My Introduction - Computer and telecomunication system

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My Introduction

   Name : Kustanto

   Address: Perum. Puri Malangjiwan 3. N0. 12. Colomadu

   Highest education: S2 TE UGM

  

Concentration : Computer Systems

Informatics

Final Assessment

   Presence = 5%

   Task = @15%

   Midterms = 30%

   Final Exams = 35%

   Delay Tolerance Attend College = 20 Minute

   Chaper 1.

  

Computer Systems

by Kustanto

Input-Process-Output Model (IPO)

  • Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards
  • Processing: CPU executes the computer program
  • Output: monitor, printer, fax machine
  • Storage: hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape

CPU and Main Memory

  

Central

Processing

Unit

  Main Memory

  Chip that executes Chip that executes program program commands commands Intel Pentium III Intel Pentium III Sun Sparc Sun Sparc Processor Processor Primary storage area Primary storage area for programs and data for programs and data that are in active use that are in active use Synonymous with RAM Synonymous with RAM

Secondary Memory Devices

  • Hard disks
  • Floppy disks
  • ZIP disks
  • Writable CDs
  • Tapes

  Floppy Disk Hard Disk Main Memory Central Processing Unit

  Secondary memory Secondary memory devices provide devices provide long-term storage, long-term storage, namely: namely: Information is moved Information is moved between main memory between main memory and secondary memory and secondary memory as needed as needed

  Hard disks

  Floppy disks

  ZIP disks

  Writable CDs

  Tapes

  Input / Output Devices Monitor Keyboard Main Memory Central Processing Unit Floppy Disk Hard Disk

  I/O devices allow user I/O devices allow user interaction interaction Monitor screen Monitor screen Keyboard Keyboard Mouse Mouse Bar code scanner Bar code scanner Light pen Light pen Touch screen Touch screen

Architecture Components

   Hardware Processes data by executing instructions

    Provides input and output

   Software

   Instructions executed by the system

   Data Fundamental representation of facts and

   observations

   Communications

  

Sharing data and processing among different

systems

Hardware Component

   Input/Output devices

   Storage Devices

   CPU

   ALU: arithmetic/logic unit

   CU: control unit

   Interface unitMemory

   Short-term storage for CPU calculations

Memory

  Main memory is Main memory is divided into many divided into many memory locations (or memory locations (or

  cells cells

  ) )

  9278 9278 9279 9279 9280 9280 9281 9281 9282 9282 9283 9283 9284 9284 9285 9285 9286 9286

  Each memory cell has Each memory cell has a numeric a numeric

  address address

  , , which uniquely which uniquely identifies it identifies it

Storing Information 9278 9278 9279 9279 9280 9280 9281 9281 9282 9282 9283 9283 9284 9284 9285 9285 9286 9286

  Large values are Large values are stored in consecutive stored in consecutive memory locations memory locations

  10011010

  10011010 Each memory cell Each memory cell stores a set number of stores a set number of bits (usually 8 bits, or bits (usually 8 bits, or one one

  byte byte

  ) )

  Typical Personal Computer System

CPU: Central Processing Unit

   ALU: arithmetic/logic unit

   Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations

   CU: control unit

   Controls processing of instructions

   Controls movement of data within the CPU

   Interface unit

   Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components

   Bus : bundle of wires that carry signals and power

  between different components

  

The Central Processing Unit

   A CPU is also called a microprocessor

   It continuously follows the fetch-decode-execute cycle: fetch

  Retrieve an instruction from main memory Retrieve an instruction from main memory

  decode

  Determine what the Determine what the instruction is instruction is

  execute

  Carry out the Carry out the instruction instruction

  

The Central Processing Unit

(CPU)

   The CPU contains: Arithmetic / Logic Unit

  Registers Control Unit Small storage Small storage areas areas Performs calculations Performs calculations and decisions and decisions Coordinates Coordinates processing processing steps steps

The Central Processing Unit

   The speed of a CPU is controlled by the system clock

   The system clock generates an electronic pulse at regular intervals

   The pulses coordinate the activities of the CPU

   The speed is measured in megahertz (MHz)

Memory

   Also known as primary storage , working storage, and RAM (random access memory)

   Consists of bits, each of which hold a value of either 0 or 1 (8 bits = 1 byte)

   Holds both instructions and data of a computer program ( stored program concept )

Storage Capacity

  

Every memory device has a storage capacity,

indicating the number of bytes it can hold

   Capacities are expressed in various units: Unit Symbol Number of Bytes Unit Symbol Number of Bytes 10 10 KB 2 = 1024 kilobyte KB 2 = 1024 kilobyte 20 20 megabyte megabyte MB MB

  2 2 (over 1 million) (over 1 million) gigabyte gigabyte 30 30 GB 2 (over 1 billion) GB 2 (over 1 billion) terabyte terabyte 40 40 TB TB

  2 2 (over 1 trillion) (over 1 trillion)

Memory

   Main memory is volatile - stored information is lost if the electric power is removed

   Secondary memory devices are nonvolatile

  

Main memory and disks are direct access devices -

information can be reached directly

   The terms direct access and random access are often used interchangeably

   A magnetic tape is a sequential access device since its data is arranged in a linear order - you must get by the

intervening data in order to access other information

RAM vs. ROM

   RAM - Random Access Memory (direct access)

   ROM - Read-Only Memory

   The terms RAM and main memory are basically interchangeable

   ROM could be a set of memory chips, or a separate device, such as a CD ROM

   Both RAM and ROM are random (direct) access devices!

   RAM should probably be called Read-Write Memory

  ROM

Monitor

   The size of a monitor (17") is measured diagonally, like a television screen

   Most monitors these days have multimedia capabilities: text, graphics, video, etc.

   A monitor has a certain maximum resolution , indicating the number of picture elements, called pixels, that it can display (such as 1280 by 1024)

   High resolution (more pixels) produces sharper pictures

Modem

   Data transfer devices allow information to be sent and received between computers

   Many computers include a modem, which allows information to be moved across a telephone line

   A data transfer device has a maximum data transfer rate

   A modem, for instance, may have a data transfer rate of 56,000 bits per second (bps)

Networks

   A network is two or more computers that are connected so that data and resources can be shared

   Most computers are connected to some kind of network

   Each computer has its own network address, which uniquely identifies it among the others

   A file server is a network computer dedicated to storing programs and data that are shared among network users

A Computer Specification

  

Consider the following specification for a

personal computer:

   600 MHz Pentium III Processor

   256 MB RAM

   16 GB Hard Disk

   24x speed CD ROM Drive

   17” Multimedia Video Display with 1280 x 1024 resolution

   56 KB Modem

  Interconnection system computer CPU

Software Component

   Applications

   Operating System

   API: application program interface

   File management

   I/O

   Kernel Memory management Resource scheduling Program communication Security

   Network Module

Communications Component

   Hardware

   Communication channels Physical connections between computer systems Examples: wire cable, phone lines, fiber optic cable,

  infrared light, radio waves

   Interface hardware

  Handles communication between the computer and the communication channel Modem or network interface card (NIC)

   Software

   Network protocols: HTTP, TCP/IP, ATAPI

Computer Systems

  

All computer systems, consists of the following:

   At least one CPU

   Memory to hold programs and data

   I/O devices

   Long-term storage

Protocols

   Common ground rules of communication between computers, I/O

devices, and many software programs

   Examples

   HTTP: between Web servers and Web browsers

   TCP/IP: between computers on the Internet and local area networks

  

ATAPI: between a CPU and CD-ROMs

Standards

  

Created to ensure universal compatibility of

data formats and protocols

   May be created by committee or may become a de facto standard through popular use

   Examples:

   Computer languages: Java, SQL, C, JavaScript

   Display standards: Postscript, MPEG-2, JPEG, GIF

   Character set standards: ASCII, Unicode, EBCDIC

   Video standards: VGA, XGA, RGB Telecommunications System

   Terminals  office equipment , telephones , ...

   Telecommunications processors  modems, multiplexers, front-end processors, ...

   Telecommunications channels and media

   copper wires, coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, satellites, ...

   Computers

   host computers, network servers, ...

   Telecommunications control software

   telecommunication monitors, network operating systems, ...

  O’Brien 125

Telecommunication model

  End-user workstation Telecommunications software

  Computers Telecom processors Telecom processors Telecom

  Channels and Media 5 components

  O’Brien 126

Telecommunication Components

LAN

  PC-workstation PC-workstation PC-workstation PC-workstation PC-workstation PC-workstation

  Network Server Port to other networks

  Shared hard disk Shared printer

  Databases and Software packages O’Brien 127 - 128

WAN - Internetwork

  network in US network in Europe

  Mainframe, hosts Internet network in Australia

  LAN’s LAN’s

Client/server network

  Intranet Company A

  Intranet

  Router Router Internet

  Firewall Firewall

Company B

  Client - Server

  Clients

  server comm. server DB. server Print server DB. server server server

Clients comm

The Internetwork-enterprise

  The Internet

Intranets

  Intranets

Intranets

Intranets

  Extranets Client

Enterprise

  Supplier

Other Organizations

Electronic Commerce

Media and Channels

   Signals

   analog

   digital

   Cables

   Twisted-pair interference

   Coaxial cable 20x more expensive

  5.500 simultaneous phone calls

   Fiber-optic 1 fiber 30.000 phone calls

   Wireless  microwave  satellites

   Radio, Infrared, Cellular Radio, Mobile computing

   GPS global positioning system Medium Transmission speed Metal wire .0012Mbps - 10 Mbps Microwave .256 Mbps - 100Mbps Fiber optics .5Mbps - 1,000Mbps

Communication hardware

   Modems 9.600 14.400 28.800 bps

   Transmission mode

   Simplex 1 circuit , 1 direction

   Half-duplex 1 circuit, 2 directions, difficult co-ordination

   Full duplex 2 circuits, 2 directions

   Transmission accurateness

   parity bits forward and backward error correction

   Processors

   multiplexers frequency, time or statistic time distribution

   front-end processors to handle routine communication tasks with peripheral equipment

Network Topology

   Star

   all communications go via the central system

   Bus

   can easily be extended at the ends

   Ring

   more secure

  O’Brien 147 - 148

Star network

  With direct connections Point-to-point lines

  • Efficientfi , alfiso for gi g seee s
  • Witfig a lfiar e number of workstfiatfiions cablfiin mi gtfi be a eroblfiem

Star network (multiplexed)

  Access via mulfitfiielfiexe lfiines eventfiualfilfiy rentfie

  • lfiocalfi seee ue tfio 2000 cgar/sec , 1M cgar/sec very exeensive
  • intfiernatfiionalfilfiy 1000 cgar/sec commonlfiy availfiablfie

  Multidrop lines Bus network

  Sgare usa e of a broa ban netfiwork

  • more comelfiex gar ware
  • simelfier cablfiin systfiem

Ring Networks

  O’Brien 147

  Ring Network

  • more equalfi basis

Public data networks

  PAD = Packetfi Assemblfier an Disassemblfier

Datfia Netfiwork

  PAD

  E. ..: DCS 1000 - 6000 cgar/sec , costfi / volfiume atfia ( X25 ) Due tfio gi g connectfiion costfi ($ 30.000 year) usa e of PAD

ISDN

  ISDN

  ISDN Intfie ratfie services Di itfialfi netfiwork

  • - universalfi netfiwork for tfielfieegone an atfia

  Communication Systems th lecture

  Department of Applied Sciences University of Freiburg

Textbook Overview

   Web site:

   Part 1 (Chapter 1)

   Computer system overview

   Part 2 (Chapters 2-5)  Number systems and data formats

   Part 3 (Chapters 6-12)

   Computer architecture and hardware operation

   Part 4 (Chapters 13-18)  Software – operating systems, applications, development environments

   Part 5 (Supplementary Chapters 1-3)

 Digital logic, addressing modes, and communication channel

technology

   Text books (german):

   Jochen Schiller, Mobilkommunikation

   Bernhard Walke, Mobilfunknetze und ihre Protokolle, Grundlagen GSM, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) , ...

   Link (see seminar slides and papers):

   http://www.ks.uni-freiburg.de/download/ papers/telsemWS05/UMTS-

nextGeneration/UMTS-Seminararbeit-

Stefan%20Nagy.pdf

   End Of Sessions

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