H S I L G N EL A I R E T A M G N I T I R W S K S A T G N I S U - E G A U G N A L D E S A B R O F G N I N R A E L E H T F O S T N E D U T S E D A R G H T N E T A T R A K A Y G O Y A I R A M A T N A S A M S A

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1 I R E T P A H C

N O I T C U D O R T N I

e h t f o n o it c u d o rt n i e h t s t n e s e r p r e t p a h c s i h

T research ,which i sdivided i nto t r a p t x e n e h T . m e l b o r p e h t f o d n u o r g k c a b e h t s t n e s e r p t r a p t s ri f e h T . s tr a p x i

s is t he

. n o it a ti m il m e l b o r

p tI i sfollowed by t he problem formulaiton and t he objecitve so f .

h c r a e s e r e h

t A tfert ha,tt henex tdiscussioni sfort hebenefti soft her esearch .Thel as t r

e t p a h c s i h t f o t r a

p i sthede ifniitonoft het erm .s

.

A ResearchBackground

n o s a e r e h

T whypeoplel earna l anguagei st ol earnhowt ocommunicate wel l r

e h t o h ti

w s people .There are many kind sof l anguage t ha tpeople are able t o learn , r e h t o h ti w n o it a c i n u m m o c e v a h o t s y a w l a r e v e s e r a e r e h T . h s il g n E s i m e h t f o e n

o s ,

: y l e m a

n visual ,audio ,audio-visua landi nt hew irtten mfor . e

h t g n ir u

D teachingpracitceat SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta,t he r esearche r y

b d e c a f s a w t a h t m e l b o r p a t o

g the most t enth grade students t here .Based on t he r

e h c r a e s e

r ’ sexpe irence in pracitcing teaching ,mos to fthe student sdid no tshow y

ti li b

a touseEngilsh i n t hei rdaliy ilves ,especiallyi nw iritng .Thestudent so fSMA a

t r a k a y g o Y a i r a M a t n a

S had amodulet hat f aclitiatedt hem i n l earningEngilsh .The e

h t y b e d a m s a w f l e s ti e l u d o m h s il g n

E teache ro fthetenthgrades tudents. r

e h c r a e s e r e h t n o d e s a b , y l e t a n u tr o f n

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e g a u g n a l o t g n ir b s t n a p i c it r a p h c i h w s e c n e ir e p x e d n a n o it a m r o f n i e h t f o e u l a v e h t

s n o i s s e s g n i n r a e

l ” (Wliil s& Wliils ,2001 : 04 ). Ta Bsk ased teaching offer sa change r

a e l y n a m h c i h w h g u o r h t s e n it u o r e c it c a r p r a m m a r g a m o r

f ner shavepreviouslyf alied

n r a e l o

t tocommunicate. r e h c a e t e h t p l e h o

T and students make t he t eaching l earning acitviite smore ,

e v it a c i n u m m o

c and enjoyable, and to make t he student shave a chance t o i mprove i

k s g n it ir w r i e h

t ll ,ase to fmateiral swas dma ef ort enthgradestudent so fSMASanta a

t r a k a y g o Y a i r a

M .H , eere t h teacher g s ive the student smore chance sto learn and e

c it c a r

p Engilsh inthew irttenf orm .Thedesignedmate iral sprovidemorei nteresitng , a

ir e t a m l a n o it c u rt s n i l a i c if e n e b d n a g n i g n e ll a h

c ls ,teaching-learning acitviites ,task s t

a h t s e u q i n h c e t d n

a theyhavenothadbefore .

y b d e t a t s s i t i s A . g n it ir w t u o b a s i e k a m o t g n i o g s i r e ti r w e h t t a h t t e s e h T

: 9 9 9 1 ( o y n g i w u

S 29) ,“w iritngi saproces so fproduciton i nt hesense t ha tti r elease s e

h

t resul tof t hemindproces sof t hinking.”W iritngrefers t o rtansforming i dea sand n

i h g u o r h

t to wir ttenf orm .The wrtier t hinksthatt hi sse tisi mpo trant t oh elpstudent s g

n i n r a e l n

i w iritngEngilsheasliy.

.

B ProblemLimtia iton

d e ti m il s i h c r a e s e r s i h

T providing sutiable w iritng mate irals .The wrtie rhas n

o it n e

m e d before t he i mpo trance o fw iritng and t he students ’needs .Based on t hat , e

d i v o r p r e ti r w e h

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o n e r a o h w e s o h t e r a s t n e d u t s e h

T w in the tenth grade o fSMA Santa Maria a

t r a k a y g o

Y .Thewrtie ralsopresentst hemate irali nt hef ormo fTask-BasedLearning o

t s t n e d u t s e h t s w o ll a t a h t d o h t e

m have much pracitce .Besides ,the wrtie rt ire sto r

w a n g i s e

d iitngmateiralt ha ti ssutiablef o rtheschoo lcur irculumsoatt heendoft he ,

y d u t

s thes tudent shaves omecompetencie .s

.

C ResearchProblems

: s w o ll o f s a d e t a l u m r o f e r a y d u t s s i h t n i d e t a g it s e v n i s m e l b o r p h c r a e s e r e h T .

1 How i sa se to fw iritng mate irals using t ask-based language learning f t o r he f

o s t n e d u t s e d a r g h t n e

t SMASantaMariaYogyakartadesigned? .

2 Wha tdoe sthe design o fa se tof et h w iritng mate irals using task-based e

g a u g n a

l learning for et h tenth grade student s o f SMA Santa Maria a

t r a k a y g o

Y look ilke?

.

D ResearchObjec itves

s i h

T researc h i sconducted to answe rthe quesiton sstated in the problem e

h t f o s e v it c e j b o e h t ,s u h T . n o it a l u m r o

f research :a re

.

1 Tof ind ou th owa seto fw iritngmateirals usingt ask-basedlanguagelearning r

o

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.

2 To presen tprope rdesign o fa se to fthe w iritng mate irals using task-based e

g a u g n a

l learning for et h tenth grade student s o f SMA Santa Maria a

t r a k a y g o

Y .

.

E Benefti soft heResearch

ti w n r e c n o c o h w e l p o e p r o f e l b a u l a v s i y d u t s s i h t f o t l u s e r e h

T h teaching

-. e g a u g n a l h s il g n E f o s s e c o r p g n i n r a e

l T he fo llowing are those who migh tb e the .

y d u t s s i h t m o r f y r a i c if e n e b

.

1 Engilsht eachers e

h

T Engilsh teacher sare able to use thi sdesigne d mate ira la saddiitona lo r .

h s il g n E h c a e t o t s l a ir e t a m y r a t n e m e l p p u

s Thi sstudy may help them to be more n

o it a u ti s g n it s e r e t n i n a e k a m o t e v it a e r

c in t he classroom ,o rmay help t hem design o

s l a t I . s l a ir e t a m n w o r i e h

t helps them to improve thei rtechniques ,srtategies ,and o

o h c S h g i H r o i n e S r o f h s il g n E g n i h c a e t n i y ti v it a e r

c .l

.

2 TenGradestudents l

u s e r e h

T toft hi sstudy i s beneifcial f or t he students t oi mprove t hei rw iritng n

g i s e d e h T . h s il g n E n i y ti li b

a e d mate ira lwould give them oppo truntiy to learn e

v i s n e t n i e r o m h s il g n

E l ybuts itlli nenjoyables tiuaiton. .

3 Thewrtier s i h

T research i susefu lfo rthe wrtie ra sfeedback and fu trhe rinside .I t e

d i v o r

p s more usefu linformaiton whethe rthe se to fmate ira li sappilcable and t

o n r o e l b a v e i h c a s i s e v it c e j b o d n a l a o g e h t r e h t e h

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.

5 P -ost TaskAcitviy ll

i

W i s(2003 )states t ha t“post t ask acitvtiyor l anguage focus allow sa close r s

e r u t a e f c if i c e p s e h t e m o s f o y d u t

s whicharenaturallyoccurringint hel anguageused e

l c y c k s a t e h t g n ir u

d ” (p .40) .By t hi spoin,tt he l earner shave arleady worked wtih c if i c e p s e h t n o s u c o f o t y d a e r e r a y e h t o s , g n i n a e m r o f ti d e s s e c o r p d n a e g a u g n a l e h t

n o c e s a h p l a n if s i h T . g n i n a e m t a h t y r r a c t a h t s m r o f e g a u g n a

l sist so fanalysi sand

.s t n e n o p m o c e c it c a r p

.

6 Genre-basedapproach n i L o t g n i d r o c c

A (2006), “teaching and learning in genre-based approach s

t x e t f o s e r n e g d e t c e l e s f o n o it c u d o r p d n a g n i d n a t s r e d n u e h t n o s e s u c o

f ” .The genre

-h c a o r p p a d e s a

b focuse smore on the text srathe rthan the sentences .Thi sapproach s

t n e d u t s m e h t p l e h y a

m g et closert ot het opic oft heteaching andl earningacitviites . y

e h

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9 I I R E T P A H C

E R U T A R E T I L D E T A L E R F O W E I V E R

s i h t n

I chapter ,the wrtie rpresents some theo ire swhich are related to the

s e ir o e h t e s e h T . y d u t

s a re wir tten in the two subchapters , they are theoreitca l

t d n a n o it p ir c s e

d heoreitca lFramework.

.

A Theore itca lDescrip it on

s e ir o e h t d e t a l e r e m o s s s u c s i d o t e k il d l u o w r e ti r w e h t , n o it c e s s i h t n

I such as

n

o insrtucitonal design model ,nature o fw iritng ,task-based learning and school

-. m u l u c ir r u c d e s a b

.

1 Kemp’ sInstruc itona lDesignModel m e K e h t s e s u r e ti r w e h t , y d u t s s i h t n

I p’ sinsrtucitona ldesign model .Kemp

) 7 7 9 1

( state stha t“insrtucitona lproces si scomplex” (p. 6) .Thi sproces sinclude s

a p d e t a l e r r e t n i f o s d n i k y n a

m tr sand funciton swhich are operated in a coheren t

i r e n n a

m n order t o achievesuccess .The expectaiton a tferward i stoproduce succes s

n o it a c u d e f o e m o c t u o y e k e h t g n i v o r p m i n

i – learningbys tudent .s

7 7 9 1 ( p m e

K )also state stha t“the insrtucitona ldesign plan i sto design

s t n e m e l e l a it n e s s e e h t d e r e d i s n o c e r a h c i h w , s n o it s e u q e e r h t o t s r e w s n

a o f

l a n o it c u rt s n

i technology” (p .8) .Therearethreeelement sofi nsrtucitonalt echnology :

) 1

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t a h

t works bestt or eacht hedesriedl earningl evels?( acitviite sandr esources )andt he

s i t s a

l abou t(3 )how wli lwe know when the requrie learning ha staken place?

(evaluaiton) .Kemp’s i ns rtucitona ldesign method and mode lha sdivided into eigh t

t n e m e l

e so finsrtucitona ldesign .The following are eigh telement swhich are very

n a n g i s e d o t t n a tr o p m

i ddevelopt hemate irals .

.

a Goal ,st opic sand genera lpurposes :conside rgoals ,and t he ils tof t opics ,staitng

. c i p o t h c a e g n i h c a e t r o f s e s o p r u p l a r e n e g e h t

.

b Learne rcharacte irsitcs :enumeratet hei mpo tran tcharacte irsitc soft hel earnersf o r

u rt s n i e h t m o h

w citoni st obedesigne . d

.

c Learning objecitves :specfiy the learning objecitve sto be achieved in terms fo

.s e m o c t u o r o i v a h e b t n e d u t s e l b a r u s a e m

.

d Subjec tcontent :ils tofs ubjec tcontents thats uppor teachobjecitve.

.

e P -re assessment :develop ep -r assessmen tto determine the studen’t sbackground

. c i p o t e h t t u o b a e g d e l w o n k f o l e v e l t n e s e r p d n a

.f Teachingl/earning acitviite sand resources :select t he teachingl/earning acitviite s

d n

a insrtucitona lresource sthat rtea tthe subjec tcontents so the student swli l

il p m o c c

a sht heobjecitve .s

.

g Suppor t services : coordinate budget , personnel , faci ilites , equipment , and

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.

h Evaluaiton :evaluate the students ’learning in term o fthei raccompilshmen to f

objecitves ,wtih aview t o r evise and reevaluateanyphase soft heplan t ha tneed

.t n e m e v o r p m i

1 . 2 e r u g if n i n w o h s s i l e d o m d n a d o h t e m n g i s e d l a n o it c u rt s n i s ’ p m e K e h

T .

1 . 2 e r u g i

F Kemp’si nstruc itona ldesignmethodandmodel( Kemp ,1977 :9)

s i h t n

I research ,the three quesiton sare used to determine the teaching and

n i n r a e

l g mate irals and acitviites .The eigh telements ea r used to help the wrtie rto

e h t n g i s e

(29)

.

2 Task-BasedLanguageLearning 4 0 0 2 ( n a n u N o t g n i d r o c c

A ) ,“task-based language learning aim sto rp ovide

i n u tr o p p

o ites f orl earners t o expe irmen twtihother l earners and exploreboth spoken

s r e n r a e l e g a g n e o t d e n g i s e d e r a t a h t s e it i v it c a g n i n r a e l h g u o r h t e g a u g n a l n e tt ir w d n a

e s o p r u p l u f g n i n a e m r o f e g a u g n a l f o e s u l a n o it c n u f d n a l a c it c a r p , c it n e h t u a e h t n

i ” .(p

) 3

1 . aT ks -basedlanguagelearning g s ive a chance t othe studentst o expe irence some

e c it c a r

p s indoingsomeexercise .s

.

a De ifni itonof Task g n i s s u c s i

D t he task de ifniiton ,Nunan (1992 )states t ha t“a task i sa piece o f

r f ,s r e h t o r o f r o f l e s e n o r o f n e k a tr e d n u k r o

w eelyorf ors omer eward” (p .5). Thereare

s d n i k o w

t o ftasks which are used in the language class .They are targe ttask and

. k s a t l a c i g o g a d e p

.

1 Targe tTask

s e t a t s ) 9 8 : 5 8 9 1 ( g n o

L inNunan( 199 )2 tha tthede ifniitonoft argett aski nt he

k s a t f o m r o

f -basedlanguagelearningi sa“pieceo fworkunde trakenf o ronesel forf o r

d r a w e r e m o s r o f r o y l e e r f , s r e h t

o ” (p .5) .Thi stask i snon-technica land non

. s c it s i u g n

il The examples o ftarget task are painitng a fence ,borrowing a ilbrary

t s e t g n i v ir d a g n i k a t , k o o

b ,w iritngacheque ,and ifndingas rtee tdesitnaiton.I nothe r

d r o

(30)
(31)

e s u e g a u g n a l e h t e l b a n e o t s t s i x

e rs to expres sdfiferen tcommunicaitve meaning .(p

) 4 .

e d u l c n o c r e ti r w e h t , k s a t f o s n o it i n if e d e m o s n o d e s a

B s that t hek ind oft asks

t a h

t a resutiablei nt ask-basedlanguagelearningi spedagogicalt ask. Thist aski sused

e h t n i s e it i v it c a g n i n r a e l e h t n

i classroom which i sused to know t heachievemen to f

. e g a u g n a l g n i s u g n i n a e m e h t r e v il e d s t n e d u t s w o h w o n k o t d n a s t n e d u t s e h t

.

b Frameworko fTask-BasedLanguageLearning k

s a

T -based languagelearning give smore changes for t he l earners t o i nterac t

r e h t o h ti

w sin orde rto faclitiate language acquisiiton when the student shave to

g n i n a e m n w o r i e h t s s e r p x e o t d n a r e h t o h c a e d n a t s r e d n

u s .Pedagogically ,the task

-d e s a

b language learning ha ssrtengthened the following p irnciple sand pracitce sa s

.s w o ll o f

x Aneed-basedapproacht ocontents eleciton.

x An emphasi son learning to communicate through interaciton in targe t

. e g a u g n a l

x Thei nrtoducitono fauthenitct extsi ntot hel earnings tiuaiton.

x The provision o foppo truniite sfor l earner t o focu sno tonly on l anguage

l a t u

b soont hel earningproces stisel .f

x An enhancemen to fthe learner’ sown persona limpo tran texpe irence s

(32)

x The ilnkingo fclassroom l anguagel earningwtihl anguageuseoutside t he

. m o o r s s a l c

t e h

T a -sk based languagelearning i sabou tgetitng l earners t odo one t askand

m d l u o w t a h t k s a t r e h t o n a n e h

t ake t he l earner squtie advance ni doing the tasks and

e s n e p x e e h t t a y c n e u lf n i a g y l n i a tr e c d l u o w o s l a d n a e g a u g n a l ri e h t h ti w l u f e c r u o s e r

a t s ) 0 4 : 6 9 9 1 ( s il li W . y c a r u c c a f

o te stha tthe framework o ftask-based language

g n i n r a e

l consists of t hree phase ssuch as ep -r task ,whlist t ask (task cycle) and pos t

( k s a

t languagef ocus).

c i p o t g n it a v it c a , k s a t e h t d n a c i p o t e h t n o n o it c u d o rt n

I -related word and

s e s a r h

p a re donei nt hepre-task.I nt he t askcycle,l earner swli lhave achancet o use

y n

a language they have arleady known in orde rto carry ou tthe task ,and then to

s i t I . e g a u g n a l e h t e v o r p m

i surely done unde rthe teacher’ s guidance whlie the

e r a s t n e d u t

s planningt heri r epor toft he t ask .Thel earners gett he t eacher’ sfeedback

T . tr o p e r e h t r e tf a d n a e g a t s g n i n n a l p e h t t a , ti e v a h o t t n a w y ll a e r y e h t n e h

w het a -sk

d e s a

b languagelearningsof a rprovidest hree basiccondiitons f orl anguagel earning .

They are exposure ,use and motivaiton .The learner sge ta hoilsitc expe irence o f

. e l c y c k s a t e h t n i e s u e g a u g n a

l Thel as tphase i sl anguage f ocus .Thi sphase allow sa

d e s u e g a u g n a l e h t n i g n ir r u c c o y ll a r u t a n s e r u t a e f c if i c e p s e h t f o e m o s f o y d u t s r e s o l c

c k s a t e h t g n ir u

d ycle .The learner shave arleady expeirenced to work wtih the

d n a e g a u g n a

l processed i tfo rmeaning .I tmeans t hat t heyare readyt o focu son t he

(33)
(34)
(35)
(36)

h t n

o i sapproach, thestudentsi nt heclassroomshouldbeablet oexploreat opicf ully

g n it ir w f o p e t s e h t n

i , fo rexamplei nt heprew iritngactiviites .Thi sapproachexplain s

t a h

t studentsneedt of ocu sont heri w iritngi deas .Thes tudent swho aregivent he itme

g n it ir w n i s s e c o r p e h t r o

f exploremore newi deas ,sentence sandword sa stheyplan ,

e ti r

w et h fris tdraf tand then revise i ta sthe second dra tf .Tha ti show the proces s

. h c a o r p p a s i h t n i s k r o w

Thet eacher s areexpected t o give t he studentst wo crucia lsuppo trs .Theyare

k c a b d e e f d n a e m

it int hi sapproach .Timei sgivent ot hes tudentst o if ndoutt hei deas .

e s o t d e s u s i k c a b d e e f e h

T e t heconten to fw iritngi nwhich theauthor swrtie no thei r

t s ri

f dra tf .Int hi sseciton,t heteacherunderstands thatt he w iritngproces sbecome sa

f o s s e c o r p y r e v o c s i

d thei rstudents .The discoveryproces si sabou thow to ifnd new

r o f e g a u g n a l w e n d n a s a e d

i mst oexpresst hosei dea.

.

b TheBenefti so fWri itng e

r a e r e h

T threebenefti so fw iritng .Thef risti sbyw iritng, someonei sablet o

a h w r e v o c s i

d theo rshe t hinks .Manypeople rt yto wrtie manyt hings i na paritcula r

e m

it in order t o have an oppo trun tiy t o learn more abou thersel fo rhimsel fand t he

s i t if e n e b d n o c e s e h T . d lr o

w to help someone to be more skliflul ni w iritng .Thi s

t if e n e

b would ilket ohelpthes tudent smuchi ndoingt herij ob .Thel as tbeneftii st ha t

d n e t n i e n o e m o s t a h w y l e s i c e r p g n it ir w y

b s ,he o rshe grealtyenhances possibli tiyo f

e s u a c e b d o o t s r e d n u g n i e

b heo rshei sablet o rtansformt hei nformaitonclea lryi nt he

(37)

.

B Theore itca lFramework n

o it c e s s i h

T discusse s the relaiton between t he t heo ire swhich suppor tothe r

s e ir o e h

t .A tfe rdiscussing I ns rtuctiona ldesign,t hef ramework oft a -bsk asedlanguage

g n i n r a e

l and t he nature o fwir itng, t he wrtie rwould ilke t o make a discussion abou t

p i h s n o it a l e r e h

t amongthet heo ire sabove .

f o y r o e h t e h

T insrtucitona l design i s the majo r basic o f the designing

tI . e r u d e c o r

p i sused to create the step to create the design o fEngilsh w iritng

. s l a ir e t a m l a n o it c u rt s n

i These step sa re used by t he researcher t o make t he mate ira l

n g i s e

d ,asf ollows.

.

1 Conduc itngNeedAnalysis m o r f d e t p a d a s i p e t s s i h

T the R & D approach .The wrtie rtakes the need

-a o r p p a d e s a

b ch to know wha tkind o fcontents tha ti ssutiable fo r the design

l a ir e t a

m s .In thi sstep the wrtie rfristly t ires to ifnd the need so fthe teache rand

m e l b o r p e h t ,s t n e d u t

s s and t he soluitons fo rboth of t hem .The outpu tof t hi sstep i s

.r e h c a e t e h t d n a s t n e d u t s f o s d e e n e h t d n a s i s y l a n a r e t c a r a h c e h t

.

2 Sta itngGoals ,Topic sandGenera lPurposes s

m i a p e t s s i h

T to determine the goals ,topic sand the genera lpurpose so f

l a ir e t a m n g i s e d l a n o it c u rt s n

i s h .T ese a re accordance wtih the KTSP cur irculum a s

f o s u b a ll y s e h t n i d e t a l u m r o

(38)

.

3 Sta itngt heLearningObjec itves

, l a ir e t a m e h t e v e i h c a d n a d n a t s r e d n u o t r e i s a e s t n e d u t s e h t e k a m o t r e d r o n I

v it c e j b o g n i n r a e l e m o s s e t a t s r e ti r w e h

t es .The objecitve sare any acitviite so r

e r u s a e m e b n a c t a h t r o i v a h e

b d andobserved.

.

4 Lis itngt heSubjec tContents

e g d e l w o n k c if i c e p s e h t s e if i s s a l c r e ti r w e h

T and skli lwhich are connected

h ti

w theobjecitve sands tudents ’need.

.

5 Selec itngt heTeachingAc itvi ites r

e ti r w e h t p e t s s i h t n

I t ires to ifnd sutiable learning and teaching acitviite s

d e t a l e

r tot hes elecitono fapprop irates ourcesf ort hemate iral .s

.

6 Designingt heMaterial

, s l a o g e h t g n i n i m r e t e d r e tf

A topics ,genera lpurposes ,objecitves ,subjec t

t n o

c ent sandt het eachingacitviites ,tii sthe itmef ort hewrtiert odesignt hemate ira.l

.

7 Conduc itngMateria lEvalua iton a

g n i k a m r e tf

A se to fmate ira lo finsrtucitona lw iritng mate iral ,the wrtie r

d e e

n s to do evaluaiton i n order t oknow whether t he mate iral s are appilcableo rnot .

o

T check thi sout ,the wrtier dist irbutes quesitonnaries to a teacher fo SMA Santa

a t r a k a y g o Y a i r a

M and t wo lecturer so fUniverstia sSanata Dharma. Thei rfeedback

s n o it s e g g u s d n

(39)

.

8 Revisingt heDesignMaterial e

r a h c i h w a t a d e h

T gained by dist irbu itng t he quesitonnarie i sprocessed by

k c a b d e e f e h t g n it t e g r e tf A . r e ti r w e h

t s andsuggesiton ,s thewrtie rusedthedataast he

e h t e s i v e r o t c i s a

b inapp ilcable mate irals and alsoi mprove somemate ir s al which ea r

L . o d o t d e d e e

n ater,t he wrtierproduces bette rmate irals .Atl as,tt he ifnalr evision i s

.s t n e d u t s t e g r a t e h t y b d e s u

f o e m e h c s e h t s i e m e h c s g n i w o ll o f e h t n i n w o h s s a s p e t s t h g i e e h T

. p m e K f o l a ir e t a m g n it ir w l a n o it c u rt s n i

. 2 e r u g i

F 2 .TheWrtier’ sModel g

n it c u d n o C

s i s y l a n A d e e

N aSntdagitnegnegroaa llpu,st roppoisces s Sltaeaitrnngint ghe s e v it c e j b o

t c e j b u s e h t g n it s i L

t n e t n o c

e h t g n it c e l e S

s e it i v it c a g n i h c a e t i

n g i s e

D ngt he l a ir e t a m g

n it c u d n o C

l a ir e t a m

n o it a u l a v e

e h t g n i s i v e R

(40)

3 2

I I I R E T P A H C

Y G O L O D O H T E M

i r e t p a h c s i h

T s i ntendedt o giveimpo trant i nformaiton whichis relatedt o t he o

l o d o h t e

m gy used in thi sresearch .I tcovers some method so fthe study ,research

u q i n h c e t g n ir e h t a g a t a d , s t n e m u rt s n i h c r a e s e r , g n it t e s , s t n a p i c it r a

p e ,dataanalysi sand

.s e r u d e c o r p h c r a e s e r

.

A ResearchMethod

d a h r e ti r w e h

T made two quesiton swhich w eer formulated in the research s

m e l b o r

p .The fris tques iton wa s who a se to fw iritng mateira lusing task-based

r o f g n i n r a e

l et h tenth grade student so fSMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta si designed. s

e h

T econdques itonwas w th a thedesigno fase to fw iritngmate ira lusingt ask-based r

o f g n i n r a e

l thetenthgrades tudent so fSMASantaMariaYogyakarta kloo silke.

f o d n i k s i h

T research sw a catego irzed a seducaitonr esearchanddevelopmen t s

e r e h t e s u a c e b ) D & R

( earch proces soft hi sresearch nisi ordert o developdesigned o

t g n i d r o c c A . s l a ir e t a

m Borg andGall( 1983) ,educaitonalr esearchand developmen t

s i ) D & R

( “aproces susedt odevelopandvaildateeducaitona lproducts” (p .772). t

g n i d r o c c

A o oB rg and Gal l(1983 ,) t here are t en majo rsteps i n R & D (p. )

5 7

7 .Those ten step sare research and informaiton collecitng ,planning ,develop

i a m , n o i s i v e r t c u d o r p n i a m , g n it s e t d l e if y r a n i m il e r p , t c u d o r p f o m r o f y r a n i m il e r

(41)

, g n it s e t d l e

if operaitona l ifeld t esitng , ifna lproduc trevision ,and disseminaiton and .

n o it a t n e m e l p m i

s i h t n

I research, the wrtie rused ifve step sfrom ten step sstated above .The e

s u a c e b s p e t s e v if e s e h t d e s u r e ti r

w they are approp irate wtih t he procedure of t hi s e

r a y e h T . y d u t

s asf ollow .s

.

1 ResearchandI nforma itonCollec itng

r e ti r w e h

T madesurveyi nordert o ifnda smuchi nformaitona spossiblef rom e h t p o l e v e d d n a n g i s e d o t c i s a b e h t s a s e c r u o s r e h t o d n a , e l u d o m , s r e n r a e l e h t

r o f a t a d e h T . s l a ir e t a

m the survey w s a collected t hrough dist irbuitng quesitonnaries e

ri a n n o it s e u q e h T . w e i v r e t n i t c u d n o c d n

a w s a dist irbutedt o the tenth grade student s f

o SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta and the interview was conducted to some of the

e d a r g h t n e

t thes tudent so fSMASantaMariaYogyakarta. .

2 Planning

, g n i n n a l p t u o b a g n i s s u c s i

D Borg and Gal l(1983 )state “the mos timpo tran t

h c r a e s e r a g n i n n a l p f o t c e p s

a -basededucaitonproducti s t hestatemen toft hespeci ifc o

t s e v it c e j b

o be achieved by the product” (p .779) . tI mean stha thow to create an e

t e d t i e s u a c e b t n a tr o p m i s i e v it c e j b

o rmines the resutl . The wrtie r u d se an

n g i s e d e h t r o f p m e K m o r f l e d o m n g i s e d l a n o it c u rt s n

i e dmate iralst hatl ate rwa susefu l .

(42)

.

3 DevelopingPreilminaryFormo fProduct

d e d u l c n i t c u d o r p f o m r o f y r a n i m il e r p g n i p o l e v e

D preparaitonof i nsrtucitona l

d n o it a u l a v e d n a , s k o o b d n a h , s l a ir e t a

m evices .In thi sstage, the wrtie rdesigned the k

s a t g n i s u l a ir e t a

m - sba edl earningapproach.I twas ab sedont heneedanalysi swhich a

w sgainedfromt heresul to fquesitonnarieandt hei nterview .Atfer t hewrtie rg lotal

, n o it a m r o f n i e h

t thewrtie rdesigne dthemate ira.lI nt hiss tep,t hewrtie rdesigne das e t n

o d e s a b s l a ir e t a m g n it ir w f

o task-based language learning fo rt he tenth grade f

o s t n e d u t

s SMASantaMariaYogyakarta.

.

4 PreilminaryFieldTes itng

e ri a n n o it s e u

Q w s a usedi nt hi sstep .Thepurposeo fpreilminary ifeldt es twa s e h t , p e t s s i h t n I .t c u d o r p l a n o it a c u d e w e n f o n o it a u l a v e e v it a ti l a u q l a it i n i n a n i a t b o o t

d r e ti r

w istirbuted quesitonnariet o t wolecturers o fEngilshEducaitonStudyProgram f

o Sanata Dharma Universtiy and an Engilsh teacher fo SMA Santa Maria a

t r a k a y g o

Y to ge tfeedbacks and suggesitons in order t o i mprove t he design o fthe

l a ir e t a

m s.

.

5 MainProduc tRevision

n o i s i v e r t c u d o r p n i a

M w s a designe d based on the feedback and suggesiton

d e n i a t b

o from t he resul tof t he quesitonnarie t ha twa sgiven t o t wo lecturers and an f

o r e h c a e t h s il g n

E SMASantaMariaYogyakarta . e

d a m r e h c r a e s e r e h

T f a igureoft he R&D cyclest ha twa ssubsttiuted byt he

e h t e k a m o t l e d o m s ’ r e h c r a e s e r f o s p e t

s explanaitonobvious .The mode lcanbe seen 1

. 3 e r u g if e h t n

(43)

e l c y C D &

R Insrtucitona lDesignModel v

v

1 . 3 e r u g i

F R&DCycleandResearcher’sI nstruc itona lDe isgnModel

.

B ResearchPar itcipants

h c r a e s e r s i h t n

I , t he wrtie rus d oe t w groups o fparitcipants .T he paritcipants t

c u d n o c o t r e h c r a e s e r e h t p l e

h researchandi nformaitoncollecitng. d

n a h c r a e s e R

g n it c e ll o C n o it a m r o f n I

g n i n n a l P

g n i p o l e v e D

f o m r o F y r a n i m il e r P

t c u d o r P

y r a n i m il e r P

g n it s e T d l e i F

n o i s i v e R t c u d o r P n i a

M Revisingt heDesign

l a ir e t a M

e h t g n it c u d n o C

n o it a u l a v E l a ir e t a M

e h t g n i n g i s e D

l a ir e t a M

e h t g n it c e l e S

s e it i v it c A g n i h c a e T

t c e j b u S e h t g n it s i L

t n e t n o C

g n i n r a e L e h t g n it a t S

s e v it c e j b O

StaitngGoals ,Topic s s e s o p r u P l a r e n e G d n a

d e e N g n it c u d n o C

(44)

.

a TheParitcipan to fResearchandI nforma itonCollec it ng

e h t , s t s e r e t n i d n a s d e e n ’ s r e n r a e l e h t t u o b a n o it a m r o f n i e h t d n if o t r e d r o n I

t s i d r e ti r

w irbuted quesitonnarie fo rthe tenth grade student so fSMA Santa Maria .

a t r a k a y g o

Y Thewrtie rtook 3 classe ssa thesamples n. I eachclasst herewerearound u

t s 3

2 dents .The wrtie rconducte d interview to some students fo the tenth grade in

a w s i h T . l o o h c s s i h

t st hef rists tepo fresearchanddevelopment. .

b Thepar itcipant soft hePreilminaryFieldTes itng

f o s t n a p i c it r a p e h

T the evaluaiton survey w eer an Engilsh teache ro fSMA a

t r a k a y g o Y a i r a M a t n a

S and two lecturers o fEngilsh Educaiton Study Program o f

a m r a h D a t a n a

S Univers tiy .Theywereexpectedt ogivef eedbacks ands uggesitons fo n

g i s e d e h

t e dmate iral .Thef eedbacks tha tw eregivenwe resoi mpo trantf ort hewrtier

e d r o n

i r to improve the mate irals . Table 3 .1 present s the desc irp iton o f the o

p s e

r ndent .s

e l b a

T 3 1 . TheDescrip itonoft heRespondents( Blank)

s t n e d n o p s e R f o p u o r

G Female/Male

l a n o it a c u d E

d n u o r g k c a

B Teachin(gyeEaxrp)erience e

l a m e

F M ale S 1 S 2 S 3 1 1-5 > 10

r e h c a e T h s il g n E

s r e r u t c e L h s il g n E

.

C Set itng

y d u t s s i h

T w s a donei nSMASantaMariaYogyakarta .tIi sl ocatedonJ l . rIeda n

o it c e ll o c n o it a m r o f n i e h T . a tr a k a y g o Y A 9

1 w sa done in SMA Santa Maria

a t r a k a y g o

(45)
(46)

d e s u r e ti r w e h t , y d u t s s i h t n I . e ri a n n o it s e u q n e p o r o d e t c u rt s n o c d n a e ri a n n o it s e u q

n i s e ri a n n o it s e u q n e p o d n a e s o l c h t o

b theneeds analysi sandpreliminary ifeldt esitng.

e ll o c n o it a m r o f n i d n a h c r a e s e r o t g n i d r o c c

A citng step o fR & D ,the wrtier e

t u b ir t s i

d d the quesitonnaries to the t h ent grade student so fSMA Santa Ma ira a

tr a k a y g o

Y toge tmorei nformaiton ont he mate irals needed byt he student .sI nR &

a w t i ,

D si nt her esearchandi nformaitoncollecitngs tep.

.

E DataGatheringTechnique

h c r a e s e r s i h

T w s a doneint hesecondsemeste rwhichi swtihinFebruary2011 e

h t n

i SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta .I tw s a done by conducitng interview and g

n it u b ir t s i

d quesitonnaries .

e r p e h t r o

F -design survey ,the wrtie rdist irbuted the quesitonnarie sto the f

o s t n e d u t

s SMASantaMariaYogyakartainordert oknowf ristt hes tudents ’needsi n .

ll i k s g n it ir w n i y ll a i c e p s e h s il g n E g n i n r a e

l Thi sper-design survey had done on

t e g o T . h c r a

M thebestr esul,tt hewrtiert ookthreeclassesf rom ifveclassest ha tw ere .

l o o h c s s i h t n i e l b a li a v

a Paritcipants f rom t hreeclasse swere enoughto r epresentt he .l

o o h c s t a h t n i s t n e d u t s ll a m o r f a t a

d

e h t r e tf

A researche rgained the data o fstudents ’needs and wants,t he wrtie r e

u n it n o

c d to make the w iritng mate iral . A tfe r designi ng the mate irals , a s the n

it s e t d l e if y r a n i m il e r

p gs tepo fR&D,t hewrtie rdist irbuted thequesitonnaries tot he

e n

o Engilsh teacher SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta and t wo lecturers o fEngilsh f

o m a r g o r P y d u t S n o it a c u d

(47)

e t u b ir t s i

d the quesitonnaries to the respondent sbu talso conducte d an interview to o

t r e d r o n i s t n e d n o p s e r e s o h

t g ainmoref eedbackands ugges itonon themate iral .s

.

F DataAnalysi sTechnique

t a h t a t a d e h

T w erecollected aregoing to analyze .A tfert he wrtie rgained the r

w e h t , a t a d w e i v r e t n

i tie rrtanslatedthef ormi ntow irttenparagraph.

a t a d e ri a n n o it s e u q e h

T w ereanalyzedbyusings everals teps .Fort heveryf ris t e

t a l u ti p a c e r r e ti r w e h t , p e t

s d thedatai nt het able .A tfert ha,tt hewrtie rcalculatedf o r a

w t l u s e r e h T . d n o p s e r h c a

e sobtained by dividing by the numbe ro fstudent swho

m n e h t ,s t n e d u t s e h t f o r e b m u n l a t o t e h t h ti w r e w s n a n i a tr e c e s o h

c ulitpiledby100% .

d e t c e ll o c a t a d e h

T w ee r calculatedbyusingaf ormulaasf ollows.

: e t o

N ∑n :t het ota lnumbe rofs tudent swhochosece trainanswers. N :t het ota lnumbe rofs tudent .s

r e ti r w e h

T madeat ablewhichwa susedt opresentt her esul to fthedata .A tfe r e

d a m r e ti r w e h t ,t a h

t thei nterpretaitonoft her esutli nt hef ormo fparagraph. e

l b a

T 3 2 . TheResul toft heQues itonnaire s

n o it s e u

Q Response Number Percentage

r e ti r w e h

T u d se the Liker’ sscale to analyze t he mode lof t he design t hat si

r e ti r w e h t y b e d a

m .The dataw ere analyzed t o suppo tr t heproces so fmodfiying t he ∑ n

(48)

g n i s u l a ir e t a m h s il g n E g n it ir w l a n o it c u rt s n

i task-based l anguagel earning .The wrtie r e

v a

g ifve opiton sto presen tthe respondents ’agreement ,disagreement ,and doub t

b

a outf o reachs tatement .Theopiton spresen tont het able3.3 .

3 e l b a

T .3 Point so fAgreement t

n e m e e r g A f o t n i o

P Meaning

1 Absolutelydisagree 2 Disagree

3 Undecided 4 Agree

5 Absolutelyagree

e t a l u c l a c r e ti r w e h

T d the data o fthi squesitonnarie by using desc irpitve e

s u r e ti r w e h t n e h T . s c it s it a t

s d the quesitonnarie datat o ifndt he numbe ro fcase and

e d a m r e ti r w e h T . n a e m e h

t at able oft he cenrtalt endencyoft he r espondents ’on t he .l

a ir e t a m e h t f o n g i s e d

e l b a

T 3 4 . TheDescripitonoft heEvalua itono fDe isgnMateria lPar itcipant s .

o

N Respondeno tns ’Opinion 1 Frequen2 cyo fpo3 int so fa4 greemen5 t CeN nrta lTendeM nncy

: s e t o

N N :Numbe ro fCases( Numbe rofr espondents) n

M :Mean

: n a e M e h t t e g o t a l u m r o f e h T

M : e r e h

W =t heaverage

x∑ =t hes umoft hes cores N =Numbe roft hes ubjects

M = x ∑

(49)

, ) 0 7 9 1 ( t s e B o t g n i d r o c c

A “theaveragepoint saredividedf rom1up t o5”( p.

) 9 7

1 .Theinterpretaiton soft heaveragepoint sarepresente dint het able3.5. a

T ble3 5 . TheI nterpretaitonoft heDegreeo fAgreement e

g n a

R Meaning

0 0 .

1 – 91 .9 Replacet her ejectedpar toft hedesign 0

0 .

2 – 92 .9 Addmorepar to rmodfiypar toft hedesignbasedont hel ackont hes tatement 0

0 .

3 – 93 .9 Conduc tmoreexploraitonont heexisitngpar toft hedesignbasedont he t

n e m e t a t s 0

0 .

4 – 05 .0 Nor evision

e d a m r e ti r w e h t n e h

T the i mprovemen tof t he design based on t he data .The

t f o n o it a u l a v e n g i s e d e h t f o t l u s e

r hedesigne doft hemate irals becamethesigni ifcan t s

s e c o r p s i h t n i s e c r u o s n i a

m . I twa scontained feedback and evaluaiton from the .s

tr e p x e

.

G Procedure soft heStudy

t r e d r o n

I o have a vaild and reilable data for i nsrtucitona ldesign o fw iritng r

o f l a ir e t a

m SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta ,the wrtie rmade the step sin a ce train s

p e t s e h T . s y a

w w ere arranged and car ired through ,so late rthose step shelpe d the

r e ti r

w tocollectt hedata .Theprocedure sw ereexplainedasf ollows. .

1 ResearchandCollectt heI nformaiton r

e ti r w e h t , p e t s s i h t n

I gained some needs analysi sinformaiton from a n

n o it a v r e s b

o the wrtie ad rh done du irng teaching pracitce programme in the SMA .

a t r a k a y g o Y a i r a M a t n a

(50)

w e i v r e t n

i e d some tenth student s fo SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta and dist irbuted e

ri a n n o it s e u

q s ot the student swho wer e in the tenth grade o fSMA Santa Maria a

t r a k a y g o

Y fo rthedatagathe irng.

.

2 Planning

A tfer t he wrtie rgained ther esul to fneed analysis,t he wrtie rsta tred to make

.s e s o p r u p l a r e n e g d n a c i p o t ,l a o g e h t

.

3 Produc tdeveloping , e g a t s s i h t n

I the wrtie rh d a been ready fo rthe mate irals ,handbook sand

s e c i v e d n o it a u l a v

e da n sta tred to design the mate iral susing task-based language g

n i n r a e

l approach. .

4 Evaluaitng

d e t c u d n o c r e h c r a e s e r e h

T an evaluaiton on the mate iral sby dist irbuting the h

s il g n E n a o t e ri a n n o it s e u

q teacher fo SMA Santa Maria Yogyakarta and to two r

e r u t c e

l s fo Sanata Dharma Universtiy in the Engilsh Language Educaiton Study

m a r g o r

P .

.

5 Revisingt hedesignmate ira.l

In t hel ast pste , t hewrtie rmade a better mate ira lbased ont he feedbacks and

g g u

s esitons .Theresul toft hequesitonnarie wa susedtohelp abette rdesignmate ira l f

o e d a r g h t n e t e h t r o

f SMASantaMariaYogyakartastudentsi nordert ohelpt hemto s

e s i c r e x e h s il g n E n e tt ir w o

(51)

34 V I R E T P A H C H C R A E S E

R RESULTSANDDISCUSSION

n o it p ir c s e d d n a t l u s e r e h t s e b ir c s e d r e t p a h c s i h

T o fthe ifnding so fthe

d n a y d u t

s thepresentaiton oft hedesigne d mateirals .Thi schapteri sdivided into l

a ir e t a m e h t f o s p e t s e h t s i tr a p t s ri f e h T . s tr a p e e r h

t s design development .Thi s r

e w s n a e h t s e d i v o r p t r a

p o ftheformulatedproblem .Thes econdpatri s ifnding so f s

t n e s e r p t r a p d ri h t e h T . y d u t s e h

t the presentaiton o fthe insrtucitona lEngilsh w iritng mateiral sfo rthe tenth grade student so fSMA Santa Maria Yogyaka tra .

. m e l b o r p d e t a l u m r o f d n o c e s e h t o t r e w s n a e h t s e d i v o r p t r a p s i h T

.

A TheStep soft heDevelopmen toft heDesignedmaterials n

I ordert o answert hef ris tquesiton oft hi sstudy, t her esearche rapp iled a

m g n it ir w h s il g n E e h t g n i n g i s e d n i s p e t s t h g i

e teiral susingt askbasedl earningf o r e

h

t tenthgradestudent so fSMASantaMariaYogyaka tra .Thosestep swerebased I

e h T . s l e d o m n g i s e d s ’ p m e K n

o nsrtucitona lDesign ( ID)model sarei n ilnewtih s

’l l a G d n a g r o

B educaiton research and developmen t(R&D )cyclet o design t he )

2 ( ,s i s y l a n a s d e e n g n it c u d n o c ) 1 ( e r a s p e t s e s o h T . s l a ir e t a

m staitng goal ,s t opic s

s e s o p r u p l a r e n e g d n

a (3 )staitng the learning objecitves ,(4 ) ilsitng the subjec t )

6 ( , s e it i v it c a g n i h c a e t e h t g n it c e l e s ) 5 ( , t n e t n o

c designing the mate irals ,(7 ) .s

(52)
(53)
(54)
(55)
(56)

ll i k

s s du irng t he l esson .However ,39% of t hestudent sw asreally suret hat t hey ll

i k s e s o h t t o

g s du irngt heEngilsh l esson a tschool .Whlie 54.3% oft hestudent s e

h t d n u o f y e h t t a h t d e t a t

s four lisk l sdu irngt heEngilshl essonweretaugh.t i n o s s e l h s il g n E n i y ti v it c a g n it ir w f o y c n e u q e r f e h t o t d e t a l e

R n t heclas s

w e r e h

t a sonly13.56%ofs tudent swhogott ha tacitvtiyi ntheEngilshclass ,whlie .

5

2 42% o fstudent sdid no treally ifnd tha tw iritng acitvtiy wa sappiled in the w

e r e h t , r e v e w o H . s s a l

c a s 61% o fstudent sw ho surely go ttha tacitvtiy in the .s

s a l c

d e s u s a w h c i h w , k r o w e m o h g n it ir w r o

F byt het eachera sanexercisef o r e

v o r p m i o t s t n e d u t

s thei rw iritng skli loutsidet he clas ,s t herew as only 6.7% o f o

h w s t n e d u t

s w ereno tsure t hat t hey really found w iritng acitvtiy a shomework . e

r e h

T w .as 678% o fstudent sstated t hatt heygo tEng ilsh w iritnghomework and the res to fthem ,25.42% w as really sure tha tthey found homework o fEngilsh

.r e h c a e t e h t y b y ti v it c a g n it ir w

)

2 WriitngProcessi nClassroom.

e h t n i s s e c o r p g n it ir w e h t t u o b a s a w c i p o t e ri a n n o it s e u q t x e n e h T

s a w s e s n o p s e r ’ s t n e d u t s e h t w o n k o t d e s u s a w h c i h w n o it s e u q e h T . m o o r s s a l c

x i s r e b m u

n .The resul tof t hestudents ’response soft hi squesiton can beseen i n 2

. 4 e l b a t e h

t .

4 e l b a

T .2 Ques itonnaireResul tAskingabou tWriitngProcessi nClassroom .

o

N Ques itons Response Number Percentage .

6 Saya membua t kerangka karangan sebelum r

a k t a u b m e

m angandalambahasaI nggri.s SSeatnugjauts etuju u g a R -ragu

u j u t e s k a d i T

k a d it t a g n a S

u j u t e s

8 1 3

6 1 2 2

. 3 1 56%

. 2 5 54%

. 7 2 12%

. 3 %4

(57)
(58)
(59)

. 2 6 ( s t n e d u t

s 71% )whowereconfusedt o ifndt hei deao fw iritng .Therewerenine .

5 1 ( s t n e d u t

s 25% )who could ifnd theideafo rwiritng and t herewereonly t hree .

5 ( s t n e d u t

s 1% )who stated t hat t hey did no t ifnd any dfiifculitesi n ifnding i dea .

g n it ir w r o f

n

I producing paragraph in w iritng ,there wa sa requriemen tfrom the s

t n e d u t s e h t t s a e l t a t a h t r e h c a e

t should wrtie three paragraphs . From the ,

tl u s e r e ri a n n o it s e u

q there werethitreen student s(22.03% )who wereno tablet o a

p e e r h t e c u d o r

p ragraphs .Thereweret hitry student swhowereconfused whethe r y

e h

t were capable o rno tin producing three paragraph sin thei rw iritng .There .

3 2 ( s t n e d u t s n e e tr u o f e r e

w 73%)who wereablet o wrtiet hreeparagraphs .There s

t n e d u t s o w t y l n o e r e

w (3.4%) who were really able to produce a tleas tthree .

g n it ir w n i s h p a r g a r a p

e c n e t n e s g n i c u d o r p n

I s inaparagraph,s tudentss houldbeablet oproduce e

h t g n ir u D . h p a r g a r a p a n i s e c n e t n e s e v if t s a e l t

a researcher’steachingpracitcei n a

t r a k a y g o Y a i r a M a t n a S A M

S ,t hereweremanys tudent swhoonlyproduced three

o t p

u four sentences i n a paragraph .Through t he quesitonnariewhich had been e

h t , d e t u b ir t s i

d researche rfound that t here were t wo student s(3.4% )who really n

i s e c n e t n e s e v if t s a e l t a e ti r w o t y tl u c if fi d d n u o

f a paragraph .There were only .

5 ( s t n e d u t s e e r h

t 1% )whoj ustf ounddfi ifcutlyt owrtieatl eas t ifvesentencesi na paragraph .Fitfeen student s(25.52% )claimed tha tthey were confused whethe r

e r e h T . h p a r g a r a p a n i s e c n e t n e s e v if t s a e l t a e ti r w d l u o c y e h

t w aslargenumbe ro f

e r e w y e h t , h p a r g a r a p a n i s e c n e t n e s e v if t s a e l t a e ti r w o t e l b a e r e w o h w s t n e d u t s

ri h

(60)
(61)
(62)
(63)

. h s il g n E g n i s u s e c n e t n e s g n it ir w n i n u o n o r p t c e r r o c g n i d i c e

d There were a big

s a w t i ; h s il g n E n i n u o n o r p g n i s u n i s e it l u c if fi d t o g h c i h w s t n e d u t s f o r e b m u n

s r u o f y tr i h t t u o b

a tudents( 57.63% .) Thereweres eventeens tudents( 28.81% )who e

r e

w confused whethert hey could uset he irgh tpronoun o rnot .Therewereonly .

5 ( s t n e d u t s e e r h

t 1% )whodid no t ifnd anydfi ifcutlyi nusing pronounwhent hey p

a r g a r a p r o s e c n e t n e s g n it ir w e r e

w hs inEngilsh.

n o it s e u q t x e n e h

T w as quesiton numbe r seventeen , i t asked thei r o

t y tl u c if fi

d identfiy thekind soft exts .Therewa sonestuden t(1.7% )which did o

t y tl u c if fi d l u f g n i n a e m y n a d n if t o

n identfiykind soft exts .Thereweref ivemore 8

( s t n e d u t

s .5% )also did no t ifnd any dfiifcutly t o i dentfiy kind sof t ext ,s whlie n

e v e s y tr i h

t students( 62.71% )also stated thatt hey did notr eally ifnd dfiifculite s o

t identfiy mso e texts .There were fou treen student s(23.73% )stated tha tthey s

e it l u c if fi d d n u o

f about t hi stopic .On the othe rwords ,there were t wo student s .

3

( 4% )admitted tha tthey really found dfiifculite sto dfiferenitate the kind so f .s

t x e t

t x e n e h

T discussion wa son quesiton numbe rtwenty o ne; thi squesiton s

a

w used to answe rthe numbe ro fstudent swho had dfiifculite sto change the d

o t h c e e p s t c e ri d n i r o h c e e p s t c e ri d n i o t h c e e p s t c e ri

d riects peech .Thereweres ix .

0 1 ( s t n e d u t

s 17% )stated t hatt hey f ound big dfiifculitesto change t hesekind so f T

. s e c n e t n e

s here were twenty three student s(39% )also stated tha tthey found .

s e c n e t n e s f o d n i k s i h t g n i g n a h c n i s e it l u c if fi

d There were twenty three othe r )

% 9 3 ( s t n e d u t

s also admitted that they were confused i f they really found o

n r o s e it l u c if fi

(64)
(65)
(66)
(67)

t x e n e h

T discussion sw a quesitonnumbe r iftfeenwhichaske dabou tthei r g

n i c it c a r p e r o f e b e l p m a x e e h t e e s o t s d e e

n wiritng .A sthe resutl ,there w ere u

t s n e e t h g i

e dent s(30.5% )stated tha tthey really neede d to look a tthe example .

s e c n e t n e s e h t g n i k a m e r o f e b t s ri

f T he other thitry two student s(54.24% )also m

a s e h t d e t a t

s e,t hatt heyneede dtol ookatt heexamplef ris tbeforew iritng .There )

% 6 5 . 3 1 ( s t n e d u t s t h g i e e r e

w whosaidt hatt heyw ereconfusedt odecidewhethe r d

e e n y e h

t e dtol ookatt heexample andt herewas a studentstatedt ha tshedi td no .

g n it ir w e r o f e b e l p m a x e e h t t a e e s o t d e e n

Quesiton numbe rsixteen wa sthe las tquesiton which w as used to ask s

t n e d u t

s ’ need sin Engilsh w iritng .Thi squesiton asked thei ropinion abou tthe m

u n s e s i c r e x e e h t f o e c n e u lf n

i beri n w iritng pracitce in thei rw iritngskli.lThere n

i n y t n e w t e r e

w e student s(49.51% )who stated t ha tthey werereally agreed tha t g

n it ir w y n a m g n i v a h y

b exercise stheybeilevedt hati tcouldhelpt hemt oi mprove .

ll i k s g n it ir w r i e h

t There were twenty seven student s(45.8% )who agreed tha t y

n a m g n i v a

h w iritngexercisescouldi mprovet hei rw iritngskill .Thereweret hree )

% 1 . 5 ( s t n e d u t

s whowereconfusedwhethe rbyhavingmanyexercise scouldhelp o

r p m i m e h

t vingt hei rwiritngs kli lo rno.t a

d e h t n o d e s a

B ta gathered from the quesitonnarie s which were r e h c r a e s e r e h t , a tr a k a y g o Y a ir a M a t n a S A M S f o s t n e d u t s X e d a r G o t d e t u b it s i d

r

d ew aconclusionofs tudents’ needs inl earningw iritng ,asf ollows. .

a Student sneed a mediu m which helps them develop t herii deasi n w iritng m

e h t p l e h o t o s l a d n

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