RBM and Logical Framework Approach (LFA)
Riset dan Kesejahteraan Masyarakat: Logical Framework Approach
Project Success How?
Engagement Ownership clearly defined Clear division of responsibilities Realism!! (purpose) Connection Activities – Objectives Capacity to handle risks Flexibility Beneficiaries engaged in project planning
…..LFA is a useful tool to reach success!
RBM and Logical Framework Approach(LFA)
The LFA is an RBM tool used for systematic planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating projects/ programmes.
Finding the “roots” before setting theobjectives Objectives & beneficiary oriented Participatory/ Ownership! Consensus oriented Focus on logical links Systematic common sense!!!
The Logical Framework Approach (i)Features of LFA :
logical intervention approach
framework for assessing relevance, feasibility and sustainability The Logical Framework Approach (ii)
Features of LFA :
¾ results-oriented – not activity driven ¾
logically sets objectives and their causal relationships
shows whether objectives have been achieved: I ndicators (for M&E)
describes external factors that influence the project’s success: assumptions and risks
LFA Key Features
- Stakeholder Analysis
- SWOT Analysis
- Problem Tree Analysis
- Objective Tree Analysis
- Logical Framework Matrix
- Monitoring and evaluation
Stakeholder is any individuals, group or organization, community, with an interest in the outcome of a programme/ project.
Stakeholder Analysis To identify:
The needs and interest of stakeholders
The organizations, groups that should be encouraged to participate in different stages of the project; Potential risks that could put at risk
programme; Opportunities in implementing a programme;
SWOT Analysis (i)
To assess the performance and capacity of the participating units, divisions of organization.
Each participating unit has to undertake SWOT analysis.
SWOT Analysis (ii)
SWOT analysis is a tool for institutional appraisal and a brainstorming exercise in which the representatives of the organization participate fully.
SWOT Analysis (iii)
SWOT stands for:
- the positive internal
attributes of the organisation
Weaknesses - the negative internal
attributes of the organisation
- external factors which
could improve the organisation’s prospects
Threats - external factors which could
undermine the organisation’s prospects
Problem Tree Analysis Purpose:
- to identify major problems and their main causal relationships.
problem tree with cause and effects
Steps in Undertaking Problem Tree 1
I dentify the major problems that the project will address. State problems in negative manner. 2. Group problems by similarity of concerns. 3. Develop the problem tree: a)
Select a focal problem from the list and relate other problems to the focal problem. b) I f the problem is a cause of the focal problem it is placed below the focal problem c) I f the problem is an effect of the focal problem is goes above
CAUSE EFFECT Analysis of Objectives
Transforming the problem tree into an objectives tree by restating the problems as objectives.
Problem statement converted in to positive statements
Top of the tree is the end that is desired
Lower levels are the means to achieving the end.
17 Ends Means e re
- * T s e 4 v , 2 ti e id c G t u je m e n b a g e O a n
The relationship between the problems
tree and the objective tree
Focal problem Project Purpose
Strategy Analysis (i)
The aim of strategy analysis is division of the
objectives tree into more consistent smaller sub-
units that may, compose the core for a project.
Each of the sub-units of the objective tree can
represent an alternative strategy for the futureproject.
The project objectives set the framework for the strategy of the project.
Strategy Analysis (ii)
Criteria for selection of the project strategy:
2. EFFECTI VENESS: the lower level objectives of
the strategy will contribute to achievement ofthe project purpose
3. EFFI CI ENCY: cost-effectiveness of the
strategy in transforming the means into results.
4. CONSI STENT with development policies
5. SUSTAI NABI LI TY of the project
6. ASSUMPTI ONS and RI SKS
The Logframe Matrix
The main output of the LFA is the logframe matrix.
The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, outputs and activities in a systematic and logical way.
The basic Logframe matrix contains 16 cells organized into 4 columns and 4 rows, as indicated in the next slide:
The Logical Framework Matrix Objectives & activities Indicators verification Means of Assumptions (Impact) Goal (Outcome) Purpose/
Outputs Activities Means Cost before activities What needs to be fulfilled can start Pre- conditions
Describe necessary internal and external
conditions in order to ensure that the activitieswill produce results
Assumptions are risks, which can jeopardize the success of the project
Are worded positively, i.e. they describe circumstances required to achieve certain objectives
Should be relevant and probable
I f an assumption is not important or almost certain: Do not include
I f an assumption is unlikely to occur: Killer assumption – abandon project
Example of Assumptions for the Goal and Purpose:
Political – stability of NSO and government staff
Economic – sustainable economy
Example of Assumptions:
Adequate funds materials. Skilled people – training needs.
Approvals & contracts – legal, administrative.
Participation of stakeholders.
27 rk o Assumptions Assumptions Assumptions w e m a fr l a ic g o l I ndicators (i)
I ndicators measure to verify to what extant theresults are achieved.
Specify how the achievement of an objective can be verified or demonstrated
Provide a basis for Monitoring and Evaluation
29 ) ii ( rs to a ic d
Means of Verification
Tools or means to obtain the information required by the indicators
ad-hoc studies Results Chain & Logical Framework RBM Matrix LFA Result Goal/ Impact
Out come Result Output Result Activities Monitoring and Evaluation
Based on t he logical f ramework
St rengt hens account abilit y and t ransparency
Provides inf ormat ion f or ef f ect ive management
Helps det ermine what works well andwhat requires improvement
Purpose of Monitoring and Evaluation
I t is the continuous process of collecting, processing and assessing information about the:
Project implementation Project progress Project impact and effects Project environment
Continuous function that aims to provide early indications of progress or lack thereof in the achievement of results
Assumes the validity of the existing plan
Takes place at project level
I s the responsibility of the project management
I s based on the indicators defined in the logical framework
Early outcome indicators
Project Target Group
I mpact indicators
Time-bound exercise to assess the relevance, performance and success of on- going or completed projects
Questions the validity of existing planning
I s related to the impact of a project
Opens the mind for strategic adjustments
Evaluation Quality Criteria
Efficiency (activities, outputs)
Effectiveness (outputs, outcome)
I mpact (outcome, impact)
Sustainability (outcome, impact)
The of an LFA analysisnine steps
1 Analysis of project´ s Context
2 Analysis of Stakeholders
3 Problem Analysis/ Situation Analysis
4 Objectives Analysis
5 Plan of Activities
6 Plan of Resources/ I nputs
7 I ndicators/ measurements
8 Risk Analysis
9 Analysis of Assumptions
Why different steps in LFA? Step 1 – 4
Context, Stakeholder-, Problem- and Objectives analysis. Logical links between problems and solutions, Relevant to support? (in accordance with strategies and problems in the country/ sector?)
Step 5 – 7 Feasible ; Plan of Activities, Resources/ inputs and I ndicators.
Are the resources sufficient to achieve the objectives? (Resources: Personnel, time, funding, equipment)
; Step 8 – 9 Sustainable
Risk analysis and Assumptions. I f the project is sustainable, will the effects of the project remain
I nternet information on LFA
www.google.com/ logical framework approach http: / / www.ausaid.gov.au/ ausguide/ ausguidelines/ 1.ht ml http: / / lgausa.com/ logframe_approach.htm http: / / www.cgiar.org/ isnar/ gender/ hambly.htm
http: / / www.pcm-group.com/ services_helpdesk_faq.jsp
http: / / europa.eu.int/ comm/ europeaid/ evaluation/ methods/ PCM_Manual_EN-march2001.pdf
LFA summary Relevant, Feasible and Sustainable projects/ programs - success! Participation & ownership! Joint approach to project Make problem analysis with accuracy / time to correctly analyze causes & effects Connection problems and objectives Add analysis such as cost effectiveness and gender, study on environmental aspects and make a clear division of responsibilities LFA during all phases of the project How the LFA method works depends on its users LFA is no better and no worse than its users
Apply LFA in creating value-added product based on your local resources Due date : May 25, 2009; 16.00 WI B at the latest