Dawan`s motivation in getting education in Minfong Ho`s Sing to the Dawn - USD Repository
DAWAN’S MOTIVATION IN GETTING EDUCATION
IN MINFONG HO’S SING TO THE DAWN
A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education
By Richard Ferdinand Keto
Student Number : 081214140
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
A Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis on
DAWAN’S MOTIVATION IN GETTING EDUCATION
IN MINFONG HO’S SING TO THE DAWN
Henny Herawati, S.Pd.,M.Hum. June 29 , 2012
A Sarjana Pendidikan Thesis on
DAWAN’S MOTIVATION IN GETTING EDUCATION
IN MINFONG HO’S SING TO THE DAWN
By RICHARD FERDINAND KETO
Student Number : 081214140
STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY
I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should.
So often times it happens that we live our lives in chains And we never even know we have the key............. performed by the Eagles for their 1974 On the Border album
LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN
PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS
Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Richard Ferdinand Keto Nomor Mahasiswa : 081214140
Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul :
DAWAN‟S MOTIVATION IN GETTING EDUCATION
IN MINFONG HO‟S SING TO THE DAWN beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di Internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.
Demikian pernyataan ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal : 17 Juli 2012
ABSTRACT Keto, Richard Ferdinand. 2012.
Dawan’s Motivation In Getting Education In Mingfong Ho’s Sing To The Dawn. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.
This study discusses a novel entitled Sing To The Dawn. The objective of writing this thesis is derived from the writer‟s curiosity to find out the motivation of Dawan, a young girl, in getting better education in City. There are two problemsr related to the topic of this thesis (1) What are the conflicts faced by Dawan in getting a better education? (2) What motivates Dawan to struggle to get education despite the conflicts?
In order to answer the problems, the writer uses the psychological approach because this study focuses on the mai n character‟s motivation, which is a psychological aspect. Moreover, the approach employs the psychological theories, especially Abraham
Maslow‟s theory of motivation, which supports the analysis towards the main character, Dawan. There are two sources used: primary and secondary sources. Sing To The Daw, the novel, is the primary source in this study. The secondary sources are obtained from books on literature, psychology, and education.
From the application of theory of conflict by Richard A. Kalish (1973) and Walter Johnson (2011), the writer can infer that Dawan faces both the internal and external conflict. The internal conflict faced by Dawan is the conflict of Dawan with herself related to her ability. Meanwhile, there are four external conflicts fac ed by Dawan. They are, Dawan‟s conflict with her father, Dawan‟s conflict with her brother, Dawan‟s conflict with her aunt, and Dawan‟s conflict with a monk.
By applying Jung, Grace Fleeming‟s theory of motivation (2010) and Abraham Maslow theory of need as cited by Herbert Petri (1981), the writer can infer that Dawan‟s motivation in getting education is divided into two parts, internal and external motivation. There are five internal motivations of Dawan to get a better education. The first is she wants to be a responsible individual. The second is she wants to be an independent individual who can make a right decision for her goodness. The third is she wants to be an appreciated individual by other people. The fourth is she wants to play a significant role in society. The last is she wants to change the villagers‟ mind about women. The external motivation is the support of her grandmother to Dawan in getting education. This support encourages Dawan to get her dream.
From the analysis in chapter 4, the writer sees that the way of Dawan in getting education matches with charateristics of two categories proposed by Abraham Maslow in his theory of needs. They are Self-Esteem need and Self- Actualization need. Therefore, the writer concludes that the Dawan
‟s motivations in getting education are parts of the way of Dawan to get Self-Esteem and Self- Actualization. Keywords: motivation, need, self esteem, self actualisation, conflict.
ABSTRAKKeto, Richard Ferdinand (2012).
Dawan’s Motivation In Getting Education In Minfong Ho’s Sing To The Dawn. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Penelitian ini membahas sebuah novel yang berjudul Sing To The Dawn. Tujuan penulisan ini bermula dari keingintahuan penulis untuk mengetahui motivasi Dawan, seorang gadis muda, di dalam usahanya untuk mendapatkan pendidikan yang lebih baik di Kota. Ada dua permasalahan sehubungan dengan topik dari tulisan ini. (1) Apa saja konflik yang dihadapi Dawan dalam usahanya mendapatkan pendidikan yang lebih baik? (2) Apakah yang memotivasi Dawan untuk berjuang untuk mendapatkan pendidikan meski berhadapan dengan berbagai konflik?
Untuk menjawab permasalahan itu, penulis menggunakan pendekatan psikologi karena penelitian ini terfokus pada motivasi karakter utama, yakni aspek psikologi. Terlebih lagi pendekatan tersebut menggunakan teori-teori psikologi khususnya teori motivasi oleh Abraham Maslow, yang mendukung analisis terhadap karakter utama, Dawan. Ada dua sumber yang digunakan, sumber utama dan sumber tambahan. Novel Sing To The Dawn, adalah sumber utama penelitian ini. Sedangkan, sumber-sumber tambahan diperoleh dari buku- buku kesusastraan, psikologi, dan pendidikan.
Berdasarkan penerapan teori konflik dari Richard A. Kalish (1973) dan Walter Johnson (2011), penulis dapat menyimpulkan bahwa Dawan mengalami baik konflik internal maupun konflik external. Internal konflik yang dialami oleh Dawan adalah konflik dengan dirinya sehubungan dengan kemampuan dirinya. Sementara itu, ada empat konflik external yang dihadapi oleh Dawan. Konflik- konflik tersebut adalah, konflik Dawan dengan ayahnya, konflik Dawan dengan saudara laki-lakinya, konflik Dawan dengan bibinya, dan konflik Dawan dengan seorang pendeta.
Dengan menerapkan teori motivasi dari Jung, Grace Fleeming (2010), dan teori kebutuhan dari Abraham Maslow yang dikutip oleh Herber Petri (1981), penulis dapat menyimpulkan bahwa motivasi Dawan dalam memperoleh pendidikan terbagi dalam dua bagian, yakni internal dan eksternal motivasi. Ada lima motivasi internal dari Dawan untuk memperoleh sebuah pendidikan yang lebih layak. Pertama adalah Dawan ingin menjadi pribadi yang bertanggung jawab. Kedua, Dawan juga ingin menjadi pribadi yang merdeka yang dapat membuat keputusan yang tepat bagi dirinya. Ketiga adalah dia juga ingin menjadi pribadi yang dihargai oleh orang lain. Keempat Dawan juga ingin berperan secara lebih dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Terakhir adalah Dawan ingin mengubah cara pikir masyarakat setempat akan wanita. Motivasi eksternal dari Dawan adalah adanya dukungan dari neneknya. Dukungan ini mendorong Dawan untuk mewujudkan mimpinya.
Dari analisa bab 4, penulis melihat bahwa cara-cara Dawan dalam usahanya mendapatkan pendidikan sesuai dengan karateristik dari dua kategori yang diusulkan oleh Abraham Maslow dalam teori kebutuhannya. Dua kategori itu adalah kebutuhan akan harga diri dan kebutuhan akan aktualisasi diri. Oleh sebab itu, penulis berkesimpulan bahwa motivasi Dawan dalam mendapatkan pendidikan adalah bagian dari cara Dawan untuk mendapatkan penghargaan diri dan usaha pengaktualisasian diri. Kata kunci: motivasi, kebutuhan, harga diri, aktualisasi diri, konflik.
Above all, my supreme gratitude goes to my Lord, Jesus Christ for His assistance and eternal love in giving me inspiration to finish my thesis. Without Him, I can do nothing.
My gratitude and tribute go to Henny Herawati, S.Pd., M. Hum, as my major sponsor, for her patience, criticisms, and contributions in assisting my thesis writing. My endless thanks go to all PBI lectures. I thank them for criticizing my work.
I do will bestow my life for people I love to whom I share my thoughts in completing my study. My next deepest gratitude goes to my beloved father and mother who have looked after me. I thank for their prayer, love, patience, understanding, trust, and everything they have given to me. Thanks also to my beloved, my brothers and my sister for their support and spirit. They all are the best thing I have ever had. I thank my institution, The Makassar Arch Diocese, especially, The Arch Bishop of Makassar Diocese and all fathers and brothers of Anging Mammiri Community who always support me to accomplish my study.
A friend is someone who will do anything to cheer you up. I do not only have a friend, but many friends beside me who always cheer my thesis writing days with their encouragement, smiles, and laughter. I especially bestow my gratitude to Selvi, Angga, Frangky, Kristin, Grace, Bhe, Mike, Bella, and Zaka for their helpfulness and friendship, Ms. Tina, Baruna and Ayu for sharing and inspiration for all the times, along with the other PBI. The last but not the least, I present my truly thanks to all people, whose names cannot be mentioned, who have ever come into my life. Thanks for all the special moments we share and for the encouragement in the last minutes. They all will be always noted in the history of my life.
My God bless them all!! Richard Ferdinand Keto
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ..................................................................................................... i PAGE OF APPROVAL ..................................................................................... ii PAGE OF BOARD OF EXAMINERS .............................................................. iii STATEMENTS OF WORK‟S ORIGINALITY ................................................ iv MOTTO ............................................................................................................. v PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI .............................................. vi ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... vii
ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................... ix
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................... xi TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................... xiii LIST OF FIGURE .............................................................................................. xvi LIST OF APPENDICES .................................................................................... xvii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION .................................................................... 1
1.1 Background of the Study ................................................................. 1
1.2 Problem Formulation....................................................................... 5
1.3 Objective of the Study ..................................................................... 5
1.4 Benefits of the Study ....................................................................... 5
1.5 Definition of Terms ......................................................................... 6
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ......................... 9
3.1 Object of the Study .......................................................................... 17
18.104.22.168 The Conflict between Dawan and Her Father ................ 24
4.1.2 The External Conflict Faced by Dawan ................................... 23
4.1.1 The Internal Conflict Faced by Dawan .................................... 22
4.1 The Conflicts Faced by Dawan ....................................................... 22
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS............................................................................. 22
3.3 Method of the Study ........................................................................ 20
3.2 Approach of the Study..................................................................... 20
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY .............................................................. 17
2.1 Theoretical Review ......................................................................... 9
2.2 Theoretical Framework ................................................................... 15
2.1.4 Theory of Needs ....................................................................... 13
22.214.171.124 External Motivation Theory ......................................... 12
126.96.36.199 Internal Motivation Theory .......................................... 12
2.1.3 Theory of Motivation...................................................... ......... 11
2.1.2 Theory of Conflict .................................................................... 11
2.1.1 Theory of Psychological Approach .......................................... 9
188.8.131.52 The Conflict between Dawan and Her Brother .............. 26
184.108.40.206 The Conflict between Dawan and Her Aunt, Noi........... 27
220.127.116.11 The Conflict between Dawan and a Monk ..................... 29
4.2 The Motivation of Dawan to Get Education in City ....................... 30
4.2.1 Internal motivation of Dawan .................................................. 32
18.104.22.168 She wants to be a Responsible Individual ...................... 32
22.214.171.124 She wants to be an Independent Individual .................... 33
126.96.36.199 She wants to be an Appreciated Individual ................... 35
188.8.131.52 She wants to play a Significant role in society ............... 37
184.108.40.206 She Wants to Change Villager‟s Mind about Women.... 38
4.2.2 External Motivation of Dawan ................................................. 40
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ............................... 42
5.1 Conclusions ..................................................................................... 42
5.2 Suggestions...................................................................................... 43 REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 46 APPENDICES.................................................................................................... 49
LIST OF FIGUREFigure 2.1. Maslow‟s Hierachy of Needs............................................................. 14
LIST OF APPENDICESAppendix Page
Appendix A. Short Summary of Minfong Ho‟s Sing to the Dawn…................ 49 Appendix B. Mingfong Ho‟s Biography............................................................ 51 Appendix C. The Cover of Sing to the Dawn………………............................ 53 Appendix D. Lesson Plans……….…................................................................ 55 Appendix E. An Example of Lear ning Material ………….……..................... 61
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of five parts, they are background of the study,
problem formulation, objectives of the study, benefits of the study, and definition of terms. The first is background of the study. It presents the description of the topic and the reason of choosing this topic. The second is the problem formulation. This part formulates problems to discuss and analyze. There are two problems discussed in this study. Next is the objective of the study. This part focuses on the purposes of the study which have relation with the problems formulated in the study. The fourth is benefits of the study. Here, the writer identifies the parties who can get the benefits from this study. The last is definition of terms. To avoid misunderstanding and misconception of this study, the specific terms in this study are defined.
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is one of the important aspects for people to develop and to actualize themselves. Moreover, by getting education, people can express themselves as a free and educated individual. According to Spencer, in Philosophy
of Education compiled by Moore (1982), the educated person means someone
who has good knowledge, can help and sust ain their family‟s life, can play a significant role in the society, and can use their time wisely (p. 12).
According to Rosseau, a philosopher, as cited by Noddings (2003), education is established to produce an individual who can do something for herself or himself. An individual existence is not for their country only but also for fostering themselves (p. 83). Further, in Happiness and Education, Noddings (2003) says that the aim of education is to educate someone to be responsible to their lives toward themselves and others. Education enables someone to think locally and globally. Education achievement is not just shown by a given certificate or good marks of the student but how they apply the received education into the real world (pp. 95 & 195).
The problem of education today is that not everyone can experience it. This situation might happen to the students in elementary level or in secondary level such as senior high school and university. Many excuses can be addressed as the cause why some young people, especially women, cannot get education. Some reasons are stated by Moore (1982), the first is their families cannot afford to pay their school fee because they are poor. The second is they cannot get education because of the social reason (p. 56).
These reasons are strengthened by Putri with her statement. In Jakarta Post April 22, 2012, she wrote an article entitled ‘Neng Koala’ seeks to inspire women. She stated that “It is unbelievable that more than a century after Kartini, many women are still faced with personal and institutional circumstances that force them into „sacrificing‟ their dreams”. Sing to the Dawn presents one of those reasons mentioned above as a major issue for women in getting the education.
This situation is stated by Moore (1982) as “justice” and “freedom” in education
As a Thai girl who did not get proper education, Dawan had a chance to continue her study after winning the scholarship just through an oral examination.
However, it is not easy for her to continue her study because her father and brother do not agree. Meanwhile, she was personally covered by worry and doubt of her position in society.
At that time, people in Dawan‟s village had to give half of their crops to the landlords. The landlords controlled the villagers with their power and authority. This situation had happened for years and people did not do anything to find the way out from this situation. What happened in the village became teacher interest. The teacher gave the question to the students based on their life experience in facing the landlord‟s existence and all the consequences of landlord‟s influence in their village. The students never expected that it would be teacher‟s question in the examination.
The teacher wanted the students to think harder about the future of the village than just to fill the blank paper and then pass it with the good mark.
Someone, who passed the examination, should be a good student who thought widely. The students should understand why they really want the scholarship.
Someone had to have the obvious purpose to continue his or her study. Dawan did not miss the opportunity. She was active in answering teacher‟s questions. When the question and answer session was over, the teacher announced that Dawan won the scholarship.
Knowing the result from her teacher, Dawan was very happy because she had a chance to study in the City and could do something for her village someday. congratulated her for her success in obtaining the scholarship. However, her success in passing the exam and getting the scholarship was not responded by her family. Her father and her brother, Kwai, could not accept her success. It should be Kwai‟s chance. It was only her grandmother who supported her to continue her study in City and congratulated her achievement. Getting the obstacles from her father and brother, Dawan shared the problems to her aunt, a monk, and to a vendor girl to look for a support. Her big problem was to convince herself that she really wanted to study. She had to have the right motive to continue her study.
Meanwhile, she needed her father and brother‟s blessing to let her go to study.
Getting education is still a big problem for many people until now. However, some people do not stop fighting to get education although they face some conflicts to achieve it. In this study, the writer analyzes the conflicts happened in the novel Sing to the Dawn on Dawan‟s character. The significance of conflicts in a story is to make the story interesting to read by the readers. Besides, in a story, a conflict is important to create a character who can reflect human life. By conducting an analysis toward the conflicts faced by the character in this no vel, the character‟s struggle in obtaining her goal can be revealed. According to Vaux
(2011), “without conflict, there is no story. Moreover, without conflict, the characters themselves would not grow or change. It helps stories mirror the human condition, by which all of us grow and change as we move through life”. This thesis intends to find out the conflicts faced by Dawan to get education. Further, the focus of this study is to revea l Dawan‟s motivation to get education in City after winning the scholarship.
1.2 Problem Formulation
This study is aimed to answer two questions:
1. What are the conflicts faced by Dawan in getting a better education?
2. What motivates Dawan to struggle to get education despite the conflicts?
1.3 Objective of the Study
There are two objectives of this study. The first objective is to describe the conflicts faced by Dawan in getting education in City. The first objective is the basis for achieving the second objective that is to reveal Dawan‟s motivation in getting education in City.
1.4 Benefits of the Study
The writer hopes that the findings of this study will be useful for many parties. The first benefit is for the writer himself. By conducting this study, the writer can understand someone‟s struggle and determination in getting better education, particularly, from the character of Dawan. Moreover, the writer can learn how important someone‟s motivation to achieve her or his dream and to be someone who is needed by others.
The second benefit is for the students. The writer hopes that this study will help the students to find the model of person determination in the character of Dawan. The students can get a better understanding about woman‟s motivation in getting education in Thailand and the conflicts faced to get a better education. By doing so, the students are able to see the educational situation in the past to the educational situation in this time. Besides, this study will help the students, especially, in analyzing the literary works more critically through this study.
The last, hopefully, this study can encourage other researchers, students or lecturers, to analyze another aspect in Minfong Ho‟s Sing to the Dawn. The writer hopes this study can give meaningful contribution to other researchers who want to conduct furth er studies on the human‟s motivation. The writer also hopes this study can provide a new paradigm on how to change the conservative mind of the society toward education world.
1.5 Definition of Terms
In order to avoid misunderstanding, it is important to explain the meaning of some terms used in this study. They are: motivation, needs, and self- actualization, self-esteem and conflict.
According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981), Motivation is the action taken by someone in order to fulfill their needs. This action is encouraged by unfulfilled human needs that needed to fulfill (p. 302). Further he explains that motivation is the first response to act or to behave (p. 4). In this study, motivation is the action conducted by Dawan driven by her needs to fulfill.
Motivation directs people to behave in their action to get some achievement in fulfilling their needs. The n eeds drive someone‟s motivation in obtaining her or his goal. Motivation in this study is depicted as the motive of the
Dawan to get her education even facing the conflicts from many parties. According to Fleming (2010), motivation is divided into two parts; internal interest of someone that comes from inside and makes someone do something to achieve his or her goal. Meanwhile, the external motivation is depicted as human action that emerges because of the outside factors of own brain. In this study, the internal motivation is the motivation that derived from Dawan herself and the external motivation is the motivation that derived from outside which forcing Dawan to do an action.
The second term is need. According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981), need is described as the motive of human to take specific action (p. 4). In this study, needs are the Dawans‟ motives to act. Dawans‟ motives to act are to achieve her self esteem need and self-actualization need.
The third is Self-Esteem. Self-Esteem is the term used by Abraham Maslow. According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981), self-esteem can be divided into two parts. First is “a need for self esteem” and the second is “a need for esteem from others” (p. 303). In the self-esteem, “Someone is motivated to strive for achievement, strength, independence, and freedom
” (p. 304). In the need of esteem from others, it involves a desire for “reputation, status, recognition, appreciation by others of one‟s abilities, and feeling of importance” (p. 304). In this study, self-esteem need is Dawan‟s desire to be an independent, confident, important and responsible person by getting education.
The fourth term is Self-Actualization. Self-Actualization is the term used by Abraham Maslow. According to Maslow as cited by Kalish (1973), self- actualization is defined as the tendenc y to “become more and more what one uniquely is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming” (p. 34). In the ultimate purpose of behavior (p. 302). In this study, self-actualization need is the ultimate purpose pursued by Dawan through education.
The fifth term is conflict. According to Kalish (1973), conflict is defined as “someone‟s action based on two or more needs, and the satisfaction of one causes the denia l of the other” (p.137). In this study, conflict is depicted as Dawan‟s will to continue her study collided with her family‟s reaction who does not want Dawan to get education.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter consists of two major topics; they are Theoretical Review and Theoretical Framework. A theoretical review contains several theories used by the
writer to reveal Dawan‟s motivation. Theoretical Framework is the picture of how all of those theories applied by the writer in finding Dawan‟s motivation, the main character in Sing to the Dawn.
2.1 Theoretical Review
In this part, the writer discusses the literary theories. They are; a theory of psychological approach, a theory of conflict, a theory of motivation, and a theory of needs to guide the analysis toward the novel. Those theories are used to find out the motivation behind Dawan‟s effort to achieve her goal. Some other theories used by the writer are Internal and External motivation theory. Theory of needs from Maslow as cited by Petri (1981) is the main theory used to reveal the great efforts of Dawan to get her goal. Self-Actualization need and Self-Esteem need are the focus of writer in revealing Dawan‟s motivation. Meanwhile, a theory of conflict is used by the writer to identify the conflicts faced by Dawan herself
2.1.1 Theory of Psychological Approach
According to Bressler (1999), literary works have much nuance to special ability from the reader who wants to analyze or to judge one literary work. It is not easy for the reader to decide which angles will be analyzed; the author, the character or another angle. The question from Bressler
‟s opinion is what is needed by the reader to analyze one novel? One suggestion addressed by Charles is the readers have to be „a good literary critic’ (p. 3). A literary critic means the reader should master the concept of formal literary criticism. This way can result critical readers who are able to understand the literary works fulfilled by various ideas (p. 3-4).
In 2011, Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman and Willingham stated that various ideas in a novel will get various responses from the readers. The readers, sometimes, face their life experience in the novel in order to get the message. However, sometimes, the experiences which got by the readers were not suitable to what delivered in a literary work (pp. 389-392).
To reveal the fascination and appreciation of a literary work, someone can use many perspectives. These kinds of perspectives are what later called as critical approach. In A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature, Guerin et al. (2011), mention five approaches. They are: traditional, formalist, mythological, historical and psychological approaches. Psychological approach is used by the writer to study the main character on Sing to the Dawn’s novel.
According to Daiches (1981), psychology comes into criticism in two ways, “in investigation the act of creation and in the psychological study of particular authors to show the relation between their attitudes and states of mind and the special qualities of their work” (p. 329). According to Guerin et al. approaches, the most abused and for many readers, it is least appreciated. But even more difficult in its application, the psychological approach can be fascinating to appreciate a literary work” (p. 201).
According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981), “a psychological approach focuses on human motive as an individual to strive and to fulfill one‟s full potential” (p. 301). Maslow sees the striving for perfection or self-actualization as the ultimate purpose of behavior. To find out human motivation or why someone is motivated, Maslow prefers to study human as an individual rather than animal. His research to an individual as a whole directs him to a finding of human‟s motivation driven by needs.
2.1.2 Theory of Conflict
Kalish (1973) stated that conflict is “someone desire of two or more needs, and the satisfaction of one causes the denial of the other. A conflict will occur when the alternative goal are fairly equal in importance” (p. 137). Kalish adds that conflict can happen when people have difference view of values.
According to Johnson (2011), there are two types of conflicts. They are “Internal conflict” and “External conflict”. Internal conflict is conflict that occurs inside a person and influences her or his goal. The external conflict is conflict that comes from outside of the self that influences the progress toward a purpose.
2.1.3 Theory of Motivation
Jung (1978) stated that the motivation involving these words, “desires, words indicated the process engaging a reason to do and some are spontaneous in someone‟s action. Briefly, these terms refer to what is called as motive. For Jung, motives point to the causes or reasons which highlight a specific behavior.
According to Maslow‟s theory as cited Petri (1981), motivation is human‟s action that driven by a need to fulfill in order to achieve “Self-Actualization” (pp.
301-302). The done action is not only grounded in human needs but also grounded in a reality, so that human has a purpose or a goal in this life.
220.127.116.11 Internal Motivation Theory This theory stated that all motivation comes from inside of someone.
According to Fleming in her article External and Internal Motivation (July, 06, 2010), internal motivation is “the driving force that comes from inside and causes someone to do something. This action is intended to fulfill someone‟s values”.
Moreover, Fleming continues that it is important to recognize a drive that stirs someone‟s action.
18.104.22.168 External Motivation Theory
The external motivation is the term used to describe external factors that stimulate our internal motivation. According to Fleming in her article External
and Internal Motivation
(July, 06, 2010), external motivation is “the drive that comes fr om outside of our own brain”. From Fleming‟s statement, it can be inferred that the concept of externally motivating someone is a situation or an environment outside which will influence someone‟s motivation. This means that
2.1.4. Theory of Needs
A theory of needs is derived from some findings of human motivation. It is formulated by Maslow to give an answer upon a question of what is actually human motive in doing something. Through his research of human, Maslow believed that the motive power of human to act is based on human need. A need drives human to do an action in order to achieve a goal. Maslow describes human needs in a picture of need‟s hierarchy. Human is motivated from the lowest need up to the highest level of need. Human is always directed to get accomplishment or perfection in life. The perfection or self-actualization is the primary goal according to Abraham Maslow. In Maslow
‟s pyramid of needs, self-actualization exists in the highest level. This model was created and developed by Abraham Maslow in 1940
- – 50‟s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs‟ theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation.
According to Nauert (2010), Abraham Maslow‟s Hierarchy is to describe human needs from the lower up to the highest. In 1970 the Maslow‟s Hierarchy of needs was revised and was added two other needs from fifth needs which had already existed.
Below is the picture of Maslow‟s diagram based on Nauert. What pictured by Nauert about Abraham Maslow‟s Hierarchy is the same with Petri
(1981) explanation of Abraham Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs but it is more detail. Some detail charateristics of needs based on Maslow‟s pyramid are stated by Petri are included Self-Esteem need and Self-Actualization need.
Nauert (2010) describes The Hierarchy of Needs from Abraham Maslow as follows:
Self-actualization Personal growth/fulfilment
Esteem needs Achievement, status, reputation
Belongingness and Love needs Family, affection, relationships, work group. etc
Safety needs Protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc
Biological and Physiological needs Basic life needs, air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.Figure 2.1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Someone must satisfy each need in turn and start with the first of the most needed. Only when the lower needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied, someone can concern to the higher needs. Conversely, if things that satisfy our lower needs are swept away, someone is no longer concerned to the maintenance of our higher order needs.
However, This theory should not be rigid but it should be flexible in its‟ application. Despite someone still find difficulty in fulfilling his or her needs in concern with both the lower needs and higher needs. For example, “self- actualizers” (level 5 in hierarchy of needs) who are mainly focused on self- actualization is still motivated to eat (level 1) and socialize (level 3) and finding security for the night (level 2).
Petri (1981), describes more detail about this hierarchy, especially Self- Actualization and Self-Esteem. He describes Maslow theory of Self-Actualization as the final goal of human action. This level is known as level of personal growth or fulfillment. There are some characteristics of Self-Actualization, i.e., more efficient and more comfortable with it, acceptance of self, others and nature, problem centering, independence from culture and environment, sympathy for humankind, and creativity. Self-Actualization motivates people to examine their abilities and to explore their insight (pp. 302-303).
According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981), “When the self-esteem need are satisfied, one has feelings of self-confidence and self-worth and sees oneself as having a purpose in the world” (p. 302). This quotation shows that someone in this level will have self-confidence and it helps her or him to achieve their goal. The self-esteem need must be fulfilled by someone before step up to the self- actualization need.
2.2 Theoretical Framework
In doing this study, the writer uses three main theories and two supporting theories in order to guide writer‟s analysis. Those theories are theory of conflict, theory of motivation and theory of needs. The supporting theories are internal
Since the focus of writer‟s study is analyzing someone‟s motivation in the novel, the writer uses a theory of motivation and a theory of needs. In doing this motivation analysis, the writer adopts a theory of needs from Maslow as cited by Petri (1981) in order to reveal the character‟s motivation, Dawan, in getting education. Meanwhile, the internal and external motivations as supporting theories w ill guide the writer to find out Dawan‟s motivation. For the conflicts faced by Dawan, the writer only identifies all the conflicts based on the novel by using a theory of conflict by Kalish (1981).
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter is divided into three main parts namely object of the study,
approach of the study and method of the study. In the object matter, the writer discusses the object of the study, Minfong Ho‟s novel Sing to the Dawn. In the approach of the study, the writer mentions the approaches for analyzing the novel. While in the method of the study, the writer discusses the steps in analyzing the novel.
3.1 Object of the Study
The main object of this study is the novel of Minfong Ho‟s Sing to the
Dawn. This novel tells about social realistic problems and education in Thailand.
The setting of place and time of the novel is in a rural village in Thailand in the 1970s. It has thirteen chapters and consists of 125 pages. This novel is written by Minfong Ho when she continued her study in Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. The story of Sing to the Dawn was adapted from the original story of Minfong Ho herself who won the scholarship in rural schoolgirl in Thailand where she lived. She faced resistance from her families. The writer was born in Ragoon, Burma on January 7, 1951. Ho grew up in both Singapore and Thailand. She got married in 1976 then she returned to the United States and settled in Ithaca, New York.
Sing to the Dawn was the story published in 1975 by Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Co. In 2005, Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) published this novel for the second time. Reprinted was conducted five times in 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008. The final reprinted was conducted in 2009.
This novel won the first prize of the unpublished story held by the Council of Interracial for Children, 1975. After published, Sing to t
he Dawn’s novel got
full attention by public, especially, in Singapore. In 1996, Sing to the Dawn was made as a musical drama and performed by Singapore Repertory Theater in Singapore Arts Festival.
Sing to the Dawn
is Ho‟s first story written without any intention to publish. At first, that story was not intended to be a reading book. The homesickness to Thailand inspired her to write this novel. Unexpectedly, after submitting her work, Sing to the Dawn at the Council for Interracial Books for Children, she got the readers for her writings. Ho won the award for the Asian American Division of unpublished Third World Authors and it encouraged her to enlarge the story into a novel.
Sing to the Dawn
presented a story of human‟s struggle. Like other novels written by Ho, Sing to the Dawn presented realistic depiction of native Southeast Asia. Ho did not only created the face of Asia controlled by old custom and the controlling influence to the family but she also presented the real situation of Asia such as, a world of poverty, drought, injustice, starvation, and death. The resistance of someone to the ancient customs and families was shown much. This situation was like one coin with two sides. One side was the faded face of Asia described as the character existing in these two sides. However, the figure still played a role as a lovable, determined, and struggling person in her land. In Sing
to the Dawn
‟s novel, a woman named Dawan was presented as an individual who fought against the ancient customs in her village, moreover, she had to strive against her families to achieve her dream.
The problem emerged since Dawan, the main character in this story, won the scholarship in her school. As a Thai girl, Dawan was a subordinate in her community. Woman was considered as the second class in the community. The chance to study belonged to her brother, Kwai. Knowing Dawan won the scholarship, Kwai left her alone and started to take a distance from Dawan. As brother and sister, their relationship was critical.
Kwai did not believe the result of the test. The winner should be him instead of Dawan. He was the cleverest student in class and he was the figure expected to support his family needs. Moreover, He did not believe that her sister could survive in City because she was a girl. She could not keep herself in City.
Dawan realized it that not only her brother but also her father would not support her to study in the City. Rejected by her father and unsupported by her brother, Dawan met her aunt to get support. Unfortunately, her aunt did not support her decision to continue her study in City. He met the monk then, hopefully, the monk would sustain her aim but even a monk did not support her. In her efforts to have a support, she went to the public market and met a girl selling the birds. She talked to that girl about her unsolved problem. She won the scholarship and was ready to study but her father and her brother disagreed. The decision to study. She met her father once more and delivered her desire to study in City. She argued with her father and her brother to let her go. She tried to overstep people‟s opinion about women.
3.2 Approach of the Study
The approach of the study was psychological approach. The reason why the writer used this approach was because i t studies human‟s thinking, feeling and behaviour. Human is unpredictable and more complex than other creatures and psychology helps people gain more understanding obout themselves.
Pyschological approach is used to find out Dawan‟s motivation in getting education in the City and to understand what motives pushing Dawan‟s action for getting a better education. By using this approach, the writer can learn human‟s behavior, especially, in getting her or his dreams. Moreover, by using this approach, the writer can understand why someone wants to achieve her or his dream and what the motives behind of someone‟s untiring action.
3.3 Method of the Study
The writer used library study as the method to research Dawan‟s motivation in Sing to the Dawn novel. Conducting this study, the writer used two kinds of sources, namely the primary source and the secondary sources. The primary source was the novel itself, Sing to the Dawn, written by Mingfong Ho; the secondary sources were the books of literature, education, and psychology. The human psychology study more focused on the Maslow theory. Some other sources related to the writer‟s study would be used in this study like, education and several novels related to the woman‟s struggle.
In order to analyze Sing to the Dawn there were some steps done by the writer. First, the writer began to read the novel many times and highlighted the important idea in the novel. These were conducted by the writer to have deep understanding of the novel. Second, the writer looked for the point that should be studied. It took many times to read and to understand the novel. From these steps conducted, the writer was interested in analyzing the motivation of the main character in this novel, Dawan. Afterwards, the writer searched for theories needed. They are: the theories of psychology and the theories of literature in analyzing the motivation of Dawan, the main character.
Fourth, since this thesis focused on the psychological aspects of a novel, the writer chose the psychological approach to analyze the novel Sing to the
Dawn . As a reference, the writer used psychological theory proposed by Abraham
Maslow that is the theory of needs. This theory was used to understand the motive of Dawan to get her education. Some theories from scientists like, Petri, Kalish, Fleming, and Johnson were used as well to support the writer‟s analysis.
Fifth, the writer tried to identify the aspects that motivated Dawan to continue her study in the City. Moreover, the writer tried to relate some evidence found in the novel in order to know what was behind her action. The last step was drawing a conclusion. The conclusion contained the statement of the findings presented in this thesis.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This section is to analyze and answer the problems formulated in chapter one. The first problem deals with internal and external conflicts faced by Dawan. The second problem focuses on Dawan‟s motivation to get education. The aim by
analyzing and answering those two problems, the writer can learn human‟s struggle and determination in getting education.
4.1 The Conflicts Faced by Dawan
Based on the novel Sing to the Dawn, there are some conflicts faced by Dawan after she wins the scholarship in school. Based on
Kalish‟s theory (1973) and Johnson‟s theory of conflict (2011), the writer could group Dawan‟s conflicts into two groups. They are: internal and external conflict.
4.1.1 The Internal Conflict Faced by Dawan
According to Kalish (1973), “conflict occurs when an individual is motivated by two or more needs, and the satisfaction of one causes the denial of the other” (p. 137). Based on Johnson (2011), internal conflict is a conflict existed within an individual. In this study, the internal conflict within Dawan is her worthiness as a girl to get education. The more frightening reason for Dawan is the fact that she is a girl. The existed gender difference in society has made a She was just a girl? Wouldn‟t she grow up just to be a wife and mother? What she could do with more learning” (p. 56)? This quotation shows us how Dawan is worried about her difficult position in society. A girl will be a wife and a mother for her children and do household task. There is no room for a girl to do something valuable for society. Another quotation can show Dawan restlessness of her difficult position in society in the conversation below.
„How about you, Sister? You could win.‟ „Me?‟ Dawan flushed. „ But I am a girl.‟ „You‟re older than I am. Maybe they want older students.‟ „Kwai, don‟t be silly.‟ Dawan said wistfully, „I won‟t get the prize.‟ „I‟m not being silly,” Kwai retorted. „You alwasy get good marks, and you study harder than I do. Why shouldn‟t you have done better that me in the examination?‟
„You know why,‟ Dawan said without looking at her brother, her hand clenched tight over the edge of the wooden bridge, „I am a girl, Kwai.‟ (p.
14) From this quotation, it can be seen that Dawan is not interested in becoming a scholarship winner even though her brother says that she can win it.
The one thing she concerned is the fact that she is a girl. She knows what will happen to young girl in her village at that time. A girl is considered as a second class in society. As the result, a girl will not have much opportunity to play a role in society or getting education. She wants to continue her study but she is doubtful with her ability because she is a girl.
4.1.2 The External Conflicts Faced by Dawan
According to Johnson (2011), external conflict is a conflict derived from outside but it influences someone‟s goal. In this study, the external conflicts of These four conflicts are representing the trouble faced by Dawan after winning the scholarship. This quotation below shows it.
Dawan felt a strong need to struggle for her rights but knew this new will and determination would count for very little, without some outside source of support. Her father would not listen to her argument; Noi, out of conviction, and her mother, out of fear, had refused to act on her behalf. And now even her brother was threatening to speak out against her for himself. To whom could she turn to seek help? (p. 56) Dawa n‟s conflict with her father comes from father‟s hesitation to Dawan‟s ability to get education. Dawan‟s conflict with her brother comes from Kwai‟s doubt whether she is able to fulfill her responsibility as a winner of the scholarship. In addition, Dawan also has a conflict with her aunt. Her aunt is afraid if Dawan is influenced by terrestrial pleasure offered by the City. The last is her conflict with a monk. Dawan disagrees with monk‟s perception that happiness only comes from Buddha‟s Teaching.
22.214.171.124 The Conflict between Dawan and Her Father
The hardest conflict faced by Dawan is with her father. He is so doubtful of Dawan to get education. As a farmer and patriarch, he has a big responsibility for viability of all family members and has an absolute right for a final decision.
There is no one can change his conviction.
According to Dawan‟s father, a woman do not have right to get education. There is no need for a woman to study and gets higher education. Her father says to Dawan, “Because you‟re only girl, because there‟s nothing you can do, even with fancy education, because...
” (p.105). Another quotation shows how Dawan‟s permission to Kwai, his son, rather than to Dawan, her daughter. Her father says to Kwai , “If you‟d won, of course it‟d be different,”....”You‟re a boy, and more schooling would have been useful for you” (p.55).
Those quotations above depict Dawan‟s father thinking is covered by a traditional concept about a woman. This concept very influences her father‟s decision of Dawan for getting education. Realizing this situation, Dawan chose to fight against her father decision by explaining and convincing her father that she can do more in education if her father let her go willingly. This quotation shows it.
„There‟s a wide, wide world out there, Father, and so many things I want to learn and see and do. .... Don‟t keep me caged in now, let me have my chance to fly out too!‟„So, you want me to open your cage door,
Dawan, and you think you‟ll soar off and do great things for us all, for the village, and the country, even the world?‟ „I can try father,‟ Dawan breathed, her heart pounding. „I can try.‟ (p. 106) From this quotation above, it is clear that Dawan really wants to study.
However, before going to City, Dawan needs her father‟s permission as well. That is why, she just not convinces him to let her go but she also begs her father‟s permission. Dawan says to her father, “I won the prize. I can go to the City and study more now.... “Can‟t I” (p. 28)?
Conflict with her father has led her to an inconvenient situation. On one side, she wants to continue her study in City in order to get better education. In the other side she still needs her fath er‟s permission to let her go which it is difficult to get because of her father‟s hesitation.
126.96.36.199 The Conflict between Dawan and Her Brother
The second conflict faced by Dawan is derived from her brother named Kwai who doubts that Dawan can bear huge responsibility as a student. This conflict depicts the real situation of human life, where sadness and happiness, belief and doubt, dreams and brotherhood mixed together. This is the picture of human who struggles to realize her dreams but still haunted by sweet memories of hometown and relationship as brother and sister.
Winning scholarship does not make Dawan feel better. After winning the scholarship, some students tell her not to wait to tell this good news to her family.
She, immediately, remembers Kwai and when she thinks about Kwai, she is soon aware of what the meaning of „good news‟ is. It is not good news for Dawan‟s family, especially, for Kwai. Dawan says, “and he hates me for it” (p. 25). This quotation shows that Dawan feels guilty of winning the scholarship. From the very beginning, Dawan knows that Kwai really wants this scholarship and gets education in City by his sharing in the way to school. Getting education will give him an opportunity to do more for their village, help their father, and make a new better world but now those all are gone. Now, Kwai must burry his dream deeply because of Dawan‟s winning.
This situation is getting worse when Kwai and Dawan are involved further in incisive argument. Kwai cannot accept the fact that Dawan wins the scholarship. For Kwai, he must be the winner, he is the smart student in class, and he is the last hope to sustain the family life. The main reason why Kwai cannot accept Dawan as the winner is because he is doubtful of Dawan‟s ability to
„Look, Kwai, we‟ve talked about all that before. Teacher said it just this morning. I know what you mean. I know what the importance of education is. I‟ll learn what will be helpful in creating change for our village, and...‟ „It‟ fine for you to spout off ideals like that. But what can you do to bring them about? You are only a girl. You won‟t be able to fight, or to argue loudly, or to lead people in times of crisis. All you‟re goo at is studying – that‟s how you got the scholarship in the first place.‟ (p.51) From the quotation above, it can be inferred that getting education does not mean like, you just go to school, sit and follow the lesson, write some materials given by the teacher, and when the bell rings you go home. According to Kwai, Dawan as a winner of the scholarship must have higher concept about getting education, must have capability to convey her opinion or to criticize some problems discussed in class with other students.
188.8.131.52 The Conflict between Dawan and Her Aunt, Noi
Firstly, For Dawan, visiting her aunt, Noi, is intended to find out the reasons why she goes to City. Secondly, this visit is also intended to look for a support from her relative who has experienced living in City. Thirdly, Dawan and her mother can learn something from Noi how to survive in City.
However, what Dawan expects from Noi is not achieved. In fact, Dawan finds a woman who lost her reliance to City and a woman who never expects to live in City any more. Therefore, Noi will not support any women who want to go to City. She will fight against their dreams about City as everything. Her image of City is ugly, cruel and unfair. People there always live for fun and pleasure. The city is made for the have and not for the villagers. Noi says, “The City is made for the rich people and the foreigners...
” (p. 41). The pictures of happiness, success, glory and pride of City are just nonsense. Many young people go to City with many dreams to realize but, finally, they are failed to get their dreams because they are sunk in the City life filled by temptation. Noi says, “All you people wanted to hear about was some fairy tale about The Big City. Who was I to start telling you things you didn‟t want to hear..” (p.39). This quotation shows that Noi wants Dawan to understand the City situation. The City is not appropriate for a village girl. Noi says, “She doesn‟t have to go to the City, does she? She can go to school here” (p.35). Another quotation show s Noi‟s objection of Dawan‟s desire to study in City.
„I could tell you some things about the young girls in the City that would make your teeth fall out, my Aunt,‟ she said bitterly. „Huh, my teeth are not so loose yet that they would fall out from anything you youngsters have to tell me.‟ „I never told you, did I, how I was attracted to the dim dance houses when I first arrived? There were lights and music trailing from them at all hours of the night, and I was drawn to them like a moth to some candle flame. Thinking I could find a nice job in one of them, I walked into one late one night. Then I saw how brittle and ugly the women who worked there had become from offering whiskey and themselves to the swarms of white soldiers. I stumble out of that place and sobbed in the streets for a long, long while. And they were just healthy young women from villages like ours, good hand- working women.‟ (p. 41)
From the quotation above, it is clear that City is not appropriate for the girls. The City offers the beauty and the luxury which makes women forget their initial goal. The City offers them various ways to get money and pleasure easily. Everyone wants to be a rich person instantly and the City gives it to people. The easiest way for women to earn money is not only by offering whiskey to the customers but also by offering themselves to customers. If they cannot control themselves they will fall deeply into it and cannot rise again. These images make Noi refuse Dawan‟s desire to go to City. She is doubtful that Dawan can survive in City and realize her dream.
184.108.40.206 The Conflict between Dawan and a Monk
The conflict between Dawan and a monk is about their opinion of the true purpose of life. Their final purpose of life is to get the happiness but they have different views to get it. Dawan believes that happiness can be achieved in this world even though it is temporary. On the contrary, the monk believes that whatever done by human in this world is useless. The happiness is only got in Buddha teaching. In the unity with Buddha, the human will have everlasting life.
„When a man reaches nirvana, he is freed from the wheel of life, of being born, of suffering, of dying and of being born all over again. In nirvana there is no suffering, no pain, no rebirth only nothing. „No happiness or joy either?‟ the schoolgirl asked. „That‟s the point, child. What‟s the sense of being happy? In the end you only lose the thing that makes you happy anyway. Nothing lasts forever, you know.‟ (p.73) From these quotations, the monk hopes that Dawan realizes that her aim to study is not a big thing. In this life, people have to look for a thing that brings them to nirvana. People should not bother themselves for nothing. The excessive desire will bring suffer to some one. The monk says, “You will just be wasting your time and spirit” (p.75). The unity with Buddha in nirvana for good is the ultimate purpose of human in this world.
However, Dawan wants something real in this life. Everything will vanish, everyone will die, but before everything is gone she has to do something for this world and human kind. There is no mistake if someone can do something for a Not daring to look up at him, she fal tered, „I didn‟t mean that, sir.‟ ..., „I just meant that I wanted to know how to cure sick people, or to help set up a new order where farmers would own their own land
- – we have to pay much rent now sir
- – or...” (p.72) From the quotation above, it is clear that Dawan wants to do something for others and to create a better life. She knows that Buddha‟s teaching is valuable to learn because it can bring someone to nirvana to get eternal life. For now, however, the happiness is achieved in this life when we give our entire life to the people who need.
4.2 The Motivation of Dawan to Get Education in City
The analysis is divided into two parts. The first part is about Dawan‟s internal motivation and the second is about her external motivation. According to Jung (1978), motivation is the desires, wishes, plans, goals, intents, impulse, and purposes that drive human to do or to behave (p. 4-5). People conduct an action because they have a motive to act. This motive leads them to act and get some attainment. Based on Fleming (2010) there are two types of motivation. They are internal and external motivation.
There are some motives why people want to do something. According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981) motivation is human‟s action that driven by a need to fulfill in order to achieve “self-actualization”. The action done by someone is not only grounded by human needs but it is grounded in a reality that human has purpose or goal in this life as well. According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981) describes these needs into a hierarchy of need (pp. 301-302). This theory becomes the main theory to find out the motives of Dawan to get education.
Before the writer comes to an analysis, the writer needs to review about this novel briefly. This novel tells us about a Thai girl named Dawan who struggles to get education. She lives with her parents, her grandmother and her brother named Kwai. She comes from a farmer family. The landlords at that time have more power to control the land and the harvest. Every day, she and her brother always go to school together to study. However at school, Dawan and Kwai have different places to stay. Dawan stays outside of the classroom while Kwai sits inside the classroom. This year is the last chance for Dawan to study because afterwards her father will stop her school fee forever. However, Dawan still needs to get a higher education. By getting higher education, she believes that she can do something for others although it is insignificant.
Dawan‟s desire to continue her study will vanish soon, the school holds a test with the scholarship from government as the prize. Having no faith to pass the test, Dawan follows the examination. She does not want to compete with her brother, Kwai. Besides, she believes her brother is the one who will win the prize.
After the exam is done, teacher announces that Dawan is the winner of the scholarship. She is happy with this announcement because it means that she will get more opportunity to study. Suddenly, she realizes that her brother will not be happy with her winning. Besides, her father will be against her will. He will not allow her to continue her study. Not only her father and brother but also some of her family members will against her wish. Encouraged by her strong desire to get
4.2.1 Internal Motivation of Dawan
According to Fleming (July, 06, 2010), internal motivation is a motive coming from inside of someone. According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981), someone is motivated to act in order to fulfill her or his needs. In this study, internal motivation of Dawan is her need to be a responsible individual, an independent individual, an appreciated individual, and can play a significant role in society. Dawan also is motivated to change villager‟s thinking about women.
220.127.116.11 She wants to be a Responsible Individual
According to Maslow as cited by Petri (1981), responsibility can be categorized as a need for Self- Esteem from others involving someone‟s desire to appreciate (p. 303).
This categorization is the same with Nauert‟s picture of Maslow needs diagram (2010).
Responsibility here is Dawan‟s will to take all the consequences of being a scholarship winner.She is ready to study in City.
By getting education, Dawan wants to be a responsible person. According to Stipek in Motivation to Learn (1993) , responsibility is the picture of students‟ struggled value and the picture of individuals‟ self esteem (p. 22). What Dawan will be later is on her hand. Therefore, she will learn to bear all the consequences of her decision to get education.
The quotation below gives us the important meaning of being a student who wins the scholarship. Her brother, Kwai, says, “Getting the scholarship isn‟t just winning a prize”,...,“It is also means that the student will be bearing heavy responsibilities” (p.24). The pertinent student should understand all the him, freezing in mind but it should be shared and applied in the real world. In order to get the best education, the student should study hard and do his or her best in all classes. For Dawan, it is a big duty but she is ready to shoulder it.
„It‟s fine for you to spout off ideals like that,‟ her brother interrupted rudely, his voice growing louder and sharper at every sentence. „But what can you do to bring them about? You‟re only a girl. You won‟t be able to fight, or to argue loudly, or to lead people in times of crisis. All you‟re good at is studying
- – that‟s how you got the scholarship in the first place.‟ Dawan‟s hands were clenched so tightly that they were shaking. „Shut up!‟ She felt like screaming. „I‟m every bit as good as you are! Shut up!‟ But she only said coldly,
„And you think you can take on these responsibilities? You can fight and argue and lead, and help make a better place for the rest of us to live in?‟ Kwai struck his chest with his hand. „Yes, I can!‟ he claimed brashly.
Dawan stood stock-still and glare up at her brothe r. „Well so can I, little brother,‟ she said acidly (p.51).
From this quotation, it can be said that Dawan is ready to endure this duty. She really understands what the meaning of a student is and what she should do as the winner of the scholarship. It is not easy to do but she promises to his doubtful brother that she can do it and she is ready to shoulder this responsibility.
18.104.22.168 She wants to be an Independent Individual
According to Maslow theory as cited by Petri (1981) , someone‟s desire to be an independent individual can be categorized as characteristic of the Self-
Actualization need (p. 304).
Dawan‟s desire to be an independent individual is shown by her action to be free from her village custom and traditional mind. Her independence is shown by her effort to make a very brave decision to get education in City.
Dawan is a girl who wants to make a good decision for her herself freely. which do not bring improvemen t should be changed. Dawan says, “And change it for fairer rules” (p. 24). Since the chance to get education comes to her life, she will not let it go away. The world outside is not good to live in but it is a promising place for someone who has determination to realize her or his dreams.
For Dawan, it is a big chance for her to make her dreams come true through education, even though she realizes that it is not easy to achieve. Dawan says, “There is a wide, wide world out there, Father, and so many things I want to learn” (p. 106).
From the quotation, it can be said; the City as outside world offers so much beauty and enchantment which cannot be rejected by anyone. If people cannot take care of themselves, they will be drawn to that enchantment. For some young girls, they may lose their dreams. The City brings so much expectation but it brings much disappointment for those who cannot control themselves. This situation is interesting to see by Dawan. She seems ready for those difficulties.
She says, “I want to see for myself” (p. 46). The challenges in City do not make her give up realizing her dreams. She is ready to face harsh situation in City although her family doubts. She wants to escape from the situation in village by getting education in City, which enable women free from manacle of men and traditional rules existed in village.
Another quotation shows how deep Dawan‟s will to study in City and release herself from village‟s old custom which does not give her and the other women choices to improve t heir life. She says, “There‟s a wide world out there, Father, and so many things I want to learn and see and do. Don‟t keep me caged in light outside given by City through education for people who believe in their capability. What Dawan needs is only a chance, one opportunity to get better education.
22.214.171.124 She wants to be an Appreciated Individual
Based on Moore‟s statement in his writings Philosophy of Education (1982), the education is not only needs equality but also justice. He describes justice here as the opportunity for everyone to experience the same thing or get the same right, especially, in education (pp. 54-56). What is stated by Moore as justice in education is fought by Dawan as well.
According to Maslow theory as cited by Petri (1981), the desire to appreciate by others is categorized as a characteristic of Self-Esteem need. This appreciation is given by people who believe someone‟s ability in doing something (para. 304)
. Dawan‟s desire to get education is also intended to get an appreciation from her father and brother. By getting education, she hopes that she can change her father and brother‟s mind of her and not underestimate her any more.
After winning the scholarship, Dawan gets resistance from her father and her brother. They do not agree if Dawan continues her study in City. Her father has thinking that a woman should stay at home and does household works. A woman will be a mother of her children feeds and raises them. It is useless for a woman to study.
Meanwhile, her brother does not believe that Dawan can bear this duty. The education is not only writing or hearing the knowledge from the teachers and capability in receiving the materials, giving meaningful input, improving erroneous thing, and applying all materials studied in education. Those are called by Kwai as a responsibility. The quotation below stated it.
„But what can you do to bring them about? You‟re only a girl. You won‟t be able to fight, or to argue loudly, or to lead people in times the of crisis. All you‟re good at is studying – that‟s how you got scholarship in the first place
‟. (p. 51) From the quotation above, it is clear that her father and brother hesitate
Dawan‟s ability in getting education. Facing this situation, she talks to her father and her brother that she can do more. They do not need to worry of her ability to get better education. She promises to her father and brother if a chance to study is given to her, she will try to do the best in education. Dawan says, “Only that I hope you will be as fair and kind towards me as my brother has been, Father” (p.105).
From the quotation above, Dawan knows well that as a girl, she is underestimated by her father and brother. However, she hopes that her father and brother appreciate her as an individual who has right, dreams, and will to realize, who is able to shoulder responsibility same as a man. The women are not second class people in society but they have to be regarded as same as men at any levels.
126.96.36.199 She wants to Play a Significant Role in Society
As a girl in family, Dawan has not much chance to actualize herself in the society. She does not want to be like ordinary women in her village who work as a householder, stay at home, get pregnant, and give birth. They really have no right change the image of the women by getting education which gives her much opportunity to play a role and advance her village. Indeed, a girl can realize her dream to her society and play a significant role for this world.
According to Maslow theory of need as cited by Petri (1981), playing a role in society is the picture of individual who has sympathy toward humankind.
This desire, to play a role in society, is can be categorized as one of the Self- Actualization characteristics (p. 309). Dawan has many dreams to realize, for her family, for people outside and for the world. Education is the way out to make it come true. This statement shows it.
„After a while, you get so discouraged that you‟ll learn to shrug it off and just live with things the way they are.‟ „I don‟t think I will ever learn just to shrug it off,‟ Dawan objected. Noi muttered something under her breath, but her husband silenced her and told Dawan to go on.
The young girl hesitated, then continued, „I mean, that‟s why I want so badly to go to school in the City. As it is now, all we ourselves know about are the little bits and pieces of unfairness that we have experienced. It‟s hard to change things, even the smallest thing, without changing the overall pattern that these things are a part of. I keep thinking that there must be a whole order to this, a system with rules and laws all mapped out in it. And I want to study how the system works and moves, and then I think I could help to find a better one.‟ (pp. 42-43) Another quotation shows Dawan‟s will to help others. Dawan says, “I just meant that I wanted to know how to cure sick people, or how to help set up a new order where farmers would own their own land..
”(p.72). This quotation is based on the conversation between Dawan and a monk. In this conversation, Dawan hopes that, someday, she can give herself to cure the sick people or to help the farmers with new order.
188.8.131.52 She w ants to Change Villagers’ Mind about Women
Dawan‟s determination in getting education in the City gives the society a new perception of equality among villagers, especially, in having education.
People in Dawan‟s village think that men have to play significant roles both in the community and in the family. They think women do not have to have a chance to study higher. The women have to stay at home, take care of family, raise and feed the children or keep the house clean. There is no chance for them to actualize themselves in the community. Dawan, however, in one good occasion gives a new perception that girls have a cha nce to be „someone‟ who can do great things. Her opinion of it can be seen below.
„Because you‟re only girl, because there‟s nothing you can do, even with a fancy education, because...‟ „Father, stop it!‟ Dawan screamed in a hoarse voice, above the noise of the peasant‟s shouting. „Father,‟ she continued shakily, „if you keep thinking that I‟ll never be capable of doing anything worthwhile, then of course I really won‟t.‟ She paused struggling to find the words to explain herself. „Because I won‟t ever hav e a chance to, don‟t you see? It‟s like thinking a caged sparrow can‟t fly, and then refusing to open the cage door to give it a chance to even try (p. 106). From the quotation above, it‟s clear that Dawan wants to change the image of woman. To change society view, she starts from her father as the main figure in family and the representation of the society authority. It is not only her father paradigm but it is also her brother and a monk paradigm. What woman need is only a chance. The women can do more than men if they have a chance to try. That is why when her father gives her a permission to try, Dawan burst into a wide smile (106). Her father‟s permission can be said as a change paradigm of
Another quotation shows Dawan‟s resistance toward the view of women in her village. In the one occasion, in the market where people gather for selling and buying, Dawan criticizes her brother who aims to block her way to have a chance in getting education. This situation can be seen in quotation said by Dawan in market.
„You‟re just a bully after all. Go ahead, use your strength, knockdown the people who get in your way!‟.... „Why, Kwai? Why did you talk and talk to me of helping poor people and weak people, and then turn around and t ry to grab from me the one chance that was meant for me?‟ (p.85). From this quotation another angle can be said as well. This quotation expresses Dawan‟s intension to change people thinking of women. Dawan‟s statement above is not only pointed out to her brother but also pointed out to the people in the market. The people who already know that she wins the scholarship but still do not support her because of their traditional mind. The people who keep thinking of those women can do nothing. In her anger with loudly voice, she yells out her wish to study in the City to her brother and to the people around the market. She wants everyone in the market hear her wish. She wants every people can change their image about women, especially in getting education.
Finally, her will to change people‟s image about women gets a good response from the villagers. Her grandmother says to Dawan before she is leaving, “..., look at all the people here to see you off..” (p. 115). The villagers escort Dawan to the station before leaving the village. This event can be assumed that the villagers may have changed their mind about women role even though this needs a long process to make it happen. According to Maslow ‟s theory of need as cited by Petri (1981), someone who is motivated to strive the falseness happened in society and ,sometimes, has to judge people and events correctly is considered as someone existed in Self- Actualization level (p. 305). This characteristic is called as “More Efficient Perception of Reality” (p. 305). Dawan‟s desire to correct villagers‟ mind of a woman is motivated by Self-Actualization need.
4.2.2. The External Motivation of Dawan
According to Fleeming (July, 06, 2010), external motivation is the force that comes from outside. This force encourages someone to achieve her or his goal. In this study, external motivation comes from her grandmother who supports her granddaughter, Dawan, to get education. She is the only one in family who dares to give a support to Dawan.
Dawan‟s grandmother can be described as a loyal woman in this novel because she is the only one in family who supports Dawan after winning the test until leaving the village to study in City. She is the first in family who congratulates Dawan as the winner of the scholarship that supports her granddaughter to study in City, and feels so proud of her. Her grandmother says, “..., I‟m proud of you” (p.30).
Support from her grandmother brings her a belief that her aim to study is a right choice, despite she conflicts with her father and brother. She will face and take all the consequences of her choice to study in City. That is why when her grandmother asks her to meet her aunt in order to know the City condition, she
“Mother, I am going now” (p. 32). Then, before leaving the village and still covered by hesitation, her grandmother strengthens, pushes and gives another light. Her grandmother says, “Go now, child (p. 120).” She now is ready to face everything blocking her way. Her grandmother support is more than enough to stick on her decision to study in City.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter includes two parts, namely conclusions and suggestions. The
conclusions examine the answers of the formulated problems based on the analysis. The suggestions contain two sections. The first section is the suggestions to the future researchers of literary works, especially those who concern with the Minfong Ho‟s literary works. The second section is the suggestion to use literary works, especially a novel, in English teaching learning process.
From the application of the theory motivation by Fleming (2010) and Maslow‟s theory as cited by Petri (1981), the writer can draw a conclusion that Dawan‟s motivation in getting education are divided into two forms. The first is the motivation derived from herself. She wants to be a responsible individual. She also wants to be an independent individual who is free to decide her life in the future. She also wants to be an appreciated individual. She wants to play a significant role in society. She wants to be useful and meaningful for others by helping poor people from the landlords‟ policy, helping farmers fertilize their plants, and helping villagers get prosperity in this life. She also wants to change villagers‟ mind about women. In Dawan‟s opinion, women must have same right as men in education field. Education is for everyone. Another motivation is derived from outside which comes from her grandmother who supports her from the very beginning after Dawan wins the scholarship until Dawan will leave the village.
The way Dawan motivates herself to get education is corresponding with the characteristics of Self-Esteem need and Self-Actualization need proposed by Maslow‟s theory as cited by Petri (1981). The Self-Esteem need is represented with some characteristics like, responsibility and appreciation. Meanwhile, the Self-Actualization need is represented by some characteristics like, independence, sympathy, and perception of reality. Therefore, the writer concludes that the motivations in getting education are parts of the way Dawan wants to fulfill her need of Self-Esteem and Self-Actualization need.
A literary work, a novel in this matter, does not only give pleasure and enjoyment to its readers, but also the moral teaching which the novel has.
Moreover, it is also a source of knowledge to have a better understanding about a literary science. Therefore, teachers may use it as a material for their teaching learning process in class. The basic intention in a teaching learning process is in the literary study.
Implementing literature in teaching of English is quite necessary because the students can enrich their vocabulary mastery and language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Literary work, like a novel, offers potential benefits of high order for English as a second or foreign language. It can be used to reach the goal in teaching English that is the language mastery.
Furthermore, literature provides the goals where teachers should be aware of students‟ development. Learning literature will help students to understand human life in reality and reflect it. Teachers must not only help to develop individuals‟ personal and intellectual potentials, but also their capacity to be more aware to this life and its problems.
Based on Short Description of the course KPE 245 Prose, Prose class is aimed to develop students
‟ ability in appreciating prose fiction by reading and analyzing World short stories and novels. In this course, students will read at least five (5) short stories, one (1) novella as intermediary between the short story and the novel, and (2) two novels. It is expected that students will be able to write a critical analysis on the literary works read by using literary theories. Students will also give responses, such as in a form of reflective writings or art works that aim to encourage students to be more empathic, sensitive, and mature (see Appendix D)
Therefore, the writer suggests using this novel in the teaching of literature, especially prose for the fouth semester student of Sanata Dharma University.
There are many literary elements can be taught by using this novel in Prose Class. Several items can be taught by lecturers and learned by students in Prose Class, like character and characterization, conflict happened on novel, plot, setting or symbolism. Those can help students to learn and appreciate literary works in a whole.
Learning symbols, for example, on the novel is one element that can be used by the teacher. Symbolism is a mode of literary expression that is designed to extend meaning. A symbol is a thing that can be represented through a person, an object, an action, or an idea which has a more complicated meaning. Here, the students are asked to get the meaning of one symbol which may reflect specific
Another element can be taught is a conflict. Conflict is dramatic struggle between opposing forces or points of view in a novel. Finally, in prose class, the students can use their understanding based on the learned novel to write a deeper reflection. Those items can be assigned to university students in their Prose Class, especially for the students who are in the English Department. Below is the procedure for teaching prose which considers many aspects in literary works:
1. The writer gives a brief explanation about some literary elements on the story (character, characterization, plot, setting, background and symbol).
2. The writer gives some questions to students in order to understand the novel itself.
3. The writer asks student to identify litterary elements on the novel in a group.
4. The writer asks the students to discuss those litterary elements based on the novel studied.
5. The writer asks the students to write a brief report of their findings.
6. The writer gives a small test about the novel studied.
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