Urban Water in Mexico (1)

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A perspective from the Academies of Sciences

  The problems arecentered more on the continuity of services, the need to repair massive leaks in the existing distribution systems and the need to regulate and enforce controlson illegal connections which affect the efficiency in delivery of water and the economic capacity of the water supply companies to make investments inimproving services. Some Notes on Urban Population The uncontrolled increase in the use of surface and groundwater, in both the industrial andproductive sphere, with discharges of untreated effluent and the haphazard development ofextensive marginal population settlements, meant that by the early 21st century, water resources had significantly deteriorated as a result of inadequateexploitation and the dumping and infiltration of polluting substances.


  The problems arecentered more on the continuity of services, the need to repair massive leaks in the existing distribution systems and the need to regulate and enforce controlson illegal connections which affect the efficiency in delivery of water and the economic capacity of the water supply companies to make investments inimproving services. Some Notes on Urban Population The uncontrolled increase in the use of surface and groundwater, in both the industrial andproductive sphere, with discharges of untreated effluent and the haphazard development ofextensive marginal population settlements, meant that by the early 21st century, water resources had significantly deteriorated as a result of inadequateexploitation and the dumping and infiltration of polluting substances.

5 Urban

  However, the name “Greater Buenos AiresAgglomeration” has been given to a combination of the city and 30 districts in the province of BuenosAires, which, whether totally or partially, comprise the “population belt” composing the agglomeration Figure 5. Though there is a lack of accurate information on this issue, it is clear that demographic growthin cities with the highest number of inhabitants – particularly Greater Buenos Aires – has taken placein suburban zones, generally as a result of internal migration or immigration from neighboringcountries that form settlements, some of which experience severe problems of drinking water,sewerage and the risk of excess water.

3. Types of Water Supply Sources

  One part is located in thecoastal and Mesopotamian zone, which corresponds to the provinces of Formosa, Chaco, Corrientes,Santa Fe and Entre Ríos; the so-called central zone orPampa Gringa comprising the provinces of Santiago del Estero, Córdoba and La Pampa, and the othercontains the province of Buenos Aires and the BuenosAires agglomeration. In the periphery of Buenos Aires, the occupation ofthe flood valleys of the Matanza-Riachuelo andReconquista rivers, and of streams and tributaries, is closely linked to the pollution of the coastal strip ofthe Río de la Plata and part of the Paraná Delta.

4. Drinking Water and Basic Sanitation in Argentina’s Cities

  The central works to supply drinkingwater are the construction of the “Paraná de las Palmas” water purification plant, with aninvestment of over 17 millions Argentinian pesos, to serve two million persons in the Tigre district andlasting until 2020; and the creation of the “Virrey del Pino” inverse osmosis plant in the La Matanzadistrict, which has a high density of low-income inhabitants. To extend the sewage network, AySA plans to modify the current distribution of the network, bybuilding a large underground collector that will run parallel to the left bank of the Riachuelo andintercept a large part of the effluents currently received by the Berazategui basin through the mainsewers.

6. Water and Sanitation Service in Greater Buenos Aires

  A first approximation of the volume of municipal wastewater discharged into the sewerage networkscan be made, given that according to the NationalPopulation, Household and Housing Census of 2010Argentina had a population of 40,117,096 inhabitants,48,8% of private homes had a sewage drain, there were 11,317,507 private homes, 12,171,675 households,an average of 3,3 inhabitants per household, and 12,2% of households shared housing (INDEC, 2012). Consequently, applying an average supply for the country of 0,3 m3 /(inhabitants.day) and a reduction factor of 0,8 (80% of the water supplied and usedis discharged into the sewerage network), the volume of wastewater discharged into the seweragenetwork can be estimated at approximately 1.596 x 106 m3 /year.

7. Wastewater and Reuse

  Indeed, although for years the natural features of typical fluvial systems have coexistedwith the uses and customs of the population, the pursuit of progress in the late 19th century andearly 20th centuries fostered the rapid advance of urbanization on waterways, which resulted in thecreation of piping or specific interventions on the original waterways, which attempted to concealthe natural traits of the system in order to develop neighborhoods, infrastructure and services. Social and economic The city of La Plata, the capital of the province aspects are frequently exacerbated by the pollution of Buenos Aires, is very similar to Buenos Aires.of the water flowing in from the districts in the Located 60 km to the south of the capital, it was province of Buenos Aires, which comprises large planned before its founding in 1882.


  Moreover, it is crucial that works be implemented to increase the treatment of wastewater and raise awareness within the government and among professionals, technicians and allsectors of the population regarding the rational use of water and the protection of its quality. 55 The 2012 CNVP also indicated that 57% of the Figure 1.1 Map of the Plurinational State of Bolivia and its Capital Cities nation’s population live in urban areas and 42.5%live in the rural part of the country.

1.1 Bolivian Water Legislation and Standards Water is often the cause of social and political strife

  1.2 The Availability of Water In addition, the current scenario of political“change” has fostered a predisposition on the part of the Federal Government to address the demands ofthe social organizations or movements –principally those of tenant farmers and the indigenouspopulation (the native population), in many cases under the threat of conflicts, opening more or lessformal scenarios of consensus or participation. 1.5 Sources of Water in Urban Zones and the Impacts of Urbanization In the metropolis and the departmental cities ofBolivia (including the city of El Alto), the supply of basic services such as piped-in drinking water hasnot kept pace with either the population growth or the demand, but has been characterized by lowinvestments, poor maintenance and the poor quality of basic services.

1.4 Administration of the Water Cycle in Urban Areas

  These conditionshave prevailed despite efforts for privatization in the cities of La Paz/El Alto (the waters of Illimani) andCochabamba (the waters of the Tunari – the “WaterWar” of 2000). Briefly, in the departmental capitals, 44% of the drinking water and sanitary sewerage system havesome type of state (municipal) administration; an- other 44% have a co-operative administration whilethe remaining 12%, have joint, undefined administra- tion.


INE (2012) OPS (2001)

  There are majordiscrepancies between the distribution of water between the urban and rural areas, and in thedistribution by ductwork systems. The inadequateurban control prevents these areas, which are indis- pensable to the maintenance and safety of the waterinfrastructure, from receiving adequate ecological handling, thus affecting the course of the rivers.

2.1 Contamination of urban water

  This activity ispresently concentrated in the Andean highlands and is carried out by the state-operated Corporation The use of water in industrial activities is, in drinking water in the cities, since a high percentageis found in the urban or suburban area (for example,67% in Cochabampa.) Very often, the factories or industries have their own source of water (generallya shallow well) and a contract with the basic sanitation company to discharge wastewater. Mining activities produce the following environmental problems: The reuse of wastewater in agriculture offers the following advantages: multiple uses of a scarceresource, recycling of nutrients, the prevention of river contamination and the supply of municipalwater at a low cost (Van der Hoek, 2002).

3. Wastewater Treatment Systems in Bolivia’s Capital Cities

  That is, when they are carried from the outlet (either from the sewer or the One of the strategies adopted to maximize the use of water is the use of urban wastewaterfor agricultural irrigation. The use of wastewater in these regions may be classifiedas follows: The main users of water in the capital cities are the urban population (for home use), industry, andirrigators.

3.1 Multiple Uses of Water in Urban and Suburban Zones

  This means the use of water from Cruz, Oruro, El Alto, Trinidad) are threatened with rivers where wastewaters are discharged, a industrial, agricultural and, above all, domesticminority of which is first treated;therefore contamination. This happens in most of Bolivia and capital cities, the infiltration of liquids leached fromin almost all the rural and periurban areas of sanitary landfills presents a serious problem.

3.2 Contamination of groundwater

  However, theCochabamba and El Alto, the industries resort to coverage is still the lowest in the continent and the immediate alternative of drilling unauthorized the quality of the service is mediocre. Political and Table 3.4Gives an idea of the general reuse characteristics of wastewater in the nation’s different departmental capitals Characteristics of the use of wastewater in the periurban areas of the departmental capitals and in the city of El Alto Capital CityCharacteristics Cochabamba Direct use of the drainage from the treatment plant and indirect due to the use of the contaminated water from the Rocha River.

5.1 The LaPaz/El Alto Metropolitan Area

  The City of El Alto , in the middle of the Bolivian highlands, at an elevation of 4,035 meters abovesea level, has shallow ravines that cut through the fluvial-glacial quaternaries which, duringthe rainy season fill with water and tend to flood the lower parts of the city. Of these, 86.35% receive piped- in water furnished by the Public Social Water andSanitation Company (EPSAS), The population with drinking water service in the city of La Paz numbers764,060 inhabitants, establishing a coverage of 91% according to EPSAS.

5.2 Santa Cruz de la Sierra - Capital city of the Department of Santa Cruz

  At the end of the high Piraí River basin there is an enormous alluvial cone, which is confused withthe alluvial cone of the Grande River and serves as the aquifer which is the source of drinking waterfor the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra and the villag- es downstream from that city. The following are some of SAGUAPAC’s indicators for 2003: dollars per cubic meter The increase in the use of traditional organ- ic fertilizers, industrial fertilizers and untreatedwastewater in agriculture is also producing exces- sive nitrates, leading to a reduction of the soil’s ca-pacity for self-purification and nitrification.

5.3 Cochabamba, the Capital City of the Department of Cochabamba

  The Cochabamba Metropolitan Area is defined as the territorial, geographic and human areacomprising the city of Cochabamba and the suburbs in its area of influence, including the districtsof Sacaba, Cercado (Cochabamba), Tiquipaya,Colcapirhua, Quillacollo, Vinto and Sipe, all within the Rocha River subwatershed. This leads to a The capital city of the department of Cochabamba (inCercado province) is 2,535 meters above sea level and has a surface area of 10,605 hectares, a populationof 778,442 inhabitants (CNPV for 2001) and 123,477 dwellings, of which 69.5% have piped-in water fromthe distribution network.

5.3.3 The Sanitary Sewerage System

  The sanitary sewage network attaining a length of425.98 km., with 33,229 household connections and 320 industrial connections, for a total coverage of53% at the end of the project. The surfacewater sources supplywter to the Municipality ofOruro via a flow of 34 liters per second, and come from the Sepulturas and Huayña Porto rivers, andform part of the Endorreica macrobasin in the Bolivian highlands.

5.4 Oruro, Capital City of the Department of Oruro

  Only 1.5 Km to the north of the plant there is an open canal which is used toredirect the wastewaters directly to Lago Poopó The wastewater flows at a rate of 400 liters per second,even though SeLA produces 300 liters per second of 5.4.4 The Oruro City Water Treatment Plant The water resources used to supply water to the city of Oruro originate in surface and groundwatersources. A joint call for bids and for expressions of interest territory of 1,255 square kilometers, while the city of by the Ministry of the Environment and Water, Potosí occupies 19.8 square kilometers as urban area.the German company KfW and ELAPAS to study This urban area includes twelve districts, while the the final design of the project to increase the rural area includes four districts.

5.6.2 The Treatment Plant

  The urbanized area of the city covers 42 square kilometers and has developed in parallel to bothbanks of the Guadalquivir River –a river with a flow of 4.5 m3 /sec, which crosses the city of Tarija from northwest to southeast. In 2007, the urban population in the district of Tarija was 79.8% and the rural population, 21.2% of thetotal population of 279,274 inhabitants, with an annual population growth of 3.1% and an annualmigration rate of 3.9%.

5.7 Tarija, the Capital City of the Department of Tarija

5.7.1 Hydrography

  The following three components have been designed for the treatment of household and industrialwastewaters: (i) the construction of a new WastewaterTreatment Plant (PTAR); (ii) decentralized pre-treatment of Tarija’s industrial waters, and (iii) the reuse oftreated water as irrigation water for grapes and fruit agriculture in the driest regions of the Central Valley. There is a projectprofile of a far-reaching programm prepared to build an “Ecological Belt”, with a pumping station whichwould make these lands habitable.- In addition, the change of course of the MamoréRiver has decreased the lateral recharge of the aquifer as a source of drinking water, to the extentthat it cannot maintain the flow expected for a system of high quality water for the city.

5.8 Trinidad, the Capital City of the Department of Beni

  The supply of drinking water in the city of Trinidad is the responsibility of the Trinidad Drinking WaterService Co-operative (COATRI), founded in 1988 with the past assets and liabilities of the Beni RegionalSanitation Works Administration. In addition, the natural system which used to exist in Trinidad, which allowed the waterfrom the northern part of the city to drain into the Mocoví creek, has been slowly interrupted asthoroughfares are paved, informal neighborhoods are established on the river bed, and blocking itwith bridges and sediment.

5.8.4 Rainwater Drainage

5.9 Cobija, the Capital City of the Department of Pando

  The lack of urban planning to regulate human settlements in harmony with the overall popula-tion growth, the limited economic capacity of the municipal government to provide a sanitary sewer-age network to these new settlements, added to the lack of a garbage and liquid waste handling systemto improve or expand the discharge collection and control systems, have created a complicated envi-ronmental and social problem in the middle and upper watershed of the Bahía Creek. Conclusions In Bolivia, for many years, in both its urban and waters and groundwater, and the conservation rural areas, most of the plans or projects for the and rational use of wetlands.supply and the proper and sustainable use of water • The performance of projects for the expansion and have not been implemented, for multiple reasons improvement of water and sanitation services, toboth political and economic.

1. Introduction: Challenges for Strategic st Management of Cities in the 21 Century

  The large urban expansion in the last decades of the 20th Century and inst the first decade of the 21 Century brought innumerous problems of water avail- Water reuse is fundamental for the improve- ment of the water cycle in cities. Urban density is the amount of population in the urban areas and population density of a state, country or region is total population for the future) avoiding the spread of diseases(sanitation); develop stormwater systems for the rain water after the urban occupation and mitigateits effects; collect the solid waste and dispose it in adequate places, avoiding the spread of humanwaste in the natural system by the drainage (solid waste).

2.3 Urban Waters in Developing Countries

  Decrease of safe water: the lack of safe water from upstream and the capacity of distributionleaves no alternative to the population, which will try to find their own solutions which areusually more risky and more expensive. The institutional de-velopment is complex because of the governance changes, enforcement of water law and its imple-mentation by water resources authorities in the basins.

2.4 Recommendations for Integrated Urban Water Management

2.4.1. Goals and Targets

  Framework of the main activities • Environment: it is a plan for recovery of degrad- ed areas in the metropolitan area and for a long term recovery of the rivers and coastal environ-ment, after the services described in the other services are provided; The development of this integrated plan is an important challenge since most of these plans usedto be developed in an independent way without connections and sometimes with conflictingconditions. In general, the distribution of treated water is adequate for 90% of the population.

2.4.2 Plans and Strategies

  The main plans and strategies for the urban man- planned soil uses, and contamination of surface and agement in the city are (Figure 3): groundwaters. Master Plan in order to include the regulation of urban watersheds, the need to integrate the water related to urban waters; resources issues in the Master Plan of the cities, the3 vices and reduce the amount of solids from sedi- The loss of treated water in the urban ments and solid waste which reaches the drain- distribution network is 30%.

3. Sanitation usually includes sewer systems, urban drainage and


3.2 Urbanization and Sources of Water

  The methods used to monitor the quality of raw water used for catchment and distribution in Brazilmay partly explain the gastroenteritis as the major Disease outbreaks linked to classical waterborne diseases, such as cholera for example (last greatoutbreak occurred in 1999 in the north of the country), are sporadic or localized in specific regions, like inthe mouth of the Amazon River. The types and concentrations of the viruses detected in sewage orsites contaminated by releases of untreated sewage demonstrate the flow of the virus in the populationand reflect the most prevalent viral infections in the community and the level of water pollution (Vieiraet al., 2012).

4.3 Recommendations

  Considering the high rates of detection of these viral agents in water matrices, the number of cases ofdiarrhea and the absence of correlation between the presence of fecal coliforms and viral or protozoanagents, the Brazilian guidelines for the quality of drinking water should be revised. 9984, July 2000) and created the National Water Agency in addition toa resolution that established general criteria for granting rights to using water resources (CONAMA Charging for the use of water is an extremely beneficial tool for both the conservation of water,since it induces the management of the demand, as well as for the protection of the environment,promoting the reduction of effluent discharge into water bodies.

5. Conservation and Water Reuse as Management Tools

  Sustainability of water supply systems should be viewed based on the probability in which thewater supply system will be able to permanently meet demands, in satisfactory condition. Themost important variables that determine (or not) a condition of sustainability are: (i) robustness,reflecting consistent performance and the ability to meet increasing demand, even under several typesof stress; (ii) resilience, the ability of the system to regain its appropriate state following negativeimpacts, such as losing service capacity from supply sources; and (iii) vulnerability, the magnitude of thefailing of a supply system (Hashimoto et al., 1982).

5.2 Water Availability and Reuse

  Modern and sustainable solutions that will significantly enhance the robustness and resilienceof the water supply system in the MRSP, consists in the management of the demand and the treatmentand reuse of water, available in the form of sewage in the MRSP area, to complement public supply. Relevantarguments refer to the security of supply and the provision of safe water to consumers of the publicwater supply systems; and (v) overcome the self- protectionist and immediatist procedures of theregulatory bodies, who should be guided towards developing realistic norms, standards and codesof practices based on studies and research and not through copying aliens rules and guidelines that donot represent our technical, cultural, environmental and public health conditions.

6. Cities in Dry Zones and How the Water Supply is Organized

  The results of the Population Census conducted by IBGE – Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statis- tics indicated that the population living in the Bra-zilian semi-arid reached a total of 22,598,318 inhab- itants in 2010, representing 11.85% of the Brazilianpopulation and 42.57% of the population residing in the Northeast. The five most densely populated municipalities of the semi-arid are Feira de Santana – BA (556642 inhabitants), Campina Grande – PB (385 213 inhabitants), Caucaia – CE (325 441 inhabitants),Caruaru – PE (314 912 inhabitants) and Vitória daConquista – BA (306 866 inhabitants).

6.1 Characterization of the Brazilian Semiarid

  is considered small, followed by 5.0% medium losses of water supply systems; management of the and 1.6% large as can be deduced from Table III. Of demands deriving from development poles; increasethe total population of the semiarid, 65.2% reside in irrigated area with smaller individual demands.in small municipalities, 16.5% in medium sized The study conducted by ANA concluded that municipalities and 18.3% in large municipalities.

6.3 Water Supply

  A total of 4.9% of municipalitiesstudy performed a diagnosis of the water supply, were identified with a tendency towards stagnation.consisting of an analysis of the watersheds and water Assuming the optimistic scenario for 2025, the producing systems of 1256 municipalities within the Atlas concludes that:Brazilian semiarid region. According to the Ministry of National Integra- tion, by the end of the project there will be a contin-uous withdrawal of 26.4 m³/s of water, equivalent to 1.4% of the total water flow of 1850m³/s ensuredby the Sobradinho, in Bahia, in the stretch of the river where the water will be captured.

1. Water Resources and Problems Caused by Development

  In this context, no treatment means raw sewage as is, preliminarytreatment is the removal of grit and large objects, primary treatment is the removal of solids usingsettling tanks, secondary treatment is the biological removal of organic matter using lagoons, secondary-mechanical treatment is the biological removal of organic matter at treatment plants, and tertiarytreatment is the removal of mainly nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Other impacts of warmer temperatures on water systems include rising sea levels on the Pacificcoast, potential flooding in low-lying areas and heavily populated deltas, pre-spawning mortality ofthe Pacific salmon, increased number of forest fires, more frequent droughts in Prairies, temperatureincrease in Great Lakes and decrease in water levels, disappearance of wetlands, gradual melting ofpermafrost, and contamination of aquifers with salt water and pollutants (Environment Canada, 2014).

7. Acknowledgment

  The City of Toronto is the capital of the Province of Ontario(one of 10 provinces in Canada), and its municipal boundaries extend across a 640 square kilometer area, spanning six watersheds, where all but one of thewatersheds extend beyond the City’s municipal boundaries. However, inaddition to Toronto Water, Calgary Water Services and Halifax Water (a utility owned and operated by the Halifax Regional Municipality, and the only publiclyowned water utility in Canada) are other Canadian examples of municipalities which have adopted the best practice of an integrated approach to urban watermanagement.

2. Governance

  The Figure shows that the to have a replacement value of $13.3 billion CAD.growth of the system tracks the urban development While the growth of this system followed similar cycles in North America of the late 1800s, early 1900s construction cycles shown for watermains, some ofand the major growth cycles of the 1950s, 1960s and the City’s sewers date back to the early 1800s; and1970s. The average age of the system was estimated because combined sewers were constructed well at just over 50 years, and where over 20% of the into the 1950s, the age of the entire system is skewedsystem was estimated to be 80 years of age or older, by the fact that both storm and sanitary sewers considered to be at the theoretical end of service life were constructed subsequently, and therefore thefor this asset class.

a) Watermains (WM); b) Sewers; and c) Total Watermains and Sewer Infrastructure (Toronto, 2008

  133URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT: CITY OF TORONTO A CASE STUDY Using this approach, the total watermain and sewer infrastructure renewal backlog wasestimated to be 760 kilometres and 1,035 kilometres respectively, equating to a total renewal (definedas replacement and rehabilitation using trenchless structural lining technologies) need of $1.3 billionCAD, representing about 10% of the replacement value for these assets. To address these needs, and the infrastructure renewal backlog at the City of Toronto’s four secondarywastewater treatment plants (with a combined treatment capacity of 1.5 billion litres per day) and fourwater treatment plants (with a combined treatment capacity of over 2.7 billion litres per day), a longer terminfrastructure renewal plan was developed, and is updated on an annual basis, as part of Toronto Water’sannual capital budget submission.

4. Servicing future growth (water efficiency plan)

  To help ensure success for the Toilet Rebate Program, whichwas a cornerstone of the Plan, and to address past criticism of first generation low flush toilets whichoften required multiple flushes to expel solids, toilet rebates were only offered for the purchase of specifictoilets which met Toronto’s minimum acceptable bulk solids removal requirements based on thestandardized Maximum Performance (MaP) toilet testing protocol (Alliance for Water Efficiency, 2014). Given the success of the program, changes in market conditions where the sale and promotionof water efficient fixtures and appliances have become the norm, and increased public awarenessand support for conservation, most of the programs, particularly those offering financial incentives to 135URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT: CITY OF TORONTO A CASE STUDY Figure 4.

4 International Municipalities

a) North American Comparison of ILI

  Consistent with the planning principles of the Province ofOntario’s Environmental Assessment Act (Ontario,1990c) and following the Master Planning process outlined in the Municipal Municipal EngineersAssociation (2011), the Plan was aimed at achieving set receiving water quality targets, in considerationof the Provincial Water Quality Objectives (Ontario,1994) and incorporating broad public consultation at key decision points. One of the most significant projects contained within the Plan is the Don River and Central URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT: CITY OF TORONTO A CASE STUDY139 City’s remaining CSOs, and ultimately leading to the Central Waterfront area, as one comprehensive the “delisting” of Toronto as an Area of Concern in project.

6. Climate change adaptation to address urban flooding: basement flooding protection program

  In August 2005, an intense rainfall with over 150 mm of rainfall over a two to three hour periodresulted in over 4,000 basement flooding complaints across the newer areas of the City (serviced byseparated storm and sanitary sewers); and caused significant damage to the City’s infrastructureincluding the complete washout of an arterial road, a washout of a section of a sanitary trunk sewer,and extensive stream bank erosion damage. This phase saw the creation ofthe Directorate of Sanitation Works (DSW) in 1953, as a result of the merging of the Department ofHydraulics of the Ministry of Public Works (MPW) and the Directorate of Drinking Water and Sewerageof the Ministry of the Interior.

2. Governance and Sanitation Sector Management in Chile

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