The motivation of hope Donahue in doing plastic surgery as seen in hope Donahue`s Beautiful Stranger - USD Repository

Gratis

0
0
83
7 months ago
Preview
Full text

  

THE MOTIVATION OF HOPE DONAHUE IN DOING

PLASTIC SURGERY AS SEEN IN HOPE DONAHUE’S

BEAUTIFUL STRANGER

A THESIS

  

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  By FLORA WIRINTINA

  Student number: 041214058

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

  I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should.

  Yogyakarta, February 18, 2010 The Writer

  Flora Wirintina 041214058

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  I'm tired of letting go all that I've tried to have I'm tired of wasting time looking up to the wrong stars I do believe in life and that everything is written But life is not a book with pages wide-opened

Don't search too far, my mother says

Sometimes all that you need is only a step away

  Look into yourself The one and only Look into yourself If you want to find the key A look into yourself Release your heart free Look into yourself And be the master of your destiny Don't be afraid of wanting changes in your life Don't be afraid to go to wherever you decide Believe in yourself and believe in what you can do And no one can deny the will that lies in you Try to pay more attention And live your life with good intentions Look into yourself Cause there's a rainbow Look into yourself There is so much more that you need to know Cause in yourself There's serenity It's all in yourself

You are the master of your destiny

For every doubt you face

  In every step you take For choices that you make Dreams aren't made to be erased

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  I praise Jesus Christ as I have accomplished my undergraduate thesis. I thank Him for His endless blessing and for all that I have in my life. I thank Him for any help and support of others, which I believe God has sent to show His love to me.

  I would like to express my gratitude to my sponsor Henny Herawati,

S.Pd., M.Hum for her guidance, advice, and assistance in completing this thesis.

  My gratitude also goes to all of the lecturers and staff of English Education Study Program for their help during my study in Sanata Dharma University.

  I would like to express my gratitude to my beloved parents Wilman

  

Siburian and Riana Nababan for their unconditional love, never ending support

  and patience, and pray. I understand it takes a lot not to give up on teaching me the good things. I will do my best to make them happy. I also especially thank my brothers, Agustian Siburian and Yose Gregosius Siburian for their support by letting me using the computer every time I need it. I thank all the members of Siburian’s and Nababan’s family for their material and mental support.

  My special gratitude goes to mijn nummer een, Robbert-Jan Pool, for his care, love, patient, and strength. I thank him for his big contribution in accompanying me when I write my thesis during late at night. His dream has made me brave enough to step on my future. Ik hou van hem.

  I am grateful to my best friends, Hana, Dede, Keke, and Felix that have

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  friendship, trust, and support in everything I do. I thank them for their understanding and for loving me just the way I am.

  Next, my sincere gratitude goes to all my friends in Gratisons and Genk

  

Chantique, Andrew, Hengki, Radit, Vera, Marin, Desy, Stanley, Andra,

Mahendra, Dion, Dian Kencur, and Annaz for the wonderful time that we

  passed together. The laugh and cry we shared will always be a great memory in my heart.

  I also thank to all my friends in Couchsurfing, Maria, Hera, Asheet,

  

Marc, Michael, Mike, Michi, Charlie, Yuni, Jorn, Witri, and Simon for the

  unforgettable travel time we had. It was our good time and I will never forget it. I hope that we can meet someday and make another crazy moment together.

  The last but not the least, with lots of my love, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to all my friends of PBI 2004 and all the name that I have not mentioned one by one.

  Flora Wirintina

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

  

TITLE PAGE....................................................................................... i

APPROVAL PAGES…………………………………………………. ii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY……………………... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………... vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………………... viii

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………. x

ABSTRAK………………………………………………………………. xi

  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study………………………………………..

  1

  1.2 Problem Formulation……………………………………………

  3 1.3 Objective of the Study…………………………………………..

  3

  1.4 Benefits of the Study……………………………………………

  3 1.5 Definitions of Terms…………………………………………….

  4 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL REVIEW 2.1 Theory of Critical Approaches………………………………..

  6 2.2 Theory of Psychology…………………………………………..

  7

  2.2.1 General Theories of Motivation………………………

  7 2.2.2 Maslow’s Theory of Motivation……………………..

  9 2.2.2.1 Physiological Needs………………………...

  10

  2.2.2.2 Safety Needs………………………………... 11 2.2.2.3 Belonging and Love Needs………………….

  11 2.2.2.4 Esteem Needs………………………………..

  13 2.2.2.5 Needs to Know and Understand…………...

  13 2.2.2.6 Aesthetic Needs……………………………..

  14 2.2.2.7 Self-actualization Needs…………………….

  14

  PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1 Object of the Study…………………………………………….

  17 3.2 Approach of the Study…...…………………………………….

  18 3.3 Procedures of the Study………………………………………..

  18 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS 4.1 Physiological Needs as the only Fulfilled Needs……………...

  20 4.2 Safety Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery…….

  22

  4.3 Belonging and Love Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery…………………….…………………………………... 27 4.4 Esteem Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery…...

  34

  4.5 Needs to Know and Understand do not Form a Part of Hope Donahue’s Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery......................

  39

  4.6 Aesthetic Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery…

  42

  4.7 Self-actualization Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery………………………………………………………… 47

  CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

  5.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………… 50

  5.2 Suggestions…………………………………………………… 53 5.2.1 Suggestions for the Future Researchers……………..

  53 5.2.2 Suggestions for Teaching Implementation………….

  54 REFERENCES…………………………………………………… 55

  APPENDICES……………………………………………………….. 58 Appendix 1 Lesson Unit Plan………………………………………..

  59 Appendix 2 Lesson Plan for Teaching Paragraph Writing……….

  61 Appendix 3 Teaching Material………………………………………

  64 Appendix 4 The Summary of Hope Donahue’s Beautiful Stranger

  69 Appendix 5 Biography of Hope Donahue…………………………...

  71

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

ABSTRACT

Flora Wirintina. 2010. The Motivation of Hope Donahue in Doing Plastic

Surgery As Seen in Hope Donahue’s Beautiful Stranger. Yogyakarta: English

Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts

Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma

University.

  This study discusses Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery as described in her autobiographical novel, Beautiful Stranger. This study aims to discover why Hope Donahue does plastic surgery repeatedly although there is nothing wrong with her face or body. There is only one problem discussed in this study, namely what the motivation of Hope Donahue in doing plastic surgery is.

  Library research is employed as the method to analyze the novel. Hope Donahue’s Beautiful Stranger was taken as the primary source, while the secondary sources were taken from books about motivation. The theories consist of Bootzin, Smith, and Murray’s explanation of motivation and Maslow’s theory of motivation. These theories are used to answer the problem formulation.

  The result of the analysis shows that there are some important needs which are unfulfilled in Hope’s life and therefore become the motivation for Hope to do plastic surgery. They are safety needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs, aesthetic needs, and self-actualization needs. The condition in her family, her surroundings, her lovers and her friends as well as Hope herself cannot fulfill those needs. Plastic surgery seems to be the way to fulfill those needs instantly, so Hope does it over and over again. Thus, the fulfillment of those needs motivates Hope Donahue to do plastic surgery.

  The results of the analysis also show that there is another need which is not fulfilled in Hope’s life, but that need does not directly become the motivation for Hope to do plastic surgery. It is the need to know and understand. Instead of motivating Hope to do plastic surgery to fulfill her needs to know and understand, the unfulfilment of these needs only emphasizes Hope’s extreme obsession to be beautiful, thus emphasizing how Hope is easily motivated by other factors to do plastic surgery.

  Lastly, the analysis shows that there is one need which is already fulfilled in Hope’s life and does not serve as a motivation for Hope to do plastic surgery. It is the physiological needs. Hope’s physiological needs such as food, drink, shelter, and sex are fulfilled abundantly from her birth to adulthood.

  In conclusion, Hope Donahue’s actions in doing plastic surgery repeatedly are motivated by the inability to meet many important needs in her life and the urge to fulfill those needs.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

ABSTRAK

Flora Wirintina. 2010. The Motivation of Hope Donahue in Doing Plastic

Surgery As Seen in Hope Donahue’s Beautiful Stranger. Yogyakarta:

Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Studi ini membahas motivasi Hope Donahue untuk melakukan operasi plastik seperti digambarkan dalam novel autobiografinya, Beautiful Stranger. Studi ini bertujuan mengungkap alasan Hope Donahue melakukan operasi plastik berkali-kali walaupun wajah dan tubuhnya baik-baik saja. Hanya ada satu permasalahan yang dibahas di studi ini, yakni apakah motivasi Hope untuk melakukan operasi plastik.

  Novel ini dianalisa dengan menggunakan metode studi pustaka. Novel

  

Beautiful Stranger oleh Hope Donahue dijadikan sebagai sumber utama,

  sedangkan sumber lain diambil dari buku-buku tentang motivasi. Teori yang digunakan mencakup penjelasan Bootzin, Smith, dan Murray tentang motivasi serta teori motivasi Maslow. Teori-teori tersebut digunakan untuk menjawab masalah yang telah dirumuskan.

  Hasil analisa menunjukkan adanya sejumlah kebutuhan penting yang tidak terpenuhi dalam hidup Hope, dan karenanya menjadi motivasi bagi Hope untuk melakukan operasi plastik, yaitu kebutuhan akan keamanan, kebutuhan disayangi dan diterima, kebutuhan harga diri, kebutuhan estetis, serta kebutuhan aktualisasi diri. Kebutuhan-kebutuhan tersebut tak dapat terpenuhi oleh keadaan di keluarga Hope, oleh lingkungannya, kekasih dan teman-temannya, serta oleh diri Hope sendiri. Hope memandang operasi plastik sebagai sebuah jalan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan-kebutuhan tersebut secara instan, sehingga ia melakukannya berulang kali. Dengan demikian, kebutuhan-kebutuhan tersebut menjadi motivasi Hope melakukan operasi plastik.

  Hasil analisa juga menunjukkan adanya kebutuhan yang tidak terpenuhi dalam kehidupan Hope, namun kebutuhan itu tidak secara langung menjadi motivasi bagi Hope untuk melakukan operasi plastik, yaitu kebutuhan akan pengetahuan. Tak terpenuhinya kebutuhan tersebut tidak secara langsung memotivasi Hope untuk melakukan operasi plastik, namun sekedar menekankan obsesi berlebih Hope terhadap kecantikan. Dengan demikian, kebutuhan tersebut hanya menekankan bagaimana mudahnya Hope terpengaruh atau termotivasi faktor-faktor lain untuk melakukan operasi plastik.

  Hasil analisa yang terakhir menunjukkan adanya sebuah kebutuhan yang telah terpenuhi dalam hidup Hope dan tidak menjadi motivasi Hope untuk melakukan operasi plastik, yakni kebutuhan fisiologis. Kebutuhan fisiologis Hope seperti sandang, pangan, papan, dan seks sudah terpenuhi dengan sangat mencukupi sejak lahir hingga dewasa.

  Sebagai kesimpulan, tindakan Hope melakukan operasi plastik berkali-kali termotivasi oleh tak terpenuhinya banyak kebutuhan penting dalam hidupnya dan

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of five parts, namely background of the study,

  problem formulation, objectives of the study, benefits of the study, and definition of the terms. The first part aims to explain the reasons why I chose literature, and the novel as my topic of study. The second part is the problem formulation, which presents the problem to be discussed in this thesis, followed by the objectives of the study as the third part. The fourth part discusses the benefits of the study for students and readers. The last part is the definition of terms that presents some specific terms that need to be clarified.

1.1 Background of the Study

  Novels have been written, read, and analyzed by many people in the world. They can give a special feeling, satisfaction, and happiness for the readers.

  Yet novels have another function beside those mentioned above. They can help readers look deeply into life. They can help the readers to understand the meaning of life. A novel has value because it shows new aspects of our daily life and gives meaning to life, so that life will be more valuable for us (Van De Laar 162). Based on this reason, I am encouraged to carry out the study of a novel that can help me understand more about life values and learn from them to make a better one.

  Having lots of money, living in a big house, driving a dozen cars, working

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  believe becoming rich can make their life easy and simple. This is proven by the high incidence of gambling and robbery in many places recently. Bappenas

  

(Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Nasional) , which has a task as national

  planning and development council, stated on its official site that the number of criminality is higher from time to time. People who do those actions absolutely have the same desire like most of the people had. They want to be rich.

  In reality, material possessions cannot always give and deliver happiness to people. For example we can see in the newspaper and television recently that there are some Indonesian actresses and actors in prison because they use drugs. We all know that they are rich and famous, whose every physiological need is fulfilled, so why do they have to use drugs? Research proves that drugs can give a sense of happiness and joy for a person who uses them (Media Anak Bangsa Kepri Portal, 2009). Even though at the end a person who uses them will suffer some illness, at least he/she can feel the happiness for a moment. This is what the actresses and the actors search by using that thing.

  The above thoughts provoke me to study the novel Beautiful Stranger by Hope Donahue. This is an autobiographical novel which is based on the life of the author. The author writes herself as the main character in the novel. It tells a memoir of a child who has everything life. Hope Donahue is a lucky child. She lives in a famous area where big mansions stand and old-money families live. Her father is a bank chairman and her grandfather is a doctor of international acclaim. She never has to save her money to get or buy everything she wants. She studies

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  perfect. She must be satisfied with her life, but why does she do a plastic surgery to her face when plastic surgery is considered a scary thing in her environment at that time? I am particularly interested in Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery.

  1.2 Problem Formulation

  Based on the novel and the background, the problem to discuss in this study is formulated as what is the motivation of Hope Donahue in doing a plastic surgery?

  1.3 Objective of the Study

  The objective of this study is to answer the problem above, that is to find out the motivation of Hope Donahue in doing a plastic surgery.

  1.4 Benefits of the Study

  I expect some benefits from this study for both readers and students. For the readers, they can gain new knowledge about human feelings especially women’s feelings. The readers can also understand and learn that several things can motivate someone act in a disorderly way. I hope this study can also be useful for readers’ daily lives, for example through the recognition that motivation, no matter whether it’s positive or negative, can control human’s behavior.

  For the students, especially students of the English Education Study

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  that they can adapt this study into a play or any kind of study. I also have an expectation that this study can increase students’ pleasure with regard to literary work. I want to show to the students that literary work can also become a medium to improve our knowledge and character into a better one.

1.5 Definition of Terms

  There are several terms as the focus of the discussion needed to be clarified to avoid misunderstanding:

  1. Murray states that motivation is an internal factor that arouses, directs, and integrates a person’s behavior (7). Another definition of it is motivation is broadly concerned with the contemporary determinants of choice (direction), persistence, and vigor of goal-directed behavior (Beck 24). From those definitions, motivation in this study refers to all internal factors that arouse and integrate human behavior which directs them to their goal.

  2. Love is a feeling of strong emotion which wants to share something together or in another word love is related to a sense of strong affection and attachment.

  Love is not a single feeling but an emotion built from two or more feelings. Love is also considered as various actions done by human to other creatures. Peck says in Wikipedia that love is an activity, not simply a feeling. The action can be sacrificing, caring, helping, giving affection and empathy, following others’ words, being obedient, and willing to do what that objects want. An abstract concept of love is love usually refers to a deep, ineffable feeling of

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  factors constitute love are attachment, caring, and intimacy (Love 1). In this study, the term of love is used to know and understand Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery.

  3. Need is one of the aspects of psychology that motivates human being in doing some activities to be the reason for attempting something (Maslow 69). In this study, the term need refers to all the necessities felt by Hope Donahue that motivate her to do some actions for its satisfaction.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL REVIEW This part consists of theory of critical approaches used to analyze the

  novel. These include a psychological approach and theories of psychology with a focus on motivation that will be used to analyze Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery.

2.1 Theory of Critical Approaches

  According to Rohrberger and Woods (6-15) in Reading and Writing about

Literature, there are five approaches that can be used to evaluate literary works.

  They are formalist approach, biographical approach, socio-cultural historical approach, mythopoeia approach, and psychological approach. These approaches are needed and very important to evaluate literary works because people who study or analyze literary works need a reasonable review when they evaluate them so they use the approaches to get that reasonable review. The critical approaches to literature help those people to understand more deeply the nature, function, and positive values of the literary works.

  Rohrberger states that the formalist approach involves a close and deep reading to a text. All information that is essential to the interpretation of a literary work must be found in the work itself. People do not need to get or find other information such as the history, politics, or society of the time, or about the

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  analyzing irony, paradox, imagery, and metaphor. The biographical approach sees literary works as the reflection of an author's life and times. People focus on the ideas and personality of the author to get an understanding to the literary works. The socio-cultural historical approach takes as a reference the civilization of which the attitudes and actions of a specific group of people to analyze the works. The mythopoeia approach assumes that there is a collection of symbols, images, characters, and motifs that causes basically the same response and thinking in all people.

  The last one is the approach that I use to analyze and make a better understanding in studying the novel. The psychological approach, according to Guerin, employs some theories of psychology that can be used as tools to interpret the literary works (121). This theory is needed to understand the character’s motivation in the story. Remembering that it views literature through the lens of psychology, the psychological approach will help us to look deeply about the psychological motivations of the character or of the author himself/herself. Most frequently, the psychological approach uses Freudian psychology theory to study the motivation of the character, but there are also other psychology theories, such as those of Maslow and Jungian.

2.2 Theory of Psychology

2.2.1 General Theories of Motivation

  I apply a theory of psychology that is a theory of motivation to analyze the

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  many theories of motivation that exist in the psychology area, but not all of them can be used appropriately in my study. That is why I just include some of them which are relevant to my study.

  Motivation is the sum of intentions, desires, goals, and needs that influence human beings and animal behavior. People carry out an action with motive. This motive will lead them to behave in a certain way to get some goal. It will be impossible to find the motivation of a person if behavior isn’t organized (Bootzin et al 367). It is believed that some purposes guide someone’s behavior to reach an end condition, which can be a goal or a need.

  Smith (282) defines motivation as an internal process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal directed behavior. Motivation is seen as an internal factor that can move human beings to maintain their effort in reaching their goal. Motivation also makes human beings behave in a specific way that supports them in the process of reaching their goal. Therefore, motivation always affects someone’s behavior. Caused by the motivation, a person always behaves in certain manners or some ways in order to get or gain his/her goal.

  Murray, in his book Motivation and Emotion, states that the relation between motivation and behavior is important for creating motivated behavior (20). Motivated behavior is behavior that has been influenced by a certain motivation. He also says that motivation can be inferred by the aspects of behavior such as the dominance of someone’s conversation, fantasies, and dreams (11).

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

2.2.2 Maslow’s Theory of Motivation

  Abraham Maslow’s theory about the motivation of human beings can be applied to most of the aspects of individual life and social life. This supposition is needed and important for making a good and relevant theory of motivation. This is a supposition that we must know and remember. An individual is a whole in which things are solid and arranged. It is strange and unusual if a conscious desire only possesses one motivation. In other words, it is the whole of the individual that is moved by the motivation, not only a part of that individual. For example if a person feels hungry, it is the whole of her/him which feels the hunger. It is the person who wants food to be eaten, not only his/her stomach.

  Most of the desires and stimuli in a person or individual are connected to each other. This does not occur for fundamental necessities such as the feeling of hungry, but it occurs obviously for complex necessities such as love. Human beings are motivated by a number of basic necessities that have the same characteristics in all species. Those necessities are not only physiological, but also psychological.

  One important thing in this theory that can help the study of this novel is people do not need to fulfill one need fully then they will feel another need. All the needs come together at the same time, but they will choose one as the priority based on the level of the need and they will be pushed to do something to fulfill it.

  After the need is slightly fulfilled, they will feel another need and do something again to fulfill it.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Abraham Maslow clarifies motivation in relation with human needs. He states that there are seven needs that motivate human activities. Those needs are physiological needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs, needs to know and understand, aesthetic needs, and self-actualization needs (69-77).

2.2.2.1 Physiological Needs

  The basic, strongest, and clearest thing from all of human’s needs is the need to defend their life physically. That need is the need to eat, drink, get a place to stay, sleep, breathe, and have sex. If there is a situation where a person needs something at the same time such as food, love, and power, he/she will choose to get some food firse. This person will push other needs down until he/she fulfills his/her physiological needs.

  Maslow says that even though all those physiological needs can be identified more easily than other needs that are in high level, these needs cannot be treated as a separated phenomenon that stands alone. The example is if a person thinks that he/she is hungry, he/she can also need love, safety, or other needs at the same time. Thus various needs of human beings are connected each other.

  After all human physiological needs are fulfilled, what will happen next? Maslow answers that other needs will appear immediately, then these needs will dominate the individual. The next step after these needs are fulfilled is that other new needs, which are in higher level than before, will appear again and again.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  This will happen continuously. Human beings will always want something their whole life.

  2.2.2.2 Safety Needs

  Safety needs will take place immediately after all the physiological needs are fulfilled. The best way to understand these needs is watching children closely, because usually safety needs have been fulfilled in a healthy and normal adult. Children psychologists or teachers find that children need a predictable world. Children like consistency and routine within certain limitations. They will feel worried and insecure if these elements can not be found by them in their life.

  Children will prefer to have limited freedom rather than being allowed to do anything. This limited freedom is needed for children, so they can develop properly. An insecure person has an excessive need of regularity and stability; he/she will work hard to avoid strange and unexpected things. A normal and healthy person also wants stability in his/her life, but this thing will not be as important as happen in neurotic people.

  2.2.2.3 Belonging and Love Needs

  After the physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the next is the needs of love, affection, and the feeling of loving and to be loved. People will hope for a loving relationship with others. They will fight hard to get this

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  The word love here cannot be mixed with the word sex, which can be assumed as a physiological need. Love is the feeling where someone is understood deeply and accepted with all one’s heart and soul. The idea that love comes from sex is a big mistake. This can also be associated with the superficial thought that heart gentleness is a form of sexuality which is obstructed. Maslow finds that the growth and development of a person’s ability will be obstructed without love in the reality. Many nurses often find that babies need love. Many psychopathology bachelors consider that the main reason for people having a failed adaptation is the unfulfilled need of love.

  Maslow’s opinion about love concerns a good relationship which is full of love between two people and the condition where those two people trust each other. There is no need to be worried and their entire defenses will be destroyed in a true relationship. Usually love will be broken if one of the two people, who love each other, worries if his/her weakness and mistakes are revealed. The feeling where people think that they are not appreciated by others is not the real reason for the broken love but it is more because the feeling of fear. People worry that others can see the inside of us or our mask. This makes people avoid love, have shallow friendships, underestimating others because they worry that others will appreciate them too highly. The need of love actually covers giving and getting love.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  2.2.2.4 Esteem Needs

  Maslow finds that everyone has two categories of need for honor. They are self-esteem and honor from others. Self-esteem covers the needs of self- confidence, competency, self-control, achievement, and freedom. Honor from others covers prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, and status. People who have adequate self-esteem will be more confident, capable, and productive. On the contrary, they will feel inferior if they don’t have enough confidence. This will lead them into a desperate feeling and a neurotic behavior. A stable and healthy self-esteem grows from a normal honor given by others; it does not grow from well-known name, majesty, or meaningless praise.

  2.2.2.5 Needs to Know and Understand

  Maslow believes that a healthy mental characteristic is the desire to know and understand. The claim that this kind of need is characteristic of the entire species is supposed by the following explanation.

  1. The feeling to know usually shows up in behavior of beings.

  2. History provides many examples of people who struggle hard to search knowledge, for example Galileo and Columbus.

  3. The results of psychological research into adults shows that they are interested in secrets.

  4. Maslow’s experiences show many cases where adult people gradually suffer a feeling of boredom, get depression, and finally hate themselves.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  This phenomenon is experienced by smart people who live by doing nothing. This action will kill their intelligence and cause into depression.

  5. Children have a natural instinct to know about what is around them.

  6. Many people report that studying and finding something can bring satisfaction and happiness.

  2.2.2.6 Aesthetic Needs

  Maslow’s research shows that bad thing brings boredom and weakens spirit. Everyone needs aesthetic that can make people healthier. The aesthetic needs connect to the picture of themselves. This aesthetic need is also found in almost of healthy children everywhere. Maslow says that the fact about people need aesthetic can be found in every culture and almost in every era.

  2.2.2.7 Self-actualization Needs

  Everyone has to grow with his/her entire ability. The explanation about psychological needs to arouse, develop, and use people’s ability is called self- actualization. Self-actualization is described as the using and employing of all the ability, capacity, and potency to be a complete human being. People, who have been actualized, will do the best that they can do. Based on Maslow’s research, self-actualization can only be found in old people around sixty years old or more.

  That age is considered as the top condition or the end condition; so many people are not in this category. They are not stable and still on their way to find who they

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  The general characteristic of people who have been actualized is their ability to see their life clearly and truly. They are not emotional and think objectively about the result of their observation. They have an ability to evaluate others exactly and to detect dissimulation. This kind of person is firm in holding their principle about something which is right or wrong. They are also low profile and want to listen to others’ opinion patiently. They are willing to admit that they do not know everything and have to learn many things from others.

  Maslow finds that people who have been actualized dedicate their life to their tasks, job, duty, or other important vocations. They are hard workers and assume that working can bring happiness and enjoyment. They are happy when helping others using their ability. They want to be useful for their environment, because by helping others they also help themselves.

  Creativity is also a universal characteristic of self-actualization. It is about spontaneity, courage, openness, and modesty. Creativity requires courage and ability to ignore scorn and negative critique from surrounding people. Their courage helps them to be brave in making mistake, so they can always make an improvement in doing their task and activity. They are also flexible and able to adjust if the condition changed.

2.3 Theoretical Framework

  The theories that are explained in the previous part are useful to analyze the problem formulated in the problem formulation, and to help me understand the

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  whole story in the novel. The analysis section, I use some theories: theories of critical approach and theories of motivation.

  The theory of psychological approach is used as a tool to analyze the main character. The theory of psychology that I employ to analyze the motivation of Hope Donahue is motivation theory developed by Abraham Maslow. This theory is also called theory of hierarchy needs. This theory will help me to analyze all the needs of Hope Donahue that motivate her to do plastic surgery then divide them into each level in the hierarchy needs.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter is divided into three parts. They are object of the study,

  approaches, and procedures. The first part, where I explain the focus of the study, is called object of the study. The second part explains the approach that I use in conducting and analyzing this study. The last part is procedures which discusses the steps in analyzing problem formulation.

3.1 Object of the Study

  This research uses a literary work as the subject of the study. This thesis deals with one kind of literary work, a novel, as the object of the study. The novel that is analyzed in this thesis is entitled Beautiful Stranger. Beautiful Stranger was published by Gotham on August 18, 2005. It consists of 304 pages in 28 chapters.

  This is the first and the only novel written by Hope Donahue.

  Beautiful Stranger is a gloomy and disturbing novel, and a true story about

  how society and environment can shape the suffering of a person. The story is about how a dysfunctional family and society push Donahue to do a plastic surgery at an early age.

  This novel is about a woman named Hope Donahue. She is the only child of a rich bank chairman and a granddaughter of a famous doctor of international acclaim. She grows up and lives in a tiny enclave of Los Angeles called Hancock

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  families. She is intelligent, witty, and well traveled. She studies in the best private schools. She can buy anything she wants without working hard to get it. She is quite pretty with her five-feet-eight-inches tall, model’s built that is slim and tall, blonde hair, and green eyes. Many people think that she is a lucky woman. In fact she is not happy and satisfied with her life. She wants something in her life, but she cannot get it. Some of her needs cannot be fulfilled. Then she does some plastic surgery to make herself more beautiful than before, even though she is pretty enough.

  3.2 Approach of the Study

  I use the psychological approach presented by Rohrberger and Woods for analyzing this novel. I choose the psychological approach because I need this approach to make an analysis of the human motivation in carrying out some actions.

  Rohrberger and Woods said that the psychological approach involves the effort to locate and demonstrate certain current patterns. This approach is used to explain human’s motivation, personality, behavior, and needs patterns written in literary works (1971:13).

  3.3 Procedures of the Study

  The method of this study was library research. It means the data and information that I used in the analysis were taken from books on literature that

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  I analyzed this novel using two sources. They were a primary source and secondary sources. The primary source was the novel itself, Hope Donahue’s

  

Beautiful Stranger. The secondary sources were several books used to support the

  study, such as literary books, psychology books, and motivation books. I also used electronic sources to support and complete the information that I could not get from the books.

  I carried out several steps in analyzing this novel. The first step was reading this novel several times in order to understand the story more and to find out some interesting points that I can use as the main topic in this study. The second step was deciding the problem formulation. The third step was trying to find out a suitable approach to help me analyzing the novel. The fourth step was analyzing the novel based on the problem formulated. And the last step was making a conclusion and suggestions for teachers and future researchers.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS This chapter discusses the motivation of Hope Donahue in doing plastic

  surgery. Motivation is sum of the intentions, desires, goals, and needs that influence human beings’ behavior. People perform an action with motives (Bootzin et al 367). Motivation also influences the direction, persistence, and vigor of goal directed behavior (Smith 282). In other words, motivation creates motivated behavior (Murray 20).

  Specifically, the discussion of Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery is based on Maslow’s theory of motivation. Maslow defines seven basic needs, which are connected to each other and motivate human beings to do their actions (69-77). These needs are the physiological needs, safety needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs, the needs to know and understand, aesthetic needs, and self actualization needs. Therefore, the discussion is also divided into seven parts. Each part describes the fulfillment of each particular need in Hope Donahue’s life and how it motivates Hope Donahue to do plastic surgery.

4.1 Physiological Needs as the only Fulfilled Needs

  Physiological needs refer to the needs to defend their life physically, such as the need to eat, drink, get a place for staying, sleep, breathe, and have sex (Maslow 69). These needs are completely fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Hope’s needs for food, drink, clothes and shelter are fulfilled abundantly considering her background from a rich, old family. She is an only child, and she describes her family background in this statement, “My father is a bank chairman, my grandfather a doctor of international acclaim. My mother stayed home in our beautiful house to raise me, as mothers did then” (Donahue 1). Since Hope’s father is a bank chairman, he must be able to support their family financially and earn enough money to buy food, drink, and clothes for her. Since Hope’s mother is a stay-at-home housewife, she must have enough time to provide food, drink, and clothes for Hope. Since Hope is an only child, she does not have to compete with other siblings for those needs.

  Hope’s need for shelter to live and sleep comfortably is also fulfilled. She grows up in a “beautiful house” located in “a tiny enclave of Los Angeles called Hancock Park, an area as renowned for its stately mansions and old-money families” (Donahue 1). Besides food, drink, clothes, shelter, and a lot of money, her additional needs are also fulfilled, thus ensuring that she can live comfortably. For example, she gets her own car at a very young age as a gift from her parents, while most other young people must save for a long time before they can afford such a luxury. She can enroll at a good college, while many other people must apply for a scholarship, as shown in her comment “I never had to apply for a college scholarship or save for a new car. These things were given to me” (Donahue 1).

  Her need to have sex is fulfilled after she enters adulthood. With her good

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  so many men who are interested in her and willing to have sex with her. As she admits herself, she lost her virginity in college. Furthermore, in college, she keeps changing boyfriends. She dates many men, choosing and dumping them as she wishes.

  To compensate for the incompetence I felt in the classroom, I embarked on a series of small, brutal romantic victories. I had always been fickle when it came to boyfriends. Except for Hart, with whom I’d played a cat-and- mouse game, I picked up and dropped suitors like trying on clothes. One boyfriend called me “the ultimate Gemini.” At Berkeley, my romantic dysfunction kicked into high gear. I dated a series of my classmates, none for longer than a few months. I was proud of my reputation as a female Lothario, someone who usually tired of men before they tired of me (Donahue 27).

  As implied by the quotation above, Hope can easily pick up a boyfriend to fulfill her physiological sexual need among her “series of small, brutal romantic victories”, if she wants to. After college, there are still other men who approach her and are interested in her, so she can still choose a man to fulfill her sexual need easily.

  Therefore, physiological needs do not form a part of Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery. Her action of doing plastic surgery is not motivated by the physiological needs, because these needs are already fulfilled even without plastic surgery.

4.2 Safety Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery

  Safety needs refer to the need for regularity and stability. Thus, a human being will work hard to avoid strange and unexpected things (Maslow 70). These needs are not fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Her needs for regularity and stability are not fulfilled. This is mainly caused by the conditions in her family. Hope grows up surrounded by instability and unexpected shocks since she was a young child. Despite their material perfection, Hope’s family is not solid. Her mother is aggressive, volatile and a little neurotic, while her father is passive and awkward. They fight and argue in front of Hope frequently and openly for no good reason. Hope states that “My parents fight over the most trivial things; my mother’s anger and unhappiness bubble up often and unexpectedly, like dinosaur bones in the nearby La Brea tar pits” (Donahue 65). Another example of Hope’s parents’ fighting is depicted below.

  My parents returned to the apartment late that night with a great slamming of doors and shouting. Listening in my room, I gathered that my mother had drunk too much and done something embarrassing with Wild Bill. She was slurring her words, laughing and weeping at the same time. I could tell my father was very angry because he kept his voice especially low and steady (Donahue 40).

  Hope’s mother’s volatile characteristic changes her behavior unpredictably from time to time. Sometimes she is nice and close, yet sometimes she is distant and cruel to Hope. Hope describes her mother’s “craziness” as “a temporary state, like snow blindness, something that overtook her from time to time but which she ultimately had control over” (Donahue 21). She never knows what to expect and how to behave in front of her mother. When she is being nice and close, she treats Hope like a best friend, as shown in the following quotations.

  She always talked to me like a best girlfriend, like we were the same age. “What would I do without you, sweet apple? she’d say, and I would feel the hum of our special closeness. I’d think, So what if my mother is a little

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  My mother had become her old self again, cheerful and chatty. She’d helped me select a dazzling green bikini—my first—that rode high on my hips (Donahue 52). Yet, when she is being distant and cruel, she would change drastically and treat Hope very badly, as shown in the following quotation.

  With a banshee cry my mother lunged out with her hand, sweeping a spider plant and the neat stack of psychology books on Camille’s coffee table to the floor. She jumped up and stalked back and forth like a caged tiger in the limited space of the office. “I don’t have to take this!” she shouted. “I won’t listen to this little bitch accusing me of not being a good mother!” She stormed out the door, slamming it behind her so hard the windows rattled (Donahue 84).

  Moreover, Hope’s mother’s characteristics often lead her to do harmful things, both to Hope and herself. For example, she has tried to commit suicide twice during Hope’s teenage years, which become traumatic experience for her. The first suicide attempt happens before their family move to Hong Kong. Hope is only twelve years old and is in her room when it happens, as shown in her comment, “Three weeks before we left, my mother took a bottle and a half of sleeping pills and washed them down with Jack Daniel’s. I was in my room wrapping my glass animals in tissue paper, my mouth stuffed with gauze and still swollen from having the teeth pulled, when it happened” (Donahue 14). The second suicide attempt happens after their family go back to the US from Hong Kong. Hope is in her mid teens and finds her mother’s unconscious body. She screams to call her mother and describes what she finds in the room: “The bottle of Jack Daniel’s was on the floor, empty. White capsules spilled across the carpet” (Donahue 85).

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  As another example, Hope’s mother suddenly accuses Hope of trying to seduce her own father without any good reason or foundation at all. She makes the accusation just because Hope’s father sits next to Hope, while Hope’s father only denies passively instead of defending Hope or himself. It makes Hope feel terror and frustration, as shown in the quotations below.

  “What the hell is going on between you two?” she shrieks. “Why did you sit next to her? Tempting you, in that little bikini? I know exactly what she’s doing, and I know what you’re thinking, don’t think I don’t!” I know it, I knew it, yet still it takes a moment to realize: She is talking about me. I look down at my breasts in the bikini top, the flat terrain of my belly, and freeze with terror. Dear God, I think (Donahue 66). “I didn’t sit by her, Virginia.” My father’s words are calm, measured, and perfectly clear. Does he know he’s lying, or is sitting by me not worth defending? I want to barge into their room, smack him, to shake him until he acknowledges me. I’m your daughter, for Christ’s sake! What is wrong

  with sitting next to your own daughter! (Donahue 66).

  Later, she accuses her husband of trying to abuse Hope. This accusation also makes Hope feel terror and frustration, as shown in her response, “How can you just switch topics like this, Mom? Do you hear what you’re saying? How could you even think that Dad would do things like that? It’s sick, is what it is” (Donahue 79).

  As yet another example, Hope’s mother portrays Hope as sexually active in front of other people, although it is not true. She never even discusses sexuality with Hope, although it is actually her duty as Hope’s mother. Hope’s mother’s description about her image makes her feel uncomfortable and ashamed, as shown in the following quotations.

  In spite of her reticence to discuss all things sexual with me, my mother

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  my many dates, creating a scandalous image of myself, which I was uncomfortable with (Donahue 125). Even though I was not at all the sort of girl they envisioned, I still nurtured a secret shame within myself. Labels like slut, easy, and tease floated around accusingly in my head (Donahue 125). Besides failing in their duty to educate Hope about sexuality, both Hope’s parents are not even willing to protect her from sexual abuse by other people. When an older man called Hugh tries to flirt with Hope, Hope’s parents ridicule her complaint and regard it as something trivial, as described below.

  But if my parents noticed Hugh’s untoward attentions—how could they not?—they didn’t mention it. I dropped hints about Hugh’s perversion but it was impossible to crack the surface of my mother’s mockery. They joked that, yes, Hugh was probably “checking me out,” but could you blame him? “He’s probably never seen such a gorgeous thing,” my mother cackled. “He just can’t help himself.” A gorgeous thing? I was a pretty knick-knack, to be picked up, palmed casually, and put back (Donahue 123).

  This condition is worsened by the family’s lifestyle. Hope’s father is sent to work in Hong Kong when Hope is twelve years old, and the family must follow him to live in Hong Kong for a year. The family’s lifestyle in Hong Kong is different from their lifestyle in the US. They have servants, which consist of a maid, a cook, and a driver, and they do not have anything to do. This lifestyle brings more pressure to their life and worsens Hope’s mother’s aggressive and volatile characteristics, as shown below.

  When she wasn’t screaming at my father, my mother directed her frustration the Chinese. “They blow their noses on the street!” she’d yell. “They spit to appease some throat God.” And what was that smell, that foul smell that constantly surrounded her? “Everyone here comes up to my nose,” she said. “I’m always smelling filthy, greasy hair.” She began to take three, four, even five showers a day. My mother had always been hypervigilant about her personal hygiene, but this was a bit much, even for

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  With such condition, Hope has never been able to feel safe at home. Therefore, safety needs form a part of Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery. This need motivates Hope Donahue to do plastic surgery in order to achieve the safety promised by the doctor. The doctor has promised never to leave her and to always give her his attention in all conditions, both good and bad, something that Hope’s parents or friends cannot ever do and give. The doctor’s promise gives Hope the feeling of regularity and stability that she cannot get from her family or surroundings. Hope associates the doctor’s promise with the plastic surgery itself and thus, she believes that plastic surgery will make her life safer.

  Of course, the doctor only says that in order to achieve financial gain from his patient, but the doctor’s promise is very important for Hope. This is shown in Hope’s thought below.

  I wouldn’t leave you . This is what I need so much to know. ... No price is

  too high for this safety, this guarantee of attention. My money, my flesh and blood, my dignity: I would give it all. Is this what feels like, I wonder,

  this desire for complete supplication? The sight of my blood on his gloves

  seems appropriate; I already know that love and pain are intertwined (Donahue 10). As described above, Hope is willing to give her money, flesh, blood, and dignity in order to achieve the “safety” and “guarantee of attention” promised by the doctor, which will make her feel safer.

4.3 Belonging and Love Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery

  Belonging and love needs cover giving and receiving love and having affectionate relationships with others, specially the feeling of having a place in

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  their environment (Maslow 71). These needs are not fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

  Her needs to give and receive love are not fulfilled. A child’s immediate surroundings are comprised of her family and relatives. If a child cannot love and be loved by his or her family and relatives, he or she is deprived of these needs. Throughout her childhood and adolescence, Hope is not given love by her family and relatives and she cannot express her love to her family and relatives. Hope’s father is busy with his work in the office; he has very little time and attention for his family. As described by Hope, “My father worked late into the evenings because, he said, that was what all the bankers did, though my mother said it was to avoid us” (Donahue 19). Even when he is with Hope, he refuses to play with her. Her father’s physical and emotional absence makes her unable to express her love, except by going to his room and inhaling his scent.

  Sometimes, during the day, I’d play detective, going into his room and inhaling the scent of him, his soap and the stale officey smell of his suits. In the bathroom I’d smell his aftershave and look at the leftover bubbles of his frothy pee in the toilet. He worked late every night, so my mother and I ate dinner together in front of the television, watching one of the American shows (Donahue 41).

  Hope’s mother is physically at home, but she often ignores or abandons Hope because she is often occupied with herself. As described by Hope, “At home, my mother spent more and more time in her room, listening to Helen Reddy records. I could sometimes hear her thin, reedy voice straining for the high notes” (Donahue 42). Her mother’s emotional absence also makes her unable to express her love. She tries to call and approach her mother, but her mother would

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  “Mom!” Sometimes I would call her, but she wouldn’t answer. My mother’s face in sleep always wore a curious look of effort, a crease of concern between her brows, her eyes squeezed tightly shut. “Mom!” I’d say again. Then, more sternly, “Mother!” And finally, her name— “Virginia!”—seeing how it felt to call her that. I’d get up close and peer behind her sunglasses, at her eyeballs rolling back and forth under the closed lids like ships tossed about on wind-swept seas (Donahue 14-15). I froze, staring at her. It was a minute before she noticed me. When she did, her face abruptly twisted into a grimace. “Go away!” she shouted. “Beat it!” (Donahue 46) Hope’s grandparents, her father’s parents, live not so far from her house and she often visits them. However, Hope’s mother hates them, so there is no love among their extended family, as shown in Hope’s comment “My mother’s resentment of them had become a kind of hobby to her, a small seed she nurtured over the years” (Donahue 57). Also, whenever Hope visits her grandparents, their house is always quiet and they mostly ignore her. They are not interested in talking to her or giving her affection, as shown in the quotation below.

  I feel like I am once again in my grandparents’ deadly quiet house, free to explore while my grandmother took a nap and the maid smoked cigarettes in front of the television playing Spanish soap operas in her tiny room. No one cared what I looked at or where I went, so long as I was quiet (Donahue 152). Hope’s needs to have affectionate relationships and have a place in her environment are not fulfilled. She does not feel like she belongs anywhere, whether at home or her grandparents’ house. At home, she cannot meet her father and is ignored or shunned by her mother, while at her grandparents’ house, she is ignored by her grandparents. With no affectionate relationship with her parents, grandparents, or friends, she spends her childhood and adolescence alone. She plays by herself and watches television to entertain herself, as described below.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Solitude never bores me, a fact which I probably ought to find alarming but which I chock up to having been an only child, all those hours of playing by myself. Sometimes I watch television, drawn to the stories of misery and betrayal unfolding on talk shows and soap operas. I am soothed by the emotional slaughter of these people (Donahue 31). As an adult, Hope’s needs to give and receive love, to have affectionate relationship, and to have a place in her environment are still not fulfilled by her family. The deficiency of these needs is indicated by Hope’s inability to find affection in her family, and Hope’s family’s inability to give her affection.

  Although Hope feels really miserable, she does not want to ask her parents to cheer her up and pretends to be cheerful in her phone call and visits instead. As Hope states, “Looking back, I cannot recall ever telling my parents just miserable I really was. I maintained a sunny façade in every phone call and visit, though I often sobbed in my car along the desolate stretch of Interstate 5 between San Francisco and Los Angeles” (Donahue 27). Another time, when Hope really needs her mother’s help after her first plastic surgery, her mother leaves her. Although Hope begs her mother for love and attention, her mother abandons her, as described below.

  I have heard that mother birds sometimes push their young out of the nest if they are sickly or deformed. As for my mother, she took one look at her disfigured offspring and fled the nest. She checked herself into the Ritz- Carlton in Marina Del Ray and called my father with explicit instructions that she would not come home until I was gone. When I called her on the phone, crying, and told her she was abandoning me, she called it “tough love.” “Please,” I begged her. “Please, please, I need you.” “I’m sorry,” she kept saying, and I knew that she was (Donahue 106-107).

  As an adult, there are some other examples which show that Hope’s

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  seeks affectionate relationships with people and things that she encounters around her. She hopes to get love from the nurse in the hospital where she undergoes plastic surgery by following the nurse, as shown in her comment, “I follow her down the hallway, wishing, childishly and impractically, that she would be kind, perhaps hold my hand. I need some maternal kindness to calm the whoosh of fear in me” (Donahue 5). As another example, Hope tries to give and get love from her large stuffed animal by sleeping with it every night, and she also hopes to get more affection from people by carrying it around, as shown in her comment, “I brought it with me that morning not really for security, but because I hoped that the doctor and nurses would see me clutching this childish toy and offer me a child’s greater portion of comfort” (Donahue 98).

  Furthermore, Hope tries to give and get love by getting involved in a romantic relationship that she does not really want with a man called Hank. She actually does not like Hank and his sex-obsessed behaviors, but she obeys him passively, as shown in the quotation below.

  I don’t like Hank, but I don’t dislike him enough to refuse. In the months to come, I will continue to question the dull, heifer-like passivity that overcomes me when I am around him. It’s a state almost like anesthesia; I experience neither pleasure nor pain. Much later, I will come to realize that it is not simply my indifference to Hank which makes me as malleable as clay, but something darker, more desperate and dangerous: Fearing that I am unlovable, I must settle, and be grateful for, simply being desired (Donahue 141). Besides that, Hope applies to be a nude photo model in a cheap agency just to enjoy how it feels to be loved. She says that she does not do it to tempt men, but rather to gain love, as shown in her comment “I do not want to dangle myself

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  immediate, more intimate, more like love (Donahue 177). She enjoys the attention she gets when she poses nude, as shown in the quotation below.

  I reach around and undo my bra, then slide my panties down my legs. I toss them both on top of the dress. North looks up. “Sweet Je-sus,” he says. “Will you marry me?” I know, suddenly and fully, why I am here. This reaction, this attention, this desire. However fleeting, however insincere. I smile, feeling my cheeks flush (Donahue 216). It can be seen that Hope tries to seek the fulfillment that she cannot get in her family through various other means, but she fails to get it there as well.

  Therefore, belonging and love needs form a major part of Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery. Hope Donahue is motivated to do plastic surgery in order to find belonging and love, especially since she regards her plastic surgery doctor as the one figure who can fulfill all her belonging and love needs. She believes that if she does plastic surgery, she will be able to love and to be loved, especially to love and be loved by her doctor, and she will belong somewhere, especially in her doctor’s office. Although in fact the doctor is only manipulating his patient for his own financial gain, she does not realize it.

  Firstly, Hope compares the doctor’s action of altering her body through plastic surgery to a loving action based on his affection to her. She feels intense longing when her doctor treats his other patient gently and affectionately. As described by Hope, “She smiles up at him, and the look of trust and intimacy they exchange makes my throat ache with longing” (Donahue 6). That longing is strong enough to motivate Hope to undergo plastic surgery repeatedly in order to get love and attention from her doctor. Plastic surgery becomes Hope’s means to

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  she would give her money, her flesh and blood, and her dignity for “this guarantee of attention” (Donahue 10). She further compares the blood from her surgery to the pain of love in her following comment, “The sight of my blood on his gloves seems appropriate; I already know that love and pain are intertwined” (Donahue 10). This idea is supported by her yearning to be accompanied by her doctor after the surgery in the following quotation.

  “Doctor!” That word. It still thrills me, a thrill that cuts through the pain. I am breathless, but it could be the dressings, the constricting after-surgery bra. Please stay here and talk to me some more, I want to beg. Please

  don’t leave me to go back to my apartment and be all alone again, so soon (Donahue 207).

  Still related with the first idea, Hope associates the figure of her doctor as a lover figure. Besides feeling longing when looking at the doctor interact with other patients and regarding his actions in surgery as loving actions, Hope also imagines and wishes that the doctor would become her lover instead of just a doctor. She is disappointed when she discovers that the doctor is already engaged, but illogically, she is happy that the doctor’s fiancée is an ordinary marketing director, because it means there is still hope that the doctor would fall in love with her, an ordinary woman, too: “This surprises me, but it gives me hope, too. If Dr.

  S—can fall in love with someone not famous, not glamorous, someone who works for a chain of discount stores, then why not with me?” (Donahue 114). Hope is under the illusion that he cares about her and they have a special bond together, bonded by the plastic surgery procedures, as described in the quotation below.

  He has bent over my supine body like the prince over Snow White. He has used all his skill and attention to make me into something more desirable

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  vivid demonstration of love is there, after all, than suffering willingly at the hands of another? Sitting in Dr. S—‘s office, I realize the extent of my infatuation. I hope, with every cell of my body, that he and I can one day be more than doctor and patient. That there will be an us. Doesn’t all my time and effort merit

  something other than the sterile doctor-patient relationship? (Donahue 116-

  117) Lastly, Hope regards her doctor’s office as the place or the environment where she belongs. Besides love and attention from her doctor that she is guaranteed to find there, she also feels familiar with the atmosphere and feels welcome there. She already knows the receptionist and the nurses and often chats with them in the waiting room; she is not ignored like when she was at home or at her grandparents’ house. Hope says that “Being in Dr.S—‘s office is better than being alone in my apartment. It is better than being anywhere. His waiting room has become my haven” (Donahue 116). If she stops undergoing plastic surgery procedures, she would lose the place where she belongs. Naturally, she is motivated to maintain it by visiting the doctor’s office frequently and planning more plastic surgery.

  It wasn’t long before my visits to his office were what I lived for. I needed them to provide me with human contact, excitement, the fulfillment I wasn’t getting anywhere else in my life. It was a tall order, and I was frequently disappointed (Donahue 38).

4.4 Esteem Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery

  Self-esteem refers to the needs of self-confidence, competency, self- control, achievement, and freedom, supported by honor, which refers to the prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, and status given from others (Maslow

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Her needs for self-confidence, freedom, competency and achievement are not fulfilled because of two factors. Firstly, Hope is by nature very shy and pessimistic. Thus, it is very hard for her to gain even a little sense of self- confidence, competency and achievement. She is imprisoned within her shy and pessimistic characteristics, so she is also deprived of any sense of freedom. For example, although she is physically healthy, rich, and achieves highly in university both in academic and extra-curricular fields, she is antisocial and easily panics when meeting people, as shown in her statement “I was most definitely not a people person. Though I hid it well, I was staggeringly shy. I was in a sorority, but I was not at all social. I led campus tours, but suffered panic attacks before nearly every one” (Donahue 26). She admits and wonders herself how come she has no confidence, competence, achievement, or freedom like her friends and other people, despite her health, wealth, and education, as shown in the following quotation.

  I listen to their preparations with a sense of wonder. How are they able to go out into the world each day, fresh and full of energy, instead of crippled by fear and plagued by dragging lethargy? How is it that I have lost the knack for everyday life? It can’t be that hard; people far less educated and capable and robust than I am do it every day. And yet I can’t imagine going to a job, even looking for a job. Not only would I surely fail at my responsibilities, I can’t make it through the day without lying down on my bed to rest every few hours (Donahue 30).

  As another example, even after a new achievement, the achievement does not help her to build her esteem. She still describes her self-confidence as “parched”. The praise or honor from people around her quickly drains away instead of building her esteem, as shown in the following quotation.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Being accepted to Berkeley, like all my other achievements, was a hollow accolade. I waved the acceptance letter around to my parents and my boyfriend, Hart, of whose affection I was never sure, hoping for a shower of praise that would temporarily soak my parched self-confidence. As if poured into a sieve, the good feeling my shiny accomplishments gave me drained quickly away (Donahue 26-27).

  Secondly, Hope’s needs for self-confidence, freedom, competency and achievement are hindered by her loved ones. They do not help Hope to develop her sense of self-confidence, freedom, competency and achievement, but instead, they make her feel more deprived of those needs. It is shown in Hope’s statement that “With my mother, my father, with boyfriends, with Dr. S--, I always felt like the weaker one, the one who wanted, the one who pined for more” (Donahue 175). Parents play an important role in developing their child’s esteem, but Hope’s parents fail to do it. Hope’s mother always brags about Hope’s beauty in front of other people, but she never gives Hope any encouragement about her appearance directly. Hope’s mother just criticizes her, for example by telling her “to lie in the sun next to her so she wouldn’t be so pasty” (Donahue 52). As another example, Hope’s mother blames her and calls her “hopeless” when she is too shy to talk to a boy she likes.

  I lolled by the pool in my new bikini, hoping that Dominic LaChapelle, the cutest boy in town, would stare at me. My mother nudged me when she saw him looking. “His family has a vineyard,” she hissed to me. “They’ve got the big bucks.” When this failed to motivate me, she took a more direct approach. “Go talk to him! What on earth are you waiting for?” But I just sat dumbly on my towel, staring at the constellation of moles on my stomach. “Oh, you’re hopeless!” she cried. “Now you’ve lost your chance. You’ve got to be assertive with a man” (Donahue 52).

  Hope’s mother’s approach is certainly intimidating and does not help Hope

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  confident about herself. Furthermore, Hope’s mother does not give the needed support when Hope starts being addicted to plastic surgery. Instead of accompanying her and helping her develop her self esteem back, Hope’s mother shuns and indirectly mocks her. This is the time when Hope needs companionship from her parents, but her mother sends her out of the house and makes her live alone in an apartment. After Hope’s fourth surgery, her mother told her “that she would not allow her daughter’s “self-mutilation” to occur under her roof” (Donahue 25). Hope also needs to discuss the cause of her addiction and the solution, but her mother refers to her problem with an unsympathetic term, “self- mutilation”, which makes Hope unable to discuss her problem with her mother.

  Hope’s boyfriend, as the next closest person in her life after her family, also does not help to develop her sense of self-confidence, freedom, competency and achievement, but makes her feel more deprived of those needs instead. Hope says that she “was never sure” of his affection (Donahue 26), which makes her feel less confidence and competent. Furthermore, like Hope’s mother, he also shuns Hope when she needs help to boost her esteem, which makes her realize more about her lack of confidence, as described below.

  In spite of my beseeching, Hart had no intention of letting me stay on with him. I would hang around his neck like an albatross, he said, a listless and expensive decoration. And he was right: I had lost all confidence in my ability to hold a conversation, let alone a job (Donahue 28).

  Therefore, self-esteem needs form a part of Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery. It motivates Hope to do plastic surgery in order to gain stable and healthy self-esteem. In Hope’s case, esteem needs are strongly related

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  needs. She believes that if she does plastic surgery, she will be more beautiful and thus be able to gain self-confidence, competency, self-control, achievement, and freedom. In her mind, her new beauty from the plastic surgery will be the key to shed her lack of esteem and to gain full esteem, as shown in the quotations below.

  How can I resist a delicious, illicit offer to become someone I am not? Does Dr. S— see inside me, does he know that if I could, I would shed my face and body, my very self, on his table as nimbly as a snake sheds its skin and leaves it there, outgrown and discarded, in favor of becoming a beautiful stranger? (Donahue 6) I never believed what I’d told the first doctor, Dr. D--, that the only thing about myself I wanted to change was nose. Even then I was thinking cheeks, lips, maybe breasts. But I did believe that, after I’d fixed these things about myself, I would be happy. I would emerge from beneath the bandages like a butterfly from a gauze cocoon and fly off into the world, free and full of confidence (Donahue 36).

  Of course, in reality, Hope’s beauty from the plastic surgery does not help her fulfill her esteem needs. On the contrary, she still feels lack of confidence and her plastic surgery addiction makes her even more deprived of self esteem, because she realizes that she has to resort to such an extreme way to compensate for her weakness, as shown in the quotation below.

  But in the end my self-aggrandizing backfired, drawing me back to the same inevitable conclusion: If I was so perfect, then what was I doing at age twenty-three going from doctor to doctor, my big fat lack of confidence blowing the whole perfect picture to smithereens? (Donahue 70)

  As a result of the condition above, Hope gets caught in a vicious cycle. The more she is deprived of self esteem needs, the more she is motivated to do plastic surgery to gain more esteem. After she does plastic surgery, she is deprived of her self esteem, so she needs to do another plastic surgery to gain her self esteem

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

4.5 Needs to Know and Understand do not Form a Part of Hope Donahue’s Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery

  The needs to know and understand involve studying and finding something out, such as knowledge, which can bring satisfaction and happiness (Maslow 73). These needs are not fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

  In Hope’s case, her needs to study and find knowledge are not fulfilled because they are hindered by her unfulfilled esteem needs and her obsession about aesthetic needs. Actually, Hope is intellectually capable of studying and finding knowledge. Her intelligence is supported by good facilities and education afforded by her rich family. She finishes undergraduate education and is accepted into graduate school. She also has some achievements throughout her years in university, as shown in her statement, “My gilt-framed diploma hung on the wall in my parents’ home along with various other mounted and displayed achievements, my bachelor of arts degree from USC, dean’s list certificates, a photo of myself giving a USC campus tour to a CEO” (Donahue 25-26).

  However, Hope’s success in her studies does not indicate her healthy curiosity and her efforts to study and find knowledge which can bring satisfaction and happiness. On the contrary, she has no initiative or interest at all to study and find knowledge, so she cannot gain any satisfaction or happiness from there. She does everything merely to obey people, as shown in her statement, “I had drifted into graduate school the same way I drifted everywhere in my life, according to what other people said I ought to be or do” (Donahue 26). She thinks that she just

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  intended to do, not because I was lazy or vain, but because I believed that my appearance was all I had to offer” (Donahue 27). As a result, she cannot keep up her achievement in graduate school. She nearly fails all her classes in her first semester and her marks drop, as shown in the quotation below.

  My blonde good looks and sunny demeanor did not score my any points among my fellow students or professors. USC was all about being rewarded for the outside; Berkeley was intensely intellectual. Whereas in high school and college I had never had to try very hard to get good grades, at Berkeley I found myself among students who were as motivated as I pretended to be, real journalists in the making, many of whom were paying their own way through school (Donahue 27). This condition further proves Hope’s inability to fulfill her needs to study and find knowledge. She still has her intelligence and adequate facilities as before, but she cannot enjoy the process of studying and finding knowledge, so she fails to develop intellectually to match the demand of her graduate study.

  Although the needs to know and understand are not fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life, these needs do not directly motivate Hope to do plastic surgery.

  Instead, these needs just help to explain how extreme Hope’s obsession to be beautiful and to improve her appearance is. Her needs to study and find knowledge are always eclipsed by her efforts to pursue beauty, so she cannot gain satisfaction and happiness from studying and finding knowledge. This condition is described in her statement, such as “Language came easily to me and I was in the Advanced Placement French class. But none of these interests seemed as compelling or urgent to me as being beautiful” (Donahue 120) and “I had long ago lost interest in academic subjects, my early talent for creative writing eclipsed

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  by my intense fixation on my appearance” (Donahue 26). It is also supported by the following quotation.

  My new creative writing journal, a gift from my English teacher in Hong Kong, who said that it would be a crime if I didn’t keep on writing, lay blank and abandoned at the bottom of my suitcase. It was as if I’d been administered a highly addictive drug called Being Pretty, and it was slowly taking over my system, killing off all the other things I used to be interested in. I thought about my looks all the time, wondering constantly who was looking and, if they were, what did they see? A pretty girl? A homely, gangly girl? (Donahue 53) Her pursue of beauty gives her more satisfaction and happiness than her pursue of knowledge. It shows that she is willing to put everything aside, including her pursuit of knowledge, for the sake of beauty. For example, she rarely even stays overnight in her dorm in university because she does not want people to see her without any makeup (Donahue 26), and she spends more time putting on makeup than doing her homework, as described in the following quotation.

  My mother’s desire for me to be glamorous, stunning, and charming—to dazzle my father’s family—added to the pressure I already heaped upon myself. It took an enormous amount of time and effort to make myself beautiful, about two and a half hours of preparation. I spent far more time on my appearance than I did on my schoolwork. I did moderately well with a minimum of effort at the private, all-girls high school I attended (Donahue 120). While these unfulfilled needs to know and understand do not directly explain her motivation to do plastic surgery, this unfulfilled condition explains the extent of Hope’s obsession with beauty, to be precise her willingness to put her other needs aside to achieve beauty. The most extreme way of altering her appearance to improve her beauty is through plastic surgery. Thus, the needs to

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  become an indicator of how Hope is easily motivated to do plastic surgery by other needs or factors.

4.6 Aesthetic Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery

  Aesthetic needs refer to the need for beauty, which can help people to become healthier. In some individuals, the need for beauty is very deep and ugliness is sickening. This need is correlated to self-image. When this need is low in an individual, the individual’s self-image is also low (Maslow 75). These needs are not fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

  Her need for beauty is not fulfilled. To be precise, Hope lacks the self- image obtained from her need for beauty. In reality, she is actually beautiful enough, as shown in her statement “I am five-feet-eight-inches tall, with a model’s build, blonde hair, and green eyes. People say I am beautiful” (Donahue 1) and her comment when she sees her photograph, “What I see astonishes me: a young, lovely, seemingly uncomplicated woman, not at all the despairing, unattractive person I see every day” (Donahue 247). However, she always feels lacking in beauty, so her need for beauty is never fulfilled in Hope’s mind.

  This obsession for beauty began when Hope was a young child. As a child, she idolized her mother’s beauty and wanted to be like her mother. This is shown in Hope’s description of her mother, “She was like a beautiful alien. Her beauty set her apart and made her special and unique the way I longed to be seen as special” (Donahue 36). Hope says that her mother is “fair and soft and lovely”,

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  for land” (Donahue 15). In her logic as a child, Hope associates happiness in her family with her mother’s beauty, as described below.

  As a child, my mother’s beauty shone like a beacon of hope to me, absolving her of all fault. Once, looking through boxes in my grandmother’s basement, I came across an old 1960s Harlequin romance upon which was sketched, I was sure, a picture of my mother: a swooning beauty with round blue eyes, pert nose, shapely mouth, and long hair the color of butter. When my father called her “Hey Gorgeous,” I knew all was well in our house (Donahue 21). In turn, Hope’s mother develops Hope’s obsession by teaching her to focus on beauty. Since Hope was a child, she never teaches Hope anything else except how to become beautiful. Hope’s mother gives example by wearing “a shockingly bright, bare jumpsuit, halter-backed, of vivid magenta silk” which “barely covered her breasts, clearly braless beneath the thin fabric”, telling Hope that “A girl has to compete around here to make a splash, you know” (Donahue 40). She tells Hope to lie in the sun so she “wouldn’t be so pasty” (Donahue 52). She never tells Hope she is beautiful when they are alone, but she brags about Hope’s beauty in public.

  In stores when I’d try on clothes my mother perched herself by the mirror outside the dressing room and insisted that I come out and twirl around. “Look at my beautiful daughter!” she’d exclaim to salesclerks, her effervescent praise uncorked by an audience (Donahue 70).

  Hope’s mother’s behavior seems as if she is only proud of Hope because of her beauty, not her other characteristics, her intelligence, or Hope herself as an individual, and as if beauty is the most worthy asset to show to other people. By behaving like that, Hope’s mother stresses the importance of beauty on Hope’s mind from an early age. Hope’s mother’s demands make Hope feel even more

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  be glamorous, stunning, and charming—to dazzle my father’s family—added to the pressure I already heaped upon myself. It took an enormous amount of time and effort to make myself beautiful, about two and a half hours of preparation” (Donahue 120).

  One of Hope’s childhood friends also develops Hope’s obsession with beauty. As a child, Hope only has one best friend named Alisa. They perform makeovers by sketching pictures of ugly women and altering the pictures into beautiful women based on Hope’s directions. Hope says they are not interested in Barbie dolls, whose faces are already pre-made beautifully, because “we needed to create what we wanted from scratch” (Donahue 34). Even as children, their game already stresses the importance on beauty and shows Hope’s desire to improve beauty as much as she can.

  Alisa was a talented artist. We entertained ourselves by doing what we called makeovers. Alisa would sketch some hapless imaginary woman, unattractive in the extreme, with bulbous nose, witchy chin hairs, a moppish mane of hair. It was my job to dictate to Alisa which of the sketched woman’s features could be improved and how, and Alisa then resketched the result according to my critique (Donahue 34).

  As a result, after she grows up to be an adult, Hope becomes obsessed about being beautiful. She regards beauty as the main necessity in her life, as shown in her statement, “I was, perhaps, even more naïve than my mother in thinking that a pretty face was all I really needed in life” (Donahue 36). She checks herself in the mirror very often, admitting that “It’s ridiculous, compulsive, how many times a day I look at myself” (Donahue 35). Because she pays so much attention to her face, inevitably, she starts to find imperfections on her face. She

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  that she becomes beautiful. When her boyfriend says that they both have wide noses, his comment “devastated” her (Donahue 28). She often stares at her face and thinks about what part she wants to change, just like in the childhood game she used to play, until “this festering thought turned into full-blown obsession” (Donahue 28). She spends much time thinking about it, so she grows more and more comfortable with her obsession to become beautiful, as shown in the quotations below.

  Innocently enough, I’ll think, What if I had bigger lips? I’ll think about this for a while, play with the idea. And then something shifts, sometimes gradually, sometimes abruptly, and what was once just a thought slips into obsession. What if I had bigger lips and a smaller nose? I would be stunning, that’s what. Or at least closer to stunning (Donahue 154). Sometimes, it is true, I do think I am attractive. It is what I always hope for. More often, though, my eye asserts itself upon some flaw, however small. And the most ironic thing is that those rare times when I do find myself lovely, I am overcome with despair. I look at the bounty of my face and see the fruitless waste of my life, my potential. So much effort focused on so unrewarding a cause. It is much more comfortable and reassuring to see myself as flawed, a work in progress (Donahue 35). Therefore, aesthetic needs form a part of Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery. It motivates Hope Donahue to do plastic surgery in order to attain perfect beauty. Beginning with the seeds of dissatisfaction with her appearance described above combined with her abundant money, Hope starts to do plastic surgery. She believes that if she fixes every imperfection or irregularity on her face through plastic surgery, such as the little bump in her nose or her thin lips, her beauty will be perfect and she will have a better self-image, as described in the quotations below.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  my nose. Did I believe it? Not fully, no, but it didn’t matter whether I believed it or not. Just as my concerns focused on the physical, the outside of myself, so, too, I kept my thoughts about my motives carefully shallow as well (Donahue 101).

  While I had always pined for bigger lips, the cheekbone part was entirely random and impulsive. It was a matter of looking at my features and deciding what remained to be improved upon. I figured that if I was going to undergo the physical and emotional trauma of surgery, I might as well get more bang for my buck. At five thousand dollars, cheek implants were a pricey impulse. But I had acquired two more Visa cards, and I was as good at telling myself that I would never run out of money as I was at believing I was on a path toward something significant, that the surgeries were moving me closer to happiness (Donahue 93-94). This condition is supported by Hope’s statement, “The only way I knew to change how I felt about myself was to change my appearance” (Donahue 251).

  After the surgery, she feels very happy seeing the doctor’s reaction about her new beauty, as shown in her statement, “Beautiful, he thinks I‘m beautiful. I close my eyes, trying to recapture the feeling of ecstatic surrender, a feeling so fleeting, so quickly departed” (Donahue 12). Thus, Hope does one plastic surgery after another, and she finally becomes obsessed and addicted to plastic surgery.

  After the initial thought, as I said, obsession begins to take over. Something changes, and it’s no longer that I just want to have this surgery, but that I must do it. I am compelled to go through with it. It becomes a personal mission, a test of my resolve. I must fix this flaw, or improve this feature, because once discovered, it will haunt and disturb me until I do. ...

  Caught up in the thought of a newer, better me, all my other worries are conveniently eclipsed (Donahue 155-156). As described in the quotation above, for Hope, improving her beauty through plastic surgery becomes no longer an interest or a choice, but an urgent necessity.

  If she does not do it, she feels haunted and cannot continue her life.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

4.7 Self-actualization Needs as the Motivation in Doing Plastic Surgery

  Self-actualization needs refer to the psychological needs to use and employ all the ability, capacity, and potency to be a complete human being. People who have been actualized are generally able to see their life clearly and truly, think objectively instead of emotionally, and dedicate their life to their tasks, job, duty, or other important vocations (Maslow 76). Based on Maslow’s explanation, it can be concluded that self-actualization enables someone to be a fully-developed human being. These needs are not fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

  Her needs to use all her ability, capacity, and potency are not fulfilled. The main indicator that Hope’s self-actualization needs are not fulfilled is her lack of direction, or in Maslow’s term, her inability to see her life clearly, think objectively, or dedicate her life to her tasks or job. Although she actually has enough ability, capacity, and potency, she does not know what to do and she must wait for other people to tell her what to do. She feels that she has no control over her own life. This is shown in her statement, “I’m still going through life like a lost child, thinking that everyone else has control over things, waiting for someone to tell me what I should do. I am no longer helpless, but I continue to act helpless” (Donahue 234). This condition is supported by the following description.

  The day of my graduation, I drank too much champagne, flirted with one of my professors, wore a frilly off-the-shoulder white silk dress, and felt like a failure. As far as I could see, there was only one option for me, and that was to move back to Los Angeles and wait for someone to tell me what to do with myself (Donahue 29).

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Therefore, self-actualization needs form a part of Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery. It motivates Hope Donahue to do plastic surgery in order to achieve self-actualization. She believes that plastic surgery will give her a direction and control of her life; in other words, plastic surgery will enable her to use all her ability, capacity, and potency to be a complete human being. As the proof, her first plan to visit a plastic surgery doctor makes her feel that “The pervasive emptiness I felt vanished; suddenly this lunch, this day, my whole life had meaning and worth” (Donahue 93). Then she regards her visits to the doctor’s office as her main purpose in life, or “what I lived for”, which she needs to provide her with “the fulfillment I wasn’t getting anywhere else in my life” (Donahue 38).

  Hope thinks that her needs for self-actualization can be fulfilled by another person in a short time. She lets herself be directed and told what to do by her doctor because she believes that he can give her instant self-actualization by telling her what to do and who to be, as described below.

  With no plan laid out for me to follow, with no one to dazzle or disappoint, I was lost. With Dr. S—I found, once again, someone who would tell me what to do and who to be. There was a crucial difference, however, between Dr. S—and the other people upon whose opinion I had hung: He held a scalpel (Donahue 37).

  As shown in the quotation above, Hope depends on the doctor to lead her from her current condition of being “lost” with “no plan laid out for me to follow” and “no one to dazzle or disappoint” to tell her “what to do and what to be” (Donahue 37), or in other words to achieve self-actualization. Moreover, the doctor is forceful

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  describes this force by saying that he “held a scalpel” (Donahue 37). To Hope, the scalpel, a tool for plastic surgery, represents the tool which can bring her to self- actualization.

  Hope tries to compress her needs of “Love, and Purpose, and a Life” (Donahue 204), or in other words her need of self-actualization, into more specific needs mostly related to her appearance, as described below.

  When you are in enough pain, you will settle for anything that promises a smidgen of comfort, no matter how bizarre. The more bizarre, the better, because it is too vast, too huge and scary, to admit that you want Love, and Purpose, and A Life. I want, and the wanting feels so huge and overwhelming that I must try to narrow it to a specific need. Higher cheekbones. Bigger breasts. Dr. S—‘s fickle attention. Hank’s empty desire (Donahue 204).

  Therefore, based on all the explanation above, the needs for self-actualization become one of the factors that motivate Hope to undergo plastic surgery.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS The last chapter of this thesis consists of two parts. The first part is in the

  form of conclusions and the second part consists of the suggestions. The conclusions contain of the answers of the problems. The suggestions contain the suggestions for future researchers.

5.1 Conclusion

  This part discusses the conclusion based on the analysis of Hope Donahue’s autobiographical novel, Beautiful Stranger. There is only one problem discussed in the analysis, namely Hope Donahue’s motivation in doing plastic surgery as described in her novel. Based on Bootzin, Smith, and Murray’s definition of motivation as well as Maslow’s theory of motivation, Hope’s actions of doing plastic surgery repeatedly are motivated by some important needs in her life. These needs are unfulfilled, so Hope does plastic surgery as an instant way to fulfill them.

  There are some important needs which are unfulfilled in Hope’s life and therefore serve as the motivation for Hope to do plastic surgery. These needs are safety needs, belonging and love needs, esteem needs, aesthetic needs, and self- actualization needs.

  Based on Maslow’s theory, people can only feel safety needs, belonging

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  self-actualization needs after they have fulfilled the basic needs then they can jump up to feel the next needs. Those are physiological needs. Therefore the physiological needs are the only needs which have already fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

  Hope’s safety needs are not fulfilled due to the unstable family situation, including her volatile and suicidal mother, her passive father, her parents’ fights, and her mother’s unfounded accusations against her. Her boyfriends also cannot give her any safety. Hope does plastic surgery in order to achieve the safety promised by the doctor, who promised never to leave her and to always give her his attention in all conditions, both good and bad. self-actualization needs after they have fulfilled the basic needs then they can jump up to feel the next needs. Those are physiological needs. Therefore the physiological needs are the only needs which have already fulfilled in Hope Donahue’s life.

  Hope’s safety needs are not fulfilled due to the unstable family situation, including her volatile and suicidal mother, her passive father, her parents’ fights, and her mother’s unfounded accusations against her. Her boyfriends also cannot give her any safety. Hope does plastic surgery in order to achieve the safety promised by the doctor, who promised never to leave her and to always give her his attention in all conditions, both good and bad.

  Hope’s belonging and love needs are not fulfilled due to the lack of love she gets from and she expresses to her family since her childhood. Her father is always busy with his work, her mother is emotionally unstable and busy with herself, and her grandparents ignore her. She has no close friends. Hope does

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  plastic surgery because she associates her doctor with a lover figure, her doctor’s operations on her body to loving, affectionate action, and her doctor’s office to the place or environment where she belongs. She also seeks love from the nurse in the plastic surgery hospital.

  Hope’s esteem needs are not fulfilled due to her shy and pessimistic nature, and also because her self-confidence, competency and achievement are hindered by her loved ones. Her mother never gives encouragement and always criticizes her in beauty and romance, while her boyfriend shuns her when she needs encouragement. Hope does plastic surgery because she believes it will make her more beautiful and thus able to gain self esteem. She regards her new beauty as the key to shed her lack of esteem, although in fact it traps her to do plastic surgery over and over again to boost her esteem.

  Hope’s aesthetic needs are not fulfilled due to the lack of the self-image linked to her deep and extreme need for beauty. In reality, she is beautiful, but minor imperfections prevent her feeling beautiful. Hope does plastic surgery because she believes it will give her perfect beauty exactly as she wants.

  Hope’s self-actualization needs are not fulfilled due to her lack of direction. She does not know what to do and must wait for other people to tell her what to do. She feels she has no control over her life. Hope does plastic surgery because she believes that her doctor can give her instant self-actualization by telling her what to do and who to be.

  There is another need which is not fulfilled in Hope’s life, but it does not directly serve as the motivation for Hope to do plastic surgery. It is the need to know and understand. This need is not fulfilled because Hope is too occupied and

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  obsessed about her appearance, so her studies and her interests are neglected. She has no initiative or interest to find knowledge. However, these needs just indicate Hope’s extreme obsession to be beautiful and to improve her appearance, thus indicating how Hope is easily motivated to do plastic surgery by other needs or factors.

  Lastly, there is one type of need which is already fulfilled in Hope’s life. Therefore, it does not serve as the motivation for Hope to do plastic surgery. These are physiological needs. As the only daughter of a wealthy, reputable family, Hope’s physiological needs such as food, drink, and shelter are fulfilled abundantly since her birth. As a beautiful adult with a lot of money to take care of her appearance, her physiological need to have sex is also fulfilled. In conclusion, Hope Donahue’s action of doing plastic surgery repeatedly is motivated by the lack of many important needs in her life and the urge to fulfill those needs.

5.2 Suggestions

  This part is divided into two sections. The first is suggestion for future researchers. The second is for the implementation of teaching paragraph writing using the novel Beautiful Stranger.

5.2.1 Suggestions for Future Researchers

  There are some suggestions that can be concluded after reading and analyzing Hope Donahue’s novel, Beautiful Stranger.

  Firstly, beside the topic of motivation, the novel also suggests other interesting topics to discuss, such as feminism and society. These topics are suitable because the main character, Hope Donahue, and another major character,

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Hope’s mother, are both women. Furthermore, “beauty” is a dominant idea in this novel, so we can analyze beauty as part of the values or concept assigned to women by society and it is also possible to discuss a woman’s position, responsibilities, and expectations from her in modern Western society based on this novel.

  Secondly, we can also discuss the topic of childhood or the influence of childhood on an individual’s life as an adult. This topic is suitable because this novel depicts Hope’s childhood and adulthood in detail as well as the connection between her childhood and adulthood, so we can easily analyze the influence of her childhood on her adult life.

5.2.2 Suggestions for Teaching Implementation

  Literary works such novels can be used as a resource for teaching language. This thesis provides suggestions for using literature as material to teach paragraph writing.

  Since writing is one of the four language skills, students of English Education should master all those four skills. Practice in writing is important for students to learn how to express and develop their ideas or feelings into words and sentences. This skill can help students to improve their English vocabulary.

  In this study, I use the novel Beautiful Stranger to teach paragraph writing to second semester students of the English Education Department. I will give some paragraphs taken from the novel to the students so that they are able to understand the typical features of narrative. The students can also learn how to make several narrative paragraphs using the example paragraphs that are given.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

REFERENCES

  Abrams, M. H. 1985. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Javanovich. Beck, R.C. 1987. Motivation: Theories and Principles. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Blair, W., and J. C. Gerber. 1948. Better Reading 2: Literature. Chicago: Scoot, Foresman and Company. Bootzin, R.R., E. F. Loftus, R. Zajonc, R. Blake, C. J. Holahan, J. Lopicolo, and

  rd

  S. W. Scarr. 1983. Psychology Today: An Introduction (3 edition). New York: Random House. Brumfit, C., and R. Carter. 1986. Literature and Language Teaching. London: Oxford University Press. Collie, J., and S. Slater. 1987. Literature in the Language Classroom: A Resource Book of Ideas and Activities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Donahue, H. 2005. Beautiful Stranger. New York: Penguin Group Inc. Forster, E. M. 1974. Aspects of the Novel and Related Writing. London: Edward Arnold, Ltd. Goble, F. 1971. The Third Force: The Psychology of Abraham Maslow. New York: Pocket Books.

  nd

  Guerin, W. L. 1979. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature (2 Edition). New York: Harper and Row Publisher Inc. Henkle, R. B. 1977. Reading the Novel. New York: Harper and Row Publisher. Holman, C. H., and W. Harmon. 1986. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Hudson, W. H. 1958. An Introduction to the Study of Literature. London: George G. Harrap and Co. Ltd. Klarer, M. 1998. An Introduction to Literary Studies. London: Routledge. Lazar, G. 1993. Literature and Language Teaching: A Guide for Teachers and

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Maslow, A. H. 1972. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper and Row Publisher. Mc. Clelland, D. C. 1985. Human Motivation. Chicago: Scott, Foresman. Murphy, M. J. 1972. Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry

  and the English Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.

  Murray, E. J. 1964. Motivation and Emotion. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Paulston, C. B and M. N. Bruder. 1976. Teaching English as a Second Language: Techniques and Procedure. Cambridge: Winthrop.

  Petri, H. 1981. Motivation: Theory and Research. California: Wadworth Publishing Company. Rohrberger, M., and S. H. Woods, Jr. 1971. Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House.

  th

  Ruch, F. L. 1967. Psychology and Life (7 edition). Glenview: Scott, Foresman and Company. Smith, R. E., I. G Sarason and B. R. Sarason. 1982. Psychology: The Frontier

  nd Behavior (2 edition). New York: Harper and Row, Inc.

  Van de Laar, E., and N. Scoonderwoerd. 1963. An Approach to English Literature. Rotterdam: L. C. G. Malmberg. Wellek, R., and A. Warren. 1956. Theory of Literature. New York: A Harvest Book, Harcourt, Brace and World Inc.

  Source from internet:

  Media Anak Bangsa Kepri Portal. 2009. Katakan Tidak Pada Narkoba, ( http://www.endonesia.com/index.php , accessed on February 5, 2009)

  Peck, S. 2009. Love, ( http://www.answers.com/topic/love , accessed on February 5, 2009)

  Rubin, Z. Love, ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love , accessed on February 5, 2009)

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Scott, B. B. 1996. Review Beautiful Stranger: A Memoir of an obsession with

  Perfection, ( http://www.bookreporter.com/reviews2/1592400744.asp ,

  accessed on January 23, 2010) ____________. Peer Review: Narrative, ( http://www.readwritethink.org.htm , accessed on January 18, 2010).

  ____________. Author Biography Beautiful Stranger: A Memoir of an obsession

  with Perfection, ( http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Beautiful- Stranger/Hope-Donahue/e/9781592400744 , accessed on January 23, 2010)

  ____________. Peningkatan Keamanan, Ketertiban, dan Penanggulangan

  Kriminalitas, ( www.bappenas.go.id , accessed on March 2, 2009)

  

APPENDICES

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Appendix 1 LESSON UNIT PLAN KPE 154: PARAGRAPH WRITING (2 Cr/2 Ch) Credit 2 credits Time Allocation

  2 x 50 minutes class meeting

  Study Program English

  Education

  Faculty Teachers Training and Education Lecturer Fidelis Chosa Kastuhandani, S.Pd.

  

Evaluation

  Progress Test 1 25% Individual Progress Test 2 25% Individual Final Test 30% Individual Class Participation 10% Individual Portfolio 10% Individual

  Goals

  On completing the course, the students are able to write good English paragraphs. The focus of discussion is on the development of good paragraphs.

  The discussion covers topic sentences, controlling ideas, supporting sentences, coherence, and cohesion. The discussion also covers descriptive, narrative, and argumentative paragraphs.

  References Hardy, Judy and Damien Klarwein. 1990. Written Genres in Secondary School.

  Metropolitan East Disadvantaged School Programs. 1993. A Brief Introduction to

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Oshima, Alice and Ann Hogue. 1999. Writing Academic English. Sherman, Jane. 1994. Feedback: Essential Writing Skills for Intermediate Students.

  

nd

(Syllabus of 2 Semester of English Language Study Program)

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

Appendix 2

LESSON PLAN FOR TEACHING PARAGRAPH WRITING

  Subject : Paragraph Writing Topic : Writing Narrative Paragraphs Semester : II of English Language Education Study Program Time Allocation : 2 x 50’

  I. General Instructional Objectives

  At the end of the study, the students are able to know the typical features of narrative and are able to write narrative paragraphs.

  II. Specific Instructional Objectives

  At the end of the study, the students are able to:

  1. Identify the typical features of narrative

  2. Write three paragraphs of an imaginary narrative paragraphs based on the picture given

  3. Get review from friend in order to make a revision for his or her narrative paragraphs

  III. Material and Media

  Material : Several paragraphs of the novel Hope Donahue’s Beautiful Stranger Media : Handout and Dictionary

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

IV. Teaching Learning Activities ACTIVITIES TIME Pre-Activities

  1’

  1. Teacher opens the class

  2. Teacher explains the topic, the activities that students will 2’ do, and the objective of the study

  3. Teacher asks the students about what is narrative, the 5’ purpose of narrative, and the basic structure of narrative

  Main-Activities

  1. Teacher gives the handouts and worksheets to the students 2’

  2. Teacher asks the students to read the handouts about text 10’ features of narrative and the example of narrative

  3. Teacher discusses and helps the students to identify: 15’

  a. Part of the story that belongs to the orientation, complication, and resolution b. The place where the story takes place

  c. The time when the story takes place

  d. The characters in the story

  e. Linking words

  f. Action verbs

  g. Tenses used

  4. Teacher helps the students in finding the moral lesson in 5’ narrative

  5. Teacher asks the students to write three paragraphs based 35’ on the picture given 15’

  6. Teacher asks the students to give comments and suggestions each other by using the peer-review form given

  Post-Activities

  1’

  1. Teacher asks the students to revise their work using the

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  1’ teacher’s email

  2. Teacher asks the students if there is any question and difficulty in making the narrative

  3. Teacher concludes the lesson today

V. Source

  www.readwritethink.org Donahue, Hope. 2005. Beautiful Stranger. Gotham.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

Appendix 3

TEACHING MATERIAL

Framework for a narrative

  

FACT about NARRATIVE

  The essential purpose of narrative is to tell a story, but the detailed purpose may vary according to genre. For example, the purpose of a myth is often to explain a natural phenomenon and a legend is often intended to pass on cultural traditions or beliefs. Narratives can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes / social opinions, to embody the writer’s reflections on experience, and to nourish and extend the reader’s imagination. There are many types of narrative. They can be imaginary, factual or a combination of both. They may include fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads, slice of life, personal experience and of course, fantasy stories.

  A Simple Narrative Consists of Orientation

  gives the readers the setting of the story. It also helps them to recognize the complication when it enters the story.

  Complication

  is where something adventurous, dangerous, or exciting happens. It really makes the story worth telling. The readers ask, “How is this going to work out?”

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Resolution

  is where the complication is resolved or worked out. How was the problem solved? What happened when they were threatened? Were they rescued? Who won?

  ¾ Specific, often individual participants with defined identities. Major participants are human, or sometimes animals with human characteristics. ¾ Mainly action verbs (material processes), but also many verbs which refer to what the human participants said, or felt, or thought (verbal and mental processes). ¾ Normally past tense, but can also in present tense. ¾ Many linking words to do with time. ¾ Dialog often included, the tense may change to the present or future. ¾ Descriptive language chosen to enhance and develop the story by creating images in the reader’s mind. ¾ Can be written in the first person (I, we) or third person (he, she, and they).

  

Language Features

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

A. Write the text organization and underline the words showing the language

features of the narrative text below!

SAMPLE TEXT OF NARRATIVE

Text Organization: ____________________________

  Dr. S---‘s receptionist moves with an aloof, feline grace

   

  down the hall. I follow in her wake of Opium, feeling

  Language 

  clumsy and inferior, chiding myself at how little it takes

  Features 

  to make me feel ungainly and imperfect. At the

   

  examining room door she turns to gesture me inside, and When? 

  I find it hard not to stare at her breasts, which are so   high and full they appear to swagger beneath the thin

  Where?  fabric of her top.

    Who? 

  Text Organization: ____________________________

    I realized I had to pee. Suddenly, I was faced with a

  Lingking  huge dilemma. If I went into the bathroom, there would words   likely be a mirror, and I would be faced with the sight of

    my drawn-upon face, which I imagined must resemble a Action verbs  vulgar Cubist sketch; a sight I most definitely did not

    want to see. I tried to never, ever think about that aspect Tenses  of surgery, the blood and gore. I thought that the sight of my face would be too much for me to bear; it might send me running from the room, out into the street, screaming “No! No!” I thought, You can leave now. You can still back out of this.

  Text Organization: ____________________________

  Slowly, over the following months, I feel better. It is a wonderful surprise to find that I love being pregnant, love the changes in my body and the freedom which pregnancy brings. It’s as if, full of a greater purpose, I have permission to stop obsessing about my looks. I feel free to marvel at my newly plump face and changing body without having to think about what is wrong with it. The neurotic patter in my head stops almost entirely. Everything I do and think is geared toward the baby, and it is a huge relief, a gift, this necessary selflessness. Caught up in the excitement of prenatal visits, baby showers, and newly married life, I am delighted, busy, whole.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

B. Narratives can also be written to teach the readers about something. The

readers can find a moral lesson by reading narrative. Thus, using the help of

some questions below, discuss the moral lesson that you can learn after

reading the sample text of narrative.

  1. Do you think Hope Donahue does the plastic surgery because she lacks of love?

  2. Do we need love in our life? Why?

  3. Do you think that love can help people to become a better one? Why?

  

C. Write three paragraphs of an imaginary narrative based on the picture

below!

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

D. After writing your narrative text, now read and give feedback to your

friend’s work using the form below! Narrative Peer-Review Form Writer’s Name : _________________________________ Reader’s Name : _________________________________ Focus

  What parts of the writing help you know that it’s narrative? How can you tell that the writing is telling a story? What details does the writer include?

  Praise Question

  What is good about the writing? What should not be changed? Why is it good?

  Question

  As a reader, what do you not understand?

  Polish

  What specific suggestions for improvement can you make?

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

Appendix 4

THE SUMMARY OF HOPE DONAHUE’S BEAUTIFUL STRANGER

  Imagine that your family has plenty of money, old money, and that you were born with good looks, a good mind, and a talent for writing. You'd have it made, right? Not according to Hope Donahue, who holds a Masters Degree in Journalism and has written this painful account of her obsession with plastic surgery. The book details a period in her life beginning in her early twenties when she embarked on an addictive quest for a more beautiful face.

  The only child of an obsessive mother ("she showers two or three times a day") and a diffident, hypochondriacal father, both loving parents but hampered by their own fears and foibles, Hope began to find comfort like no other in the attentions of her plastic surgeon. If Dr. S is as she described him, then one prays he'll be shut down, but we suspect he's fairly typical of the physicians who prey on the insecurities of wealthy women. Charismatic and cool, he could be all things to all girls, and Hope was dying for his love, willing to undergo the needle and the knife to gain a few moments of his time.

  Her infatuation with Dr. S set her on the course that eventually ended in a dark, frightening crash of self-esteem. Obsessed about her face, particularly her nose, she went again and again to get it fixed, submitting to other treatments, most horribly painful, leaving her bruised and bloodied but, somehow, more content, for a brief while. Then the need reasserted itself. The worst mutilation she volunteered for was breast enlargement, something she had no need for and that had long-term consequences.

  Her parents were puzzled and upset by her repeated surgeries and finally stopped bankrolling them. Her roommates confessed that they despised her and wanted her out. Her boyfriend turned out to be a married man who considered her nothing but a bit on the side. All of this led her downhill, to seek attention and income from pornographers who offered her big cash for photo shoots. Imagining a Playboy style scenario, Hope was unprepared for the porn scene and, luckily, backed out before she got embroiled in that seamy underworld.

  She was fortunate, and her story acknowledges that. She found a counselor, got a simple job, started writing, and began to take feeble steps down the road to recovery. Along the way were more surgeries and Botox injections, all expensive and all unneeded. Yet they made her feel good in a way that nothing else could.

  The book's high point is another surgery, one to reduce her breasts. This is a victory for Hope, a reversion to normal body shape and an acceptance of herself that makes the reader heave a great sigh of relief.

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  Donahue is able to recreate the sad, frantic and painful world in which she once lived in stark detail. She treats with frankness not only her own desperate desire for perfection, but also the general suffering of the obsessive personality. Hope is well named, because this book will offer hope to others locked in a similar hell.

  (Summary by Barbara Bamberger Scott, taken from http://www.bookreporter.com/reviews2/1592400744.asp)

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

Appendix 5

Biography of Hope Donahue

  Hope Donahue grew up in Los Angeles, California, and holds a master's degree in journalism from the University of California at Berkeley. She was a finalist in

  

Glimmer Train 's short story competition, and her short fiction has also appeared in

Other Voices .

  (http://search.barnesandnoble.com/Beautiful-Stranger/Hope- Donahue/e/9781592400744)

Dokumen baru

Tags

Dokumen yang terkait

Yahyu`s motivation in doing self-mutilation as seen in sweeting's jaipong dancer.
0
0
2
Amir`s motivation for finding Sohrab in Afghanistan as seen in Hosseini`s The Kite Runner.
0
0
93
The motivation of Komako in keeping relationships with Shimamura as seen in Yasunari Kawabata`s Snow Country.
0
1
79
The motivation of Jewel`s heroic actions as seen in Faulkner`S As I Lay Dying.
0
1
92
The motivation of Yukiko Makioka`s family in finding a husband for Yukiko as seen in Junichiro Tanizaki`s The Makioka Sisters.
0
3
97
The influence of the minor characters on Santiago’s motivation in realizing his dream as seen in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist.
0
2
125
An analysis of Native-American Indians` hope as seen in the understanding of Junior, the main character of Sherman Alexie`s The Absolutely True Diary of A Part-Time Indian.
0
2
3
The motivation of hope Donahue in doing plastic surgery as seen in hope Donahue`s Beautiful Stranger.
0
0
85
The influence of faith and hope on the central character`s personality development as seen in Daniel Defoe`s Robinson Crusoe.
0
1
94
The influence of the minor characters on Santiago’s motivation in realizing his dream as seen in Paulo Coelho’s The Alchemist
0
4
121
Amir`s motivation for finding Sohrab in Afghanistan as seen in Hosseini`s The Kite Runner
0
1
91
The motivation of the main character’s homosexual relationship as seen in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple - USD Repository
0
0
66
Elie`s motivation in achieving freedom revealed in the main character`s conflicts as seen in Elie Wiesel`s Night - USD Repository
0
0
80
The influence of parents` abuse on Anson`s personality development as seen in Dean Koontz`s The Husband - USD Repository
0
0
105
The influence of Anne`s personality traits in resolving her conflicts as seen in Philippa Gregory`s The Boleyn Inheritence - USD Repository
0
0
112
Show more