THE LIVING TRADITION OF LIVING IN THE LAW: Paul’s Use of Leviticus 18:5 Eko Nugroho Onggosanusi Abstract - The Living Tradition of Living in the Law: Paul’s Use of Leviticus 18:5

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Indonesian Journal of Theology 4/1 (July 2016): 100-126

  Similarly, Richard Hays infers that Paul’s use of Leviticus 18:5in Galatians 3:10-13 was intended to state the claim of the law to give2 life which “is incompatible with the gospel story.” In Romans 10:5-8, Hays holds the same reading as Wright since Christ is the goal of the3 law (Rom 10:4). Dunn, The Theology of Paul the 107 The Living Tradition of Living in the Law laws, but only H states that the laws themselves have the inherent19 power to grant life.”Gathercole pointed out that in several late Second Temple writings, the reward of life in Leviticus 18:5 is interpreted as life in the20 world-to-come or eternal life.

2. The imperative sense is consistent to its situatedness in the Holiness

  The priority of Lev 18:5 over Ezek 20 and Neh 9 is assumed based on the canonical arrangement of the Pentateuch in relation to Ezekiel andEzra-Nehemiah.18 Dunn claimed that this is the only sense of life-giving power of the law within Israel’s covenantal nomism: James D. Dunn, The Theology of Paul the 107 The Living Tradition of Living in the Law laws, but only H states that the laws themselves have the inherent19 power to grant life.”Gathercole pointed out that in several late Second Temple writings, the reward of life in Leviticus 18:5 is interpreted as life in the20 world-to-come or eternal life.

A. Possible echoes of Leviticus 18:5 in Galatians

  The Gentile believers in Galatia were seduced by some Judaizing teachers to embrace the works of the law in order to bridge a bond of Indonesian Journal of Theology 110 solidarity with the Jerusalem church, that is, to be reckoned as the true“children of Abraham.” Paul countered such teaching by pointing to the Abrahamic promise which was fulfilled in Christ. So Paul argued the inability of the law to justify from the fact that Christ had to die “for our sins so that he might rescue us fromthe present evil age.” (Gal 1:4) So if the law does not give life, what is its purpose?

24 Out of the 11 occurrences of ζῳοποιεῖν in the NT, seven are in the

111 The Living Tradition of Living in the Law

B. Leviticus 18:5 in Galatians 3:12

  Since the present living is aproleptic anticipation of the life to come, presently living in an accursed state is inconsistent with the future living in blessedness that28 Indonesian Journal of Theology 114 is promised to Abraham. Some appeal to the difference between doing and fulfilling the law (embodied in Lev19:18) by positing that the moral components of the law are still binding to Christians but the components that are particularly Jewish29 are abolished.

29 Ibid., 488–491; Frank Thielman, Paul and the Law: A Contextual Approach:

  115 The Living Tradition of Living in the Law Paul’s Use of Leviticus 18:5 in Romans Some commentators argue diachronically that one of the main reasons Paul must have set Leviticus 18:5 antithetically to the collateddeuteronomic texts in Romans 10:6-8 is because Paul set Leviticus 18:5 against Habakkuk 2:4 in Galatians 3:11-12. Yet others argue thatLeviticus 18:5 and the deuteronomic texts in Romans are supportive30 rather than antithetical.

A. Possible Echoes of Leviticus 18:5 in Romans

  In Romans 2:6 and 2:13, Paul said that “God will give back to each according to his works” and “the hearers of the law are notrighteous before God, but the doers of the law will be justified.” An allusion to Leviticus 18:5 is present in Romans 2 as Paul affirmed the32 interpretation of Second Temple tradition. In Romans 3:20a Paul, repeating Galatians 2:16, wrote: “because no flesh will be justified by the works of the law.” But in Romans 3:9-19, Paul offered an explanation for the inability of the law to grant life which was absent in Galatians: the universality of sin to which the lawcan only testify.

B. Leviticus 18:5 in Romans 10:5

  They are used to demonstrate the gospel, Israel’s unbelief, conversion of the Gentiles, and applicability of halakhic components of the law in 119 The Living Tradition of Living in the Law law. Analogous to his contemporaries yet with anapologetic intent, Paul interpreted the descent of the law as Christ’s38 incarnation and the ascent of the law as Christ’s resurrection.

1. Paul radically changed the meaning of Deuteronomy 30:12-14 by using the language of the law to speak against doing the law

  As the giving of the law has been fulfilled in Christ’s incarnation and resurrection (the core of the gospel), Paulhighlighted parts of the text that speak the loudest about theChrist-events and removed reference to works in accordance to the faith-works antithesis in relation to justification (Rom9:32). Works are still relevant but now put in its place, that is, in the Spirit-empowered obedience of faith in Romans 10:5 (byquoting Lev 18:5).

1. Adversative: Presuming law-faith antithesis, Leviticus 18:5 speaks about righteousness from the law which Paul denied

  We have traced echoes of Leviticus 18:5 throughout the letter: the necessity of obedience of faith for future vindication (Rom 2), thelaw testifying to righteousness by faith (Rom 3:21), and the law of Spirit of life in Christ which liberates and fulfills the requirement of the law(Rom 7-8). Yetdue to Paul’s new horizon (pastoral and missional goals in relation to the Roman church, death and resurrection of Christ with the birth ofa new Spirit-empowered community, and the irony of Israel’s apostasy), obedience to the law in Leviticus 18:5 was interpreted in afresh manner thereby resulting in the growth of meaning.

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