EFFECT OF PARENTING EDUCATION AND TYPE OF PARENTS PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
IN THE GARDEN child - a child SABBIHISMA I PADANG
2. Dadan Suryana
Students PPS UNP Early Childhood Education NIM: 17330011
Abstrac Education can affect a person, including a person's behavior will be lifestyle, especially in motivating for the attitude to participate in health development. The higher a person's education level, the more easily receive information that the more knowledge. Instead of education less will hinder the development of attitudes towards the value - the value of the newly introduced. Pattern foster parent is an interaction between children and parents during the conduct parenting activities. This parenting means parents to educate, guide and discipline and protecting the child to reach maturity in accordance with the norms
- - norms that exist in society. Psychosocial development of preschool children is child's development process towards own ability masallah meneyelesaikan appropriate knowledge. Environmental attitudes that likes prohibit and blame make children lose the initiative. By the time the adult child will easily experience guilt when making mistakes and not creative. Type penilitian quantitatively using the sample population in kindergarten Sabbihisma I Padang.With a reliability test instruments, it will be known the level of constancy an
instrument to measure what it intends measured. The type of instrument reliability parenting parents menun has put forward that the magnitude of the coefficient. Results of research education level of respondents have a significant influence on the psychosocial development of preschool children in Nursery - Nursery Sabbihisma I Padang. Type of Respondents parenting significant effect on the psychosocial development of preschool children in Nursery
- Nursery Sabbihisma I Padang. Together Education Level respondent does not affect the psychosocial development of preschool children in Nursery - Nursery Sabbihisma I Padang.
Each stage of psychosocial development, there are many tasks that must be mastered child's development before he reaches the next development stage, their barriers in achieving the tasks of the psychosocial development at one stage would hamper its success at the next stage (Mirza M., 2007). Everything will be reversed if the objective of a child at this age have problems because it can develop a character which has negative impact for her, which is feeling guilty and at the climax they often feel guilty or instead will develop an attitude of blame themselves for what they feel and do (Wongkeban 2008; 8).
Achievement of psychosocial development tasks in order to avoid a serious obstacle in preschool children, needs to consider psychosocial factors that may affect child development, among others; stimulation, motivation to learn, reward or punishment is reasonable, peer group, stress, school, love and affection and parenting parents (Soetjiningsih, 1998; 9). Kartono in Yuniati (1996) argues that the family is the first institution in the lives of children, where children learn and express themselves as social creatures. Families provide the basis of behavior, character, morals and education to children. Family success in instilling values - values in children depends on the type of parenting is applied parents to their children (Latifah M, 2008; 4).
Parenting in families that applied will shape the child's behavior a day - day. According baumrid in Clara (2000: 1) patterns include neglectful parenting, authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative. This time not a few parents who pursue their own interests under the pretext of the welfare of the child, so sometimes their role as parents is "to educate and care for children" neglected. Intake of initial data and based on the documentation on the park Kanak - childhood Sabbihisma I, Monday, 23 November 2017 there were 48 children aged 3 to 4 years, 101 children aged 4 to 5 years and 51 children aged 6 years who have signed up to be a student in kindergarten - childhood Sabbihisma I Padang academic year 2015/2016. While the number of preschool students aged 3 to 6 years of academic year 2016/2017 amounted to 210 children. Looks an increase in the number of applicants in the school year to come, according to the survey while Monday, 25 November 2017 from some of the people who pick up their children (10 people), eight (80%) of the pickup turned out was a housekeeper, while the parents, especially mothers of preschool children is a worker who leave their children in the care of his assistants for their work. The remaining 20% are women who take the time or permission from work to pick up his son from school. Most of the mother - the mother was indeed handed over almost all of them under the supervision of child care helpers during their time in the workplace.
1. Education concept
education by Suwarno (1992), quoted by Nursalam and Pariani (2001), education means the guidance given by the person against another person moving towards a goal - a specific goal. Mantra cited by Notoatmojo (1985) may affect a person's education, including the person's behavior will be lifestyle, especially in motivating for the attitude to participate in health development. The higher a person's education level, the more easily receive information that the more knowledge. Instead of education less will hinder the development of attitudes towards the value - the value of the newly introduced (Nursalam, 2003. Quoted from Kuncoroningrat, 1997). Education levels are Basic Education (SD - SMP), Secondary Education (high school) and Higher Education (PT)
2. Concept Parenting
Parenting is towards the needs of maintenance and care of children so that their health is always maintained, so expect them to be children who are healthy physically, mentally, socially and spiritually (Effendi, 1998). In caring for children of parents affected by the culture in the environment. In addition, parents are also characterized by an attitude - a certain attitude in nurturing, guiding and directing the men - his daughter. The attitude reflected in his upbringing to a different - different, because the parents have certain parenting styles. Parenting (parenting) or child care is very dependent on the values of family owned. Basically, the main goal of parenting is Maintaining physical life of children and improve their health, facilitate the child to develop skills in line with the stage of development, Encouraging increased ability to behave in accordance with the religious and cultural values it stands for.
The ability of parents to run this parenting role can not be learned through formal education, but based on: experience in performing that role, namely to study the experience of parents earlier. According to Wong in Supartini (2004; 36)
There are four kinds of parenting by psychologists Baumrid (Parenting, 2008), namely: Authoritarian parenting is parenting that is rigid, dictatorial and forcing children to always follow the orders of parents without a lot of reasons.
Neglecfult parenting or parenting penelantar is a pattern in which parents do not want to get involved and do not want too dizzy ignoring his son's life. Indulgent parenting or parenting patient / pemanja is parenting parents were always involved in all aspects of a child's life. In parenting is no demand and control from parent to child.
Authoritative parenting is to encourage children to be independent, but parents still apply limits and controls Some of the factors that can make a maximum of parenting is not coming from an environment that is very close to the child. Here are described psychologist from
Spectrum Treatment and Education Center, Bintaro, Banten (Irfan H., 2007)
a) Caregiver. Inconsistency occurs when caregivers do deviations from the rules or discipline that has been applied to parents.
b) Less authority. Examples can come from parents who often treat the caregiver is
far from being polite. This makes the children to come - follow-up did not respect and abide by the caregiver.
c) Unpreparedness of caregivers. The behavior of caregivers who shout, pinch or say profanity may be dituru by children.
d) Over protective. Caregivers who accept and apply the rules of the parents as they are, so it makes the child feel constrained.
The neighborhood around the house like a neighbor, anakpun can get a negative experience or less will affect the sustainability of parenting parents against him. Comparing like, when children find differences parenting aakan compares the child and this can affect the child, which will cause protests on their parents. Inconsistency ie If the child finds his home a different tolerance of what he encountered at home alone then the child is likely to be violated.
3. The concept of Psychosocial Development
Maslow (1998) defines development as an increase in the child's skills and capacity to work gradually and continuously. So development is a process for producing an increased ability to function at a certain level (Supartini Y., 2004).
4. Psychosocial development of preschool children
Psychosocial development of preschool children is child's development process towards the ability appropriate knowledge meneyelesaikan own problems Feelings of guilt will arise in children if the child does not amapu accomplished so dissatisfied on developments that are not achieved. According to Erikson at the initiative versus guilt phase children show the characteristic: The nearest person preschool children are the parents. Normal child has mastered the feeling of autonomy, with the support of parents in the imagination and activity, the child trying to master the feeling initiative.
Some characteristics of psychosocial development of preschool children among others.
a. social characteristics The child's relationship with another person, other than a parent extends including grandparents, siblings and teachers - teachers in the school. Children need regular interaction with peers to help develop social skills.
b. The main purpose of the program is membentu preschool children develop social
c. Behavioral characteristics
In accordance with the task perkembangananya, preschoolers will exhibit the following behavior (Keliat, 2008):
C. RESEARCH METHODS
Design used in this study is correlational research. Correlational study examines the influence of variables. Researchers can search, describe an influence, estimating and testing based on existing theory. Correlational research used in this study using cross sectional approach. Cross-sectional study that emphasizes the time measurement / observation of independent and dependent variable data only one time. In this type of variable rated simultaneously at one time, so there was no follow-up. Of course, all the research subjects should be observed on the day or at the same time, but both independent and dependent variables assessed only once, with this study will be obtained prevalence or effects of a phenomenon (independent variables).
Sampling techniquein this research. The population is in kindergarten - kindergarten Sabbihisma I Padang. Inaccessibility population in this study is one of the parents of all preschool children in the class A, B, C and D Nursery - childhood Sabbihisma I Padang. Total population of 210 parents of preschoolers. Sample table used is krejcie table and nomogram Harry King, which is based on the calculation of error of 5% (Soegiyono, 2006). Nomogram showing when a population of 210, the samples taken were 136 respondents. sampling The sampling technique used by researchers is proportional purposive random sampling. Sampling was done by taking samples lottery that have met the criteria.
The samples used were 136 parents TK Sabbihisma I Padang which altogether amounted to 210 students, by means of: Class A = 35 students = 35 x 136 = 23 students 210 Class B = 69 students = 69 x 136 = 45 students 210 Class C = 70 students = 70 x 136 = 45 students 210 students Class D = 36 = 36 x 136 = 23 210 students.
By counting each - each class has been able to represent each - each age in preschool children. Class A is the preschool children aged 3 years, class B preschool children aged 4 years, class C preschool children aged 5 years and class D preschool children aged 6 years. By counting as above is expected to represent each child's age at 52.
Data collection techniques / instruments in this study is The dependent variable in this study is "psychosocial development in preschool children" in kindergarten - kindergarten Sabbihisma I Padang. Psychosocial development of preschool children. After all the questions on a questionnaire filled in the elderly, the data are collected, then the results are interpreted with the criteria. If the result is 0-5 shows the psychosocial development of Guilt (error) If the result is 6-10 shows the psychosocial development initiatives. The independent variable "educational level of parents in preschool children and the type of parenting parents in preschool children" in kindergarten - kindergarten Sabbihisma I Padang.
Data analysis technique used is Validity and Reliability: Test Validity, Test the validity of the instrument is to test the validity of the items or the validity of the items, which calculates the correlation between scores - scores obtained on each item with the total score of each - each respondent. The test instrument of research conducted on parents of preschool children in kindergarten - kindergarten Sabbihisma I Padang which numbered 40 people. Validity of test results parenting-type instrument of 32 items of questions, with each type of parenting consists of 8 items after calculation question the validity test with SPSS 13 obtained four items were declared invalid namely item no question. 4, 13, 17 and 21 or No. 1 for item types authoritative parenting style, no 2 for item types authoritarian parenting, No. 3 and No. 5 for the type of parenting neclectful item. From the results of the test instrument validity of psychosocial development of preschool children from 10 items of questions after calculation validity test with SPSS 13 all the items declared invalid.
Test Reliability, Reliability shows the extent to which a measurement can produce steady results when performed repeated measurements to the same subject. Reliability test using Cronbach's Alpha method to test the internal consistency between the statement items with a limit value greater than 0.60 (Anwar, 2003). With a reliability test instruments, it will be known the level of constancy an instrument to measure what it intends measured. The type of instrument reliability parenting parents showed that the magnitude of the coefficient is 0.787 (see attachment). Thus the reliability coefficient of the type of parenting parents otherwise meet the prescribed criteria, ie Alpha coefficients> 0.60 means that the instrument has high reliability. Instrument reliability psychosocial development of preschool children showed that the magnitude of the coefficient is 0.707 (see attachment). Thus the instrument reliability coefficient psychosocial development of preschool children found to comply with the specified kriteriayang yaiti Alpha coefficients> 0.60 This means that the instrument has high reliability.
Data analysis is done is assessments conducted later dikriteria. Highest value showed a tendency parenting applied parents to their children: Necletful = 1, Authoritarian = 2, Indulgent = 3 and authoritative = 4. Assessment carried out by: To answer "True" value 1, to answer "False" rated 0.Setelah Data is collected then the result is interpreted with the following criteria: If the result is 0-5 shows the psychosocial development of guilt (error) If the result is 6-10 shows the psychosocial development initiatives Before analyzing the data, the first correction of the data by checking the correctness of the questionnaire, and then do the tabulation a cross between independent variables with the dependent variable. To facilitate data analysis used bivariate test and test multivariat.Berdasarkan purpose of this study, data analysis is directed to determine the form of the presence / absence of influence between education level and the type of parenting parents on the psychosocial development of preschool children in Kindergarten - childhood Sabbihisma I Padang.
D. RESEARCH RESULT
Description of the general characteristics of the respondents carried out in order to obtain a clear picture of the characteristics of respondents in the research. The education level of respondents have a significant influence on the psychosocial development of preschool children in Nursery - Nursery Sabbihisma I Padang. Type of Respondents parenting significant effect on the psychosocial development of preschool children in Nursery - Nursery Sabbihisma I Padang. Together Education Level respondent does not affect the psychosocial development of preschool children in Nursery - Nursery Sabbihisma I Padang.
By paying attention to the above results it will have implications on several aspects if not addressed by the parties - of any party, therefore it needs to be elaborated by implication, namely: On The Level Education Parents' education level of the parents affect the ability of parents to apply the knowledge obtained in the process psychosocial development of preschool children. Low levels of parental education may inhibit the reception of information in order to stimulate the psychosocial development of preschool children, as a result of parents are not able to meet the needs of children will progress psychosocial, resulting in the failure of psychosocial development in preschool children so that children are not able to become a preschool initiative, even becoming dependent child and always felt guilty.
Against Application Type Effective Parenting Directly or indirectly, the type of parenting that does not comply with the conditions of preschool children will affect how psychosocial development. The results of this study only reveals the influence of the type of parenting to the psychosocial development of preschool children, and there are several obstacles that are owned by the child in their psychosocial development, because parenting is not in accordance with the child's development.
In the literature has been disclosed above that type of good parenting is the type of authoritative parenting style, and it looks at the results of research that parents who use neclectful parenting, authoritarian, and indulgen tends to affect the psychosocial development of preschool children. Influence of Preschool Children Learning Process (kindergarten - kindergarten) When there are obstacles in some aspects of psychosocial development of preschool children, will certainly affect the learning process of preschool children. As well as lacking social skills develop properly, it will affect the child's interactions with peers, educational environment of kindergarten - kindergarten. Likewise, other aspects, if underdeveloped certainly guard will have implications on the learning process in the kindergarten - kindergarten.
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