ERRORS ON THE USE OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AMONG THE STUDENTS
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education
Fransisca Wuri Krissanti Student Number: 051214079
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA
ERRORS ON THE USE OF CONDITIONAL SENTENCES AMONG THE STUDENTS
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree
in English Language Education
Fransisca Wuri Krissanti Student Number: 051214079
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA
PAGE OF DEDICATION
Krissanti, Fransisca Wuri. 2011. Errors on The Use of Conditional Sentences among the Students of the English Language Education Study Program. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.
Conditional sentences topic is one of the important topics learnt in English Education Study Program. It has three types which make conditional sentences difficult to understand. Those three types have different pattern and meaning. This case makes the students of the English Language Education Study Program still make errors. Whereas, they are prepared to be English teachers who have to master them.
There are two research questions which are presented in this study: (1) What are the errors made by the fifth semester students of the English Language Study Program of Sanata Dharma University in the use of conditional sentences? and (2) What are the factors which cause the students to make errors in the use of conditional sentences? In order to answer those research questions, the writer used survey as her method research. The participants of this research were the fifth semester students of the English Language Education Study Program. The writer conducted the research in two classes in Structure V class in the academic year 2010/2011.
The writer constructed test and questionnaire as the instruments of this research. The test was arranged to measure the students’ understanding on conditional sentences. Besides, the writer also used questionnaire as the instrument. The questionnaire was used to find out the factors which cause the students to make errors in the use of conditional sentences.
problems which cause the students to make errors. They are memorizing, differentiating, understanding, class influence, practicing, mood, and presence.
Based on the result of the data analysis, there is conclusion that there were many students who had problem in understanding conditional sentences. It can be influenced by many factors mentioned above. Therefore, there were also the suggestions for the lecturers, students, and other researchers. For the lecturers, it is recommended to give more attention to students’ understanding and ability. For the students, it is recommended to pay attention to the lecturers when the lecturers give the explanation. The last was the suggestion for the other researchers. It is recommended to explore or modify this research in order to have the better result.
Krissanti, Fransisca Wuri. 2011. Errors on The Use of Conditional Sentences among the Students of the English Language Education Study Program. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Kalimat pengandaian adalah salah satu topik penting yang dipelajari di Program Studi Bahasa Inggris. Kalimat pengandaian mempunyai tiga tipe yang membuatnya susah untuk dipahami. Ketiga tipe tersebut mempunyai pola dan arti yang berbeda. Hal ini membuat mahasiswa Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris masih saja membuat kesalahan. Padahal mereka dipersiapkan untuk menjadi guru yang harus bisa menguasainya.
Ada dua pertanyaan dalam penelitian ini: (1) Kesalahan apakah yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa semester lima program studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris dalam penggunaan kalimat pengandaian? dan (2) Apa saja faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan mahasiswa membuat kesalahan dalam penggunaan kalimat pengandaian? Untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan tersebut, penulis menggunakan survey sebagai metode peneliannya. Partisipan dalam penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa semester lima Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Penulis melakukan penelitian di dua kelas dalam kelas Structure V tahun ajaran 2010/2011.
Penulis membuat tes dan kuesioner sebagai instrumen penelitian. Tes disusun untuk mengukur pemahaman mahasiswa tentang kalimat pengandaian. Selain itu, penulis juga memakai kuesioner sebagai instrumen. Kuesioner digunakan untuk menemukan faktor-faktor yang memungkinkan yang menyebabkan mahasiswa membuat kesalahan dalam penggunaan kalimat pengandaian.
memahami kalimat pengandaian. Selain itu, pemilihan metode yang cocok dalam menjelaskan kalimat pengandaian juga mempunyai peranan besar dalam membantu mereka untuk memahami kalimat pengandaian. Yang terakhir, mereka mengakui bahwa waktu, kelas, dan sosial sangat mempengaruhi kegiatan belajar-mengajar. Selain itu, ada tujuh masalah yang menyebabkan mahasiswa membuat kesalahan. Hal-hal tersebut adalah mengingat, membedakan, memahami, pengaruh kelas, latihan, suasana hati, dan kehadiran.
Berdasarkan hasil analisis data, ada kesimpulan yang bisa ditarik yaitu bahwa ada banyak mahasiswa yang mempunyai masalah dalam pemahaman kalimat pengandaian. Hal itu bisa dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor seperti telah disebutkan diatas. Oleh karena itu, ada juga saran-saran untuk dosen, mahasiswa, dan peneliti lain. Untuk dosen, disarankan untuk memberikan perhatian lebih pada pemahaman dan kemampuan siswa. Untuk mahasiswa disarankan untuk memperhatikan dosen ketika dosen sedang menjelaskan dan mencoba untuk mencari cara lain untuk meningkatkan pemahaman mereka. Yang terakhir untuk peneliti lain. Disarankan untuk bisa melakukan penelitian lebih atau memodifikasi penelitian ini untuk bisa mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.
I would like to dedicate my deepest and greatest attitude to Jesus Christ
for everything he has given to me. His blessings and everlasting love have
strengthened me in the difficult situation. I also thank to Mother Mary for her companion in my hard time.
My deepest appreciation goes to my major sponsor, Made Frida Yulia S.Pd., M.Pd., for her willingness to spend her precious time to read and check my thesis. Her advices, criticisms, suggestions help me to accomplish this thesis. I
also thank her for her patience in guiding me.
My sincere appreciation goes to Caecilia Tutyandari, S.Pd., M.Pd. and
Dra. Sri Joeliantini for the permission to administer the test in their classes. I would like to thank all the fifth semester students of the English Language
Education Study Program for their willingness to be the participants for this
I would like to express my deepest love and appreciation to my parents,
Ignatius Suhardi and Anastasia Sudarti for their love, patience, support, encouragement and never ending prayers. I could not finish my study without
them. My sincere gratitude goes to my brother and sister for always encouraging
me to finish my study. Thanks for their advices, support, prayers and love.
friends, Gabriela Bunga Pramudhita, Wuri Krisharyanti, Melati Sunarsari Suryani, Ria Agatha Cindy Stefani, and Agustina Ari Wisudawati for their support and advices given. I also thank them for the precious and unforgettable
time we have spent together. I could not understand the importance of having and
being a good friend without them. Our friendship has made me understand the
meaning of togetherness.
I would like to thank to my classmates, Sano, Molen, Panda, Ruma,
Sancrut, Taju, Antris, Bunga, Indro, Andre, Rindang, Putri, Rere, Adit,
Toto, Puri, Mega, Dinar, Angga, Mui, Mayang, and Agung. My special thanks go to Rindang and Bunga for their willingness to read my thesis draft. Besides, I also thank Wahyu, Mas Andre, Thomas, Miss Suzi, Tyo and Mas Panji for their support and prayers. I would also like to express my gratitude to Pranti,
Mujmuj,Penpen and Sisca for their support and companion. I thank them for the time we have spent together to laugh and share many precious stories.
Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to those whose names I
cannot mention here one by one. God bless them all.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ... i
APPROVAL PAGES ... ii
PAGE OF DEDICATION... iv
STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... v
ABSTRACT ... vi
ABSTRAK ... viii
LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS ... x
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... xi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... xiii
LIST OF TABLES ... xvii
LIST OF FIGURES ...xviii
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xix
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ... 1
A. Research Background ... 1
B. Problem Formulation ... 4
C. Problem Limitation ... 5
D. Research Objective ... 6
E. Research Benefits ... 6
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ... 11
A. Theoretical Description ... 11
1. Conditional Sentences ... 11
a. Definitions ... 11
b. Types of Conditional Sentences ... 11
1) Conditional Sentences Type 0 ... 12
2) Conditional Sentences Type 1 ... 12
3) Conditional Sentences Type 2 ... 12
4) Conditional Sentences Type 3 ... 13
5) Mixed Conditionals ... 13
c. Grammatical Changes ... 13
1) Tense ... 13
2) Modal Auxiliary ... 16
3) General Truth ... 17
4) Connectors ... 17
2. Errors ... 18
a. Definition ... 18
b. The Purpose of the Study of Errors ... 19
3. Mistakes ... 19
4. Errors Versus Mistakes ... 19
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY ... 23
A. Research Method... 23
B. Research Participants ... 24
C. Research Instruments ... 25
1. Validity ... 27
a. Content Validity ... 27
b. Construct Validity ... 28
c. Face Validity ... 28
2. Reliability ... 29
D. Data Gathering Technique ... 30
E. Data Analysis Technique ... 31
F. Research Procedure ... 32
CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ... 34
A. Data Presentation ... 34
1. The Test ... 34
a. The Students’ Achievements in Each Part of the Test 35 b. The Students’ Total Scores of the Whole Part of the Test ... 37
c. The Questionnaire ... 39
B. Discussion ... 40
1. The Errors Made by the Fifth Semester Students ... 40
1) Part A ... 41
2) Part B ... 44
b. Conditional Sentences Type 2 ... 46
1) Part A ... 46
2) Part B ... 49
c. Conditional Sentences Type 3 ... 52
1) Part A ... 52
2) Part B ... 55
2. The Factors Which Cause the Students to Make Errors ... 57
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ... 66
A. Conclusions ... 66
B. Suggestions ... 68
1. Suggestions for the Lecturers of the English Language Education Study Program ... 68
2. Suggestions for the Students of the English Language Education Study Program ... 69
3. Suggestions for Other Researchers ... 70
REFERENCES ... 71
LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Summary of Basic Verb Form Usage in Conditional Sentences ... 15
2.2 The Semantic Relationships Expressed by Conditional Subordinators in English ... 18
3.1 The Classification of Reliability Coefficient ... 30
4.1 The Students’ Scores in Part A ... 35
4.2 The Students’ Scores in Part B ... 36
4.3 Students’ Scores in the Whole Part of the Test ... 37
4.4 The Students’ Scores Based on the Score Category ... 39
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 The Historically-Based Relationship of the Modal Auxiliary ... 16
4.1 The Percentage of the Students’ Responses on the First Aspect ... 58
4.2 The Percentage of the Students’ Responses on the Second Aspect ... 59
4.3 The Percentage of the Students’ Responses on the Third Aspect ... 61
4.4 The Percentage of the Students’ Responses on the Fourth Aspect ... 62
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 The Permission Letter... 75
Appendix 2 The Blueprint of the Test ... 76
Appendix 3 The Test ... 78
Appendix 4 The Answers’ Key ... 81
Appendix 5 The Blueprint of the Questionnaire ... 82
Appendix 6 The Questionnaire ... 85
Appendix 7 The Samples of the Students’ Sheet ... 88
Appendix 8 The Frequency and Percentage of the Students’ Responses on the Questionnaire ... 98
Appendix 9 The Students’ Scores ... 99
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
This chapter explains the introduction of the study. It has six parts. Those
six parts are research background, problem formulation, problem limitation,
research objectives, research benefits and definition of terms.
A. Research Background
English is an important language in educational life since it is an
international language. Many books are written using English. In this
globalization era, people need to communicate with foreigners who have different
language. Therefore, people are expected to master the English language so that
they can communicate well.
Based on that requirement, many schools provide English as one of the
subject matters in order to make their students able to master English and
communicate using English well. Reaching that goal is not easy. Schools must
provide very good facilities including the teachers. A good English teacher who
masters English well is needed very much in order to reach that goal.
As candidates of English teachers, the English Language Education Study
Program students are supposed to master all the things related to the English
language as the subject matter, including the skills and the language elements. In
the English language, there are four skills which have to be mastered by learners
four skills, the English language also has the language elements such as grammar,
pronunciation, and vocabulary. In order to be good teachers, the teacher
candidates should master those things because good teachers are not only able to
understand the English language for themselves, but also must be able to help
their students, especially in using English grammar.
Indonesia has English language as their foreign language and the pattern
of the sentences in Indonesian and English language are different. Therefore, they
have to know well the pattern of each language which they learn. For example,
when people use Indonesian language, they use the same verb to show the actions
which have been done, is being done, and will be done. Another example is when
people want to use conditional sentences. When they use Indonesian language,
they also use the same verb and pattern without caring about the fact. Thus,
foreign language learners should pay attention to those things. In this case, based
on the writer’s experience, many students still have difficulties in understanding
and using the correct grammar. Hence, this is a challenge for teachers and teacher
candidates to overcome this problem, where the role of teachers is needed. They
have to be able to give good explanation and examples so students will understand
well. Therefore, teachers and teacher candidates should master grammar, so they
can be good teachers.
Mastering foreign language, in this case is English language, is not easy.
Many people have problem to do that. One of the problems is the grammar
mastery. Besides having sixteen tenses, the English language also has many other
difficulties in understanding this topic. Therefore, teacher should be able to give
such clear explanations and examples in delivering this topic. In order to do that, a
good preparation is inevitably needed for the teacher candidates.
The teacher candidates have to master this topic, especially for senior high
school teacher candidates because they have to explain this topic. This topic is one
of difficult topics in school faced by students. Many students need repetition and
clear explanation to this topic. A clear explanation can only be transferred by a
teacher who understands the topic well. In this case, the teachers must be
competent in mastering conditional sentences so as to be able to explain it to their
students. As a matter of fact, it is important for the teachers to understand the
Based on the writer’s experience, she chooses conditional sentences
because this topic has three types which are difficult to learn. Those three types
have different pattern and different meaning. The meaning or the fact of the
conditional sentences can be true in the present or future, untrue in the present or
future and also untrue in the past. Each pattern should correspond with the fact
and it can make them difficult to be differentiated and composed. It can also be
easily forgotten by the language learners.
Furthermore, by conducting some informal interviews on the conditional
sentences, the writer also found that some of the senior students of the English
Language Education Study Program are still confused to differentiate the types of
sentences. Moreover, some of them forget what conditional sentences are and how
to produce them.
Beside those reasons, the writer also empirically finds that it is very
difficult to make the students really understand the use of conditional sentences.
When the students learn each type separately, they can understand better, but they
still have difficulties and make mistakes when those three types in conditional
sentences are combined. In this case, the teachers’ knowledge is challenged. They
should master the topic, so that they are able to find a good way in teaching
conditional sentences to overcome the students’ problems.
Since the conditional sentences should be mastered by the teachers, the
English language Education Study Program students, as the teacher candidates,
should be tested on their understanding and mastery in the use of conditional
sentences. The results of this research can show their capability to use conditional
sentences and their understanding in using them. In this research, the writer
chooses the fifth semester students of the English Language Education Study
Program, with the consideration that they have learnt conditional sentences in
semester three in their Structure III course. Therefore, they are supposed to use
conditional sentences correctly. The result of the research is employed to come up
with the suggestions for the lecturers and the students in learning conditional
B. Problem Formulation
1. What are the errors made by the fifth semester students of the English
Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University in the use
of conditional sentences?
2. What are the factors which cause the students to make errors in the use of
C. Problem Limitation
The research is conducted to the fifth semester students of the English
Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University in the academic
year of 2009/2010. They were chosen since they have learnt conditional sentences
in Structure III course. The research analyses the errors which are made by the
students in producing conditional sentences. A test and a questionnaire are utilized
as the instruments to gather the data. The results of the test are analyzed further to
see the errors which are produced by the students. Moreover, the results of the test
determine their mastery. The data from the questionnaire are used to show the
possible factors which cause the errors.
This study emphasizes the use of conditional sentences types 1, 2, and 3 to
make the scope of the discussion more specific and not too wide. It means that the
instruments made by the writer only check the students’ understanding on the use
of conditional sentences types 1, 2, and 3 and the ability of the students to produce
those types of conditional sentences correctly. Therefore, the questions in the test
and 3. Whereas, the questions in the questionnaire are used to find the possible
factors which cause the errors.
Due to the fact that the fifth semester students of the English Language
Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University are in a great number, the
writer selects two classes as a sample which are considered to represent the
population as a whole. Then, the result of the data analysis of the sample will be
generalized to the population. The writer chooses cluster sample as the
representative sample because based on Ary, Jacob, & Razavieh (2002:168)
“cluster sample is in group, not individual, which is randomly selected”.
D. Research Objectives
The objectives of this research are:
1. To find out the errors which students make in producing conditional
2. To find out the possible factors which cause the students to make errors.
E. Research Benefits
It is expected that this finding of the research in this study helps the
readers, the students, the lecturers, and the next researchers.
1. For the readers
This research analyzes the students’ errors and the possible causes of
thesis also provides information about conditional sentences. Therefore, this
research may give the information to the readers and enrich their knowledge.
2. For the students
This study also analyzes the students’ problems in learning conditional
sentences. Based on the research finding, the writer finds some possible factors
which cause the students make errors and give the suggestions to overcome the
students to make errors again in the future. Thus, the finding of this research may
help the students of the English Language Education Study Program.
3. For the lecturers
This study analyzes the errors produced by the students and also the
possible causes. Therefore, it may help the lecturers because it may show which
become the students’ weaknesses and strengths. Based on the result of the error
analysis, the lecturers can find another way to transfer the knowledge to the
students and minimize the errors made by the students.
4. For other researchers
This study will also help other researchers. If they will conduct researches
which are almost the same, this study may help them to conduct their researches.
They can also develop this study by changing some parts of this thesis, such as the
participants, the problem limitations, instruments, or something else.
B. Definition of Terms
Related to this research, there are the terms whose definitions need to be
1. Conditional sentences
Conditional sentences are used to show the conditional phenomenon.
Conditional sentences have five types: types 0, 1, 2, 3, and mixed type. Each type
has its own fact and pattern. Conditional sentences type 0 are “the statements of
universal truth or general validity” (Graver, 1984: 89). The second type
“expresses something that can be true in present or future” (Azar, 1989: 347).
There is possibility to be truth in the future if in the present it is not true. The third
type “expresses something that is untrue in present or future” (Azar, 1989: 348). It
shows the impossible things in the present or future. The fourth type “expresses
something that has happen in the past and it is not true or it does not happen in the
past” (Azar, 1989: 349). This type shows that the fact did not happen in the past.
The last type is mixed type when we can combine the types of conditional
sentences based on the context (Alexander, 1994: 212). In this study, the
researcher focuses on the use of conditional sentences types 1, 2, and 3 which will
be combined into one test. To know the participants’ understanding, they have to
differentiate them and make good conditional sentences based on each type.
Errors are “the flawed side of learner speech or writing” (Dullay, Burt, &
Krashen, 1982: 139). They explain that errors which are caused by fatigue and
inattention are called as performance factors and errors resulting from lack of
knowledge of the rules of the language called competence factor. On the other
hand, an error is “a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native
errors which are produced by the speaker can show their competence. In other
words, an error is caused by lack of knowledge.
In this study, the writer collects the data and analyzes the errors from the
participants’ answers. Any wrong answers in the test are counted as the students’
performance and competence. Brown (2000: 217) states that those performance
and competence factors can influence students to make errors. Whereas, Corder
says in Dullay’s book titled Language Two that “in some of the second language
literature, performance errors have been called “mistakes” while the term “errors”
was removed for the systematic deviations due to the learner’s still-developing
knowledge of the L2 rule system” (Dullay et al., 1982: 139). Nevertheless, it is
still often difficult to determine the deviation between performance and
competence errors without careful analysis. To support this statement, Dullay et
al. (1982: 139) stated that “in order to facilitate reference to deviations that have
not yet been classified as performance or competence errors, we use error to refer
to any deviation from a selected norm of language performance, no matter what
the characteristics or causes of the deviation might be.”
Sometimes, it is very difficult to judge incorrect answer is error or
mistake. Corder in Ellis’ (2003: 50) book argued that the “error analysis should be
restricted to the study of errors.” It means that mistakes should be eliminated from
the analysis. In this research, errors refer to the students’ answers which are
inappropriate from the rule of the conditional sentences without considering they
learners’ errors are generally viewed as ‘unwanted forms’.” Therefore, in this
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents two sub-chapters of discussion. The first is the
discussion on the theories related to this study, which is presented in theoretical
description. The second part is theoretical framework which summarizes and
synthesizes the relevant theories to the study.
A. Theoretical Description
In this theoretical description, there are four things which are elaborated.
They are the theories of conditional sentences, error, and error analysis. These
theories will be the basic of the discussion and construction of the instruments.
1. Conditional Sentences
Thomson and Martinet (1986: 196) said that “conditional sentences have
two parts: the if-clause and the main clause.” It means that conditional sentences
are complex sentences that consist of two clauses which are a main clause and a
subordinate clause. The subordinate clause latter typically begins with the
adverbial subordinator if.
a. Types of Conditional Sentences
Thompson and Martinet (1986: 197) said that conditional sentences have
three types. Each type contains a different pair of tenses. There are three types of
conditional sentences and each type has different pattern and meaning. Besides,
are four commonest and the most useful types of conditional sentences and those
are types 0, 1, 2, and 3. Furthermore, Alexander (1994: 212) also stated that there
is another type of conditional sentences beside those four types of conditional
sentences. He said that “we do not always have to stick rigidly to the ‘three types
of conditional sentences’ because there are occasions when we can use any tenses
in if clauses, depending on the context.”
1) Conditional sentences type 0
Conditional sentences type 0 is used in “factual discussions or explanatory
(particular scientific and technical) material” (Graver, 1984: 82). The fact of this
type is true because it talks about the factual condition. The tenses used in both
conditional and main clauses are the same. It can use simple present tense and
also simple past tense.
2) Conditional Sentences type 1
Conditional sentences type 1 expresses something which can be true in
present or future. There is possibility to be truth in the future if in the present it is
not true. Azar (1989: 347) also gives the pattern of the conditional sentences type
3) Conditional sentences type 2
Conditional sentences type 2 expresses something which is untrue in
present or future. It means that the sentences in this type show the action which
happen at that time, but they are only imagination. The real condition is
contradictory with the expected condition, so the sentences are impossible. In this
informal speech but it is not generally considered grammatically acceptable (Azar,
4) Conditional sentences type 3
Conditional sentences type 3 expresses something which has happened in
the past and it is not true or it does not happen in the past. In this type, the
sentences show that the action happened in the past and the “if clause” shows the
impossible things in the past.
5) Mixed conditionals
Beside those three types which are usually used, there is mixed
conditionals. It is called mixed conditional because it uses mixed tenses in
conditional sentences. Alexander (1994: 212) stated that “we do not always have
to rigidly to the three types of conditional sentences because there are occasions
when we can use any tenses in “if clauses”, depending on the context.”
b. Grammatical Changes
This part discusses the grammatical changes in conditional sentences. This
part will be divided into three such as tense, modal auxiliary, general truth, and
connectors. Those parts will discuss clearly and specifically about the tenses,
modal auxiliary and the general truth in conditional sentences which are discussed
in this study.
In conditional sentence type 1, there is no change. All the sentences use
are changes in types 2 and 3 of conditional sentences. The changes in types 2 and
3 follow these rules.
a) Type 0
Conditional sentence type 0 shows the factual conditions which means that
the fact is true. The tenses used in this type both in the conditional and main
clauses are the same (Graver, 1994: 212). The tenses used in this type can be in
simple present tense and simple past tense.
b) Type 1
Conditional sentence type 1 shows the actions which happen at that time
and the “if clause” show the possible thing which happen or will happen.
Moreover, the tense which is used in this type is simple form. When the if-clause
uses the simple present, the main clause uses the simple present future (Azar,
c) Type 2
Conditional sentence type 2 shows the actions which happen at that time,
but it tells about the impossible things in the present or future. In type 2, the tenses
which are used in the main clause and in the if-clause are different. When the
“if-clause” uses the simple past, the main clause uses simple past future.
d) Type 3
Conditional sentences type 3 shows the action which happened in the past
and also tells about the impossible things in the past. In this type the tenses which
are used in the main clause and in the “if clause” are also different. When the
Azar summarized those types and the short explanations about their pattern
and meaning in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Summary of Basic Verb Form Usage in Conditional Sentences (Azar, 1989: 347)
conditional sentences used in the sentences. We can see the examples as follow.
(1) If I am as clever as you say I am, I would have been rich by now. Type 1+3
(2) If you knew me better, you wouldn’t have said that. Type 2+3
Besides, there are the differences between the tenses which are used in
conditional sentences and the fact. In conditional sentences type 1, there is no
change. Both the conditional sentences and the fact use the simple present. On the
contrary, types 1 and 2 have different tenses between the tense in conditional
sentences and fact. The differences are as follow.
a) If the fact is in the present, the conditional sentence uses the past form.
b) If the fact is in the past, the conditional sentence uses the past perfect form.
2) Modal Auxiliaries
Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1983:138) describe modals formally
as tenseless auxiliaries that take no subject-verb agreement and no infinitive to
before the following verb. However, they acknowledge that modals do derive
historically from ordinary verb forms inflected for either present or past tense
because this historically-based relationship still has some semantic implications.
Present Tense Past Tense
must, (had to)
Figure 2.1: The Historically-Based Relationship of the Modal Auxiliary (Celce-Murcia and
3) General Truth
In conditional sentences, the truth and the conditional sentences may be
different. In type 1, the fact in the conditional sentences is true in the present and
future or there is possibility to be true in the future, so it uses the present forms.
 If I do not study hard, I will fail in the test.
The above sentence has two possible facts. The first fact is that it is true
that I do not study hard, I will fail in the test, but there is another fact. The second
fact is that there is possibility for me to fail in the test.
 If I had a lot of money, I would buy a big house.
The fact is that I have no money.
 If I had had enough time, I would have gone for picnic.
The fact is that I had no enough time.
In conditional sentences, connector is an important thing. The related
connectors which are usually used in conditional sentences are:
a) Only if and Unless
“Both only if and unless mark conditions that are exclusive; that is, no
other condition will bring about the stated result. If and if … not, on the other
hand, express weaker or more neutral conditions in that they do not exclude the
Murcia and Larsen-Freeman, 1999: 553). The semantic relationships are
presented in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2: The Semantic Relationships Expressed by Conditional Subordinators in English (Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman, 1999: 553)
open (unmarked) conditions If if … not
exclusive (marked) conditions only if (sometimes: if and only if) unless (=except if)
 I will stay home if it rains. (unmarked)
 I will stay home only if it rains. (exclusive)
 I will stay home even if it rains. (emphatic)
 I will stay home if it doesn’t rain. (negative)
 I will stay home unless it rains. (exclusive negative)
This part is divided into two. The first discusses the definition of errors
which are proposed by some writers. The second part discusses the purpose of the
study of errors.
“Errors are the flawed side of learner speech or writing” (Dullay et al.,
1982: 138). They are those parts of conversation or composition that deviate from
some selected norm of mature language performance. Dullay et al. (1982: 139)
distinguish errors become two, such as “errors caused by fact such as fatigue and
inattention called performance factors and errors resulting from lack of knowledge
Dullay (1982: 145) has another description of errors which is named as
accurate description of error. He says that error is “a separate activity from the task of inferring the sources of those errors.” On the other hand, Brown (2000: 217) says that errors can reflect a competence of the learner. He gives the
definition of an error as “a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a
native speaker, reflects the competence of the learner.”Ellis (2003: 47) stated that
“learners make errors in both comprehension and production.”
b) The Purpose of the Study of Errors
Studying learner’s errors serves two major purposes, such as: (1) “it
provides data from which inferences about the nature of the language learning
process can be made; and (2) it indicates to teachers and curriculum developers
which part of the target language students have most difficulty producing
correctly and which error types detract most from a learner’s ability to
communicate effectively” (Dullay et al., 1982:138).
Brown (2000: 217) states in his book that a mistake “refers to a
performance error that is either a random guess or a “slip,” in that it is a failure to
utilize a known system correctly.” It means that a mistake is not caused by the
lack of knowledge. A mistake is caused by unintentional error.
4. Errors Versus Mistakes
There is a difference between errors and mistakes. Many people are
error cannot be self-corrected, while mistakes can be self-corrected if the
deviation is pointed out to the speaker.” On the other hand, Brown (2000: 218)
states that “the learner’s capacity for self correction is objectively observable only
if the learner actually self-corrects; therefore, if no such self-correction occurs, we
are still left with no means to identify errors versus mistake.”
Lewis (2002: 8) also gives an explanation that “an error arises when
students communicate in more complicated language than they have so far
learned, where as a mistake is something they can correct for themselves if they
take the time.” It means that a mistake can still be corrected because it is not
caused by the lack of knowledge. Moreover, error cannot be self corrected
because knowledge has the role. It needs somebody else to correct it.
B. Theoretical Framework
One of the language elements which should be learnt by the English
Language Education Study Program students is grammar. A conditional sentence
is one of them. Conditional sentence is one of the difficult topics. Conditional
sentences topic has been taught in the second grade of senior high school, but it is
explained clearer and deeper in the third semester.
A conditional sentence is a complex sentence that consists of a main clause
and a subordinate clause; they latter typically begins with the adverbial
subordinator if. It has two parts: the main clause and sub-clause. In this study,
the English Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University in semester
In this study, there are two problems regarding the fifth semester students’
mastery and errors of conditional sentences. This study uses a test to collect the
information and also to discuss the problem formulations. For the first problem,
which is to figure out how far the fifth semester students have mastered
conditional sentences, this study performs necessary statistical computation. The
result of the test is obtained by counting the correct answer. Furthermore, the
focus in this study is the errors made by the students. Therefore, any wrong
answers in the test are considered as errors without considering whether they are
mistakes or errors. Later, the result of the computation is compared to the standard
of mastery stated in the academic regulation of Sanata Dharma University. The
students’ mastery on conditional sentences is found out from their scores in the
test. These scores are then compared to the minimum standard of mastery stated in
the academic regulation of Sanata Dharma University. If their achievement in
conditional sentences is low according to that academic regulation, it means that
they still have difficulties in mastering conditional sentences. If their achievement
is high and fulfilled the minimum standard score of mastery written in academic
regulation of Sanata Dharma University, they are considered to master the
material of conditional sentences.
Concerning the second problem, which is to figure out the types of errors
that students made in conditional sentences, this study uses the students’ answers
asked to complete the questionnaire by answering the questions. Then, the
students’ answers will be analyzed and it will answer the question on the students’
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY
This chapter discusses the methodology of the study, such as the research
method, participants, instruments, data gathering technique, data analysis
technique and research procedure.
A. Research Method
The method utilized in this research was a survey. Brown and Rodgers
(2002: 142) state that surveys are “procedures which are used to gather and
describe the characteristics, attitudes, views, opinions, etc of people who are
important to a study.” Ary et al. (2002: 142) say that “surveys typically take the
form of interviews or questionnaires or both.” Therefore, the writer used a test and
a questionnaire to gather the data. In this research, the writer intended to find out
the errors which the fifth semester students made and the possible causes of the
errors in using conditional sentences.
The writer constructed test and questionnaire to answer the research
questions. The tests were frequently used as criterion measures of language
abilities in second language acquisition research. It could also be valuable sources
of information about the effectiveness of learning and teaching. Besides, language
teachers also usually used tests “to help in diagnosing students’ strengths and
weaknesses, to assess students’ progress, and to assist in evaluating students’
for data collection in survey research” (Wiersma, 1969: 179). Backstrom and
Cesar (1981: 187) state in their book that the questionnaire is “the physical form
of all theories, hypotheses, and hunches that have gone into planning the survey.”
Therefore, the writer used test and questionnaire as the instruments for collecting
B. Research Participants
The participants of this study were the fifth semester students of the
English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University in the
academic year of 2010/2011. They were chosen since they had learnt conditional
sentence in Structure III course. As they had learnt conditional sentences, it was
assumed that they would not make a lot of errors in the conditional sentences test.
Because the fifth semester students of the English Language Education
Study Program of Sanata Dharma University were in a great number, the writer
selected a sample to represent the population as a whole. In choosing the sample,
the writer chose the cluster sampling procedure. Wiersma (1995: 292) gives the
definition of cluster sampling in his book as “a procedure of selection which
involves the random selection of clusters from the larger population.” The writer
chose this sampling because this sampling is in groups, not individuals, were
randomly selected. Therefore, the writer did not need to make new cluster.
Besides, the existing cluster consisted of the fifth semester students who had
same level of understanding conditional sentences. Although there would be
difference, it would be no big difference among them.
The population of the fifth semester students was divided into four
structure classes. Because of the reasons explained above, the writer thought that
cluster sample is the appropriate one. Therefore, in this research, the writer chose
two classes as the sample of the research.
C. Research Instruments
The instruments used to gather the data in this study were a test and a
questionnaire. Hague (1995: 2) mentioned the four objectives of questionnaire.
“First, it is used to obtain the accurate information from the respondent. Second, it
gives the design in interview. Third, it gives the standard format of fact, comment,
and attitude recording. The last is to ease the data processing.”
The questionnaire used as the instrument in this research consisted two
parts. The first part was thirty items of close-ended responses. In this part, the
participants were required to choose the number which showed their opinion on
the statements given. The second part was one item of open-ended response. In
this part, the participants were required to answer the question based on their own
opinion with explanations on their opinion and suggestions. Those questions were
related to the possible factors causing errors.
The questionnaire was made by investigating five elements, such as
students’ perceptions, abilities, motivations, teaching learning activities and also
language learners in learning second language such as internal and external
factors. Therefore, the writer divided those five elements into two, which are
internal and external factors. Ellis also gives the examples of each factor. Social
conditions and input are external factors. On the other hand, Ellis (1997: 4-5)
classified the cognitive mechanism and knowledge into the internal factors. Based
on that theory, the writer classified those five elements such as: internal factors,
which included the students’ perceptions, abilities, and motivations, and external
factors, which included teaching learning activities and time and social influences.
On the other hand, the writer also used the test to gather the data. A test is
“a method to measure the students’ ability or knowledge and it also can provide
the information about the achievement of group of learners” (Hughes, 1989: 4).
The test was arranged to measure the students’ understanding on conditional
sentence. Therefore, the test was essential part of the research. Based on those
facts, the writer chose a test and questionnaire as the instruments to gather the
The test consisted of thirty items and it was divided into two parts. The
first part consisted of fifteen items. In this part, the students were required to fill
in the blanks with the correct answers based on the rule in conditional sentences.
The objective of this part was that the students were able to recognize which type
of conditional sentences used in the questions and demonstrate the correct pattern
of conditional sentences. This would “show the participants’ ability to recognize
the grammatical functions of words in sentences structures” (Freeman and Long,
were required to make the conditional sentences based on the given facts. The
objective of this part was that the students were able to recognize the correlation
between the fact and the conditional sentences and demonstrate the correct pattern
of conditional sentences based on the given facts. This kind of test “provided a
better indication of students’ real achievements in learning” (Ebel, 1979: 96).
Because of its essential role in the research, the test should meet the
requirements of measurement. Those are validity and reliability.
Validity is one of the important things in constructing the test. A test is
said to be valid if “it measures accurately what it is intended to measure”
(Hughes, 1989: 22). There are four types of validity in test. Those are:
a. Content Validity
A test is said to have content validity if its content constitutes as
representative sample of the language skills, structures, and so on with which it is
meant to be concerned. The test would have content validity only if it included a
proper sample of relevant structures. Therefore, in order to have high content
validity, the test should contain the items which are intended to be measured on
the test. The importances of content validity are: “first, the greater a test’s content
validity, the more likely it is to be an accurate measure of what it is supposed to
measure. Second, such a test is likely to have a harmful backwash effect”
(Hughes, 1989: 22-23). The details of the content of the test are presented in the
The table in the Appendix 2 shows the content of the test. It is clear that all
the types of conditional sentences were present in the test. Therefore, it could be
concluded that the test fulfilled the content validity.
b. Construct Validity
A test, a part of a test, or a testing technique is said to have construct
validity if “it can be demonstrated that it measures just the ability which it is
supposed to measure. The word ‘construct’ refers to any underlying ability (or
trait) which is hypothesize, for example, that the ability to read involves a number
of sub-abilities, such as the ability to guess the meaning of unknown words from
the context in which they are met” (Hughes, 1989: 26). The test, which was used
as the instrument, required the students’ ability on recognizing and making a good
conditional sentence for each item. Therefore, the test can be concluded that it
fulfilled the construct validity.
c. Face Validity
A test is said to have face validity if it looks as if it measures what it is
supposed to measure. “Face validity is hardly a scientific concept, yet it is very
important. A test which does not have face validity may not be accepted by
candidates, teachers, education authorities or employers” (Hughes, 1989: 27).
Best (1981: 153) says that in research, validity is “that quality of a data gathering
instrument or procedure that enables it to determine what it was designed to
determine.” In this case, the writer showed the format of the test and the
test and the questionnaire. The test and the questionnaire are separated in different
page but they were bundled together.
According to Brown (2004: 20), “a reliable test is consistent and
dependable.” It means that the results of the test, which was administered to two
different groups, should be more or less similar. In research, reliability is “the
quality of consistency that the instrument or procedure demonstrates over a period
of time” (Best, 1981: 154).
To calculate the reliability of the whole test was the writer used K-R 20
formula because this formula is used to determine the homogeneity which is based
on the proportion of correct and incorrect responses (Ary et al., 2002: 258). The
test also scored based on the correct and incorrect responses, therefore the writer
chose this formula. The formula is as follows.
rxx= the reliability of the whole test
K = number of items in the test
sx2= variance of the total scores (squared standard deviation)
p =proportion of correct responses on a single item
In order to know whether the test was reliable or not, the writer used the
table of the value of reliability coefficient. The classification is presented in Table
Table 3.1: The Classification of Reliability Coefficient (Best, 1981: 255)
Coefficient (r) Relationship
0.00 to 0.20 Negligible
0.20 to 0.40 Low
0.40 to 0.60 Moderate
0.60 to 0.80 Substantial
0.80 to 1.0 High to very high
Before the real test was administered, the researcher administered the pilot
test to the two classes of the fifth semester students of the English Language
Education Study Program in Structure V class. The result of the pilot test showed
that the reliability coefficient was 0.86. Based on the classification of the
reliability coefficient, this result indicates that the test had high reliability.
D. Data Gathering Technique
The researcher used a test of conditional sentences and a questionnaire to
gather the data. The test was conducted in two classes of the fifth semester
students during Structure IV lesson. In conducting the test, there were some steps
The first step was the test papers and questionnaires were distributed to the
students. Second, before doing the test, the students were given an explanation to
make sure that they understood the test instructions. The time allotment to do the
test was sixty minutes. Third, after finishing the test, the test papers with the
students’ answers were collected. Last, students’ answers were scored to find out
the students’ mastery on conditional sentence and analyzed to identify the types of
errors of conditional sentence. Meanwhile, the students’ answers on
questionnaires were used to know the factors causing the errors. Because this
study focused on the fifth semester students, the writer sorted the fifth semester
students’ sheets. The other test takers, who were not in the fifth semester, were
not part of the sample and their answers were not scored and analyzed.
E. Data Analysis Technique
In analyzing the data, the first thing to do was to find out the students’
result of the test and also the errors the students made by checking the students’
works. This step was started by collecting the students’ answers. Then, the
students’ answers were checked to show the correct and the incorrect answers.
Both the correct and incorrect answers were given different check marks, the tick
(√) mark for the correct answers and the cross (x) mark for the incorrect answers.
After checking the answers, each item of the test was scored. Each item in
Part A and B has the same score. For the correct answer it was given one (1) point
each number and for the incorrect answers it was given zero (0) point for each
divided by the total number of the items, and then the result was multiplied by
100. Then the result was made in the percentage. The result showed the mastery
of students on conditional sentence. Based on the academic regulation of Sanata
Dharma University which was written in Peraturan Akademik Universitas Sanata
Dharma (2002: 14), the students master the certain subject if they reach 56% of
the total score.
In order to discuss the errors, the writer classified the errors made by the
students based on the classification of errors proposed by Dullay (1982: 146),
such as linguistic category, surface strategy, comparative analysis, and
communicative effect, the grammatical changes of conditional sentences, and the
types of conditional sentences.
On the other hand, in order to discuss the possible causes that influence
students to make errors, the writer analyzed the questionnaires which were
completed by the students. After analyzed the questionnaire, the writer found the
result. Then, the result showed the students’ problems in learning conditional
F. Research Procedure
There were some steps done in conducting this research. First, the
researcher asked the permission from the lecturer of Structure V. Second, the
researcher conducted the pilot test. This test was aimed to know the weakness of
the test so that the writer was able to revise it. Third, the research was conducted
semester students’ papers from the non-fifth semester students’ papers because the
sample was only the fifth semester students. Fifth, the data gathered from the
research were analyzed and finally its interpretation was written into this thesis to
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter discusses the research findings and discussion. This part
consists of three parts. The first part is the data presentation from the administered
test including the presentation of the students’ achievement. The second part is the
data analysis and the last part is the discussion which is dealing with the research
A. Data Presentation
The data of this study were collected from the test and questionnaire which
were administered to two classes of the fifth semester students of the English
Language Study Program of Sanata Dharma University in the academic year
2010/2011 on October 4th, 2010. Therefore, this part consists of two parts. The
first part is the data presentation of the test and the second part is the data
presentation of the questionnaire.
1. The Test
The test consisted of two parts and each part consisted of fifteen items. In
the first part, the students were required to put the given verbs into the correct
forms. The objective of this part was that the students were able to recognize
which type of conditional sentences used in the questions and demonstrate the
correct pattern of conditional sentences. In the second part, the students were
this part was that the students were able to recognize the correlation between the
fact and the conditional sentences and demonstrate the correct pattern of
conditional sentences based on the given facts. The detailed information about the
students’ achievement in the test was presented as follows.
a. The Students’ Achievement in Each Part of the Test
The data of the students’ achievement in Part A of the test was presented
in Table 4.1. The score was determined from the total correct answer and then it
was divided by the total number. After that, the result was multiplied by 100.
Table 4.1: The Students’ Scores in Part A
Range of Scores Number of Students Achieving Range of Scores
From Table 4.1, it can be seen that the seventeen students achieved 40-49.
The highest range of score was only achieved by one student. On the other hand,
student. From Table 4.1, it can be seen that there were many students who still
made errors and those were shown by achieving the low range of scores.
Table 4.2: The Students’ Score in Part B
Range of Scores Number of Students Achieving Range of Scores
was 80-89 and there were only two students. In the lowest range of scores, there
were three students. Most of the students achieved the range of scores 20-29 and
there were nineteen students. It means that there were only two students who
understood and were able to produce the conditional sentences based on the given
fact. From Table 4.2, it can be seen that there are many students still made errors
b. The Students’ Total Scores of the Whole Part of the Test
The total scores were obtained by counting the total number of the correct
answers and then it was divided by the total number of the item. After that, the
result was multiplied by 100. It means that the total score was achieved by
counting the total number of the correct answers and then it was divided by thirty
and the result was multiplied by 100.
Table 4.3: Students’ Score in the Whole Part of the Test
Range of Scores Number of Students Achieving Range of Scores
range of scores. Furthermore, there is only one student who achieved the lowest
range of scores. Most of the students achieved the range of scores 30-39, whose
total was fifteen students. In the second order, there were ten students who
There was the minimum standard of mastery. It means that someone
masters the topic if he obtains the score above the minimum standard. Based on
the minimum standard score of mastery as written in academic regulation of
Sanata Dharma University (2002: 14), it should be 56% of the total score. The
scoring level was presented as follows.
80-100 very good (A)
70-79 good (B)
56-69 sufficient (C)
50-55 insufficient (D)
≤49 poor (E)
Based on that category, the students’ achievement in the test was classified
into five categories. The first category was very good (A), which was obtained by
the students who achieved the range of scores 80-100. The second category was
good (B). This category was obtained by the students who achieved the range of
scores 70-79. The third category was sufficient (C), which was obtained by the
students who achieved the range of scores 56-69. The students who obtained this
category of score were still considered as passing the exam or mastering the topic.
The fourth category was insufficient, which was obtained by the students who
achieved the range of scores 50-55. The last category was poor (E), which was
obtained by the students who achieved the range of scores bellow 50. The students
who obtained the last two categories of score were considered failed. The
Table 4.4: The Students’ Scores Based on the Score Category
Number of Students’
Achieving the Category
80-100 A 3
70-79 B 4
56-69 C 10
50-55 D 4
≥49 E 36
From Table 4.4, it can be seen that there were three students (5.26%) who
got score A. On the category B, there were four students (7.02%). Ten students
(17.54%) fell on the category of score C. The next score category was category D
and there were four students (7.02%). The last category was E and most of the
students fell on this category. There were thirty six students (63.16%) on the last
category. From the data, it can be seen that there were only seventeen students
who fulfilled the minimum standard score of mastery. It means that there were
less than 50% of the total students who could pass it.
c. The Questionnaire
The questionnaire consisted of two parts. In the first part, it consisted of
thirty items of close ended responses. In this part, the students were required to
circle the number which represented their real experience. Meanwhile, the second
part consisted of two items of open-ended responses. In this part, the students