Latihan Reading 2 - Detail Questions
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Text 1 (No 01-02)
Tear gas, any of various chemicals that produce severe eye irritation, usually resulting in a blinding flow of tears and often also minor skin and respiratory irritations, such as itching and coughing. Tear gas is used primarily by police and troops for mob control. The effects of tear gas are tem- porary and recovery is complete, usually within a few minutes. A gas mask will protect the wearer against tear gas. Chemical compounds used as tear gases are called lacrimators. Lacrimators, which exist most often in liquid or solid form, are usually dispersed into the air as gases by being exploded from grenades, bombs, or shells. (The liquid or solid lacrimators are vaporized by the heat of the explosion.) Liquid lacrimators, as well as solid lacrimators dissolved in liquids, are sometimes sprayed into the air. The most widely used lacrimator is chloroacetophe- none (CN); others include o chlorobenzal- malononitrile( C S )and chloropicrin (PS). Tear gases were widely used during World War I. Tear gases mixed with vomiting gases were used in the Vietnamese War.
[source: http://science.howstuffworks.com/tear-gas- info.htm]
(A) Tear gases were also used during World War II. (B) The effects of tear gas are permanent. (C) Tear gas create chemical compounds called lacrimators. (D) chloroacetophenone is one example of lacrimator. (E) Tear gases are always mixed with vomit- ing gases.
02. The effects of tear gas are the following, EXCEPT… (A) eye irritation.
(B) skin cancer. (C) coughing. (D) itching. (E) tearful eyes.
Text 2 (No 3)
An autonomous car, also known as uncrewed vehicle, self-driving car, and robotic car is an autonomous vehicle capable of fulfilling the main transportation capabili- ties of a traditional car. As an autonomous vehicle it is capable of sensing its environ- ment and navigating without human input. Robotic cars exist mainly as prototypes and demonstration systems. As of 2014, the only self-driving vehicles that are commercially available are open-air shuttles for pedestrian zones that operate at 20.1 km/h. Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar, lidar, GPS, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory informa- tion to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage. By definition, autonomous vehicles are capable of updating their maps based on sensory input, allowing the vehicles to keep track of their position even when conditions change or when they enter uncharted environments. S o m e demonstrative systems, precursory to autonomous cars, data back to the 1920s and 30s. The first truly autonomous cars appeared in the 1980s, with Carnegie Mellon University’s Navlab and ALV projects in 1984 and Mercedes-Benz and Eureka Prometheus Project in 1987. Since then, numerous major companies and research organizations have developed working prototype autonomous vehicles.
03. Which one is WRONG according to the text? (A) By 2014, there is only one self-driving vehicles that are commercially available.
(B) Autonomous vehicles have no human drivers. (C) The predecessor of autonomous vehicles had existed since the 1920s. (D) Autonomous vehicles may sense their environments and make decisions accordingly. (E) Only one organizations have developed autonomous vehicles.
Text 3 (No 04-06)
You hear about lie detectors all the time in police investigations, and sometimes a person applying for a job will have to undergo a polygraph test. For example, certain government jobs with the FBI or CIA require polygraph tests. The goal of a lie detector is to see if the person is telling the truth or lying when answering certain questions. When a person takes a polygraph test, four to six sensors are attached to him. A polygraph is a machine in which the multiple ("poly") signals from the sensors are recorded on a single strip of moving paper ("graph"). The sensors usually record: The person’s breathing rate, the person’s pulse, the person’s blood pressure, the person’s perspiration. Sometimes a polygraph will also record things like arm and leg movement. When the polygraph test starts, the questioner asks three or four simple questions to establish the norms for the person's signals. Then the real questions being tested by the polygraph are asked. Throughout questioning, all of the person's signals are recorded on the moving paper. Both during and after the test, a poly- graph examiner can look at the graphs and can see whether the vital signs changed significantly on any of the questions. In general, a significant change, such as a faster heart rate, higher blood pressure, increased perspiration, indicates that the person is lying.
When a well-trained examiner uses a polygraph, he or she can detect lying with high accuracy. However, because the exam- iner's interpretation is subjective and because different people react differently to lying, a polygraph test is not perfect and can be fooled.
[source: http://science.howstuffworks.com/ question123.htm]
04. According to the text, we may know that a person is lying through polygraph from his/ her signs below, EXCEPT … (A) heart rate.
(B) perspiration. (C) blood pressure. (D) facial expression. (E) limb movement.
05. When the polygraph test begins, the exam- iner asks some simple questions to … (A) detect whether the test-taker is lying or telling the truth. (B) establish the norms in the society. (C) ensure that the polygraph works. (D) set up the test- taker’s normal signals. (E) record the person’s signals on the moving paper.
06. Which one is WRONG according to the test? (A) Signals from two lying people can be different from each other.
(B) To catch a person’s signals during poly- graph, some sensors are implanted un- der his or her skin.
(C) Polygraph test is greatly accurate. (D)
Some people’s lies may be undetected when examined by the polygraph. (E) The interpretation of polygraph test de- pends on the examiner.
Text 4 (No 07-09)
The Black Death hastened the breakup of medieval society. Agriculture came to a Black Death is an epidemic of bubonic near standstill. Production fell, goods plague that appeared in Europe in the 1300’s. became scarce, and prices roses. Many
The origin of the name is uncertain; it may peasants and workers died, laborers became come from a mistranslation of the Latin atra scarce, and wages rose. During the confu- mors (“terrible death”). The Black Death sion many serfs left the manors to which was the most dreadful plague in the history they were attached. Laws were adopted to of Europe. Historians estimate that in three freeze wages and prices. Governments tried years the plague killed at least one-third of to force serfs to return to their old mano- Europe’s population. Its severity was due in rial bondage. Peasant revolts broke out in part to the people’s low resistance to disease; England, France, and elsewhere. most suffered from years of malnutrition.
The plague had three main forms. One
affected the lungs and led to spitting of blood. Another was marked by large carbuncles on the neck, armpits, and groin.
07. Which one is TRUE according to the text? The third form fatally infected the blood.
(A) The plague was transmitted only from Nearly all stricken people died within three rats and fleas that carried the disease. days, many within 12 hours. Rats and fleas
(B) Most bubonic sufferers passed away carried the disease; the fleas transmitted it to within 12 hours. humans. The plague was also transmitted by
(C) A bubonic plague sufferers may have people who carried the disease in their lungs. large carbuncles on the armpits. The Black Death probably began in
(D) The Black Death spread from Europe Turkistan before spreading to Europe and to Turkistan.
Africa. In 1346, the plague appeared at a (E) Germany had had bubonic plague in
Black Sea port in the Crimea. The next year 1300. traders brought it to Sicily, from where it spread throughout the Italian peninsula. The
08. All of the followings are the impacts of the plague struck France and the British Isles in
Black Death, EXCEPT …
1348. By the end of 1350, it had spread to (A) Production level fell. Germany, Scandinavia, and most of the
(B) Rebellions broke out in England, other countries of Europe.
France, and some countries. The epidemic led to terror and hysteria (C) Wages level increased. among the masses. Jews were accused of (D) Many Jews are massacred. poisoning wells, and many were massacred.
(E) Each year the plague killed at least Some of the people joined a new religious one- third of Europe’s population. cult, the Flagellants. They believed the plague to be God’s punishment for people’s
09. Why was the impact of bubonic plague very sins and flogged themselves to win God’s severe? mercy.
(A) At that time, no one had a cure for The plague reappeared in less violent the plague. form three times before the end of the
(B) Many people had low resistance to century. Between 1400 and about 1700 it disease at that time. returned many times.
(C) Because many peasants and workers died suffering from it. (D) Because it was God’s punishment for people’s sins. (E) The plague was from Turkistan.
Text 5 (No 10-12)
There is no cure for Ebola, but if people get care quickly from doctors and Ebola virus is a very dangerous virus. It nurses at a hospital, more of them live. causes a hemorrhagic fever called Ebola
People with Ebola need a lot of fluids to virus disease. “Hemorrhagic” means that
replace fluids lost from diarrhea, vomiting, the victim will bleed a lot, inside and and bleeding. The most important care is outside their body. Out of every 10 people giving them water with a very small amount who get Ebola, on average five to nine die. of salt and sugar in it. This is called oral
There are four kinds of Ebola virus that rehydration. It helps to replace their fluids can cause the disease. The virus was first and blood. It is also important to give found in Sudan. It is found in Africa, with medicines in case they get bad blood very few cases in Europe and the United pressure and blood circulation. States. The Ebola virus that makes people sick
lives in the blood and other liquids and wet things in some kinds of non-human
10. Which of the followings are NOT the symp- animals without killing them. Scientists toms of Ebola disease? think the animals it lives in are mainly some
(A) Typhoid Fever. kinds of monkeys or fruit bats. When
(B) Bleeding inside and outside their people touch animals that have the virus, or bodies. wet things that came out of those animals, (C) Blood in diarrhea. they can get sick. Ebola cannot be caught (D) Fast pulse. through the air, or by being near sick (E) Low blood circulation. people. The virus can only go from liquids into people’s bodies. This means Ebola can
11. What will happen if we touch a person’s be caught by touching a sick person’s sweat while the person has Ebola disease? blood, saliva, mucus, semen, diarrhea,
(A) We may catch the disease. vomit, or other fluids that come out of a
(B) The virus will spread to monkeys or sick person’s body. fruit bats. When people get Ebola the first (C) Ebola will kill the person directly. symptoms look like some other diseases.
(D) The virus will change into a liquid People get a fever and feel exhausted. Their form. head, stomach, joints, and throat might (E) No information stated. hurt. Sometimes, people think they have other diseases like malaria or typhoid fever.
12. Which one is TRUE according to the text? Later, people get much sicker. They bleed
(A) Once a person has Ebola disease, he both inside and outside their bodies. They or she can’t recover from it. have blood in their diarrhea and vomit.
(B) Some people are immune to Ebola They bleed from their noses, mouths, and disease. genitals. They got low blood pressure, fast
(C) The virus can be transmitted through pulse, and low blood circulation to the air. body. Their organs might stop working.
(D) There are more than one type of Ebola virus. (E) Caring for Ebola patients involves giving them water that has significant level of salt and sugar.
Text 6 (No 13-15)
Caffeine is in coffee, tea and other products people consume every day, so why is powdered caffeine dangerous? On Tuesday (Sept. 1), the Food and Drug Administration announced that it had issued warning letters to five companies that sell powdered caffeine, saying that their products pose a "significant or unreasonable risk of illness or injury to consumers.” Powdered caffeine products are much more potent than caffeine - containing beverages like coffee, and they're dangerous because it is easy for people to consume a lethal amount of powdered caffeine, the FDA said. Just 1 teaspoon of the caffeine powder contains about the same amount of caffeine as 28 cups of regular coffee, the FDA said. In fact, 2 teaspoons of powdered caffeine would kill most adults, according to the Centers for Science in the Public Interest. " Powdered caffeine is very concen- trated," said Henry Spiller, director of Cen- tral Ohio Poison Center at Nationwide Chil- dren's Hospital. Most people are so com- fortable with the effects of caffeinated bev- erages like coffee and soda that they don't realize that the amount they ingest is just mil- ligrams, Spiller said. The amount of caffeine in a teaspoon can vary in different powdered caffeine products, the FDA noted. A teaspoon of some powdered products can have about 5 grams of caffeine; by comparison, a cup of coffee has about 65 to 100 milligrams of caffeine, Spiller said. At that level, 1 teaspoon of the powder contains as much caffeine as 50 to 75 cups of coffee. "This is enormous . This is an overdose," Spiller told Live Science. Another problem with the powdered products is that consumers usually don't have the tools to measure a safe dose. The recommended serving size of powdered caffeine is just 50 milligrams to 200 milligramsor about one-sixteenth of a teaspoon.
To measure out 50 milligrams of powder using a quarter-teaspoon measuring spoon, a consumer needs to fill just 6 percent of the spoon, which "cannot be accurately measured," the FDA said. "The difference between a safe amount and a toxic dose of caffeine in these pure powdered products is very small," the agency said. What's more, the smallest packages of powdered caffeine sold by some of the companies contain 100 grams of product, which is 2,000 recommended servings. And some companies sell powdered caffeine in packages of 25 kilograms, which contain up to 500,000 recommended servings. High doses of caffeine can cause serious side effects, including increased blood pressure, a rapid or dangerously erratic heartbeat, seizures and even death, the FDA said. Two young adults-an 18-year-old in Ohio and a 24-year-old in Georgia-died in 2014 from accidental overdoses of powdered caffeine. Although it's possible to overdose on caffeine by drinking upward of 50 cups of coffee, most people would probably stop before this point because they would be experiencing uncomfortable effects, like nausea or vomiting and a rapid heart rate, Spiller said. The danger with powdered caffeine is that you take this dose of caffeine all at once, he said.
13. Below are the side effects of high doses of caffeine, EXCEPT … (A) Rapid and inconsistent heartbeat. (B) Seizures. (C) Death. (D) Increased blood pressure. (E) Nausea.
14. Which one is NOT TRUE according to the text? (A)
It’s hard to measure safe amount of pow- dered caffeine to consume. (B)
It’s impossible for people to overdose on caffeine by just drinking coffee.
There are two death cases because of powdered-caffeine overdose in 2014. (D) The recommended serving size of pow- dered caffeine is 50 milligrams to 200 milligrams. (E) Drinking up to certain amount of coffee can result in uncomfortable effects.
15. Why is powdered caffeine considered dan- gerous? (A) It contains caffeine. (B) It is the number one killer in Ohio. (C)
It’s easy to overdose on powdered caffeine
(D) People mix it with coffee, which already contains caffeine. (E) FDA bans caffeine.