ability in fact ask caregivers for help in committing suicide. In the article, the writer also gives an explanation about the assisted suicide debate and how to respond to it. This article is helpful for this research because it helps the writer to have more comprehension about the reason of Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide according to his point of view about life because as mentioned before in the background of the study. There are pros and cons about assisted

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 suicide and the writer wants to understand the decision according to Will Traynor’s point of view. In this research, the writer points out the similar aspect of both of the research that are conducted before and the article. The writer points out the reason why Will Traynor, the main male character in Moyes’s Me Before You, decides to commit suicide based on the story of the novel. The writer focuses more on the motivations that motivate Will Traynor which may cause him to decide to commit suicide with the help of an organization known as assisted suicide. These three related studies help the writer to conduct the analysis of the reason why Will Traynor decides to commit suicide. B. Review of Related Theories There are five related theories applied in this research to answer the problem formulation of this research. Theories of character and characterization and theory of choleric temperament are used to answer the first research question about Will Traynor’s characteristics described in the novel. Theory of motivation and theory of suicide are used to analyze the reasons that motivate Will Traynor to commit suicide. Theory of conflict is used to analyze the internal and external conflicts which also become the reason that motivate Will to commit suicide. 1. Theory of Character and Characterization Character as the main aspect in a literary work is very important. The author of a novel has to describe all of the characters of the novel as realistic as possible because literary works depict real life. While characterization is the creation of

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 imaginary person so that the reader can feel that the characters exist as lifelike. (Holman & Harmon, 1986, p.81). According to Baldick (1991), a character is a person in a narrative or dramatic work. It is different from characterization. Characterization is the way in which a character is presented. Therefore, a character is the result, while characterization is the process (p.81). Based on the importance of a character, Abrams (1981) states that characters in a novel are divided into two; major character and minor character. He says that major characters are involved in main action as well as becoming the central and the most important in a story, while minor characters are characters that appear in certain setting and they are necessary to become the background of the major character. The roles of minor characters are less important than the major characters or main characters because they are not fully developed characters and their roles in a story is just to support the development of the major character (p.20). According to E. M. Forster (1972), character can be distinguished into two kinds. The first is flat character and the second is round character. Flat character is a character that is built around a single quality or idea by the author. Flat character is presented without many specific details. Therefore, flat character can be described adequately in simple way or in a single sentence. Meanwhile, round character is complex in temperament and motivation. Round character is presented particularly subtle. Round character is as difficult to describe with any adequacy as an individual in real life. Round character is capable of surprising us just like real person (p.18).

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 In Understanding Unseens, An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students, Murphy states that in real life, we can assess people through some ways. We can assess people through their outward appearance, their manners, opinions of other people, how they behave, or their past life. He also mentions that there is one thing we cannot do to assess people in real life but which an author can do. An author can describe a character using the ‘eyeof-god’ method, where an author can lay bare the innermost thought of the characters (Murphy, 1972, p.161). As Murphy mentions in his book, there are nine ways to get better understanding of characterization of a character. The first is personal description. In this method, an author describes the detail of a character such as the face, skin complexion, hair, eyes, body, hair, and the clothing in order to help the reader to visualize the character and to understand the characteristics. The second is about how a character is seen by other characters. The author describes the character through the eyes and opinions of other characters in the story instead of describing the character directly. This method makes the reader understand a character’s personality and appearance as a reflected image. The third method is speech. The readers can understand the characteristics of a character through the way the character speaks. Some information and clues about a character can be revealed through the character’s speech. The fourth method related to past life. The author gives a clue to events happening in the past that have helped to shape a character. A character’s past life will affect how the character behaves in the present life. Moreover, it can change

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 character’s personality. It can be done by direct comment by the author, through the character’s thought, through the conversation or through the medium of another character. The fifth is about the conversation of other characters. The author gives some clues to the reader about the character’s characteristics through a conversation of other characters and the things they say about the character. The sixth method is related to the reaction. The author gives some clues about the character through the reaction of the character towards various situations and events. The seventh method is direct comment. Here, the author gives description or comment about the character directly. This method makes the readers understand easily about the characteristics of a character. The eighth method is related to the thoughts. The author gives the readers direct knowledge of what a character in a story is thinking about. The readers will know a character’s characteristics by knowing what is in the character’s mind. The last method is about mannerism. The author can describe a character’s mannerisms, habits, or idiosyncrasies which may also tell the readers something about the character’s characteristics (Murphy, 1972, pp. 161-173). The theories of character and characterization mentioned above are used to understand about the character to have a deeper meaning towards a literature work. In this research, this theory is used to analyze how the character of Will Traynor described in Me Before You.

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 2. Theory of Choleric Temperament There are four human temperaments. They are sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, and melancholic. A temperament can also be called as a personality. In this study, the writer focuses on choleric temperament as one of Will Traynor’s characteristics. A generic explanation of human “Temperaments” or “Personalities” is that all of us have been born with genetically inherited “behavioural tendencies” that are as much a part of our DNA as is the color of our hair; all of us are made up of DNA combinations passed on to us through our parents and ancestors (Ekstrand, 2015, p.1). It is also stated that choleric temperament is basically ambitious and leaderlike. People with choleric temperament usually have passion and energy. They will correct everything they assume wrong. They are mostly men and born leaders who have confidence, naturally gifted businessmen, have strong will, independent, and sufficient. Choleric temperament also has negative sides such as bossy, impatient, easily angered, etc. This theory is used to explain one of Will Traynor’s characteristics found by the writer. 3. Theory of Motivation Everybody has a reason in doing something. The reason is called motivation. The motivation will influence people to act in a specific way. Gerring and Zimbardo (2002) define that motivation is the process of starting, directing and maintaining physical and psychological activities towards a certain goal (p.364). According to Smith, motivation is an internal process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal directed behavior. Human beings achieve their goals because they are motivated by something as their internal factor in

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 15 moving to achieve it. Motivation also leads human to act in a specific way which can support them to achieve their goal. Thus, motivation always influences human’s behavior because they want to gain something or to adapt to a condition (1982, p.282). According to Drever (1975), there will always be a motive and need in doing an action. Motive and need are related to each other and they stimulate a person to do something that we called motivation. Motive is an affective factor which undertakes in determining the direction of an individual’s behavior towards the aim or goal. Meanwhile, need is a condition portrayed by the feeling of lack something and it requires the performance of some action (p.102). Motivation influences human’s life in different way whether it is good or not. Abraham Maslow states that motivation has a relation with human needs. He classifies human needs into five needs in a hierarchy running from basic psychological needs to self-actualization needs (Maslow, 1970, p.112). Maslow states that higher needs can emerge only as lower needs are satisfied. The higher needs develop later in life than lower needs, but they are also inborn in everyone. It means that people have desire to fulfil all the classification of the human needs stated by Maslow. Needs affect behavior only when they are unsatisfied (Maslow as cited in McClelland, 1985, p.41-42). Below are the explanation of the needs; a. Psychological needs are the most basic level which consist of the need for food, water, and sex. For example, when a person is hungry, he or she will think and talk about food and then eat it to fulfil his or her hunger.

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 b. Safety needs which consist of the need for security and protection from pain, anxiety, fear, and disorder, need for order, lawfulness and discipline. c. Needs for belongingness and love which consist of need for tenderness and togetherness. In other words, people need to be accepted and belonged to community, they need to receive or give love, affection and sense of belonging because they don’t want to be lonely. d. Esteem needs which consist of need for achievement, respect, and approval. These needs can be categorized into two subcategories. The first is a need for self-value which involves self-confidence, achievement, control, independence, personal strength, competency, and freedom. The second is a need for other value which involves a desire for position, prestige, good reputation, status, appreciation by others, feeling of importance. e. Self-actualization needs which means the need for self-fulfilment, need for realizing one’s potential and capacities, need for understanding and insight. These needs are where people become fully functional, acting purely on their own volition and having a healthy personality. Since there are some human needs of Will Traynor that are not fulfilled, the theory of motivation of human needs is used in order to help the writer to analyze the reason of Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide. Human needs of Will Traynor that are not fulfilled are all of it except the psychological needs. The inability to fulfil other needs affects Will Traynor’s behavior. His behavior changes because his needs are unsatisfied. The writer will focus on the safety

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 17 needs and esteem needs because those needs show the main factors of Will Traynor’s motivation to commit suicide. 4. Theory of Suicide According to Smith (1982), suicide is the act of intentionally destroying oneself, a violent self-inflicted destructive action resulting in death, and the act of killing oneself (p.129). It can be said that suicide is the result of ill health where people cannot accept themselves and it makes people intentionally lead to death. The decision to commit suicide is usually a combination between a wish to live and a wish to die. This condition is called ambivalence, which may be a cry for help. Will Traynor maybe needs help from others to make him healthy again, to make him walk again, but it is impossible because there is no recovery for spinal injury. It is explained in the novel that Will is C5-6 quadriplegic which means that nothing works below his chest and no one knows how to fix spinal injury yet. In Understanding Psychology, Kasschau states that not all people who commit suicide are depressed. However, many depressives think about suicide, and some of them translate the thoughts into action (Kasschau, 1995, p.376). There are some reasons that make people decide to commit suicide. It may be the last thing to release themselves from physical or emotional pain, or an effort to end the torture of unacceptable feelings or to punish themselves for wrong things they feel they have committed. Suicide can be divided into some categories. Durkheim categorizes suicide into four categories based on the strengths and weaknesses of society. The causes determined by external factors and environments. The first is egoistic suicide. It

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 happens when a person cannot find a basis for existence in life or find the reason to live. It results from an inability to integrate oneself with society. Failure to maintain a close relation towards a community precludes a person from the support systems needed for adaptive functions. Without such support, a person is unable to function adaptively and it makes a person becomes isolated and alienated from others. The second is altruistic suicide. It happens when a person is positioned into a heroic situation and when this person dedicates his or her life to a cause. This kind of suicide is motivated by the need to fulfil further group goals or to achieve some greater good. A person gives up for a higher cause, for example in ultimate political protest or in religious sacrifice. The third is anomic suicide which means “deregulation”. It happens when a person suffers from a great change where this person is not ready to deal with it or when a person’s relationship to society is unbalanced in some dramatic ways. People who may not be able to handle the change or to cope with the new thing may choose suicide as an ‘out’ when his or her horizons are suddenly broadened or constricted by unstable condition. The last is fatalistic suicide, when a person is in an excessive regulation which usually happens among prisoners, slaves and others suffering the same burdens (Durkheim as cited in Smith, 1983, p.129-130). The writer focuses on anomic suicide because it is the most appropriate category to categorize Will Traynor’s reason to commit suicide since Will cannot cope and accept the great change of his life caused by the accident because it is not the life that he wants, it is totally different from his ‘old’ life.

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 There are always causes in doing something including in doing suicide. The causes in doing suicide generally are about family, job, failure, carrier or depression. According to Coleman (1976), there are four factors to categorize the cause of suicide (p.606-607); a. Interpersonal Crises Interpersonal conflicts and disruptions associated with marital conflict, divorce, separation, or the loss of the loved ones through death might result in severe stress and suicidal behavior. b. Failure and Self-devaluation The feeling of having failed in some important business or activity can cause suicidal behavior. c. Inner Conflict The stress situation and the debate in human’s own mind (internal conflict) can cause suicidal behavior. d. Loss of Meaning and Hope When someone loses his or her hope and meaning of life, an individual may feel that his or her life is useless. This cause a person may give up trying to do his or her best to survive and take his or her own life. People who have meaning in their lives usually continue to work toward valued goals. When people lose their hope and meaning to live, they may give up trying to do their best and end up taking their own life.

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 5. Theory of Conflicts Conflict in a novel is similar to the conflict that exist in real life, where the conflict is going to happen between a character and a character, characters and themselves, or characters and nature. Conflict also makes the story become more fascinating. A story without conflict will be monotonous. Therefore, conflict is an important part of a story. Stanton (1965) in his book An Introduction to Fiction categorizes conflict into two kinds which are internal conflict and external conflict. Internal conflict is a conflict between two desires within a character. A character’s mind and feeling are involved in this conflict where a character has the opposing desires and the character has to choose one of them. This conflict has something to do with a choice like choosing between right and wrong or it may have something to do with overcoming emotions or mixed feeling. External conflict is a conflict between characters in a story or between a character and the environment. A character and other things outside the character are involved in this conflict. In A Handbook to Literature, Holman and Harmon state that conflict is the struggle that grows out of the interplay of two opposing focus in a plot. They state that there are three kinds of conflicts. They are the struggle against nature, the struggle against another person, and the struggle against society (1986, p.107). The struggle against nature is a conflict that happens when a character finds himself pitting against the forces of nature. The struggle against another person may come from moral, religious or social differences and it may be emotional, verbal or physical conflict.

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 21 Meanwhile, in psychology, when the person faces or is motivated by two or more needs and valued goals, it can be said as conflict. Conflict is the condition where an individual has to choose one of the two alternatives which can lead to frustration. Conflicts are important sources of stress or depression and frequently lead to such tension and inner turmoil. The key in conflict is often the frustration that arises when we must choose one alternative and give up the other (Coleman, 1976, p.83-84). According to Coleman (1976), there are three categories of conflict. The first is approach-avoidant conflict which happens when one alternative involves both pleasant and unpleasant features. In this category, there are strong tendencies both to approach and to avoid the same purposes. The second is double-approach conflict which happens when there is a competition between two or more desirable purposes. The third is double-avoidant conflict which happens when there are two or more unpleasant or negative purposes. C. Theoretical Framework The focus of this research is the characteristic of Will Traynor described in the novel and the motivation that become the reason of Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide. The theories reviewed in the previous part are very important for the writer to get into the analysis part. In analyzing Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You, the writer uses some theories. The theories are theory of character and characterization, theory of choleric temperament, theory of motivation, theory of suicide and theory of conflict.

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 The theories of character and characterization are used to describe the characteristic of Will Traynor in the novel. Theory of motivation is used to explain the motive and the lack of needs of Will that make him come to the decision to end his life. Theory of suicide is used to find out the reason of Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide and to categorize Will Traynor’s kind of suicide. The theory of conflict explained in the previous part is used to analyze the conflicts faced by Will Traynor. The conflict is used to explain more about Will’s struggle because of his inability to do anything anymore. The theory of motivation and the theory of suicide are also important because they are applied to find out what the reasons that motivate Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide are.

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The literary work used by the writer to be analyzed in this research is a novel entitled Me Before You written by Jojo Moyes. This novel was first published in the United Kingdom on 5 January 2012. The Movie Tie-In edition of the book was published on 26 April 2016 by Penguin Books. There is also a sequel of this novel entitled After You, published in 29 September 2015 by Pamela Dorman Books. The writer uses the movie tie-in edition published by Penguin Books as the object of this study which contains 27 chapters with 400 pages in total. This novel somehow becomes a controversy because it implies the legalization of assisted suicide. Some people disagree with the storyline because they think that suicide is an inappropriate thing to do but this novel tells about assisted suicide instead. Because of this controversy, the writer is interested in knowing the reason of Will Traynor to commit suicide. The story is about a young English-woman, Louisa Clark, who gets a job as a caretaker for a paralyzed man named Will Traynor. Will is a young businessman and an adventurous life enthusiast whose life has changed since the last two years after an accident that happened to him. He was hit by a motorbike while crossing the street and it makes him C5-6 quadriplegic. Will’s mother tells Lou that her job is to monitor Will all the time even though there is already a professional to take care of his medical needs. However, Will is really annoying at first. He looks cold. 23

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 24 As time goes by, Will and Lou become good friends. Until Lou hears a truth about why she was employed; Will had committed suicide before and eventually he made his mother promise to take him to a place that facilitates assisted suicide in Switzerland in six months to end his life. Although Lou is surprised by the fact, Lou decides to make a travel plan and she takes Will to visit various places and show Will that life is still worth living but he still ignores it. Finally, Lou decides to accompany Will for the last time at Dignitas, an assisted suicide facility even though her mother opposes Lou to meet Will. The writer focuses on Will Traynor, the main male character. The writer is interested in the steady decision of Will Traynor to commit suicide even Louisa Clark and other people try to show him that life is still worth living. The writer wants to know the reason why Will Traynor insists on taking his own life through assisted suicide. B. Approach of the Study This research applies psychological approach. According to Rohrberger and Woods (1971) in Reading and Writing about Literature, they state that “psychology approaches locate and demonstrate the psychological phenomena in the story of human life” (p.12). Psychological approach is used to answer the research questions formulated before as the problem formulation. The writer uses this approach to have deep information about Will Traynor’s characteristics, motivation and his decision to commit suicide. Furthermore, this approach is used to explain human motivation, personality, and behavior pattern in literary object. Will’s psychological condition is examined through the interpretation of his thoughts, behaviors and feelings that

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 is described in the novel. Through the interpretation of Will’s thought, behaviors and feelings, the writer finds the reasons that motivate Wil Traynor’s decision to commit suicide. This approach is appropriate because in analysing this topic, the writer focuses on the character’s psychological aspect. C. Method of the Study In order to complete this research, the method that is used by the writer is library research. It means that the main ways that the writer uses to gain the data are by reading and taking important notes which help the writer in analyzing the novel. There are two sources that support the writer in conducting this research. The first is the novel itself as the primary data or the main source and the second is the data that are used to support the analysis, such as theories and the data that the writer takes from the books in the library and also the electronic sources. In conducting this research, the writer conducted some steps. The first step was the writer read the novel several times to get better understanding. The writer also read some synopses and reviews on the internet about the novel. The second step was the writer decided the topic that the writer wanted to discuss, which characteristics of Will Traynor are described in the novel, and the motivation that become the reason of Will Traynor to commit suicide. The third step was the writer read some researches that were conducted before and some journals related to this study. The fourth step was the writer looked for some references and theories that are related to the topic of this research. The fifth step was analyzing the novel. The writer analyzed how Will Traynor is described in the novel by applying the theory of character and characterization and theory of choleric temperament, and the

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 reasons that motivate Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide by applying the theory of motivation, theory of suicide and theory of conflict. The last step was conducting the conclusion of the study based on the result of the analysis.

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the writer tries to analyze the three questions formulated in the problem formulation. This chapter is divided into two main points. The first point is the character and characterization analysis of Will Traynor, the main male character in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You. The second point is the analysis of Will Traynor’s motivation that becomes the reason to commit suicide as seen in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You. A. Characteristics of Will Traynor in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You Character is one of intrinsic elements of novel. Without character, a story will be monotonous. There are some characters in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You which are divided into main characters and supporting characters. Main character can be said as major character and supporting character can be said as minor character. As mentioned before, Abrams (1981) states that characters in the novel are divided into two; major character and minor character (p.20). There are two main characters in the novel. The first is Louisa, the main female character, and Will Traynor is the main male character of the novel. The writer focuses on Will Traynor, the main male character of Me Before You. In this analysis, Will Traynor is a major character because he is an important figure in the story. The character of Will Traynor is interesting. It makes the readers, in this case, the writer, want to know more about the character. He becomes the focus of the story because the story focuses on how he decides to commit suicide. The story tells about his life, his 27

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 struggle, his suffering, and his decision to commit suicide that never change since the beginning of the story. Will Traynor is a round character because he is complex in his temperament and motivation. The author also presents the characterization of Will subtly. Will is also capable of surprising us, in this case, the decision to commit suicide does not change at the end of the story. The writer assumes that Will will change his mind and decides to live with Louisa, but the fact that he sticks to his decision to commit suicide at the end of the story is unpredictable. In order to reveal the characteristics of the main male character in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You, the writer uses the theory of characterization by Murphy. In his book, Murphy (1972) mentions that there are nine ways to get better understanding of characterization through personal description, characters as seen by others, speech, past life, conversation of others, reactions, direct comments, thoughts, and mannerism (p.161). In this part, the character will be analysed in details. Quotations from the novel will be used to support the characterization. The writer will only focus on describing the characteristics of Will Traynor, the main male character in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You, to help the readers understand Will Traynor’s characteristics. There is a change in Will Traynor’s characteristics. According to Hurlock (1974), changes in personality or characteristics usually is the result of multiple revisions in the thoughts and feelings related to the person’s concept of self (p.124). In this case, physical changes of Will Traynor become the condition that is responsible for his personality changes. The fact that Will is now paralyzed

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 becomes the main factor that affects his characteristics from adventurous, passionate, and choleric person become a sarcastic, cranky, pessimistic, and discouraged person. 1. Will Traynor was an adventurous and passionate person Will Traynor was a person who experienced many adventurous things. Moreover, he had ambitions in good ways before his accident. “I can’t do those sorts of holidays. I need to be doing something.” (Moyes, 2016, p.1). It is included in the third method, speech. Doing something means that he is a man who never wastes his time not to do anything useful. He makes his life worth living in his own way. He has his own viewpoint of his life which is he has to work and enjoy his life. Will Traynor’s words point that he needs to be doing something not just lying around the beach, spending hours being pampered, doing nothing, as her girlfriend mentioned before. His adventurous life portrayed by Will Traynor’s experience in doing physical things. Will used to do some extreme sports such as trekking up mountains and hanging over ravines. He is not used to be in a holiday without doing anything challenging. The writer finds the evidence that Will Traynor did some extreme sports in his past life (fourth method) – before the accident – from some picture frames on Will’s desk. There was a man bungee jumping from a cliff, his arms outstretched like a statue of Christ. There was a man who might have been Will in what looked like a jungle, and him again in the midst of a group of drunken friends (Moyes, 2016, p.41). Adventurous life is not only about extreme sports but also many things that have been done and it imprints in our heart. For example, the experience of the writer when the writer has to speak in front of public though she hates to do it but

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 we have to get out from our comfort zone. Speaking in front of people is a new thing for the writer and this event imprints in her heart and it makes her want to do it again and again because actually she loves it when she can share what she knows to people. It is similar to what Will feels. For Will, a worth life is when he can do anything he loves as much as he wants. He is the kind of person who always breaks his comfort zone and tries new things in his life. It is also adventurous because he does anything to push him to his limits which makes him feel challenged. Will Traynor’s life had been so far beyond the experiences of mine (Moyes, 2016, p.183). In this case, Louisa Clark thinks that Will had many experiences in his life more than she has ever experienced, more than she knows. It is included in the second method, how the character is seen by other characters. Will Traynor is considered a person who had an adventurous life through his past life when he recalls the moment he climbed Mount Kilimanjaro. “I climbed Mount Kilimanjaro when I hit thirty. That was pretty incredible.” (Moyes, 2016, p.215). The way Will talks about his past shows how meaningful the moment was. He loves what he does which makes him a person full of passion in his life. He smiles and talks enthusiastically about the memory of his past. Will was silent for a moment. I watched him, wondering where he really was. When we had these conversations he became like the boy in my class, the boy who had distanced himself from us by venturing away. … “Trou d’Eau Douce bay, Mauritius. Lovely people, beautiful beaches, great diving. Um… Tsavo National Park, Kenya, all red earth and wild animals. Yosemite. …” (Moyes, 2016, p.215). Will Traynor enjoyed his life and he had passion in all things he did before his accident. It can be seen when he tells Louisa Clark about what he had done in his past life because he is furious when he knows that Lou has a monotonous and

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 boring life and it is different from his. People who have a thought that we have to live our life in a great way with great things to enrich their experiences of life will be a bit exasperation when they see other people doing nothing in their life and just live in an ordinary life. That is why Will shows Louisa how life should be led. Will tells Louisa that life should be meaningful. To make a meaningful life, Will shows the things he had done. He tries to do something every day even he is busy with his work and his business. He shows that we can find anything interesting and meaningful as long as we have a desire to do it. Even if it is a simple thing, when we have a desire to do it, it will be something imprinting in our heart. Will says that he does rock climbing at an indoor center, goes to concerts, tries new restaurants, tries to learn new languages for places he thinks he will visit one day, having quality times with his friends and many other simple things. It shows that even simple things can be meaningful when we want to do it, not perforce to do it. “I worked out what would make me happy, and I worked out what I wanted to do, and I trained myself to do the job that would make those two things happen.” (Moyes, 2016, p. 228-229). Will always does his best to make his dreams come true and to make his life meaningful by doing any things he loves with passion. “I will never, ever regret the things I’ve done. Because most days, if you’re stuck in one of these, all you have are the places in your memory that you can go to.” (Moyes, 2016, p.229). Moreover, Will Traynor always appreciates what he has done. He never regrets it because all the things he has done have meaning for his life and it imprints in his heart.

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 2. Will is choleric Choleric is one of the four human temperaments. A temperament can also be called as a personality. A generic explanation of human “Temperaments” or “Personalities” is that all of us have been born with genetically inherited “behavioural tendencies” that are as much a part of our DNA as is the color of our hair; all of us are made up of DNA combinations passed on to us through our parents and ancestors (Ekstrand, 2015, p.1). It is also stated that choleric temperament is basically ambitious and leaderlike. People with choleric temperament usually have passion and energy. They will correct everything they assume wrong. They are mostly men and born leaders who have confidence, naturally gifted businessmen, have strong will, independent, and sufficient. Choleric temperament also has negative sides such as bossy, impatient, easily angered, etc. All the characteristics of choleric temperament mentioned are the characteristics of Will. It is also related to Will’s human needs explained in part B below. Will is the type of person who always lead and takes control of something. He wants people to listen and do what he says and he likes to give orders to others oftentimes for good things. “He was a man who was used to being heard, after all.” (Moyes, 2016, p.123). Will’s mother, Camilla Traynor, claims that Will is a kind of person whose words are always heard. It means that Will has a power to make other people hear what he wants and do it. In this case, Will has a strong will to end his life which he thinks that it is the best thing he has to do. It is proven when Will asks his mother to take him to Dignitas, a place to end his life through assisted suicide, and he makes her mother promise.

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 “You like telling people what they should be doing, don’t you?” “Only when I know I’m right,” he said. Will’s answer to Louisa’s question confirms that he likes to give orders or tells other what they should do according to his point of view. Strong-willed is one of the characteristics of choleric temperaments. The proof that Will has a strong will is when his love towards Louisa is not enough to change his mind. His desire to end his life is bigger than his desire to be with Louisa. The time he spends with Louisa imprints in his heart but it is not strong enough to affect his mind to change his decision to commit suicide. He does not want an unequal relationship where Louisa has to be his caretaker through a lifetime. Will wants to express his love towards Louisa in the way he expresses love. His inability to express his love towards Louisa is as deeply as he wants to make him choose to stick on his decision to end his suffering. 3. Will is sarcastic and cranky The author describes Will as a sarcastic person since the beginning of the story. Louisa says, “Will Traynor gazed at me steadily, the faintest of smiles flickering across his face.” (Moyes, 2016, p.36). The description above shows that Will Traynor is sarcastic as seen through his gestures towards Louisa Clark. It shows disinterest. His personal nurse, Nathan, also says directly that Will is sarcastic in a metaphor. Nathan says that “… His bark is worse than his bite.” (Moyes, 2016, p.36). The way Will talks to her mother also shows sarcasm. He does not like it when his mother talks about what Louisa has to do which he feels he can explain

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 himself. The fact that Will is paralyzed makes him irritable and a bit sensitive because he cannot accept that people around Will subconsciously treat him as an incapable person. It makes him become cranky. He expresses his annoyance through sarcasm. “I’m here, Mother. You don’t have to talk across me. My brain isn’t paralyzed. Yet.” (Moyes, 2016, p.36). Will Traynor often speaks sarcastically to everyone when he feels disturbed or uncomfortable. Will does not like it when Louisa bother him and he shows his dislike through sarcasm. “Ah. Yes. The girl who makes tea for a living. I wondered how long it would be before you wanted to show off your skills. No. No, thank you.” (Moyes, 2016, p.40). Will is uncomfortable with the presence of Louisa because he thinks that she is a stranger who is just paid to take care of him. People who experience something that they do not like oftentimes become more sensitive toward others and they underestimate others who do not know them well. Will underestimates Louisa because he thinks that Louisa does not know anything about him but he has to be taken care by Louisa because his mother employs her. Louisa is a type of chatty person and it bothers Will so much because he does not feel that he is close enough to Louisa to have a conversation. “Here’s what I know about you, Miss Clark. My mother says you’re chatty.” He said it like it was an affliction. “Can we strike a deal? Whereby you are very un–chatty around me?” (Moyes, 2016, p.45). “You were just looking at my photographs. Wondering how awful it must be to live like that and then turn into a cripple.” … “The rest of my photographs are in the bottom drawer if you find yourself overcome with curiosity again,” he said. (Moyes, 2016, p.42).

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 Will does not like it when Louisa takes a look of his photographs because he assumes that Louisa is curious about him and about his life. Will fortifies himself from others. He does not let anyone to be close to him because he has a thought that everyone who wants to know and to be close to him is just because they feel pity for him and he thinks that he does not need to be pitied because it offends his pride. “You thought a little drive would be good for me? A breath of fresh air?” “I’m just trying to–” “Miss Clark, my life is not going to be significantly improved by a drive around Stortfold’s country lanes.” … “Do you want me to bring you your computer?” “Why, have you thought of a good quadriplegic support group I could join? Quads R Us? The Tin Wheel Club?” This conversation happens when Louisa tries to talk to Will by asking him to go somewhere out of the house. The way Will answers shows sarcasm by saying the things which he thinks Louisa has in her mind. It shows that Will does not like the way people think what is best for him. Will’s discomfort towards strangers irritates him when they act like they know what he wants. His sarcasm can also be strengthened by evidence that other people are aware of it. “No, but he’s sarcastic and mean with it. …” (Moyes, 2016, p.46). “… Everything I said, he had a sharp answer for. …” (Moyes, 2016, p.51). Will is also described as a cranky person by his personal nurse, Nathan. “… he’s a little cranky. …” (Moyes, 2016, p.39). Nathan tells Louisa that Will is a bit easy to get angry because of simple things. He gets angry because sometimes people do not understand his feeling and he expresses his pique through anger, for example when he hits the photographs on the long shelves with a jousting stick after his ex-

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 girlfriend–Alicia and his best friend–Rupert, visit him to tell him that they are getting married. It was then that I heard the crash. I ran out into the corridor just in time to hear another, followed by the sound of shattering glass. … Will was in the middle of the room, upright in his chair, a walking stick balanced across the armrests, so that it jutted eighteen inches to his left–a jousting stick. There was not a single photograph left on the long shelves; the expensive frames lay in pieces all over the floor, the carpet studded with glittering shards of glass. His lap was dusted with bits of glass and splintered wood frames. … Will was breathing hard, as if he whatever he had done had cost him some effort. (Moyes, 2016, p.58). Louisa’s description about what Will does when he is angry is the example of the second method which is seen-by-other-characters method. Will expresses his anger because of the fact that his ex-girlfriend will be married to his best friend by crashing the photograph of his ex-girlfriend and himself. He cannot accept that fact and he is angry to himself but all the things he can do is only express it in anger. There will be a wound inside our heart if someone we love is married to our best friend. It happens to Will when he knows that his ex will be married to his best friend. He may think that it should be him who is married to Alicia, but he is not able to be the one because he feels that he does not deserve it. Will also gets angry when he finds Louisa tries to fix the frames that he crashed before. He crashes it because he does not want to see it, he does not want to look at the photographs which remind him about his old life that he wants. However, Louisa does not understand what Will feels about that and it makes him angry. “Do you know what, Louisa? I would be nice–just for once–if someone paid attention to what I wanted. Me smashing those photographs was not an accident. It was not an attempt at radical interior design. It was because I actually don’t want to look at them.”

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 I got to my feet. “I’m sorry. I didn’t think that–” “You thought you know best. Everyone thinks they know what I need. Let’s put the bloody photos back together. Give the poor invalid something to look at. I don’t want to have those bloody pictures staring at me every time I’m stuck in my bed until someone comes and bloody well gets me out again. Okay? Do you think you can get your head around that?” (Moyes, 2016, p.63-64). Will expresses anything in his mind sarcastically when he gets angry without letting anyone cut his words until he finishes what he wants to say. He often does not think about what others feel about his words. It makes him looks cranky. “Oh Christ . . .” He turned away from me, his voice scathing. “Spare me the psychological therapy. Just go and read your bloody gossip magazines or whatever it is you do when you’re not making tea.” (Moyes, 2016, p.64). 4. Will is pessimistic and discouraged The accident makes Will Traynor become pessimistic at the end even though he was optimistic that he will recover at the first year after his accident. The first year of treatment with physiotherapy only resulted little movement of his finger. It makes Will hopeless, but he continued to undergo physiotherapy even though with half-hearted until he tries to kill himself. It can be seen from what Nathan said. “He does it, but I don’t think his heart’s in it. When I first came, he was determined. He’d come pretty far in rehab, but after a year with no improvement I think he found it tough to keep believing it was worth it.” (Moyes, 2016, p.79). Will’s pessimism can also be seen from the fact that he pushes his exgirlfriend, Alicia, away shortly after the accident. Alicia tries to help him, to cherish him, to be by his side, and to make him feel better, but all the things Will do is just push her away from him. It shows that Will feels that he is inappropriate to be

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 Alicia’s man. He feels inferior because Alicia is described as a perfect woman who fits the ‘old’ Will. The fact that Will is not a man like he was before makes him give up and he chooses not to be with Alicia. To support this character development, there are some supporting evidence. “Clark, every single place I go to now people look at me like I don’t belong” (Moyes, 2016, p.176). Here, Will Traynor feels that people around him see him inferior while the fact is he sees himself as an inferior. He assumes that people look at him the way he looks at himself. “He watched each race, but he was silent, his head retracted into the high collar of his jacket.” (Moyes, 2016, p.160). Will Traynor is worried about what people think when they see him so he tries to hide because he feels insecure. He feels that he is different from others because he sits on a wheelchair and he cannot do anything. According to Longman Dictionary, being discourage has a similar meaning with having no confidence. He has no confidence in public places because sometimes people catching sight of him and determinedly not looking at him. It makes Will more un–confident. ..., his head dipped into his shoulders as if he were trying to become invisible. (Moyes, 2016, p.181). Will Traynor cannot see that life is good even though he is paralyzed. He cannot enjoy his life anymore and he cannot do what he wants to do anymore. He becomes a different person after his accident. He was a man who led a good life, a big life. Because of his accident that made him paralyzed, he cannot do what he loves about life anymore and it makes him become an opposite type of person from he used to as seen by his sister, someone who knows him, his closest person in his

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 39 life. “He’s different now. It’s like he’s determined not to see the good in anything.” … “… Back then, he was sure that something would change.” (Moyes, 2016, p.115). Will Traynor was optimistic about his recovery but after that he becomes pessimistic about his recovery because he knows that there is no improvement and it will never happen. B. The Reasons that Motivate Will Traynor’s Decision to Commit Suicide as seen in Jojo Moyes’ Me Before You Before further discussion, the characteristics of Will Traynor has relations with the reason. The characteristics mentioned before in the first point affect Will Traynor in making the decision to commit suicide. First, Will Traynor was an adventurous and passionate person. It is said ‘was’ because these characteristics can be seen before Will Traynor’s accident. These characteristics were Will’s characteristics before he loses his ability to do anything. These characteristics explains that Will cannot accept his new life after the accident because it does not suit him. He feels that he loses himself because he cannot be the person who makes his life worth living in his own way anymore. Second, Will Traynor is choleric. His choleric nature makes him a person who always being heard by others. His mother indirectly takes over Will’s control of his life and himself, it causes Will cannot do what he wants to do. He has no more control to decide almost everything in his life after the accident. His urge to end his life is the example of his strong will to achieve something. Strong-will is not only in positive way. In Will’s case, his strong-will affected by the lack of his human needs that are not fulfilled. Since he is a choleric person, the inability to

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 fulfil his needs makes him feel irritated and it leads him to the decision to commit suicide. Third, Will Traynor is sarcastic and cranky. He is sarcastic because he thinks that it is the best way for him to express himself. His sarcasm often shows irritation, anger, and dissatisfaction towards anyone and anything around him. He becomes sensitive because essentially, he does not like and he cannot accept his new life. Sometimes, he becomes cranky when he cannot stand his irritation, anger, and dissatisfaction. Fourth, Will Traynor is pessimistic, inferior, and discouraged. These characteristics are related to each other. These characteristics support the reason of his decision to commit suicide. He is pessimistic after he realizes that he will not recover at all. It becomes the reason that makes him think that his life is no more worth. It makes him inferior and discouraged at the same time. These characteristics are also the examples of the lack of his human needs which is esteem needs. In analyzing the reasons that motivate Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide, the writer uses theory of motivation, theory of suicide, and theory of conflict to find the causes of Will’s motivation to commit suicide. 1. The lack of human needs that cannot be fulfilled by Will Traynor As mentioned in the theory of motivation, it can be said that motivation is processes that influence people to behave or act in a specific way to achieve a certain goal. Will Traynor’s motivation to commit suicide is influenced by some factors that will be discussed below. These factors lead him to a decision to end his own life through assisted suicide. He wants to be himself as in his old life. When

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 he cannot be the person he wants to be, he chooses to end his suffering by taking his own life and it becomes his main goal, which is to be free from his suffering. These factors motivate Will to act to achieve his goal. According to Abraham Maslow, motivation has a relation with human needs which are divided into five needs; psychological needs, safety needs, needs for belongingness and love, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. (Maslow as cited in McClelland, 1985, p.41-42). Someone can be motivated to do something to fulfil it and if they are not fulfilled, usually people will be frustrated, and it can lead to suicide. Maslow also states that needs affect behavior only when they are unsatisfied. Since human needs are inborn in everyone, Will Traynor’s needs that are fulfilled is only psychological needs. His other needs are not fulfilled, it makes him frustrated and it leads him to commit suicide. Will’s psychological needs are fulfilled because he can still eat and drink. It is the most basic needs that are fulfilled. When the psychological needs are fulfilled, the next needs are safety needs. Will Traynor’s safety needs cannot be fulfilled because he feels that he is unprotected or unsafe. He is unable to protect himself from pain and fear of his inability to deal with his condition. Safety needs which consist of the need for security and protection from pain, anxiety, fear, and disorder, need for order, lawfulness and discipline (Maslow, 1970, p.112). Will Traynor needs protection from pain that he feels. The accident caused spinal injury that makes him paralyzed from his chest down and his metabolism is bad. It makes him sick and vulnerable to virus easily and sometimes he feels so much pain in some parts of his body.

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 “Do you need painkillers?” “Yes . . . strong ones.” (Moyes, 2016, p.85). The words strong ones prove that Will cannot bear his pain, so he needs strong painkillers. There was stomach pain from digestive problems, shoulder pain, pain from bladder infections–an inevitability, apparently, despite everyone’s best efforts. He had a stomach ulcer from taking too many painkillers early on his recovery, when he apparently popped them like Tic Tacs. (Moyes, 2016, p.106). Will has some pains that make him uncomfortable and tortured. He has no protection from pain because of his spinal injury that makes him unable to move his body and he has to stay in a position for a long time even it is hurt him a lot for example pressure sore because he sits in the same position for too long until someone moves his body. As mentioned before in definition of terms, quadriplegia can cause a number of complications including pain. Because Will is a quadriplegic, he has to undergo the pain of the bladder, the pain of pressure sores, the pain when he cannot sweat as normal people sweat because his injury makes his body unable to control his own temperature, respiratory problems when he sleeps. He cannot actually breathe. Because of the protection from pain that he does not have, Will wants to end his suffering. “I need it to end here. No more chair. No more pneumonia. No more burning limbs. No more pain and tiredness and waking up every morning already wishing it was over.” … “I don’t want to be in pain anymore, or trapped in this thing, or dependent on everyone, or afraid.” (Moyes, 2016, p.362). Will asserts that he does not want to be in pain because he cannot overcome it anymore and he wants to end all his suffering by taking his own life. He is afraid

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 of the fact that he will be stuck on the condition for a lifetime. The pain that he feels physically adversely affect his mental. He is actually afraid of being useless for the rest of his life. When his safety needs are not fulfilled, the rest of the needs are also cannot be fulfilled. Will is still willing to satisfy all his needs even though he can only fulfil psychological needs because as mentioned before, needs are inborn in everyone. Because he cannot fulfil the safety needs, the other needs which he also wants indirectly to fulfil cannot emerge. The needs for belongingness and love are also cannot be fulfilled. He wants to love and to be loved as his old self, not his ‘new’ self. Louisa loves Will unconditionally and he loves her back. But, he thinks that it is still not enough for him because he cannot be the person he wants to be. He cannot accept his self, it means that he cannot love himself first. He cannot reconcile with his new life and it makes him self-pity. Will Traynor’s esteem needs are also not fulfilled. Esteem needs are divided into two needs: need for self-value which involves self-confidence, achievement, control, independence, personal strength, competency, and freedom; and need for other values which involves desire for position, prestige, good reputation, status, appreciation by others, and feeling of importance. Will does not want him to be defined by a wheelchair. He thinks that a wheelchair is for sick people who cannot even walk so they have to rely on a wheelchair to move. He loves being a physical person. It means that he likes to use his own body to do anything and he likes to have control of his own body. He hates

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 it when he is tied to something that is not his ‘cup of tea’. He wants to live in freedom. Will has no self-confidence in front of others. It can be seen from how he behaves in public as previously explained in how the characteristics of Will Traynor are described in the novel; Will is pessimist, inferior, and discouraged. Will feels uncomfortable around people who quietly look at him and pretend not to see him just because he sits on a wheelchair, an advanced one, and he becomes the limelight. “Clark, every single place I go to now people look at me like I don’t belong.” (Moyes, 2106, p.176). He assumes that people underrate him because he cannot do anything without someone’s help and because sitting on a wheelchair makes him feel like a weak person. Will feels that it is not him. He had a good life before and people saw him as a man who deserved respect from others but after the accident that made him paralyzed, he finds out that people now see him in different way. Not as a man with charisma but a weak man on a wheelchair. Will cannot accept the situation and himself because the life after the accident is the life which he does not want at all. He has no confidence because of his wheelchair which represents him as a paralyzed man. People who see a person on a wheelchair usually look at the person with pity and Will does not like it. He is uncomfortable with that look and all he wants is only the old him, a person with adventurous life, freedom, a life full of challenges, which make him become himself. “I want to be in Paris as me, the old me. I want to sit in a chair, leaning back, my favorite clothes on, with pretty French girls who pass by giving me the eye just as they would any other man sitting there. Not looking away

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 hurriedly when they realize I’m a man in an overgrown bloody pram.” (Moyes, 2016, p.217). Will also has no self-confidence to be a man who deserves to love and to be with Louisa. He feels that he is different from other men and he feels that Louisa deserves a better man than him. He is being inferior to be Louisa’s mate. “I can’t be the man I want to be with you. and that means that this … this just becomes . . . another reminder of what I am not.” (Moyes,, 2016, p.358). Will has no confidence about himself in the condition of his inability to do anything. He does not want to be a man who relies on a woman. After the accident, the writer finds out that Will has no control of his life anymore. People around him, especially her mother decides anything for him. Her mother indirectly assumes that Will is not able to handle or to do anything so she must handle everything for Will. It can be seen from how he protests his mother sarcastically when her mother tells Louisa what Will needs. “I’m here, Mother. You don’t have to talk across me. My brain isn’t paralyzed. Yet.” (Moyes, 2016, p.36). How Louisa treats Will also shows that she takes control to decide what Will is supposed to do when she asks him to get out of the house. She does not ask Will about what he wants to do but directly decides to take Will to a horse race without asking whether Will likes it or not. Even though, Will does not like a horse race at all even before his accident. Horse race is not Will’s thing, but he tries to accept it until some things ruin the horse race day and it makes him angry. “If you’d bothered to ask me, Clark, if you’d bothered to consult me just once about this so-called fun outing of ours, I could have told you. I hate horses, and horse racing. Always have. But you didn’t bother to ask me. You

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 decided what you thought you’d like me to do, and you went ahead and did it. You did what everyone else does. You decided for me.” (Moyes, 2016, p. 171). These words prove that Will has no control of what he should decide. People do not bother what Will wants to do but directly decides what Will has to do. It makes Will feel he has no control over his own desire. Because of all the treatments of others who decide everything for Will without asking Will first, he decides to end his life. He has tried to commit suicide but he can still be saved. He continues his life but without his heart in undergoing it. Initially, he asks his mother to take him to a suicide association and makes his mother finally agree to his decision. The decision to commit suicide is the only thing he has full control of himself. “If you’re here, you accept it’s my choice. This is the first thing I’ve been in control since the accident.” (Moyes, 2016, p.397). When Louisa is against his decision to commit suicide, Will explains and emphasizes that the decision is the first and the only thing that he can decide since the accident that makes him paralyzed. People around Will also realize that they become the person who only takes away the control to decide anything Will wants if they resist Will’s decision to commit suicide and force him to linger when he gives up on his life. “But I want him to live if he wants to live. If he doesn’t, then by forcing him to carry on, you, me–no matter how much we love him–we become just another shitty bunch of people taking away his choices.” (Moyes, 2016, p.339).

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 Will’s lack of competency also motivates him to end his life. “You have no idea, Clark, how frustrating it is to rely on someone else to put your words down for you. The phrase ‘written on behalf of’ is . . . humiliating.” (Moyes, 2016, p.189). Even writing thanks to his friend for inviting him to a friend’s music concert, Will has to rely on others to represent him. He is incompetent to write a letter because he is paralyzed. Relying on others to represent him is considered by Will a humiliation and it offends to his pride, so he does not want to say thank at all. Will Traynor’s self-actualization needs are not fulfilled because he feels that he is no more potential to take control of his own life. He loses his function as a person. He feels that his inability makes him useless and it makes he thinks that it will be better if he ends his life. These lack of needs also affect Will’s personality that explained before. When someone cannot fulfil all of the needs, it results more to be a negative personality, not a healthy personality. That is the reason why Will has a bad-tempered personality. 2. Will Traynor’s reasons to commit suicide According to Durkheim, suicide is categorized into four categories based on the strength and weakness of society determined by environment or external causes. They are egoistic suicide, altruistic suicide, anomic suicide, and fatalistic suicide (Durkheim as cited in Smith, 1983, p. 129-130). Since motivation influences people to act in a specific way, in this case, the reason that motivates Will to commit suicide is because of some lack of Will’s human needs after the accident that makes him paralyzed. Maslow (1970) states that needs affect behavior only when they are unsatisfied. As explained in the

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 previous point, Will’s inability to fulfil his safety needs, needs for belongingness and love, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs, affect his suicidal behavior because he cannot deal with it. The writer finds out that Will Traynor’s decision to commit suicide is anomic suicide. Anomic suicide means “deregulation”, it is when a person suffers from a great change where this person is not ready to deal with it (Durkheim as cited in Smith, 1983, p.130). Will’s decision to commit suicide is anomic suicide because he suffers from a great change of his life after the accident that makes him paralyzed and he cannot deal with it. Will had experienced a good life before and he is not ready to live his ‘new’ life and he does not want to live without being able to do anything by himself anymore. It happens because he thinks that he was a better person in the past. Ending his life through assisted suicide is Will Traynor’s last choice to actualize his decision to commit suicide after he is saved from trying to commit suicide by pressing his wrist against a rusty nail. Suicide is the act of intentionally destroying oneself, a violent self-inflicted destructive action resulting in death, and the act of killing one self (Smith, 1982, p.129). People who decide to commit suicide usually suffer from depression which makes them find no reason to continue their life or because there is a great change in their life and they cannot accept it. Will Traynor decides to commit suicide because his life changes totally different from his life before the accident. He had a great life before the accident turns him into a paralyzed man. He cannot accept his life which has to rely on somebody else. He has no control anymore to his own life and it makes him frustrated and he wants

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 to end it. All of his depression and his inability to fulfil his human needs motivates him to commit suicide. I don’t want to live like this, Mother. This is not the life I chose. There is no prospect of my recovery, hence it is a perfectly reasonable request to ask to end it in a manner I see fit (Moyes, 2016, p.123). Will Traynor gives up on his life because there is no prospect of his recovery which means that he will be a paralyzed man for the rest of his life and he cannot accept that so he decides to end his suffering by committing suicide. Will Traynor led an excited and adventurous life before an accident that makes him paralyzed in a wheelchair. We can say that Will Traynor is like James Bond, all men want to be him, and all women want to be with him. It means that he was excellent. He was a successful businessman and he partook in every extreme sport, went to many places, had many things that he loves. It is an irony when he is injured on one rainy day when he is crossing the street and hit by a motorbike, not because of those extreme sports. He thinks that it is God’s little joke and it is not funny at all for him. Will even get a tattoo reads Best before: 19 March 2007 (Moyes, 2016, p.239). It is the date when the accident happens. Best before the date of the accident means that Will thinks that his life and himself in the past is the best version of Will Traynor. He loves his life very much that makes him cannot accept his condition that he is paralyzed. After the accident, he wants his parents to allow him to die through assisted suicide. It explains why Will has a hard time to adapt to his new life, become a quadriplegic. As mentioned before, Will is the type of person who cannot just sit

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 50 and doing nothing. He has to do something. But now, he cannot do anything at all. He experiences a lot of tension between his dreams, his wills, and his present life. He expresses his feeling by saying “I don’t do anything, Miss Clark. I can’t do anything anymore. I sit. I just about exist.” (Moyes, 2016, p.44). The emphasis of the word ‘do’ means that it is all he wants, he wants to do something, he has to do something. Will’s heart is still in his old life. He oftentimes wakes up from his sleep in the middle of the night screaming because in his dreams, he is still walking, skiing, doing stuff, and anything he used to do. It shows that Will cannot move on. In his thought, his heart is just about his old life which makes him feel alive. He cannot bear the thought of never doing it again because he will never able to do it again. He loses his meaning of life since there is nothing he can do. He feels useless because he cannot fulfil his desire to be a man he wants to be. He loses his desire to continue his life and his viewpoint that life is still worth living. Will Traynor’s reason to commit suicide is caused by his inability to accept the fact that he is paralyzed. He wants to end his life to release all the burden. When people want to do something, they always have causes that motivate them to do it, so it does when people want to commit suicide. According to Coleman (1976), there are four factors to categorize the cause of suicide; interpersonal crises, failure and self-devaluation, inner conflict, and loss of meaning and hope (p.606-607). These four factors cause Will to commit suicide. First, Will faces some interpersonal crises. It is also called as external conflict. The writer finds some external conflicts which show that Will hates his

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 51 present life with all his deficiency. According to Stanton (1965), external conflict is a conflict between characters in a story or between a character and the environment (p.16). In this case, the external conflicts happen between characters in the novel. The first conflict happens between Will and Louisa after Will crashes the photographs on the long shelves (Moyes, 2016, p.63-64). Louisa fixes the frames hoping that Will will be happy with that. In contrary, Will does not want to see the photographs anymore because he feels that all of the photographs staring at him and bringing memories from his past life before the accident and it makes him angry. Will is angry because he knows that he cannot be like the person in the photographs anymore. The way Will shows his anger portrays his characteristics which are sarcastic and cranky. “You thought you knew best. Everyone thinks they know what I need. Let’s put the bloody photos back together. Give the poor invalid something to look at. I don’t want to have those bloody pictures staring at me every time I’m stuck in my bed until someone comes and bloody well gets me out again. Okay? Do you think you can get your head around that?” (Moyes, 2016, p.63-64). It shows that the way Will talks to Louisa sarcastically makes Louisa offended and it also causes a conflict between them. The photographs represent his old life and it means that he cannot be his old self anymore. This conflict shows that Louisa does not know what Will wants and what Will feels by thinking that what she does is what Will wants which it is not what Will really want. Holman and Harmon (1986) state that the struggle against another person may come from moral, religious or social differences and it may be emotional, verbal, or physical conflict. The conflict between Will and Louisa is a verbal conflict because they argue about what they think is true.

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 The second external conflict happens when Will insists to stand on his decision to commit suicide after Louisa tries to do anything to make Will change his mind and asks him to stay with her because she wants Will to keep alive (Moyes, 2016, p.362-364). Will asks Louisa to accompany him on his last day of his life at the place for assisted suicide, Dignitas, while Louisa does not want him to die. It is also a verbal conflict because they argue about what they think is the right thing to do. Louisa thinks that Will is so selfish by asking her to accompany him right before his death while she does not want to be the part of his death. Louisa thinks that suicide is a mistake. For her, the right thing to do for Will is to stay alive no matter what happens. However, end his own life is the best thing to do for Will. He thinks that it is right for him to end his suffering by committing suicide. This external conflict shows that Will sticks to his decision and no one can change his mind to take his own life. It supports his characteristics which states that Will is strongwilled. The second category is failure and self-devaluation. Coleman (1976) states that the feeling of having failed in some important business or activity can cause suicidal behavior. Will Traynor feels that he fails to be a person he wants to be. Will cannot accept the condition of his new life where he has to depend on others. He wants to be his old self when he can do anything he wants, anything he loves, anything that makes his life worth as he wants to be. Because he is paralyzed, he cannot fulfil his desire to be a person he wants to be and it is a great failure for him. Will feels that he is not ‘the real’ Will, he is not himself. He feels like he becomes a stranger to

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 himself because it is not the life that he wants. He devaluates himself as useless and cannot do anything except sitting and just about exist. He cannot find the value of himself anymore because he cannot accept his condition after the accident. These feelings lead him to decide to take his own life through assisted suicide. It can be categorized in the cause of suicidal behavior as failure and self-devaluation. The third category is inner conflict. According to Coleman (1976), inner conflict is the stress situation and the debate in human’s own mind which can cause suicidal behavior. There is an internal conflict faced by Will Traynor. Internal conflict is a conflict between two desires within a character. A character’s mind and feeling are involved in this conflict where a character has the opposing desires and the character has to choose one of them (Stanton, 1965, p.16). Will has desires to do some things he wants to do by himself such as eating food he made with his own hand, getting married, having sex, having his own child. He wants to get better and live his life normally. On the contrary, he wants to end his life because he knows that he will never have the ability to fulfil his desires anymore. Will tries to realize his desires to do some things he wants as a normal person by undergoes the therapy but it does not work, it does not result anything. Because there is no prospect of his recovery, Will decides to end his life. He chooses to commit suicide because he cannot fulfil his desires to be a normal person. He prefers to fulfil his desire to end his suffering and his life rather than to fulfil his desires to get better and live normally. It shows that he loses his hope and his purpose to live. This inner conflict is the example of the cause of suicide which is explained more in the third point.

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 54 Coleman states that in psychology, conflict happens when a person faces or is motivated by two or more needs and valued goals. He mentions that there are three kinds of conflicts; approach-avoidant conflict, double-approach conflict, and double-avoidant conflict. The inner conflict explained previously is also a doubleapproach conflict. According to Coleman (1976), double-approach conflict happens when there is a competition between two or more desirable purposes (p.83-84). It is double-approach conflict because Will has two desirable purposes which are the desire to get better and to live his life normally, and the desire to end his own life. There is a competition between these two desires because initially Will wants to get better by doing physiotherapy. When he finds out that there is no prospect of his recovery, his desire to commit suicide appears. He is afraid of death caused by illness which he considers as a stupid way to die. He prefers to commit suicide because it is more rational for him. The last category is loss of meaning and hope. Will Traynor decides to commit suicide because he also loses meaning and hope. Will loses his hope and meaning of life which makes him feel his life is useless. Once he believed that he will recover, but after a year physiotherapy which results nothing apart from a little movement of his finger, he loses his hope to recover. He gives up trying to do his best to survive in his life and chooses to end it. He cannot find any reason to stay alive because he feels that he cannot do anything like his past life anymore. The life that he loves. He cannot see a better future for him. Will even hires a lawyer to discuss his testament, it means that he arranges everything he wants to leave behind,

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 and he plans his death because he had attempted suicide but failed then he decides to commit suicide through assisted suicide. It is hard for Will to watch other people moving on with their lives while he is stuck in his wheelchair. He also tells Louisa about his struggle, his fear of not being able to breathe by himself or even to talk, his fear of being hospitalized again and again, he is afraid that it can be worse because some nights he lies in bed and he cannot breathe. He thinks that he will never be well again. The life before the accident is everything for Will. He does not regret his life of being a person who is always on top. He never regrets even maybe his exploitation of his past life. It makes him appreciate more of his past life. He says that he will never regret the things he has done because for him, when he is stuck in his wheelchair, all he has is the places, the things in his memory that he can go to. That makes him depressed more because his heart is still in his old life. He cannot cope with the fact that he cannot do all of those short things anymore. Will feels that all the things after his accident is still not enough for him even it changes better since Louisa comes to his life, but it is not the life that he wants. He feels that he led a big life, he loves his old life, his job, his travels, everything he had before. He claims that he is not designed to exist in a wheelchair. It means that he cannot accept his life which is just sitting, relying on someone else, and doing nothing. “… I can’t be the kind of man who just . . . accepts.” (Moyes, 2016, p.362). The emphasis of the word accepts means that Will is earnest with his decision to

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 56 end his life because he cannot accept the fact that he is paralyzed and his situation if he lives with Louisa and relies on her. Louisa’s presence in Will’s life makes Will feel better. He can be a person with a brighter heart at the last six months of his life before the death. He still insists that he will end his life even if Louisa in it. For Will, Louisa brings good memories for him before his death. But his love for Louisa is not enough to make him change his mind. He is stick to his thought that he will never be enough for Louisa the way he feels enough for her. He does not want Louisa to be his caretaker for a lifetime. He also feels that he does not give Louisa a happy life because he knows that he will never be able to express his love towards Louisa the way he wants, and it makes him lose his hope to do that. “I need to end it here. No more chair. No more pneumonia. No more burning limbs. No more pain and tiredness and waking up every morning already wishing it was over.” (Moyes, 2016, p.362). This shows that Will is enough with his suffering. He wants to be free from all of it. He gives up continuing his life because he knows that he will never be better and if he stays, he will be in a never-ending suffering. All the sickness caused by his injury will be the worst because as mentioned in the definition of terms, quadriplegia can cause some complications. It means that Will’s condition can be worse than before. It does not rule out the possibility that the illness might bring him to death. He does not want to feel the pain anymore. He is afraid to die because of the illness and he chooses to end it first due to his willingness.

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 57 Will’s decision to commit suicide is strongly related to his characteristics and his motivations. His characteristics show how Will acts toward his ‘new’ life which he does not want to be in. Will’s characteristics depict how he hates his life of being a paralyzed man. The feelings and the things happening makes him motivated to come to his decision to commit suicide. He always finds a deadlock to discover the reason to stay alive. He cannot find any reason to live. He wants to end all his struggle to get better or even more to stay alive because he is in despair and he cannot find any single reason anymore to live and it leads him to commit suicide.

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this chapter, the writer concludes that Will Traynor’s reason to commit suicide is because he does not have any reason to live anymore. He cannot accept the condition that he is paralyzed because it is not his life, and he must rely on someone else to do all his stuff. Will had a good life before and he cannot accept the fact that he ends up in a wheelchair and it makes him loses his hope and meaning of his life because he cannot do anything he loves anymore, he cannot do anything he wants by himself anymore. Here, there are some characteristics of Will Traynor related to his decision to commit suicide. The first, Will Traynor was an adventurous and passionate person. It shows that Will had these characteristics before his accident. Will had many things he had done and he loves anything about the old him, about anything he did in his life. When the accident makes him paralyzed, he loses his ability to do anything of his old life. It makes Will feel that he loses his life he loves and he cannot find any meaning of his life anymore. The second, Will is choleric. Will likes to give order to others and he always leads others, takes control of something. After the accident, his mother indirectly takes over Will’s controls of himself and he cannot accept it. When he does not have control anymore, it makes him feel useless which motivates him to commit suicide. 58

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 59 The third, Will is sarcastic and cranky. He is sarcastic since the beginning of the story. His sarcasm oftentimes shows that he does not like what people around him do and how people treat him. His sarcasm also shows that he cannot see good in anything when people try to show him that life is still worth living even he is paralyzed. He is cranky because people cannot understand what he feels and what he wants. He often shows his anger through sarcasm. The last, Will is a pessimist and discouraged. The fact that there is no progress of his recovery makes Will give up on his life. He becomes a person who hides from the social life. He cannot enjoy his life as himself anymore. All of Will’s characteristics affect how the motivation forms. His condition becomes the biggest reason why he decides to commit suicide. Will Traynor is a C5-6 quadriplegic, it means that he totally loses the use of all his limbs and torso because of an injury. He cannot move his chest below. It means that he cannot move his hands and his legs. His metabolism becomes weak and it makes viruses can infect him easily. Will Traynor cannot fulfil his human needs except psychological needs. Because of his condition, it makes him unable to fulfil the other needs which are safety needs, needs for belongingness and love, esteem needs, and selfactualization needs. He has no confidence and control towards himself and his life because people indirectly take over his control by treating him as an incapable person who cannot decide anything he wants to do anymore. Will feels that he cannot be free to maintain his own life, he has no freedom to maintain it. Will is

(73) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 60 also incompetent to do anything he wants and anything he loves anymore because of his paralysis. The inability to fulfil the other needs motivate Will Traynor to get on decision to commit suicide. He cannot deal with the great change of his life because of the accident. He loses his old life, he has no more control to his life, and the fact that he is stuck in a wheelchair makes him not confident. All his disappointment about all the things that he cannot do anymore in his life after the accident leads him to a decision to commit suicide because he does not want to be in pain anymore, he loses his meaning of his life and he loses his hope to recover. The writer concludes that the characteristics of Will Traynor portray his protest to the condition that changes his life. He becomes sensitive, cranky, sarcastic, and pessimistic because he has no confidence anymore to face his present life. The internal and external conflicts also affect his decision to commit suicide. He loses his control to his precious life. He led an adventurous, a big life before the accident and it makes him disappointed because he cannot do what he loves anymore. He thinks that he fails to be a person he wants to be. He cannot find himself as he wants to be because he knows that he is no more able to fulfil all his desire to be the ‘old’ Will Traynor. He loses his hope to recover when he realizes that there is no chance to recover at all. He cannot find any single meaning to maintain his life. He thinks that it will be better if he disappears because for him, it will not harm anyone, and it results the decision to commit suicide.

(74) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI REFERENCES Abrams, M. H. (1981). A Glossary of Literary Terms, (3thed). New York: Holt, Rineheart & Winston, Inc. Baldick, Chris. (1991). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press. Coleman, James C. (1976). Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life (3rd ed). Los Angeles: Professor of Psychology, The University of California. Drever, J. (1975). A Dictionary of Psychology. Middlessex: Penguin Books. Durkheim, E. (1951). Suicide: a Study in Sociology. New York: The Free Press. Ekstrand, D. W. (2015). The Four Human Temperaments. Retrieved from http://www.learningaboutelectronics.com/Articles/Uploads/files/512fb9e98d 73c_Four%20Human%20Temperaments.pdf Ferdinand, Rosemary. (1995). The American Journal of Nursing, 95(12), 42 – 48. Forster, E. M. (1972). Aspect of the Novel. New York: Random House. Gerring, R. J., & Zimbardo, G. P. (2002). Psychology and life (6th ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Haigh, Carol. (2011). Exploring the concept of assisted dying in the UK. Retrieved from http://www.livinganddyingwell.org.uk/sites/default/files/LDW%20%20Medicine%20-%20Nursing%20Standard%2017%20August.pdf Holman, Hugh & William Harmon. (1986). A Handbook to Literature (5th ed). New York: Macmillan. Hudson, William Henry. (1910). An Introduction to The Study of Literature. London: Morrison & Gibb, Ltd. Hurlock, Elizabeth. (1974). Personality Development. New York: McGraw-Hill. Kasschau, Richard A. (1995). Understanding Psychology. New York: Glencoe. Maslow, Abraham H. (1970). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row. 61

(75) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 62 Maxwell, R. (1971). Quadriplegia: what does it mean?. Journal of rehabilitation, 37(3), 10. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/openview/6cd889b531dbcf80ab96882532ba845 e/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=1819158 Moyes, Jojo. (2016). Me Before You. New York: Penguin Book. McClleland, D. C. (1985). Human Motivation. New York: Scott, Foresman and Co. Murphy, M. J. (1972). Understanding Unseens, An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Nugraha, Bonaventura Jiwantara Adhi. (2012). The Reason of Okonkwo in Committing Suicide as Seen in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart (Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis). Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/procedia-social-and-behavioralsciences Rohrberger, M. & Woods Jr, S. H. (1971). Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House Inc. Smith, Jim. (1983). Abnormal Behaviors: Outline References. Chattanooga: University Press of America. Smith, R. E., I. G. Sarason, and B. R. Sarason. (1982). Psychology: The Frontier Behavior (2nd ed). New York: Harper and Row Inc. Stanton, Robert. (1965). An Introduction to Fiction. Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Wali, Thomas Damian. (2012). The Meaning of Hanna’s Decision to Commit Suicide as Reflected in Bernhard Schlink’s The Reader (Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis). Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma. Wellek, René, & Austin Warren. (1956 & 1989). Theory of literature. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company. What is Quadriplegia: Quadriplegic Facts and Definition. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.disabled-world.com/definitions/quadriplegia.php

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