Narrator and feminism in Banerjee Divakaruni`s The Palace of Illusion : a study of feminist narratology - USD Repository

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI NARRATOR AND FEMINISM IN BANERJEE DIVAKARUNI’STHE PALACE OF ILLUSION: A STUDY OF FEMINIST NARRATOLOGY AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By SAKHA WIDHI NIRWA Student Number: 094214102 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI NARRATOR AND FEMINISM IN BANERJEE DIVAKARUNI’STHE PALACE OF ILLUSION: A STUDY OF FEMINIST NARRATOLOGY AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By SAKHA WIDHI NIRWA Student Number: 094214102 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

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(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI “A flower does not think of competing to the flower next to it. It just blooms.” -Flower in the Sun- “A problem becomes a problem only if you believe it to be so. And often others see you as you see yourself.” -Krishna- vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI For All Mother’s Love Around The World viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I address the first gratitude to my undergraduate thesis advisor Dra. A. B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D for her time, advice and assistance in this work. I also thank P. Sarwoto, S.S., M.A., Ph.D for being a supportive Co-Advisor. The next person to thank is Kenan Fabri Hartanto for his willingness to be an unofficial advisor. He is the one who introduced narratology tomeat the first time and lent some books related to the subject. I give my deepest gratitude to Bapak Agus Widiatmoko and Ibu Erliana Suci Rahayufor the never ending lessons to become a man. Thanks to Bhimart Widhi Restu for the assistance at home. I would like to thank friends in UKM LC where my learning to see the world begin. It shall also go to Media Sastra for unbelievable experiences to give a word called endure. Big thanks are addressed to the whole family of JAKSA (Jalinan Akrab Sastra) for the learning to be a man with others. I am grateful to Geng Bunga Matahari, Teater Kepik, Swager, and Hulo for the stories being performed on and behind the stages. Gratitude also goes to all of my friends in RPC: Samsol, Dhika, Hendra, Theo, Dinda, and Neng Uci, for the happiness and sadness in a friendship. I also need to say thanks to my fellows during my study in English Letters Department: Bli Putu, Mov, Bea, Panjul, Putri, Agnes, Yanti, Intan, Yuni, Lidia, Vince, Refa, Pinka, Retha, Etri, Febi, Anik, Lolo, Richard, Adit, Wowok, Mov, Bea, ix

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Indra,Dedy, Pucil, Ubed, Titus, Dita, Samson, Audy, Dito, Aya, Adit Cinta, Mbak Irene baby, Agung Gondez, Herman, Aryo, Anggit, Alwi, Mujiand many others. And also thanks to Tombo Gelo Dang Dut orchestra. Lovely, thanks are addressed to Bonaventura Andhiko Aji Tresadi for being a brother. Thanks to Geng Kaliwaru Bersatu: Haryo, Victor, Fauzan, Kenan, and Adoel, for the place given. Thanks to Sugeng Utomo for the blossom inspiration. I give a deep gratitude to Maria Puspitasari Munthe for being a friend, simply a friend to share every little thing with, no matter what. At last, I thank Krishna, Jesus, Muhamad, and Sidharta for the meaning of life. Thanks to God for everything and everyone I have mentioned. Sakha Widhi Nirwa. x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................. ii APPROVAL PAGE ....................................................................................... iii ACCEPTANCE PAGE.................................................................................. iv PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH.............. v STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ............................................................. vi MOTTO PAGE .............................................................................................. vii DEDICATION PAGE.................................................................................... viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT............................................................................. ix TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................... xi ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... xiii ABSTRAK ...................................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ................................................................. 1 A. Background of the Study...................................................................... 1 B. Problem Formulation ........................................................................... 3 C. Objectives of the Study ........................................................................ 4 D. Definition of Terms.............................................................................. 4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................. 6 A. Review of Related Studies ................................................................... 6 B. Review of Related Theories ................................................................. 7 1. Theory of Narratology.............................................................. 7 2. Theory of Narrative Situation .................................................. 9 3. Theory of Point of View and Focalization............................... 10 4. Theory of Plot .......................................................................... 12 5. Theory of Feminist Criticism ................................................... 15 6. Theory of Feminist Narratology............................................... 17 C. Theoretical Framework ........................................................................ 19 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ............................................................. 21 A. Object of the Study............................................................................... 21 B. Approach of the Study ......................................................................... 22 C. Method of the Study............................................................................. 23 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS .......................................................................... 25 A. Plot Structure........................................................................................ 25 1. The First Climatic Peak............................................................ 26 xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. The Second Climatic Peak ....................................................... 30 3. The Third Climatic Peak .......................................................... 37 4. The Fourth Climatic Peak ........................................................ 42 B. Position of The Narrator....................................................................... 46 1. Narrator Position in the First Passage ...................................... 46 a. Narrative Level................................................................... 46 b. Narrator and Point of View ................................................ 48 2. Narrator Position in the Second Passage.................................. 52 a. Narrative Level................................................................... 52 b. Narrator and Point of View ................................................ 54 3. Narrator Position in the Third Passage .................................... 58 a. Narrative Level................................................................... 58 b. Narrator and Point of View ................................................ 60 4. Narrator Position in Fourth Passage......................................... 65 a. Narrative Level................................................................... 66 b. Narrator and Point of View ................................................ 67 C. Plot, Position of Narrator, and Feminist Criticism Issue ..................... 69 1. Plot and Feminist Criticism...................................................... 69 2. Narrator Position and Feminist Criticism ................................ 75 a. Narrator .............................................................................. 75 b. Point of View ..................................................................... 78 c. Narrative Level................................................................... 80 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION..................................................................... 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................... 94 xii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT SAKHA WIDHI NIRWA. Narrator and Feminism in Banerjee Divakaruni’s The Palace of Illusion: A Study of Feminist Narratology. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Mahabharata is Indian epic that lives in the Indian’s heart and mind since 500 BC. This literary heritage has huge effects to many aspects of Indian politics, religion, culture, social, and education. One of Indian novelists, Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakaruni, rewrites the epic to her novel titled The Palace of Illusion. In her novel, she criticizes the significance of women characters within the epic of Mahabharata. In the story world, the author is represented by the narrator as the storyteller of the story. In this research, the way the narrator tells the story in order to redefine the women within the story world becomes the focus points of the discussion. The discussion deals with three problem points that are formulated into three questions. The first one is the question of plot structure of the story. The second is the question about the position of the narrator within the storyworld. The last is the question of the relation between the plot structure and the position of the narrator contributes in redefining women in the storyworld. As a library research, the main sources and primary data of the research are taken from books. The writer takes close reading method as the first step of the research in orderto understand the novel well. Then, the writer draws the plot structure based on Problem-Solution patterns. Afterward, the writer describes the position of the narrator based on narrative situation. The last step is relating the plot structure and the position of the narrator to feminism in order to find out the contribution of plot structure and position of the narrator in redefining the women in the story world. The result of the analysis toward the plot structure reveals the four climatic peaks on four passages. Looking at the pattern in the four climatic peaks, it emphasizes that the women characters have more struggle than man characters in “loss” experiences. The constant experiences show that women in the story are suffering. On the other side, the constant experiences show that women are powerful and tough in facing those experiences. The position of the narrator, primary, is overt first person internal narrator who uses all types of points of view. The narrative uses three various narrative levels, there are extradiagetic, diagetic, and metadiagetic. Looking at the narrator, point of view and the relation between the extra diagetic level and the embedded story,it could be said that this narrative is autodiegetic narrative in private narrative level. As a strategy in narration, the private level is used to compromise the label of women’s writing, while the narrator and the narrative levels in the narrative are used in order to negotiate and challenge the public domain narrative level that is identical with man’s writing. xiii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK SAKHA WIDHI NIRWA. Narator and Feminisme dalam karya Banerjee Divakaruni The Palace of Illusion: Sebuah Kajian Feminist Narratology. Yogyakarta: Program studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Mahabharata adalah sebuah epos yang tinggal dalam hati dan pikiran masyarakat India sejak 500 tahus sebelum masehi. Warisan karya sastra ini memiliki pengaruh yang besar terhadap banyak aspek politik, agama, budaya, sosial dan pendidikan. Seorang novelis India, Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakaruni, menulis ulang epos tersebut kedalam novel berjudul The Palace of Illusion. Di dalam novelnya, dia mengkritisi signifikansi tokoh perempuan dalam epos Mahabharata. Dalam dunia cerita, penulis direpresentasikan oleh narator sebagai pencerita cerita tersebut. Dalam penilitian ini, cara narator menceritakan cerita dalam rangka mendefinisikan ulang perempuan dalam cerita menjadi titik fokus diskusi. Diskusi ini bersinggungan dengan tiga titik masalah yang dirumuskan kedalam tiga pertanyaan. Yang pertama adalah pertanyaan perihal struktur plot dalam cerita. Yang kedua adalah pertanyaan mengenai posisi narator dalam cerita. Yang terakhir adalah bagaimana hubungan antara struktur plot dan posisi narrator berkontribusi dalam pendefinisian ulang perempuan dalam cerita. Sebagai sebuah kajian pustaka, sumber dan data primer dari penelitian ini diambil dari beberapa buku. Penulis mengambil metode pembacaan mendalam sebagai langkah pertama dalam memahami novel dengan baik. Kemudian, penulis menggambarkan struktur plot berdasarkan pola Problem-Solution. Selanjutnya, penulis mendeskripsikan posisi narator berdasarkan situasi naratif. Langkah terakhir merelasikan struktur plot dan posisi narator terhadap feminisme dalam menemukan kontribusi dari struktur plot dan posisi narator pada pendefinisian ulang perempuan dalam cerita. Hasil dari analisa terhadap struktur plot mengungkap empat puncak klimaks dalam kempat bagian cerita. Melihat pola pada keempat puncak klimaks, tokoh perempuan memiliki penderitaan yang lebih banyak dibandingkan tokoh laki-laki dalam pengalaman "loss". Pengalaman konstan menunjukkan bahwa tokoh perempuan dalam cerita menderita. Di sisi lain, pengalaman konstan membuktikan bahwa perempuan adalah sosok yang kuat dan ulet dalam menghadapi pengalaman tersebut. Posisi narrator secara primer adalah narator overt orang pertama internal yang menggunakan semua tipe sudut pandang. Narasi tersebut menggunakan tiga jenis level narasi, yaitu extradiagetic, diagetic, dan metadiagetic. Menilik pada narator, sudut pandang, dan relasi antara level extradiagetic dan embedded story, dapat dikatakan bahwa narasi ini adalah narasi autodiegetic pada level narasi privat. Sebagai sebuah strategi dalam narasi, level privat digunakan untuk mengkompromikan label dari tulisan perempuan, sementara narator dan level narasi digunakan dalam rangka menegosiasikan dan melawan kekuasaan level publik yang identic dengan tulisan laki-laki. xiv

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Mahabharata is anIndian epic. As an epic, this narrative is a long verse narrative on a serious subject. It told in a formal and elevated style, and centered on a heroic whose actions depends on a fate, tribe, nation or human race (Abrams, 2003: 76). The epic story tells about a big war among brothers of the Kuru dynasty,the Pandavas and Kauravas. The Pandava represents the good side with their good characteristics and the Kaurava represents the bad side with their bad characteristics. In the end of the story, Pandavas wins the war and takes their redemption way in the Himalaya Mountains, whileKauravas dies. Mahabharata lives inthe Indian’s heartand mind, since the Harappan world era at C500 BC. This tale is one ofthe Sanskrit epicsin the scripture of Hindu called Veda. This literary heritage has huge effects to many aspectsof Indian politics, religion, culture, social, and education(Keay, 2000: 2-4). One of Indian novelists, Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakaruni writes her novelThe Palace of Illusionas a criticism of Mahabharata. In her childhood, her parentstaught her about Hinduism by telling the story of Mahabharata like most children in India (Divakaruni, 2008: xiii).In The Palace of Illusion, Divakarunishows her dissatisfaction to the old Mahabharata,especially in women 1

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 characters, by usingthe different way to tell about the story. Divakaruninotes explicitly her dissatisfaction of the old tale of Mahabharata: But always, listening to the stories of the Mahabharata as a young girl in the lantern-lit evenings at my grandfather’s village home, or later, poring over the thousand-page leather-bound volume in my parents’ home in Kolkata, I was left unsatisfied by the portrayals of the women. It wasn’t as though the epic didn’t have powerful, complex women character that affected the action in major ways (Divakaruni, 2008: xiv). The old tale is man-centered. It is shown by the fact that most of the heroes or the villains aremen. On the other hand, the women characters are considered as additional players. But in some way, they remained shadowy figures, their thought and motives mysterious, their emotions portrayed only when the affected the lives of the male heroes, their roles ultimately subservient to those of their fathers or husbands, brother or son (Divakaruni, 2008: xiv). This criticism inspires her to write her Mahabharata in a woman’s point of view by taking a woman character as the one who hasan important role. In her novel, the woman character becomes the storyteller. Taking a glimpse to the comment above, the author‘s tendency to write the new version of Mahabharata is to redefine constructed gender role in the story. The tendency leads The Palace of Illusions to become a feminist criticism. This criticism aims to review the patriarchalsystem in the old Mahabharata. The tendency becomes in a line with the tendency of Virginia Woolf, precursor of feminist, found in A Room of One’s Own.Julia Hoydis analyzesmain character’s point of view in order to find the feminine identity of the novel. She concludes that the main character represents the struggle of women in Indian society. Julia Hoydis’s research makes the gender issue in this novel stronger.

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 According to those points mentioned above, this work has some indications referring to feminist ideology. This research questions howthe writer inserts the ideology. The answers must deal with the technique of narrative. In order to find the technique, this research focuses on the narrator as the storyteller and the way the narrator tells the story. Based on Fludernik’s statement, narrative means narrator and story (1999: 4). It means that when the authors create their narrative, they consider two important elements of narrative:the story and the narrator. The story is the object; the narrator is the subject; and the author is the creator of both. If the author is the God and the story is the world, then the narrator will become the prophet. God uses the prophet to show his/her existence in the world. With the same idea, the author usesthe narrator to present his/her existence in the narrative. Therefore,the narrator could represent the author’spoint of view and the ideology that is intended inside the narrative. In this research, the writer analyzesThe Palace of Illusionsby using the perspective of feminist narratology. The aim of using feminist narratology is to find the narrative discourse of the story.By figuring out the narrative discourse, the way of the author inserts the ideology into the novel can be comprehended. B. Problem Formulation 1. Whatarethe plot structures of the story based on Problem-Solution patterns? 2. Where is the position of the narrator among the plot structures?

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 3. How does the narratorredefinewomen through the plot structures and narrator position? C. Objectives of the Study Based on the problem formulation above, there are three objectives of the study. The first objective is to identify the plot structure of the story. The second objective is to revealthe position of the narrator among the plot structures. The third objective is to find out howthe narratorredefines women in The Palace of Illusion by Banerjee Divakaruni. D. Definition of Terms In this research, the writer uses some terminologies. To avoid misunderstanding, the writer provides some definition of the terminologies. The terminologies are as follows: 1. Narrative Narrative is the representation of at least two real or fictive events or situations in a time sequence, neither of which presupposes or entails the other (Price, 1982:4). Another definition comes from Suzanne Keen with her book Narrative Form, which defines narrative as “what the narrator does and what the narrator tells” (Keen, 2003:1).

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 2. Narrator The narrator is someone who is responsible for acts of telling. It can be characters when they are positioned inside the story world, but when it is outside the story world, it is not the character (Keen, 2003:30). 3. Narrative Situation Narrative situation is the combination of narrator, perspective, and narrative level involved in first-person and third-person fictional narration (Keen, 2003:30). 4. Feminist Criticism Feminist criticism is a “product” of women’s movement in 1960s. This movement dealt with the significance of the images of women in literature, and saw it as vital to combat them and question their authority and their coherence (Barry, 2009: 116).

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies In this part of the research, the writer discusses briefly other studies. The writer has two other studies to be discussed. The first is a study withthe same object of the studyas this research’s and the second is the study with the same basic approach as this research’s. In a gender study essay entitled A Palace of Her Own: Feminine Identity in The Great Indian Story, Julia Hoydis from University of Cologne, Germany, analyze the feminine identity in the novel The Palace of Illusions in order to find the feminine identity of Indian society.In her research, Hoydis tries to find the position of Mahabharata in Indian society. Then, she analyzes the point of view of one heroine in the novel, Panchaali, and finds some struggles of the character. As the result, Hoydis states that as a character in the novel, Panchaali can represent the struggle and the rebellion of feminine identity in Indian society. One of undergraduate theses that discusses about the narrator is Kenan Fabri Hartanto’s thesis. He is one of the students in Sanata Dharma University. In his research, he usesa narrative study to find out the position of narrator in Jaroslav Hazek’s The Good Soldier Schweik. In his research, he usesthe theory of the narrative situation to find out the narrator position. He finds that such narrative situation has a close relation with the position of the narrator in a story because 6

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 the narrator is the central of narrative situation. He also finds that narrative situation that is used by the author in the novel gives such satirical effect to the story. This research discusses similar literary work with Julia Hoydis’s essay and similar topic with Kenan’s thesis. Although this research has some similar points with the other studies, especially in Kenan’s topic, this research tries to go further by analyzing the narrative discoursein order to reveal the contribution of structural analysis to the cultural context of the novel. The writerdiscusses how the narrativediscourse of the novel supports the gender issues stated by the author in the author’s notes that is affirmed by Julia Hoydis in her essay. B. Review of Related Theories In order to answer the problem formulation stated above, the writer usessome narratology theories in this research. The theories used by the writer will be reviewed below: 1. Narratology Gerald Prince definesNarratology as the study of the form and functioning of narrative. It analyzes the constructing elements of the narrative and their elaboration. Narratologist attempts to describe the narrative and understand the function by recognizing the elaboration (Prince, 1982: 4-5). The term ‘narrative’ becomes an important thing to be understood firstly since narratology is the study of narrative. At this point, Gerard Genette distinguishes the meaning of the French word recit (‘narrative’). Genette draws a

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 distinction between narration, discourse or recit and histoire. Narration is defined as the narrative act of the narrator. Discourse is narrative as text or utterance. While histoire is the story which the narrator tells in his/her narrative). Then, the narration and discourse can be classed as Narrative Discourse and the story is what is reported, represented or signified by narrative discourse. This distinction, then, enables to account that the same story can be represented in various guises (Fludernik, 2009: 2). Peter Barry, in Beginning Theory, formulates what narratologists do in their research. He finds 5 points of what narratologists do. The first one is they look at individual narratives to seek out the recurrent structure which is found within all narratives. Second, they switch much of their critical attention away from the mere ‘content’ of the tale, often focusing instead on the teller and the telling. Third, they take categories derived mainly from the analysis of short narratives, expand and refine them so that they are able to account for the complexities of the novel-length narratives. Fourth, they counteract the tendency of conventional criticism to foreground character and motive by foregrounding instead action and structure. The last is they derive much of their reading pleasure and interest from the uniqueness and originality of a small number of highly regarded examples (Barry, 2009: 233). Gerard Genette is one of the most prominent narratologist since Roland Barthes. He does not focuson the tale itself, but focuses on how the tale is told. He discusses six particular areas in his book Narrative Discourse (Barry, 2009:222). Peter Barry in his book Beginning Theory extracts the six particular areaswhich

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 are meant by Gerard Genette into six questions. The six questions are: is the basic narrative mode ‘mimetic’ (scenic way: specified) or ‘diegetic’ (summarizing way)?; how is the narrative focalized?; who is telling the story?; how is time handled in the story?; how is the story ‘packaged’?; and how are speech and thought represented? (Barry, 2009:222-229). 2. Narrative Situation Narrative situation is a description about the location of the narrator. It describes how overtly or covertly the narrator makes his or her presence felt by the readers, his or her relationship with the characters, and whom perspective may be invested (Keen, 2003: 30). Narrative situation can be said as the mediator between the author and the reader. Three important points to draw the narrative situation are who tells the tale is; who sees the actions is; where the functions of narration resides in relation to the story world. These questions refer to the elements that construct a narrative situation. Three elements that constructing a narrative situationare the narrator, point of view, and narrative level (Keen, 2003: 31). One of the elements that constructs a narrative situation is called narrative level, which deals with the process of fictional world making. The fictional world is a world created automatically in the mind of the readers whenever they encounter a narrative (Keen, 2003: 108). The levels in a narrative are divided furthermore into extradiagetic, diagetic, and metadiagetic. Extradiagetic is the act of narrating the first narrative, while the

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 diagetic is the narrating act of the second narrative (a narrative inside the first narrative). The events narrated in the second narrative are called metadiagetic (Genette, 1983: 228). There are three types of relationships between the metadiagetic and the diagetic level. The first relationship is a relationship in which the second (metadiagetic) narrative serves explanatory functions. The second relationship is the thematic relationship, in which the second narrative can serve as a contrast or an analogy. The last is where the second narrative becomes a distraction from the main narrative (Genette, 1983: 232-234). A narrator has narrative functions. The first function is the one who presents the fictional world. The second is he/she comments. It means that he/she explains why events occurs, leads them to political or social circumstances and condition, indicates the motives of character and so on. In this function requires an overt narrator using the first person pronoun. The main purpose is to arouse the reader’s sympathy or antipathy to certain characters and develop a framework for the story world and the reader’s reception of it. The third is narrator functions as the philosopher or moralist who builds the norms and speaks universal valid propositions. The fourth is the narrator communicates the situation of narration (Fludernik, 2009: 27). 3. Point of View and Focalization According to Abrams, point of view signifies the way a story is told. It is the mode or modes established by the author by means of which the reader is presented with the characters, dialogue, actions, and events which constitute the

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 narrative in a work of fictions (Abrams, 1999: 231). From the definition, it means that point of view can represent the way of the author arranges the story told. By arranging the point of view, the author tries to lead the reader’s mind when the reader reads the works. To lead the reader’s mind, the author needs to arrange someone who will give the “directions” to the reader, so the author needs the narrator as the storyteller who can represent him/her in the story to present the story to the reader. Whenever a narrator narrates, he or she adopts a certain kind of point of view. He or she may narrate from the outside of a character, inside a character, or both inside and outside the character (Prince, 1982: 50). In simplified classification, there are three kinds of modes in narrating a story. It is classified based on the narrator’s position. There are first person narrative, second person narrative and third person narrative. In first person narrative, the narrator speaks with first person pronoun such as “I”, and in some ways, the narrator is a characterin the story. In third person narrative, the narrator is someone outside the story who refers to all the characters in the story by name, or pronoun such as “he”, “she”, or “they”. Third person narrative, then,is divided into subclasses according to the degree and limitation, which the author assumes in getting the story across to the reader. In some cases,the author rarely uses second person narrative whose narrator speaks as “you”. In this mode, the reader seems to be the one experiencing the events in the story. There are three subclasses of the third person narratives. The first is an unrestricted point of view, often referred as omniscient, in which there is no restriction to what a narrator can tell. He/she knows and tells more than any of the

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 characters can know or tell at any given time and situation of the narration. The second one is called the internal point of view. In internal point of view, the narration is restricted to the feelings, knowledge, and perception of one or more than one character. The last one is called the external point of view in which the narration is limited only to the outside of the character, namely his/her actions and physical appearance (Prince, 1982: 51-52). Gerard Genette, in Narrative Discourse, argues that most theories have failed to distinguish properly between point of view and focalization, that is to say, between the questions which character whose point of views orients the narrative perspective is and the very different question who the narrator is. Genette redefines the definition of point of view. When the story is told from the point of view of a particular character (focalized), whether the character is the narrator or not, it is about voice and not about point of view (Genette, 1980:10). In his arguments, the narrator could be the one whose point of view becomes the origins of the perspective and vice versa. 4. Plot Ruth E. Page in her book titled Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Feminist Narratology provides two models of plot. She adopts the concept of postclassical practice of synthesizing aspects of analysis thatare derived from a different paradigm. In the first concept, she uses Longacre’s Narrative Versus Other Discourse Genre, that works on the anatomy of plot, which provides a structuralist starting point. Then, the second concept complements the first by a more recent development in written discourse analysis of Michael Hoey’s Textual

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 Interaction: An Introduction to Written Discourse Analysis, thatworks on culturally recognized patterns of text organization. Her aim to use these two models is twofold. The first is to use these models in narratological criticism and indicate how particular formulations of gender ideology are significant in both the interpretation of form and the content. The second is to conductfurther attainment and suggest how the analysis of the plot might be used to modify the theoretical frameworks of plot and re-evaluate the criteria used in narratology. According to Ruth E. Page, Hoey’s approach describes about the “culturally popular patterns of organization” base on the understanding that text is a site of interaction between writer and reader. As such, the analysis of the patterning in the text is contextualized, understood inrelation to extra-textual world knowledge. The pattern that Hoey goes on to describe related to Problem-Solution, GoalAchievement, Desire-Arousal and so on, is derived from the action structure that readers draw on when processing narrative and parallel aspects of Structuralist plot models. Problem-Solution pattern would be as follows(Page, 2006: 53): Projected Question Element of Pattern What is the situation? Situation What aspect of that situation is problematic? Problem What response was made? Response What was the result? How successful was this? Result Evaluation

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 Situation Aspect of situation requiring a response (For example) Problem Goal Opportunity Desire Arousal Gap in Knowledge Response Negative Evaluation and/or Result Positive Evaluation and/or Result Throughout the discussion, the Problem-Solution pattern is not a universal structure (different from Structuralist structure), but appears within particular cultural context, and has potential to the infinite range of patterns that might be occurring. Hoey’s model is a useful starting point for both narratological criticism and reflecting on narratology itself. The model makes the analyst considering what situations are constructed and understood as ‘problematic’, which participants are able to articulate desire, achieve goals, and solve problems and so on. Ruth E. Page argues that generally a feminist perspective might take Hoey’s observation that certain patterns occur with great frequency while others do not

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 and then ask why this might be so and what this might reflect about the ideological values in a given culture. 5. Feminist Criticism Feminist criticism is the product of the women’s movement in 1906s. This movement dealt with the significance of the images of women in literature, and saw it as vital to combat them and question their authority and their coherence. In 1970s, the major effort of feminist criticism criticizes the mechanism of patriarchy. Patriarchy refers to the cultural mindset in men and women, which continuously inherit sexual inequality. In this phase, critical attention was given to books by male writers, in which influential or typical images of women were constructed. In 1980s, feminist criticism changes its concentration. Firstly, feminist criticism begins to draw upon the finding and approaches of other kinds of criticism, such as Marxism, Structuralism, Linguistics, and so on. Secondly, feminist criticism changes its focus from attacking male version of the world to exploring the nature of the female world and reconstructing the lost record of female experience. Thirdly, the attention of feminist criticism is changed to the need to construct a new canon of women’s writing by rewriting the history of the novel and poetry that neglected women writers. Elaine Showalter detects that distinct phases of interest and activity becomes the characteristic of feminist criticism. In history of women’s writing, she categorizes women’s writing into three phases. The first phase is in 18401880, which is called as the feminine phase when women writers

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 imitateddominant male artistic norms and aesthetic standard. The second phase is called feminist phase when radical and often separatist positions were maintained in women’s writing in 1880-1920. The last phase is female phase, in 1920 onwards, which looks particularly at female writing and female experience (Barry, 2009: 116-118). An anthropologist, Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo, in apapersWoman,Culture, and Society: A Theoretical Overview, proposes a structural model that relates to an opposition between the “domestic” orientation of women and extra-domestic or “public” that primarily available to men. This model provides a general characteristic of human sex role and identification of certain strategies and motivation, as well as a source of value and power, that are available to women in different human groups (Rosaldo and Lamphere, 1974: 17-18). The opposition between “domestic” and “public” offers the basis of a structural framework to identify and explore the place of male and female in psychological, cultural, social, and economic aspect of human life. “Domestic” refers to minimal institution and modes of activity that are organized immediately around one or more mothers and their children. While, “public” refers to activities, institutions, and forms of association that link, rank, organize, or subsume particular mother-child groups (1974: 23). From this point, the male is considered as in the public domain, while the female is in the private domain. Peggy R. Sanday, in Female Status in Public Domain, specifies the opposition of domestic and public domain. The domestic domain includes activities performed within the realm of the localized family unit. The public

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 domain includes political and economic activities that take place or have impact beyond the localized family unit and that relate to control of person or things. Related to the “power” and “authority”, Sanday cited the definitions of power and authority from M. G. Smith. Power is the ability to act effectively on persons or things, to take or secure favourable decisions. Whereas, authority is the right to make a particular decision and to command the obedience. Authority is recognized and legitimized power. Furthermore, it it important to recognize in dealing with female status in both domains that although female authority may imply power, female power does not necessarily imply authority (1974: 190-191). Rosaldo argues that woman's position is raised when they can challengethis man’s authority, either by taking on men’s roles or by establishing social ties, by creating a sense of rank, order, and value in a world in which women prevail. The possibilities for women, then, are entering the men’s world or creating a public world of their own (1974: 36). 6. Feminist Narratology Ruth E. Page in Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Feminist Narratology cited Warhol’s definition of feminist narratology from Mezei’s books Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers. Warhol defines feminist narratology as the study of narrative structure and strategies in the context of the cultural construction of gender. She mentions that one of the principals of feminist narratology is the emphasis of feminist narratology itself on

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 contextualization as a means of understanding the interplay between gender and narrative form (Page, 2006: 1-2). In the development of the study, feminist narratology is typical of the revisionist work of postclassical narratology, which did not necessarily reject the models of Structuralist narratology, but integrated them with other theoretical perspectives. It does not mean that feminist narratology is the opposites of narratology. Feminist narratology is the product of narratology, even though both of them have different point(Page, 2006: 5). In Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Feminist Narratology, Ruth E. Page also raises three main criticisms of feminist narratology. First, categorizing the various plot types in metaphorical terms, lacks the support of empirical data and detailed linguistic analysis. Second, labeling the alternatives as ‘male’ and ‘female’ illustrates a universalizing and assuming that all male and female experience are the same and is biologically determined. Third, the slippage between narrative content and plot structure result in a simplistic correlation of narrative structure and gender (Page, 2006: 43-44). According to Susan S. Lanser in Toward Feminist Narratology, in the relationship between the narrator and the narratee, there is dichotomy among public and private narration level. Public means narration that is addressed to a narratee who is external to the textual world and who can be equated with a public readership. Public narration requires a direct relationship between the reader and the narratee and closely the nonfictional author and reader relationship. Private, in

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 contrast, means narration that is addressed to an explicitly designated narratee who exists only within the textual world. In private narration, the reader’s access is indirect, as it were through the figure of a textual persona (Warhol and Price, 1991: 684). Stereotypically, the dichotomy of public and the private narrative level typifies gender domain. Public narration is identical with male. Private narration is identical with female. The different narration uses different gender language. Some linguists argue that women’s language or a discourse of the powerless is polite, emotional, gossipy, talkative, uncertain, dull, and chatty. In contrast, man’s language is capable, direct, rational, illustrating a sense of humor, unfeeling, strong and blunt (Warhol and Price, 1991: 680-681). Thus, in private level, the narrative is considered as subjective, unreliable, and untrustworthy, while the public narrative is considered as objective, reliable, and trustful. In terms of literary genre, epic is considered by Bakhtin as a product of the patriarchal society. Epic represents the world of the father. It canonizes the world of father. On the other hand, novel represents the word of the mother. In Donovan’s words, novel valorizes events from everyday world of the mother (Donovan, 2000: 3-4). C. Theoretical Framework Toanswer the problem formulation stated above, the writer will use some theories. In this research, the writer uses the theories from Gerard Genette as the basic theory, which is combined with the theory found in Suzanne Keen’s

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 Narrative Form and the theory from Ruth E.Page’s Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Feminist Narratology. In answering the first question, the writer will use Ruth E. Page’s theory of plot.The writer analyzes the plot of the story based on Problem- Solution pattern. Problem – Situation plot pattern divides the story based on the climatic peak. Then, it allows dividing the story into some passages based on the multiple climatic peaks. After the first question is answered, to answer the second question, the writer usesSuzanne Keen’s theory in order to reveal the position of the narrator. The writer analyzes the narrative situation based on the classification of the climatic peaks that are derived from Problem – Solution plot structures. The third question is answered by analyzing the effects that are produced by plot pattern and the narrator positionin redefining women in the story.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study This research analyzes a novel written by Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakaruni entitled The Palace of Illusions. This fiction novel contains 360 pages and 43 chapters. In 2008, Doubleday published this novel in the United State for the first time. The book used in this research is the PDF version, which is released on 10th of October 2010. Mainly, the story of the novel retells the story of Indian Mahabharata tales. In the author’s note, the authorwrites her disagreement about the patriarchal system in the tale. She notes her motivation to redefinewomen in the tale of Mahabharata. In a line with the author’s ambition, the story begins with the birth of a woman character, Panchaali. Thesame as the original version of Mahabharata, Panchaali is the wife of the five Pandava and becomes the trigger of the biggest war between Kurava and Pandava. In this novel, Panchaali is the main character who tells her struggle as a woman character facing her destiny and the war. As a woman character, Panchaali becomes the princess, so her activities always take place mostly in the palace. As a princess, of course she needs to keep the rules of the palace. Her obedience makes her becoming a special princess and different from other princess. Instead of fully obeying the rules, Panchaali often breaks the rules. 21

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 B. Approach of the Study Narratology is the study of the form and functioning of narrative. It analyzes the constructing elements of a narrative and their elaboration. Narratologist attempts to describe the narrative explicitly and grasp a better understanding of its functioning by first recognizing the elaboration (Prince, 1982: 4-5). Narratology itself is a branch of structuralism, whichessence is the belief that things cannot be understood in isolation – they have to be seen in the larger structures they are part of, but it has independence from the structuralism because narratology takes some terminology from linguistic theory, stylistic. (Barry, 2009:214). In narratology, there is a crucial distinction between “Story” and “Plot”. This distinction is fundamental in narratology because this distinction will be an alert to questions of how the narrative is designed and what designs it might have (Barry, 2009: 231). ‘Story’ is the sequence of events as it actually happens, while ‘Plot’ is how the events in the ‘story’ are presented to the reader or listener. In other word, ‘Story’ is an actual sequence of events as they happen and ‘Plot’ is a story that is edited, ordered, packaged, and presented in what we recognize as a narrative. Many narratologists use varied term to substitute the term of ‘story’ and ‘plot’. For example, The Russian Formalist uses the term ‘Fabula’ for ‘story’ and ‘sjuzet’ for plot’ (Barry, 2009: 215). Russian Formalist named Vladimir Propp analyzes a ‘corpus’ of hundred Russian folktales in order to find the plot patterns of the folktales. He finds 31 functions that are commonly used as plot patterns. No tale contains all of the

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 items in his list, but all are constructed by selecting items from it. Furthermore, he groups the 31 functions into 7 spheres of action, which are the villain, the donor (provider), the helper, the princess (a sought for a person) and her father, the dispatcher, and the hero (seeker or victim). From his finding, it can be concluded that stories have certain patterns that can be generated (Barry, 2009: 218-222). Gerard Genette is one of the most prominent narratologist since Roland Barthes. He does not focus on the tale itself, but focuses on how the tale is told. He discusses six particular areas in his book Narrative Discourse (Barry, 2009:222). Peter Barry in Beginning Theory extracts the six particular areas which are meant by Gerard Genette into six questions. The six questions are the basic narrative mode ‘mimetic’ (scenic way: specified) or ‘diegetic’ (summarizing way), how the narrative focalized?, who is telling the story?, how is time handled in the story?, how is the story ‘packaged’?, and how are speech and thought represented? (Barry, 2009:222-229). This criticism is chosen to analyze the work because it deals with how the authors tell their story through the narrator of the story. For those reasons, naratology is the most suitable approach to work this research with. C. Method of the Study This research is library research. The main sources of the research are books and the writer uses that as the primary data. Other sources are websites, which have appropriate topic to this research.

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 The writer takes some steps in this research. The writer takes close reading method as the first step of the research to understand the novel well. Afterwards, understanding the story, the writer draws the plot based on Problem-Solution patterns. Then, the writer describes the position of the narrator based on narrative situation. The last step is an attempt to conclude the effect of the narrator used in the story based on the position of the narrator and the way narrator tells the story.

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter contains the answers of problem formulation stated above. The writer provides three-sub chapters. The first is the plot. In this sub chapter, the writer analyzes the plot of the story as the part that would be considered in analyzing the position of the narrator in the next sub chapter. In the second sub chapter, the writer analyzes the position of the narrator based on the plot analysis in the first sub chapter. In the last sub chapter, the writer relates the answers tothe first and second question of problem formulation to reveal how the narrator redefines women in the story of Mahabharata. A. Plot Structure As mentioned before, this sub chapter contains the description of the plot. The writer provides the plot analysis of the story. Based on an Aristotelian plot that implies a single action with a beginning, middle and ending, this story seems do not have plot structure. This story is not a single action. It contains some actions so the plot structure of the story cannot be seen by Aristotelian plot. Because of that, analyses of the plot structure of this story based on Michael Hoey’s work on culturally recognized patterns of text organization that uses Problem-Solution patterns. In this story,four passages might be classified as Peaks.Those passages correspond to a moment of crisis for acharacter (Panchaali) within the text, take 25

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 the attention of participants and change the vantage point.Those passages are summarized below. 1. The King of Drupad sets a marriage for Panchaali by holding a contest (chapter 1 to 15). 2. Pandava loses to Kurava in a dice game (chapter 16 to 26). 3. The Great War betweenthe Pandava and Kuravas occurs in Kuruksetra (chapter 27 in 37). 4. The crisis occurs in Hastinapur and Pandava after the Great War (chapter 38 to 43). Those four passages characterize the multiple climaxes of the story. Thosepassages have a form of problem and response relationship that bound one to another. 1. The First Climatic Peak:The King Drupad sets a marriage for Panchaali by holding a contest The first passage tells about the story of the birth of a character of the arranged marriage of thecharacter so that she has to leave her father’s palace and live with her five husbands.Mainly, this passage says to the reader about the background and introduction of main characters in the story.The writer analyzes this passage using Hoey’s pattern of climatic peak. According to the Hoey’s plot pattern, climatic peak consists of Situation, Problem, Response, Result and Evaluation. The pattern is categorized and summarizedbased on those points as in the following table.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 Situation • Flashback story about the birth of Panchaali and Drestadyumna by Dhai Ma. • King Drupad wants Drestadyumna to take revenge to Drona. • Arjun, the best archer from Hastinapur who helpedDrona to defeat King Drupad in a war ago, is too strong to be defeated. • King Drupad sets a marriage for Arjun and her daughter so that Arjun could be the ally of King Drupad. • Instead of loving Arjun, Panchaali loves Karna. • Panchaali’s desire is contradictory with her father’s desire. • King Drupad arranges the contest to make Arjun become the winner, but another king, Karna, who has equal archery skill to Arjun also joins to the contest. Problem • Arjun does not come to the contest, so Karna has a big possibility to win the contest. • To stop Karna becoming the winner, Dhristadyumna forbids Karna to join the contest and gives statements related to the caste status

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 of Karna. According to the rule, Karna’s castestatus cannot be accepted to join the contest. • Karna becomes angry caused by the statement of Dhristadyumna, so he wants to attack Dhristadyumna. Response • Rather than following her desire to love Karna, Panchalli stops Karna attackingDhristadyumna by giving satirical question to Karna, with the consequence, it would make Karna hate her. Result (Negative) • Karna’s withdrawal triggers his ally from Hastinapur to attack Panchalla. They think the contest is intended to embarrass the skill of other kings since it could not be won by the kings. • A Brahmin steps forwardand triesto target the fish eyes in order to stop the chaos. Unpredictably, his arrow targets the fish eye precisely. • Having the winner, Panchaali marries the Brahmin and leaves her palace and prosperity to live with her husband as a Brahmin. Evaluation • Panchaali cannot love the one that she loves,

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 (Negative) Karna. On the contrary, she tries to love the Brahmin as her husband. The marriage of Panchaali becomes the first climatic peak because it takes the attentionof most participants of the story since the contest is attended by Kings around the story world. Almost all participants from different caste concentrate to the contest. Personally, for Panchaali, her marriage becomes the moment of crisis for her. The future of her palace lies in her hand. If she does not abjectly stop Karna attacking her brother, her palace would be destroyed by the other kingdoms. Although, her objection would hurt Karna, to whom she is falling in love with. It also changes the vantage point of Panchaali. She hopes that she could find the husband that she loves, but in fact, she does not get it since she must marry the Brahmin. In Situation part, the early situations are described to give the early images of the story world to the reader. From the point of situations in the table above, it is recognized that they become the background of the story world. They introduce the participants in the story world, introduce their goal, and give imagery of the participant’s position in the story. The reader knows, then, that Panchaali is the protagonist and her goals are to be loved and recognized by the others that she loves. Not only introducing the participants, they also depict the events happened before that lead to the problematic events in the story.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 In Problem part, problematic events occur. From the perspective of Panchaali, something that is problematic occurs when she has to decide whether she follows her desire to marry Karna orstop Karna who is ready to kill her brother. The event when she needs to take a decision of dead or alive makes it goes to be problematic. The decision then, flows to the next part as a response. In Response part, the problematic eventiscooled down by the decision as the response to it. Panchaali takes a decision to save her brother rather than following her desire to take Karna as her husband. This response cools down the problematic event. Karna withdraws from the contest and cancels to kill Dristadyumna. In Result and Evaluation part, the next events are the consequence of the decision that has been made. The result and the evaluation are considered as negative due to the fact thatthe protagonist has not achieved her goal. As the result of the decision, Panchaali savesher brother. The side effects of the decision are the anger of otherkings and leading the Brahmin to win the contest. As the negative evaluation, in this passage, Panchaali cannot pursue her goal to be loved by the personthat she loves. 2. The Second Climatic Peak:Pandava losesto Kurava in a dice game The second climatic peak is led by the negative result and evaluation from the first climatic peak. The negative result and evaluation of first climatic peak raises new situations in the second climatic peak. Those situations, then, lead to the next Problem – Solution pattern that is summarized in the table below.

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 Situation • Panchaali notices that the Brahmin is Arjun. • Arjun brings Panchaali to his mother and brothers. • Kunti, the mother, asks the five members of Pandava to marry Panchaali. • Pandava, Kunti, and Panchaali go to King Drupad in Kampilya, in order to inform that all five Pandava will marry Panchaali. • Finally, King Drupadagrees and accepts the marriage and Vyasa gives the rule to the marriage. Vyasa gives Panchaali a boon so that when Panchaali turns to other Pandava, she will be a virgin again. • After the marriage, Bheesma arrives in Kampilya to take back Pandava to Hastinapur. • Pandava, Panchaali, and Kunti go to Hastinapur and stay there. • In an agreement, Hastinapur is divided into two parts, and one of them belongs to Pandava. • The Pandava and Panchaali take a journey to Khandav, the one part of Hastinapur that belongs

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 to Pandava. • In Khandav, they build a new palace, named Indra Prastha, with help from Krishna and Maya. • The palace grows into a big and prosperous city. • In the palace, Panchaali gives all of her husband a son of each. • Maya and Krishna suggest not to invite other people to Indra Prastha to avoid jealousy of other kingdoms. • Pandava takes other wives and Panchaali shares her possession with them. • Sage Narad suggest a Rajasuya sacrifice to Yudhisthir. Yudhisthir accepts the suggestion to make the sacrifice. • Victories by the other victory are achieved. Indra Prastha becomes famous among others. • Festivities are held to celebrate the victories and Pandava invites others king, includes the king of Hastinapur. • In Yagna celebration, Yudhisthir asks Bhessma to choose the honored guest. • Sisupal is announced as honored king, but he

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 refuses it. Instead of accepting the honor, Sisupal embarrasses Bheesma.. • Khrisna kills Sisupal after Sisupal tries to attack him.The death of Sisupal violates the celebration and Pandava’s good reputation. • In contrast to other kings, Duryodhan still stays at Indra Prastha. He observes the palace, carefully in full of admiration. • One day, Duryodhan invites the Pandava to go to Hastinapur. Pandava accepts the invitation as an honor. • In Hastinapur, Duryodhan challenges Yudhisthir to play dice. • In the beginning, Duryodhan pretends to be a loser, but then he traps Yudhisthir with bigger wager. Problem • In the dice game, Duryodhan is replaced by Sakuni, and Yudhisthir loses his gold, palace, kingdom, brother, and wife as the wager. • Dussasan strips down all of the clothes of Pandava and Panchaali. • Panchaali is embarrassed in public, she asks help from her husbands, Karna, the king, and others,

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 but no one comes to help her. • When Dussasan pulls Panchaali’s sari, she closes her eyes and imagines her brother Dhri and Krishna. • In her imagination, she meets Krishna. Magically, her sari cannot be fully stripped down and remains covering her body. • Panchaali’s imagination changes into Karna,the personwho lets Dussasan to stripe down Panchaali’s clothes instead of stopping the immoral act. The calmness of Panchaali disappears and changes into anger. • She opens her eyes and curses all peoples in that place. Response • Dhritarashtra, the father of Kaurava, begs Panchaali to take back her curse, but she does not take it back. • Dhristarashtra, asks her son to have a last game. The loser, must go to the forest for twelve years in exile. Result (Negative) • Pandava losesagain and they must go to the forest for twelve years.

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 Evaluation (Negative) • Panchaali always reminds her husbands about their fault and persuades to take revenge. The second climatic peak is the next climatic peak as the negative result of the first climatic peak. The second climatic peak can be found in the passage when the Pandava loses to Kurava in a dice game and Yudhisthir loses everything that they have, kingdom, palace, brother and wives. Panchaali as the Pandava’s wife is embarrassed in front of the audience. In the immoral terrible act to the woman, she curses all of them. This passage is considered as the climatic peak.In this passage the crisis of a character is, especially for Panchaali, emerged. It is the time that she is positioned in critical condition as what Dussasan doesis the rudest act toward a woman. This event turns her vantage point. She loved to live in peace before, but later, her life turns into a life that isvengeful life, her desire arises. The tension also riseshigher from event to event. Before the dice game, Pandava lives in prosperity and peace, but it is changed into high tension when they lost in a dice game. In Situation part, as the result of the marriage, Panchaali as the protagonist lives with her five husbands. This condition positions her in new circumstances. From chapter 16 to 20, the protagonist recognizes her new circumstances by the emergence of new characters and new settings of places. The narrator informs new phase of the story world to the reader. In the next chapter, the situation seems in higher tension. The higher tension occurs when Narad Sage suggests to

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 Yudhisthir to perform the Rajasuya sacrifice. Instead of gaining their power, the victory celebration conducts jealousy and anger from other kingdom. Duryodhan takes this moment to his advantage. Thus, the situation leadsthe problematic situation in the next part. In Problematic part, the Pandava’s failure in the dice game drownsthe situation into problematic one. In this part, Panchaali as the protagonist has been embarrassed her in the public by Kaurava. She wants people to help her, but no one of them comes to help. The protagonist does not get help from other people, so she tries to help herself by imagining people that she loves. The situation when she needs help but no one comes to help is problematic for the protagonist. Her curse, then becomes the sign of her arousal of desire. Her dream to live in peace and love is added bythe desire, which is full of revenge. Afterward, her curse becomes another problem among the participants around her. In Response part, the problematic situation is sought to be solved. The solution suggested by the blind king does not solve all of the problems. The curse has not been taken yet, and the drum of revenge is still rumbling. The result of this response in this part is negative, because the problem is not already solved yet. In the Result and Evaluation part, they are merely negative. The result of the response could not solve all of problematic situations. The curse given by Panchaali is not taken back from her mouth. The exile only solves the problem of the Pandava’s kingdom and the palace, but it does not solve the embarrassment to

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 Panchaali. The evaluation is also negative, because the goal of the Panchali has not been achieved. So, she always reminds her husbands in exile to take revenge. 3. The Third Climatic Peak:The Great War between the Pandava and Kauravas occurs in Kuruksetra The third climatic peak occurs in the passage when the Great War between the Pandava and Kaurava begins in Kurukshetra. This climatic peak isthe result of the unsolved problem in the second passage. This passage is analyzed in order to find the structure of a plot based on Problem –Solution patterns. This following table summarizes the analyzed passage to find out the structure of the plot. Situation • The Pandava and Panchaali live in the forest for twelve years in exile. • During the exile, Dhri asks Panchaali to go to her father’s palace, but she hesitates to go back there. • Bheem getsnew power when he meets his elder brother, Hanuman. • Arjun strenghten his battle skills when he goes to his father’s Kingdom, Surya. • After exile for 12 years, the Pandava and Panchaali disguise for a year. As the agreement whenever Kaurava finds them, the Pandava and Pancaali should take exile for 12 years more.

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 • In their disguise, the Pandava and Panchaali are separated each other to prevent Kaurava to find them easily. • Panchaali becomes a servant of Sudeshna in Virat Palace. • A month before the disguise period is over, Panchaali was raped by Kheechak, King Virat’s brother. • Later, Bheem kills Kheecak when the disguise is about to end. • The news of Kheechak’s death spreads away. Kauravas finds Pandava through the news. Soon, Kaurava moves to the Virat Palace to find Pandava. • Kaurava is too late. The day when Kaurava finds Pandava is the last day of the disguise time, so Pandava should not to take more exile. Problem • Based on the agreement of the dice game, after Pandava has been in exile for 12 years and a year of hiding from the Kaurava without being discovered, Pandava could take back their wager. • Not surprisingly, Duryodhan does not give the

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 wager to Pandava. • Yudhisthir only requests five villages to live, but Duryodhan also refuses that request. Response • The Pandava and Kaurava decide to have a war. • Both side, the Pandava and Kaurava gain their power from their allies. • Krishna decides to take Pandava sides, but Sakuni makes him vow that he is notallowed to fight directly in the battlefield. • As the vow, Krishna becomes Arjun’s charioteer. • A day before the war begins, the both sides Pandava and Kaurava have nightmare as a signof the conditionafter the war. • Karna in his dreams meets his father, Surya. Surya tellsKarna that Indra will ask his armor and will give boon as an exchange. Surya suggests Karna to demand Sakhi for exchange. • Vyasa gives a boon to Panchaali, so that she has a special vision to see what happens during the war, though she could not present in the battlefield.

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 Result (Negative) • In the early morning, the Great War begins. • Pandava wins the war to Kaurava. • Panchaali’s desire to take revenge is fulfilled. • Shikandhi’s destiny to kill Bheesma is fulfilled. • Dristadyumna’s destiny to kill Drona is fulfilled • All brothersof Kaurava die on the battlefield. • Both sides Pandava and Kaurava lose their family members. • King Drupad, Shikandhi, Dristadyumna, Drona, Abhimanyu, Karna, Ghatotkacha and other members from both two sides are dead. • Pandava, then, recognizes that Karna is their eldest brother. • In Hastinapur, there are a lot of widowers and fatherless children caused by the war. Evaluation (Negative) • Instead of being happy for the victory, the Pandava and Panchaali drown in sadness and guilt. This passage is considered as the next passage that consists of climatic peak. The event that is highlighted as the peak is the Great War. At a glance, the word “war” has properties such as confrontation, fighting, encounter, conflict and so on. In this story, “war” is interpreted as the confrontation, fight, encounter, conflict,

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 between protagonist and antagonist, between goal and obstacle, between a vow and opportunity, and between love and duty, among brothers of Pandava and Kaurava. The war has the possibility to raise the climatic peak of the passage. In situation part, the narrated events are the outcome of the negative result and evaluation of the climatic peak before. In the beginning of this passage, Panchaali always reminds her husbands to take revenge for the abuse to her and take back her kingdom. In this part, the new goal of Panchaali is narrated to the reader. For Pandava, their goal is to take back their kingdom as their home to live in peace, after the exile in twelve years. Some new characters are introduced in this part, such as Hanuman, King Virat, Sudeshna, Kheechak, etc. Those two points, the introduction of goal and new character, give such a background of this passage that leads to problematic event. Considering those two points, the writer takes those events in situation part. The problematic situation occurs when Duryodhan refuse to give back the Pandava’s wagers after they have been exiled as the agreement on it. This eventhas becomea problematic situation because in this event, Duryodhan betrays the agreement to Pandava. The betrayal of Duryodhan is a problem for Pandava, henceit means that Pandava could not take back their Kingdom after their suffering in exile. It becomes Pandava’s obstacle to take back their kingdom. Looking at the arousal of the obstacle that hampers Pandava to achieve the goal, the writer considers these events as the problem part.

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 The response of the betrayals is the Great War. The Great War is the final response to the betrayal of Duryodhan. Before the Great War is declared, Yudhisthir takes peacefully way to respond to the betrayal by only asking five villages for Pandava to live. Duryodhan does not agree with the peaceful way to respond to the problem. Finally, the Pandava and Panchaali, as the response of their obstacle to the goal, declare the Great War. These events are the response part of the plot. The response is merely the solution to the problem whenever the protagonists have obstacle to reach their goal. The result of war is merely death. In this passage, the death of both members of the Pandava and Kaurava can be found. DuringThe Great War, Pandava becomes the winner. However, the victory is not only the result of war. The death of people that they love is also the result of the war, remembering that the war is among brothers. Evaluating the result of the Great War, the Pandava and Panchaali, instead of being happy for the victory, drown in sadness and guilt. From this point, it means that the result and evaluation part are negative, because the protagonist does not achieve the goal yet. Moreover, the result and evaluation lead to another problem. 4. The Fourth Climatic Peak:The crisis of Hastinapur and Pandava after the Great War The fourth climatic peak appears as the result of the unsolvedproblem in the negative result and evaluation from the third climatic peak. The negative result and evaluation of third climatic peak lead new situations and problem to the fourth

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 passage. Those situations and problem, then, lead to the next Problem – Solution patterns that are summarized in the table below. Situation • After the war, Hastinapur becomes full of widowers and fatherless children. • They blame Pandava as the cause of their widower. Problem • Some widowers are depressed and plan to commit suicide. • Dhritarashtra and Gandhari blame Pandava as the cause of their child’s death. • Yudhisthir blame himself for the death of Karna. Response • Panchaali and other wives build a hall as a place for widowers to share their problems and they sell their properties to help the widowers. • Krishna helps Pandava to make Dhritarashtra and Gandhari calm down so that they pardon Pandava. • The Pandava and Panchaali take a journey to the Himalayas as their penitence. Result (Positive) • Hastinapur is in better condition. • Some widowers hold business from the money

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 gotten. • Dhritarashtra and Gandhari pardon Pandava. Then, together with Kunti, they take their penitence journey. • The Pandava and Panchaali died on the journey and go into heaven, where all people who died before are happy in that place. Evaluation (Positive) • Panchaali achieves her goal, to be loved and live in peace. The crisis of Hastinapur and Pandava after the Great War becomes the last passage that consists the last climatic peak. This passage brings the protagonist to achieve her goal. The Great War arises another situation and problem that is responded by the protagonist in order to reach the goal as the positive result and evaluation. After the Great War, Hastinapur is in critical condition. The war has killedmany husbands. As the consequence, Hastinapur becomes full of widowers and fatherless children. They blame Pandava as the cause of their widower. This Situation part introduces a post war condition to the reader. The condition becomes the new background of the story world and leads to the problematic situation. In Problem part, the situations, which are problematic, are that some widowers are depressed and plan to commit suicide, Dhritarashtra and Gandhari

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 blame Pandava as the cause of their child’s death, and Yudhisthir blame himself as the cause of Karna’s death. Those situations are considered as problematic because they make the situation into a critical situation. When the widowers plan to commit suicide caused by the death their husband, it would be unforgiving sins for the king in the throne, in this case Pandava and Panchali. When Dhritarashtra and Gandhari blame Pandava, Panchaali, and Krishna as the cause of their child’s death, they curse and try to kill Pandava and Khrishna. The absence of Yudhisthir in the throne since he is frustrated and blames himself as the cause of Karna’s death makes instability in Hastinapur. To solve the problematic situation, the protagonists respond to those situations. Panchaali and other wives build a hall as a place for widowers to share their problems and they sell their properties to help the widowers.Krishna helps Pandava to make Dhritarashtra and Gandhari calm down so that they pardon Pandava.The Pandava and Panchaali take a journey to the Himalayas as their penitence. The responses took by the protagonist becomes the Response part of the plot. The results of the responds in the Result and Evaluation part are positive. The protagonists in this part achieve their goal. The problematic situations are solved. Finally, Panchaali achieves her goal, to be loved and live in peace after taking penitence journey to the Himalayas with her husbands.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 B. Position of the Narrator In this sub chapter, the writer analyzes the position of the narrator. The position mentioned before, consists of the typeof narrator, point of view, and narrative level of the story.Then, this subchapter is divided into four major sections based on the passages in the subchapters before. Each major section that would be analyzed consists of two parts. The first part talks about narrative level. The second part is about narrator and point of view. 1. Narrator Position in the First Passage:The King Drupad set a marriage for Panchaali by holding a contest The firstpassage is analyzed to find out the position of the narrator. In order to find out the position of the narrator, the writer analyzes the type of the narrator, point of view, and the narrative level as below. a. Narrative Level In the first passage,all narrative levels, extradiagetic, diagetic, and metadiagetic, are used. In the beginning of the story, extradiageticlevel occurs when the main narrator starts to tell the story of her life. Through the long, lonely years of my childhood, when my father’s palace seemed to tighten its grip around me until I couldn’t breathe, I would go to my nurse and ask for a story. And though she knew many wondrous and edifying tales, the one I made her tell me over and over was the story of my birth (Divakaruni, 2008: 1). The embedded story follows the extradiagetic level when the main narrator asks his/her servant to tell the story about how he/she is born through the fire

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 ceremonyand they have a conversation about that. As the result, the diagetic levels occur when the servant acts the secondary narrative and the fire ceremony becomes the events narrated in second narrative and considered as metadiagetic level. I considered being offended, but I wanted to hear the story. So I held my tongue, and after a moment she picked up the tale again. “We’d been praying for thirty days, from sun-up to sundown. All of us : your father, the hundred priest he’d invited to Kampilya to perform the fire ceremony, headed by that shifty-eyed pair, Yaja and Upajaya, the queens, the ministers, and of course the servants. We’d been fasting, too –not that we were given a choice –just one meal, each evening, of flattened rice soaked in milk. King Drupad wouldn’t eat even that. He only drank water carried up from the holy Gangga, so that the gods would feel obligated to answer his prayers (2008: 1). From those narrative levels, the extradiagetic becomes the frame that comes up with the issue of the birth.The metadiagetic level functions as the explanation about the birth related to fire ceremony through the diagetic level. The variety of the narrative levels in here, is used to give details and descriptions of the main narratives. The turning point from one narrative level of other narrative level, from extradiagetic to another level, is triggered by the question of the primary narrator. Similar to that example above, this following example, in chapter 11, the primary narrator tells his/her curiosity about Karna to his/her brother, Dhri. “So that’s how Karna became a king,” I said. “Why didn’t Krishna want me to know?” Dhri said, “He felt that it would make you too sympathetic to Karna. And that would be dangerous.” “Dangerous? How?” “Arjun isn’t the only one who can pass the syawamvar test.” (2008: 84).

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 The sentence spoken by the primary narrator is in extradiagetic level. While, the sentence spoken by Dhri is on the diagetic level with the story about Krishna as the metadiagetic level. b. Narrator and Point of View In this passage, the narrator uses various types of narrator. The narrator uses first person, second person, and third person narrator. The using of these three types of narrators affects the shifting of the narrator type. In the extradiagetic level, first person narrator is used.The narrator uses the pronoun “I” which refers to the character of Panchaali.According to Suzanne Keen, the narrator is who are responsible for act of telling, can be characters when they are positioned inside the story world, but often outside the story world(Keen, 2003:30). The first person narrator in the extradiagetic level possessesthe main perspective of the story so this story is based onPanchaali’s focalization. In one variety of first person narrative, the experiencing of self is also the protagonist and often called fictional autobiographies. In this passage, first person narrator occurs when Panchaali as the narrator tells about her own life at the beginning of the story or in other word self-narrating her life. Through the long, lonely years of my childhood, when my father’s palace seemed to tighten its grip around me until I couldn’t breathe, I would go to my nurse and ask for a story. And though she knew many wondrous and edifying tales, the one I made her tell me over and over was the story of my birth (Divakaruni, 2008: 1).

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 The first person narrator there is in internal point of view. He/she is not restricted to his/her self, but he/she cannot know the other character directly. He/she comprehends other characters by interpretation them. In diagetic level, the types of narrator used are first, second and third person narrator. The first person narrator occurs when the first person narrator in extradiagetic level tells about his/herself in diagetic level, such as in the conversation between Panchaali and the sage in chapter 5. In chapter 5 page 34, the first person narrator of extradiagetic level tells the reader how he/she discovers the sage. “It was how I discovered the sage”. Then the narrative goes to diagetic level when he/she has a conversation about the oracular statement from the sage. “Oh, don’t look so dejected, “the sage said. “How many women can claim to be envied by goddesses? Or become queen of queen?” “I don’t want them if it means the other parts will be true as well. What good is it means the other parts will be true as well. What is it to own the most wonderful palace in the world if I’ll have to lose it? And all those deaths! I refuse to be cause for them, especially Dhri’s” (2008: 39). In the quotation above, the first person narrator appears when he/she complains the statement of the sage. The second person narrator in diagetic level also occurs in this passage. When the sage gives his oracular statement to Panchaali, the second person narrator appears. The following quotation is one of the examples of the second person narrator in diagetic level.

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 You will marry the five greatest heroes of your time. You will be queen of queen, envied even by goddesses. You will be a servant maid. You will be mistress of the most magical of palaces and then lose it. You will be remembered for causing the greatest war of your time. You will bring about the deaths of evil kings –and your children’s and your brother’s. A million women will become widows because of you. Yes, indeed, you will leave a mark on the history (2008: 39). Since the narrative uses the second person narrator, the reader seems to be involved in the story world. They seem to be a character with whom the second person narrator talks. This effect is considered as the uniqueness of using a second person narrator in the narrative. Third person narrator in diagetic level uses external, internal, and unrestricted point of view. The using of external can be found when the first person narrator begins to narrate the song of Swayamvar. The greatest kings of Bharat were unable to lift the Kindhara bow from the ground. Of the handful that could not aim and shoot, none were successful in piercing the fish eye. Jarasandha missed it by the width of his little finger, Salya by width of a bean seed, and Sisupal by the width of a sesame seed. When Duryodhan shot his arrow, a cheer rose from the audience, but the steward examined the target and proclaimed that Kaurava prince had missed it by the width of a mustard seed (2008: 93). The using of external point of view makes the narrator is restrictedin the terms of action. The narrator only describes the narration in the action done by the kings of Bharat and cannot deal with the thought and feeling of character narrated. In limited narrator mode, the narrator does not only use external point of view, but also uses internal point of view. This next example is the evidence of the using of internal point of view.

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 In the face of that question, Karna was silenced. Defeated, head bowed in shame, he left the marriage hall. But he never forgot the humiliation of that moment in full sight of all the kings of Bharat. And when the time came for him to repay the haughty princess of Panchaal, he did so an hundredfold (2008: 95). Through this quotation, the reader knows Karna’s mind and feeling. Different from the external point of view, the internal point of view breaks physical and mental boundaries. This point of view describes the mind and the feeling of one character, in this context is Karna’s feeling and mind. Omniscient narrator also could be found in this narrative level. As the narrator is not restricted, he/she is able to know everything that is needed to make the story world. The narrator is not limited in time, place, and situation. Moreover, the narrator is not restricted in one character. This kind of narrator could be found in the quotation of the prince and Brahmin below. Once in an innocent time, the son of a Brahmin and the son of the king were sent to the ashram of a great sage to study. Here they spent many years together, growing into the best of friends, and when it was time for each to return to his home, they wept. The prince said to his schoolmate, Drona, I will never forget you. Come to me when I become king of Panchaal, and all I have will be yours as well. The Brahmin embraced the prince and said, Dear Drupad, your friendship means more to me than all the riches in the treasury of the gods. I will hold your words in my heart forever. Each day went his way, the prince to learn the ways of the court, the Brahmin to study further with Parasuram, the renowned scholar-warrior. He mastered the arts of war, married a virtuous woman, and had a beautiful son. Though poor, he was proud of his learning and dreamed often of the day when he would teach his son all he knew (2008: 14-15).

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 From the quotation above, the narrator acts like a god. He/she knows everything, although in the different location or event, such as when he/she describes what the Brahmin does and the prince does after they are separated by distance. From the analysis above, it could be understood that this passage uses three kinds of narrator. They are first person, secondary person, and third person. In extradiagetic level, the narrator is the first person internal narrator, while in the diagetic level all of the narrator types are used. The points of view taken to narrate this level are external, internal, and omniscient point of view. 2. Narrator Position in the Second Passage:Pandava loses to Kurava in a dice game The position of the narrator in the second passage is analyzed in this part. In order to analyze the position of the narrator, the writer divides this part into two sub parts, they are the narrative level and the narrator and his/her point of view. a. Narrative Level In the second passage, the story world is narrated in three levels. They are extradiagetic, diagetic, and metadiagetic. The using of diagetic level, in the passage is less significant than in the first passage. The extradiagetic level occurs when the narrator narrates the condition of the King Drupad’s throne when Pandava and Kunti arrive in Kampilya in order to convey the marriage of Panchaali to five Pandava. In the throne room, the air throbbed with tension. My father and Dhri sat on golden thrones. The five Pandavas sat across from them on silver seats, to remind them that they were honored guests but less powerful. In a corner, behind an embroidered curtain, Kunti and I sat on chairs of sandalwood. I’d graciously offered her the larger one. She’d accepted

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 with a slight frown, not sure if my action was respect or ruse. But the size of a seat has little to do with the power of the person who occupies it. We all knew this (Divakaruni, 2008: 116). From this quotation, the narrator uses extradiagetic level. Since it is an autodiegetic narrative, in which the first person narrator is the main protagonist, automatically, when the protagonist narrates the narrative, it means that the narrator is in the extradiagetic level as the main plot of the story. In the quotation above, the narrative is the main plot, which is narrated by a character (Phancaali) inside the story. Indeed, this narrative is in extradiagetic level. The diagetic level in this passage could be found in the dialog between participants in the story. Unlike in the first passage, the diagetic level in the second passage occurs in short dialog between characters. The example below is the example of the dialog between Panchaali and Khrishna about Arjun’s marriage with other women in the diagetic level narrative. “Arjun’s not like a nose ring that someone can snatch from you,” he said sternly. “He comes and goes of his own will. Besides, you know that no matter whom else he marries, his commitment to you remains the same. But most important, out of their union will come a great warrior, and out of him will come a king even greater” (2008: 153). In this case, Khrisna is the narrator in diagetic level. The first person narrator in extradiagetic narrates how he speaks “he said sternly”. Metadiagetic levels occurs in the quotation above. When Krishna becomes the narrator in the diagetic level, the story of Arjun is narrated. The story of Arjun becomes the metadiagetic level. The function of the metadiagetic upon the diagetic level is the explanation of the diagetic level. When Krishna tells, “Arjun’s not like a nose ring that someone can snatch from you”, the level is in diagetic.

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 Then when he says,” He comes and goes of his own will”, the level turns into a metadiagetic level to explain what Krishna means by “not like a nose ring”. In this passage, the changing of narrative levels happens in short dialogues. Diagetic level and metadiagetic level are rarely used in long narrative. It is extradiagetic level that becomes the major level in this passage. b. Narrator and Point of View In this passage, the narrator uses various types of point of view. In extradiagetic level the narrator uses internal first person singular narrator,internalfirst person plural narrator, internal third person and unrestricted third person. In diagetic level the narrator uses internal first person and internal third person. In extradiagetic level, first person singular narrative, mainly, uses internal point of view. Generally, the first person singular refers to Panchaali, woman character in the story world. The first person plural refers to Panchali and her group. First person internal point of view appears when Bheesma arrives to Kampilya to see Pandava. “Bheeshma raised his hand in greeting—he must have recognized Yudhisthir. Even from that distance I felt his love, heavy and piercing as a javelin” (Divakaruni, 2008: 124). In this quotation “I felt his love, heavy and piercing as a javelin” means that the narrator is in internal point of view. The narrator can observe the feeling of character, the love of Bhessma. As the narrator is in internal point of view, he/she is possible to perceive character’s feeling. The internal first person plural narrator could be detected in chapter 18. The external first plural person narrator uses the pronoun “We” in the narrative. In this

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 context, “We” refers to Panchaali and Bheesma, when they go to a river near Hastinapur. The women stared at me with great curiosity. After we passed them, they gathered under a mohua tree to point and giggle, speaking in the local dialect. I thought they said, Five? Are you sure? Five! There was envy in their eyes. But I may be wrong. Maybe it was sympathy (2008: 135). In the clause “After we passed them”, the pronoun “we” becomes the signal of first person plural narrator. “We” signals that what is referred by this pronoun is a character inside in the story world. In extradiagetic level, the third person narrator uses two kinds of point of view. They are an internal point of view and unrestricted point of view. Internal third person narrator occurs when Panchaali sees Arjun while he burns the forest of Kandhav. Arjun leaned against his chariot, his face fire-flushed. “Respected lady,” he said, “this is Maya.” He kept his eyes on a distant column of smoke and used the formal mode of address. The anger he’d felt at my wedding to his brothers still festered inside him, though he hid it so well that only I was aware of it (2008: 142). This quotation is considered as the example of internal third person point of view because the reader could understand the feeling of Arjun through the narrated event. The feeling of Arjun is narrated by the narrator in this sentence “The anger he’d felt at my wedding to his brothers still festered inside him”. Then, the pronoun “he” used by the narrator signifies the third person narrator. The unrestricted third person narrator is used when in chapter 21, Panchaali describes what Dhri’s tutor understands from the scripture. The boundaries of afterlife are even more complicated than the rules that pen us in on earth. Depending on their deeds, the dead can be dispatched

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 to many different abodes. Fortunate brahmins are sent to Brahmaloka, where they can learn divine wisdom directly from the Creator. The best among kshatriyas go to Indraloka, filled as it is with pleasures both artistic and hedonistic. Lesser warriors must be content with the courts of the god of death, or the sun and moon deities. For evildoers, there are one hundred and thirty-six levels of hell, each corresponding to a particular sin, and each with its own set of tortures, such as tongue-tearing, being boiled in oil, or being devoured by ravenous birds, all of which our scriptures describe with great relish (2008: 155). From this quotation, the narrator is not limited in any circumstances. The narrator could know everything that happens in the story world. So, this quotation is considered as the example of unrestricted third person narrator. In diagetic level, the narrator sometimes uses internal first person. Mostly, the diagetic levels occur in the conversation or direct speech ofa character. The example ofinternal first person narrator lays on chapter 25. In this chapter, Panchali as the first person narrator gives some direct speech. My mouth went dry. Denials collided with each other inside me. I’m a queen. Daughter of Drupad, sister of Dhristadyumna. Mistress of the greatest palace on earth. I can’t be gambled away like a bag of coins, or summoned to court like a dancing girl(2008: 190). I lifted up my long hair for all to see. My voice was calm now because I knew that everything I said would come to pass. “I will not comb it,” I said, “until the day I bathe it in Kaurava blood” (2008: 194). From both quotations above, the narrator in extradiagetic and diagetic level is the same person, who uses the pronoun “I”. Although narrated the same person, the narrative level is not similar. In extradiagetic level, the narrator tells his/her act, but in the diagetic level, the narrator shows how he/she acts so the readers are provided with immediate access to the events represented. This can be called as embodied-self narrative.

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 The example of internal second person narrator could be found when Panchaali condemns. At the diagetic level, the events how Panchaali condemns are embodied. I opened my eyes. I was still clothed, and Dussasan was on the floor in a swoon. I stepped over him and spoke to the assembly in a voice like cracking ice. “All of you will die in the battle that will be spawned from this day’s work. Your mothers and wives will weep far more piteously than I’ve wept. This entire kingdom will become a charnel house. Not one Kaurava heir will be left to offer prayers for the dead. All that will remain is the shameful memory of today, what you tried to do to a defenseless woman” (2008: 194). The second person narrator is in internal point of view because the narrator in this level is a character in the story. Whenever the narrator is inside the story, the using of the pronoun “you” seems to make the reader go into the story world. In second person narrator, the reader seems to be able to feel the emotion and the power of the words given by the narrator (Panchaali) almost directly. It stimulates the reader’s empathy for the protagonist. Internal third person narrator is used when Bheesma announces Sisupal as the honored guest in yagna. The narrator remembers the past events and narrates Sisupal when she is in Swayamvar. I remembered him from the swayamvar—he’d been at the forefront of the disgruntled suitors who had tried to kill Arjun. He was a master at inciting others, lending credence to the shameful thoughts they’d pushed deep inside (2008: 163). The narrator could report the thought of the other character, “the shameful thoughts they’d pushed deep inside” (2008: 163). Thus, the narrator is considered as the internal narrator.

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 3. Narrator Position in the Third Passage:The Great War between the Pandava and Kuravas occurs in Kuruksetra The position of the narrator in the third passage is analyzed in this part. In order to analyze the position of the narrator, the writer divides this part into two sub parts, they are the narrative level and the narrator and his/her point of view. a. Narrative Level In this passage, some extradiagetic narrative levels are narrated by the primary narrator. One of the examples can be found on chapter 27 page 206, when Panchaali as the primary narrator narrates her feeling guilty for telling her anger. I turned away to hide the sudden tears that welled in my eyes. Even Dhri, who had once known all my dreams and fears, wouldn’t understand how I felt about the one place where I had belonged, where I had been truly a queen. To be happy anywhere else was a betrayal of my beautiful palace. I didn’t want to hurt my brother, who was trying so hard to cheer us—I was sorry, already, at having ruined his feast. So I kept my thoughts hidden in the dark cave that had opened within me (Divakaruni, 2008: 206). There are some embedded narratives in the third passage. One of them is on page 206 chapter 27 following the extradiagetic which narrates Panchaali’s feeling guilty. She’s dead. Half of her died the day when everyone she had loved and counted on to save her sat without protest and watched her being shamed. The other half perished with her beloved home. But never fear. The woman who has taken her place will gouge a deeper mark into history than that naïve girl ever imagined (2008: 206). The embedded narrative above is in diagetic narrative level. The relation between the extradiagetic and diagetic narrative level here is thematic relationship. The narrative about the woman there represents the thought of the extradiagetic narrator, in this case Panchaali.

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 On the same level, one of other embedded narratives is in the page 208, when Panchaali as the main narrator tells about her favorite story. This is the story, in the bareness of its bones: Nal the Nishad king loved the beautiful princess Damayanti. At her swayamvar, she chose him over gods. One of the gods, Kali, infuriated by this, tricked Nal into losing his kingdom in a game of dice to his brother Pushkar. (Nal did, however, stop short of wagering his wife.) Nal then begged Damayanti to return to the safety of her father’s palace, but she would not leave him. When he lost his last piece of clothing, she tore her own sari and shared it with him (2008: 208). In this quotation, diagetic narrative level serves as a contrast of the extradiagetic narrative level. What happens in the embedded story is the contrast of what happens in extradiagetic level. The embedded story gives such an ideal. Because of that, Panchaali as the main narrator in extradiagetic levelcomplains about the embedded story. Other embedded narrative levels are in metadiagetic level. One of the metadiagetic narrative levels is in the conversation between Sakuni and Duryodhan. In this narrative, Sakuni is telling about how he meets Krishna as below. “Well, uncle, that was an excellent idea of yours, to ride through the night, driving the horses hard, changing them whenever they flagged. I reached Dwarka at noon, quite a while before Arjun got there. Krishna was taking a nap, but they showed me into his room. There was just one armchair at the head of the couch where Krishna was sleeping. I made myself comfortable in it. Soon after, Arjun walked in. You should have seen his face when he saw me! There weren’t any other seats. He should have taken the hint and left. But he squeezed himself into a little space at the foot of the couch, and as soon as Krishna stirred, he bowed down, the sycophant, and did pranam. Krishna—who as you know has been most unjustly partial to the Pandavas all along—asked him what he wanted. Well, I wasn’t having any of that! I cleared my throat conspicuously and, when Krishna turned, pointed out that I’d taken the trouble of getting

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 there before Arjun, so I should get what I wanted before him. Slippery as he is, he said, But I saw Arjun first—that equals out your claims, and besides, he’s younger, so you should allow him first choice. I was fuming, but I remembered what you said and held my tongue. I even managed a smile (2008: 235). In this level, metadiagetic narrative serves as an explanatory part of the diagetic level. In this event, the extradiagetic is the narrative about espionage to Kaurava. The diagetic is when Duryodhan comments to Sakuni idea. And the metadiagetic narrative level is the narrative about how Sakuni meets Khrishna to sabotage the Pandava’s plan. From the discussion above, it is revealed that in this passage all of the narrative levels are used. In extradiagetic level, the narrator is one of woman characters, Panchaali. And in embedded narrative, the same character or another character could take the role as secondary narrator. The functions of embedded narrative are in a same thematic relationship, as the contradictory one, and as explanatory one. b. Narrator and Point of View In this passage, the narrator uses various types of point of view. In extradiagetic level the narrator uses internal first person singular narrator, internal first person plural narrator, internal third person, external third person and unrestricted third person. In diagetic level the narrator uses internal first person, internal third person and internal third person. In metadiagetic narrative level, the narrator uses internal third person narrator.

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 In extradiagetic level, the narrator uses internal first person singular narrator, internal first person plural narrator, internal third person, external third person,and unrestricted third person. Internal first person narrator appears when the primary narrator narrates the narrative. One of the examples is on page 207, when Panchaali narrates her desire to take vengeance. What was the real reason I rejected my brother’s entreaties to return with him to the simpler environment of my childhood? Why did I give up the opportunity to create memories with my children that would give them— and me—solace in the long years that stretched ahead? Why, even as I thought longingly of burying my face in her copious bosom, did I refuse to visit Dhai Ma, who had dedicated her life to caring for me and mine? Was it the fear that my husbands would learn they could live without me, that they would heave a sigh of relief at the quiet peace of my absence? Or was it a different kind of fear: that if I gave myself to softer emotions, I would blunt the edge of my vengeance and fail to achieve the destruction that had become the goal of my life? (Divakaruni, 2008: 207). First person narrative, here, appears as self-narrative. The first person singular narrator represents the self-narrative of a character, in this case Panchaali. She acts as the primary narrator of the story. Internal point of view makes the narrator restricted in her own feeling, thought, and perception. First person internal narrative, not only appears in singular first person, but also appears in plural first person. The plural first person narrative in this story always includes Panchaali, as the main narrator. One of the examples is when Panchaali and Pandava live in forest in exile and there were many visitors helping them survive in the exile. We had many visitors in the forest— more than when we were kings. Was it because, having lost everything, we were more approachable? (2008: 27).

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 As same as first person singular narrator, the first person plural narrator represents the characters inside the story. In this narrative, the point of view is also in internal point of view, since the narrator is one of the characters inside the story. Third person narrator appears when there is a shifting of the narrated. When the narrated is him/her story,the narrator uses first person, but when he/she begins to tell about other characters, the narrator shifts from first person to third person. The points of view that are used in third person narrator, are internal third person and unrestricted third person. Internal third person narrator appears when Panchaali as the primary narrator tells about the condition of other wives, Subhadra and Uttara, at a day before the Great War begins. Subhadra and Uttara, who had come from farther-away Dwarka, were worse off than I. Uttara was in the third month of a difficult pregnancy. Though we’d all entreated her to remain at home, she had refused. She’d vomited several times in the carriage, and Subhadra had her hands full taking care of her. Subhadra had secretly confided to me that she was worried about the unborn child’s safety. But looking at Uttara’s face, wilted as a plucked lotus, no one had the heart to chide her. She’d had such a short time with Abhimanyu and was so much in love with him. Greeting me, she kept her eyes carefully lowered. When she raised them inadvertently, startling at a sudden sound, I saw that they were swollen from long, secret weeping. She knew she should not cry; it was harmful for her baby (2008: 245). In this quotation, the narrator is the third person narrator since the pronoun that is used is third person. The point of view of the narrator is in internal point of view. The point of view of the narrator is restricted in one or more than one character.

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 The narrator is restricted through the feeling, knowledge, and perception of one or more than one character, in this context, it is restricted to Uttara and Subhadra. In third person narrator, External point of view is used when the primary narrator describes the physical appearance of Vyasa. And suddenly he was in front of me, Vyasa who had prophesied everything that had led us here today. In the dark, his eyes glittered, and the holy thread that lay across his chest gleamed as though carved from ice. He looked no older than on the day I met him in the banyan grove (2008: 252). External point of view makes the narrator restricted to name and physical appearance or action. This point of view does not allow the narrator to break feeling, knowledge, and perception boundaries of the narrated character. Unrestricted or Omniscient point of view is also used in this passage. Since Vyasa gives boon to Panchaali, she can break time and space boundary. With the special vision, Panchaali says to the other what happens in the battlefield during the Great War and becomes unrestricted narrator. One of the examples, Panchaali narrates what happens in the battlefield during the Great War in this following quotation. So it was that Sikhandi was stationed in the front of Arjun’s chariot, his unbound hair blowing in the wind. He challenged Bheeshma to battle, and Bheeshma laid down his bow, saying, Amba, you know I will not fight you. He did not take up his weapons again, even when a weeping Arjun shot arrow after arrow that went through him, and Sikhandi, also weeping, covered his face in his hands. Much has been sung of how Bheeshma fell on his bed of arrows. On that day the war came to a standstill while both armies mourned side by side. Bheeshma asked for a support for his head, but when Duryodhan brought him silken pillows he rejected them. Only Arjun knew what he wanted:

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 he shot three arrows into the ground for his grandfather to rest his head, and at that, even through his pain, Bheeshma smiled (2008: 271). In diagetic level, the narrator uses internal first person, internal third person, and omniscient third person. Internal first person narrator could be found on page 214 – 215 when Bheem tells how he meets her elder brother, Hanuman. He said (or perhaps I imagined the words): “All day and all night I traveled, following the flower’s fragrance as a hunter follows spoor. The forest was black, studded with the jewel-eyes of stalking beasts. I blew on my conch; the four corners of the earth vibrated; the eyes disappeared. I smiled. This is the way, I thought, that I will rout my enemies on the battlefield. In a grove I came across an old monkey, his tail blocking the trail. I ordered him to clear my path, told him I was Bheem of the Pandavas, son of the wind god. He blinked in confusion and did not seem to know me. Perhaps he was senile. He requested me to push his tail off the path and continue on my quest. I bent down to flick it aside with a finger—and could not! Nor with both hands, nor with the strength of my whole body. I fell to the ground, crying, Who are you? He smiled and informed me that he was Hanuman (2008: 214-215). In this quotation above, the shifting of the narrator is the third person narrator in extradiagetic level to internal first person narrator in diagetic level. The internal first person narrator is restricted to feeling, knowledge, and perception of his/her own. Since, he/she is restricted to his/her feeling, knowledge, and perception, he/she knows other characters from other character explanations. Internal third person narrator emerges on page 212. The narrator is restricted to a character, Bheem, and limited to Bheem’s knowledge. The diagetic narrative level tells about how Bheem is poisoned by Sakuni. As he falls, water snake bit him to release the poison. ... his eyes, he was still conscious. He heard Sakuni’s hyena-cackle, felt the creepers with which they bound him cutting into his flesh. At night, the river water was like ink. He felt his body arc through the humid air as they threw him in. He fell for days through wetness into the netherworld.

(79) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 65 The water turned to silk—or was that the snakes curling around him? Even without his eyes, he knew they were rainbow-colored. They bit him, as snakes are wont to do… (2008: 212). The omniscient third person narrator could be found on page 277 - 278 when Bheesma tells to Karna about his past life as Prabhasa. Prabhasa’s new wife wanted a cow. If Prabhasa truly cared for her, she said, he wouldn’t deny her this small gift. No matter what Prabhasa said to change her mind, she wouldn’t listen. She stomped her dainty foot and pouted charmingly. The cow she’d set her heart on was no ordinary one. She was a wishfulfilling cow that belonged to Sage Vasistha. Prabhasa’s wife had seen her on a beautiful spring day when the Vasus visited earth to see how humans lived. Prabhasa knew that the sage wouldn’t gift them such a valuablecow or sell her. She would have to be stolen. There would be trouble as a result, a great deal of it. But he was in love. With the reluctant help of his seven brothers, he spirited the cow away (2008: 277 – 278). In metadiagetic narrative level, the narrator uses internal third person narrator. The use of internal third person narrator occurs when he describes the characters in limited perspective and feeling of one character. It could be seen on page 235, when Sakuni tells Duryodhan, how he meets Krishna. … any other seats. He should have taken the hint and left. But he squeezed himself into a little space at the foot of the couch, and as soon as Krishna stirred, he bowed down, the sycophant, and did pranam. Krishna—who as you know has been most unjustly partial to the Pandavas all along—asked him what he wanted. Well, … (2008: 277). 4. Narrator Position in the Fourth Passage:The crisis of Hastinapur and Pandava after the Great War The position of the narrator in the fourth passage is analyzed in this part. In order to analyze the position of the narrator, the writer divides this part into two sub parts, they are the narrative level and the narrator and his/her point of view.

(80) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 66 a. Narrative Level In this passage, extradiagetic, diagetic, metadiagetic narrative levels are used. Some extradiagetic narrative levels are narrated by the main narrator. One of the examples can be found on page 319, when Panchaali as the primary narrator narrates her decision to stay with Yudhisthir while he is frustrated by his feeling guilty. I stayed with him during those weeks, for I was afraid to leave him alone. Each day we’d discuss the same things, over and over, as though his mind were stuck in a rut too deep for it to climb out of (Divakaruni, 2008: 319). The primary narrator takes a role to narrate the primary story. Since this is an autodiegetic or homodiagetic according to Genette, the primary story is selfnarrative narrated by the narrator. The diagetic narrative level occurs when Vyasa is telling fortune about Pariksit, the last son of Pandava, on page 328. “There will come a day, a sweltering summer day not too many years after you are gone, when Pariksit—still a young man—will go on a hunt. Separated from his men, he’ll get lost in the forest. He’ll be hungrier and thirstier than he’d ever been in his life. That’s when he will stumble into Sage Samik’s ashram and see the sage sitting at the entrance to his hut. He’ll ask for water. But the sage will be too deep in meditation to hear him. Thinking the sage was slighting him, Pariksit will be furious. He’ll find a dead snake nearby and throw it around the sage’s neck and depart. “The sage will still know nothing of this. But his son, returning to the ashram in the evening, will be enraged at this insult to his father. Being hot-tempered himself, he’ll take holy water in his hand and use up the power of a lifetime of penance to pronounce a curse. May the man who did this to my father die in seven days of a snakebite. Waking from his trance, Samik will be filled with consternation. But the curse will be too strong to recall. He’ll do the only thing possible: send a warning to the king of his impending doom” (2008: 328).

(81) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 67 The diagetic narrative level above functions as the explanation to the extradiagetic. In the diagetic narrative, Vyasa as the narrator, explains the prognosis through the narrative of Pariksit. Metadiagetic can be found on page 338, when Arjun reports what he knows about Dwarka condition. At the diagetic level, Arjun meets Krishna’s charioteer, and the charioteer narrates the metadiagetic narrative level. A fight began—it didn’t end until every one of them was dead! Everyone except Krishna’s charioteer. He’s the one who told me all this. He told me this, too: the Yadus weren’t carrying weapons—they were there on holiday, after all. They plucked the rushes that grew on the seashore and threw them at each other, but the rushes turned to javelins—can you fathom this?—and pierced their hearts (2008: 338). Metadiagetic serves as the explanation of the diagetic level. The incomplete information in diagetic level is completed with the metadiagetic narrative level. b. Narrator and Point of View In this passage, the narrator uses various types of point of view. In extradiagetic level the narrator uses internal first person singular narrator, internal first person plural narrator, internal third person, external third person and unrestricted third person. In diagetic level the narrator uses unrestricted third person. In extradiagetic narrative level, the narrator uses internal first person narrator. It could be found on page 357, when Panchaali as the narrator tells her condition when she is lonely dying in the Himalayas. I was surrounded by redness, though I wasn’t in a room. The walls undulated, gave off warmth. I had no body, no name. Yet I knew who I

(82) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 68 was. Someone spoke to me encouragingly, in a familiar voice, telling me that it was my turn now. I must go forth to do my duty. But I held back. It was so comfortable in this place. So safe and undemanding. Also, I was worried by the enormousness of my task (2008: 357). It is Panchaali that becomes the narrator of the quoted events above. She is restricted in her own feeling, thought, and perception as the result of using internal first person narrative. Internal third person narrative occurs when Panchaali describe Yudhisthir condition when he falls in guilty feeling. Aghast, Yudhisthir stared at what was happening. If it had been a battle, he would have known what kind of command to give his men. But here he was at a loss, paralyzed by guilt and compassion and the ancient and terrible tradition the women had invoked (2008: 312). In the narrative, Panchaali as the narrator narrates Yudhisthir in internal point of view. The narrator can break feeling boundary, so that he/she knows the feeling of the character described. In diagetic narrative level, the narrator uses omniscient third person. On page 328, when Vyasa tells the future story of Pariksit to Panchaali, the narrator uses omniscient point of view. The narrative in diagetic level becomes an authorial narrative situation. “There will come a day, a sweltering summer day not too many years after you are gone, when Pariksit—still a young man—will go on a hunt. Separated from his men, he’ll get lost in the forest. He’ll be hungrier and thirstier than he’d ever been in his life. That’s when he will stumble into Sage Samik’s ashram and see the sage sitting at the entrance to his hut. He’ll ask for water. But the sage will be too deep in meditation to hear him. Thinking the sage was slighting him, Pariksit will be furious. He’ll find a dead snake nearby and throw it around the sage’s neck and depart.

(83) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 69 “The sage will still know nothing of this. But his son, returning to the ashram in the evening, will be enraged at this insult to his father. Being hot-tempered himself, he’ll take holy water in his hand and use up the power of a lifetime of penance to pronounce a curse. May the man who did this to my father die in seven days of a snakebite. Waking from his trance, Samik will be filled with consternation. But the curse will be too strong to recall. He’ll do the only thing possible: send a warning to the king of his impending doom” (2008: 328). C. Plot, Position of Narrator, and Feminist Criticism Issue Based on the analyses of plot structure and narrator’s position, the writer discusses the relations between plot structure, the position of the narrator, and feminist issues. The analyses of the relations between them are divided into two main parts. The first part is the relation between plot structure and feminist issues. The second part is the relation between the position of the narrator and feminist issues. 1. Plot and Feminist Criticism In the plot structure, there are constant women experiences in the passages. The constancies can be seen in the predictable pattern that are duplicated in loss and gain pattern occurring in every passage. It can be seen in a table below. Loss Passage 1 • Panchaali leaves her palace to live as a Brahmin and cannot marry with Karna. Passage 2 • Panchaali loses her honor and her palace. Gain • King Drupad gets Arjun as his ally. • Pandava gets Panchaali as their wife. • Yudhisthir gets her brothers and wife,

(84) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 70 although in exile. • Duryodhan gets Pandava’s palace. Passage 3 • Panchaali and other women lose their • Pandava gets the throne in Hastinapur. family. Passage 4 • Panchaali gives her • Pandava goes to possession (gold, Himalayas to take jewelry, and so on) to penitence. widowers before takes penitence. In the table above, it is women characters that experience “loss”, while “gain” is experienced by the men characters. Panchaali as one of the women characters represents these constant experiences. From the beginning to the end, Panchaali experiences “loss”. On the other sides, the men characters that are represented by Pandava or other male characters, experience “gain” constantly from the beginning until the end of the story. Comparing the constancy of experience in male and female characters, in contrast to the agency of the men heroes who have the opportunity to change the circumstances, women characters are more passive. Women characters are limited to do something in order to reach their goals. Theyreach their goal in an indirect way.They just wait and hope other characters to help her to achieve their goal.

(85) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 71 Panchaali is one of the protagonist characters may be the best to representa woman character in ensuring that women characters are passive. Looking from the perspective of Panchaali, it shows that woman character takes action behind the man’s action. For instances, in passage 1, the Panchaali’s marriage, Panchaali does not marry a man. Instead, it is she that is married by a man onKing Drupad’s purpose. In passage 2, The dice game, Panchaali does not play that game. Yudhisthir, her husband is the one that plays that game. When her husband loses in the dice game, Panchaali becomes the one who takes the disadvantages. She acts as a wager or in other words, as a gift or properties belong tothe man who wins the dice game. In passage 3, the Great War, Panchaali does not fight in the war, but she takes the consequences of the war. She loses her father, brothers, and sons in the war. In passage 4, the crisis in Hastinapur, Panchaali sells out of her possessionas a response to help other women. Yudhisthir as the king of the throne does nothing. He just drowns in his own guilt. From passage to passage, Panchaali as a woman character in the story is a passive one. She takes an action caused by what men do. She is positioned as the receiver and desired object of men characters. What Panchaali experiences are always the results of what the man experienced before. As a daughter, she acts in order to fulfill her father’s desire. As a wife, she acts in order to fulfill her husband’s desire. As a queen, she cannot become the only one queen that could arrange the palace to be something that she wants. She must accept that her husbands have other wives and shares the status of queen with the other wives.

(86) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 72 Like Marry Jane in Spiderman,“female” temple boy in Konjaku:The tale of the Monk who received Bishamonten’s aid, Sophie in Dilarang Nyanyi di Kamar Mandi, Panchaali in The Palace of Illusion, has similar status. All of them are judged as the weak point, the troublemaker and the cause of something bad happens, although she does not have intention to do that. In the movie of Spiderman, Mary Jane becomes the weak point to Peter Parker, the Spiderman, so Doctor Oct kidnaps Mary Jane to defeat Spiderman. In one of Konjaku tales, the “female” temple boybecomes the cause of the sin to the monk, after the monk makes love with the female temple boy. In Dilarang Nyanyi di Kamar Mandi, Sophie is judged by other wives in the village as the cause of “unwarm” bed times since their husband always listens how Sophie takes a bath in her bathroom. In The Palace of Illusions, Panchaali is the cause of the war among Bharat generation and cause of the emerging of widowers and fatherless children, as what is found in Vyasa’s prophecy. You will marry the five greatest heroes of your time. You will be queen of queens, envied even by goddesses. You will be a servant maid. You will be mistress of the most magical of palaces and then lose it. You will be remembered for causing the greatest war of your time. You will bring about the deaths of evil kings—and your children’s, and your brother’s. A million women will become widows because of you. Yes, indeed, you will leave a mark on history. You will be loved, though you will not always recognize who loves you. Despite your five husbands, you will die alone, abandoned at the end— and yet not so (Divakaruni, 2008: 39). The bad reputations given do not only appear in one or two events of the story, such in the Vyasa’s prophecy to Panchaali. In the Problem-Solution plot structure in every passage, woman character, especially Panchaali, is constantly noticed as the troublemaker.

(87) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 73 In passage 1, the beauty of the Panchaali raises the desire of others kings and princes. It opens an opportunity for King Drupad to gain alliance in order to empower his kingdom. During the marriage, the beauty of Panchaali makes kings and princess are ambitious to marry her. The ambition changes into envy whenever someone wins the Swayamvar and it leads to the critical moment in passage 1. The envy caused by the beauty of Panchaali is continued to passage 2. Duryodhan who is attracted to Panchaali, set a dice game to arrogate Panchaali from Pandava. When Duryodhan gets Panchaali, Karna orders to strip down her clothes as revenge to his embarrassment in Swayamvar and Sisupal does it. The Panchaali’s embarrassment gives birth to the vow. Panchaali’s vengeance caused by the embarrassment becomes the reason of the Great War in passage 3. Her vengeance is one of the reasons to Pandava to have a war with Kaurava. Then, the war among Bharat generation begins. As the result of Panchaali’s vengeance, some people lose their husband and son. The vengeance creates widowers and fatherless children. The result of Panchaali’s vengeance becomes the problem in passage 4. In spite of her scapegoat, she could solve this critical situation then. It is not over. There is one more event when Panchaali is blamed. It is when Panchaali and Pandava takea journey to penitence. She makes Yudhisthir misbehave and have his second sins as the consequence, by telling a lieto Bheem in his penitence.

(88) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 74 Yudhisthir lies to Bheem about the man who is loved by Panchaali in order to save Panchaali’s face in front of her husbands. The “knot” of women characters seems couldnot be “untied”. Something tragic turns up when looking at how Panchaali reaches her goal in penitence. On the journey to the Himalayas in order to take penitence, Pachaali dies. But when she dies, she reaches her goal. She finds all persons happy. She finds the place where she could loves and to be loved. The question then, is it a must for a woman to die in reaching her dreams?. Certainly, the writers could not answer this question. This event is merely metaphoric. Krishna touches my hand. If you can call it a hand, these pinpricks of light that are newly coalescing into the shape of fingers and palm. At his touch something breaks, a chain that was tied to the woman-shape crumpled on the snow below. I am buoyant and expansive and uncontainable—but I always was so, only I never knew it! I am beyond the name and gender and the imprisoning patterns of ego. And yet, for the first time, I’m truly Panchaali. I reach with my other hand for Karna—how surprisingly solid his clasp! Above us our palace waits, the only one I’ve ever needed. Its walls are space, its floor is sky, its center everywhere. We rise; the shapes cluster around us in welcome, dissolving and forming and dissolving again like fireflies in a summer evening (Divakaruni, 2008: 360). From the last paragraph quoted above, the knot of women could be untied when there is no boundary on name, gender and ego. The suffering of women could be ended when there is no discrimination of women or man, male or female, husband or wife. The narrator who is able to arrange the story shows that women are positioned in constant experience. The constancies of what women experienced in the plot structure are as involved character and the cause of something bad

(89) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 75 happens. Taking into account, women characters are more suffering than man characters.Then, the constancy of plot structure on loss and gain pattern and position of women characters in the story seems to emphasize it. The constancy of plot structure cannot be separated fromthe constancy of woman character, since character is the subject of the arranged events. The constancies above, is not only emphasize that women in more suffering than man. The constancies lead the interpretation toward the characteristics of women characteristics. Panchaali has suffered in a long journey of her life. Not only that, she is also blamed as the cause of something bad happens. However, she finally reaches her goal. She is the survivor who comes from terrible situations. She is a strong and tough person. Indeed, she can solve the problem when the man could not solve that. When Yudhisthir and others Pandava are drowned into feeling guilty and does nothing to solve the problem of widowers, Panchaali takes a respond to solve that. 2. Narrator Position and Feminist Criticism In order to analyze the relation between the position of the narrator and feminist issues, the writer divides this part into three segments. The first is the relation between the type of the narrator and the feminist issue. The second talks about the relation between point of view and feminist issue. Then, the last segment discusses the relation of narrative level and feminist issue.

(90) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 76 a. Narrator From the analyses about the position of the narrator in the first sub chapters above, it could be seen that this narrative uses the first person narrator as the primary storyteller. Based on Genetee’s theory, this narrative can be called as homodiagetic narrative or first person narrative. Moreover, the narrator in this story is a protagonist in the story. The character in this story who becomes the primary narrator and also the focalizer is Panchaali. In this story, Panchaali tells her own life from the birth to her death. Thus, this narrative is an autodiegetic narrative. Autodiegetic narrative requires an overt narrator. In most parts of this narrative, the narrator uses a first-person pronoun that refers to the narrator itself. As an overt narrator, she consciously tells to the reader about her own life. As an autodiegetic narrative, this narrative is considered as a private narrative rather than public narrative. The narration is addressed to the narratee who is reputed as someone close to the narrator within the textual world. The narrator tells her own thought, feeling, and perspective to the limited narratee as a secret that cannot be talked with other characters, such as her husbands, other wives, brother, father, and so on, in the textual world, or in other words, the “public” members of textual world. Looking at the relation between the narrator and the narratee, this private narrative represents the domesticity of women. The narrator as a woman character tells the story to the designated narratee in the textual world. It seems the narrator limits her audience and her story could not be consumed by the public. The

(91) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 77 consequences, this story affirms the patronizing toward the position of women in the domestic level as Rosaldo mentions about the position of women. But in the other sides, woman as the narrator could talk everything freely based on her own perspective in the private narrative. The absolute truth subjectively lays on her as the first person narrator in autodiegetic narrative. This condition affects the reliability of the narrative. This narrative may be seen as untrustworthy narrative since it uses one perspective subjectively. However, the perception about the untrustworthinessof private narratives brings advantage to the narrator. It makes the narrator as a woman free to give a view about everything, including the public domain, such as politics, religion, economics, culture, which are dominated by male. She should not consider what others think about her view of the publicdomain and the others could not intervene to the subjective views. It can be seen clearly when the narrator gives her opinion about religious believe about afterlife as in quoted speech below. Dhri’s tutor was of the opinion that virtuous women were sent directly into their next birth, where, if they were lucky, they reincarnated as men. But I thought that if lokas existed at all, good women would surely go to one where men were not allowed so that they could be finally free of male demands. However, I prudently kept this theory to myself (2008: 155). Thus, the private narration used by the narrator does not fully obey the stereotypes of private narration. Instead, the private narration opens the opportunity to woman to speak about the public domain in a private way.The private narration becomes the bridge of emancipation for women to talk about the public sphere. Emancipation here means that woman as the narrator of a story,

(92) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 78 free to tell everything that she wants to tell in the story without any intervention and exception, including the public sphere. The overt first person narrator tells the story in the private level and her overtness can arise the reader’s sympathy for certain characters and develops a framework for the story world and the reader’s reception of it. This position gives extra emphasis to the highlighted condition of women in the plot structure. As a strategy to narrate the story, the using of the overt first narrator, firstly, compromises the label given to the private narrative level, afterward it negotiates and takes the advantages of using private narrative level in order to challenge the stereotypes to thelabelled women’s narrative. It is possible, then, to create her own world by talking about everything, including, something that is considered as the public domain, through the private narrative. b. Point of View In the narrative, the primary narrator uses internal, external and omniscient point of view. Mainly, the narrator uses internal point of view in the narrative while the external point of view is used when she describe something in simple and direct way. The omniscient point of view uses when the narrator becomes a godlike and tells without any boundaries. From the analyses about the type of the narrator, this narrative is told by a first person narrator, which takes Panchaali as the focalizer. Typically, this type of the narrator requires internal point of view because the narrative uses a character within the story as the narrator. Technically, this point of view restricts the view

(93) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 79 of the narrator on one or more characters’ feeling, thought, and perception. But in this narrative, the narrator sometimes changes internal point of view into external or omniscient point of view. The changing from internal to others point view breaks the rule of using point of view. According to Gerald Prince, these phenomena can be indicated as the result of violation toward the using point of view in the narrative. Whenever, the narrator uses internal point of view, but tells less information, only what she sees, it results external point of view. On the other hand, whenever the narrator uses internal point of view, she tells more information than the information required for internal point of view, it results omniscient point of view. Whether the violations are intended or not, it affects the recounting and interpretation process. From the analyses in a subchapter before, the external point of view is used when the narrator focuses on the events happens rather than the character. For example, is in this quotation as follows. The greatest kings of Bharat were unable to lift the Kindhara bow from the ground. Of the handful that could not aim and shoot, none was successful in piercing the fish eye. Jarasandha missed it by the width of his little finger, Salya by width of a bean seed, and Sisupal by the width of a sesame seed. When Duryodhan shot his arrow, a cheer rose from the audience, but the steward examined the target and proclaimed that Kaurava prince had missed it by the width of a mustard seed (Divakaruni, 2008: 93). Internal and external points of views are in the same status. Both of them are restricted. This kind of violation, then, is considered as not urgent since both of them are in the same category, restricted point of view. Significant violation occurs in “cross” point of view, from restricted to unrestricted, from internal to omniscient point of view.

(94) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 80 The changingof the internal point of view to omniscient point of view clearly could be found when the narrator gets a boon from Vyasa. The boon makes the narrator has supervision as her supernatural power. The supervision makes the narrator becomes like a demigod who can know everything without any boundaries. On the phase, the internal point of view has abilities of omniscient point of view. If those abilities embodied to the internal narrator, it merely changes the character into a demigod. The character, then, is interpreted as super woman who can break the limited point of view. She also breaks the unreliability of her perspective and makes what she says is more reliable. The violationsof point of view rules, especially from restricted to unrestricted, are used by a woman narrator to pass over the limitation in internal point of view. In this situation, the woman character who becomes the narrator is the one who knows everything and what she knows are reliable. These violations of the rule are used by women as a strategy of narrative in facing the stereotype of women. Related to the public and private domain of men and women, the violations have not only broken the rule of point of view, but it also be interpreted as the way of women break the stereotypical rules of public and private domain. The violation of point of view is used to open and enter the door of men’s world. c. Narrative Level From the analyses about the narrative level in this story, it is traced out that this story uses all of narrative levels. This story uses extradiagetic narrative level

(95) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 81 as the frame of the story and the embedded narrative levels, both diagetic and metadiagetic, are used to complete the information in extradiagetic level. The embedded story serves explanatory, contrasts, and thematic relationships to theextradiagetic narrative level. The relation of the extradiagetic and embedded story is not only one-way direction, from extradiagetic to the embedded story, but also, it could be from the embedded story to extradiagetic level. Technically, the shifting from the extradiadetic levelto the embedded story ismainly triggered by the question from the narrator to other characters. When the embedded story is finished by the secondary narrator, the primary narrator pulls back the narrative level to the extradiagetic level. In the shifting from embedded level to extradiagetic, the primary narrator sometimes responds it by giving opinions, perception or critics. Besides adding more information, some embedded storiesrepresent the cultural context to the story. In that extend, the primary narrator gives her opinion, perception and critics. Taking into category, at least, the mentioned cultural contexts are the birth of a boy and a daughter, marriage, and ideal women or wives. The cultural context about the birth of a boy and daughter is revealed by one of embedded stories of how King Drupad gives a name to his son and daughter. Dhai Ma shrugged. “That’s what the priests claimed. Who can tell for sure? You know how sounds boom and echo in that hall. The king looked startled, but then he picked the two of you up, holding you close to his chest. For the first time in years, I saw him smile. He said to your brother, I name you Dhristadyumna. He said to you, I name you Draupadi. And then we had the best feast this kingdom has ever seen.” As Dhai Ma counted out the feast foods on her fingers, smacking her lips in happy remembrance, my attention veered to the meaning of the names

(96) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 82 our father chose. Dhristadyumna, Destroyer of Enemies. Draupadi, Daughter of Drupad. (Divakaruni, 2008: 5) Then at the extradiagetic level, the primary narrator comments this event with this: Dhri’s name fell within the bounds of acceptability—though if I were his parent I might have picked a more cheerful appellation, like Celestial Victor, or Light of the Universe. But Daughter of Drupad? Granted, he hadn’t been expecting me, but couldn’t my father have come up with something a little less egoistic? Something more suited to a girl who was supposed to change history? (2008: 5) The commentary from the primary narrator shows that the birth of son is more dreamed rather than a daughter. This condition can be interpreted that man is more important than women are. In her commentary, she asks for her father to come up with something a little less egoistic. It means that her father is an egoist and the main controller. Whenever man is more important than women it and man is the main controller, it could be said that in the story, the relation between embedded story and extradiagetic level reveals a patriarchal system as a cultural context within the story. Then, the question from the narrator to her father is an order to the equality between man and woman, considering that woman supposed to change history is important too. Cultural context of marriage is consisted in the embedded story the marriage of Amba, the pass life of Shikandhi. Very well, the story from the beginning, then. We three sisters, princesses of Kasi, were to marry. My father arranged a swayamvar, inviting all the kings of the land, so that we could choose our husbands. I already knew the man I wanted: King Salva, who had wooed me for a year (2008: 47).

(97) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 83 From this embedded, it is noticed that a marriage of a daughter is arranged by the father in a Swayamvar. Talking about the arranged marriage, the primary narrator gives her opinions, as the following. Ever since the prophecy, I’d thought intermittently of marriage—at times with excitement or resignation, at times with dread. I sensed, vaguely, that it was a great opportunity—but for what I wasn’t sure. I’d imagined that it would be similar to the weddings of my father’s other daughters: arranged by elders. But Dhai Ma informed me I was to have a swayamvar. Eligible rulers from every kingdom in Bharat would be invited to Panchaal. From among them, my father had announced, I would choose the man I was to marry (2008: 54). Extradiagetic and the embedded story above reveal the culture in marriage that the father arranges a marriage. Then, the primary narrator gives further opinion about how should face her own marriage by questioning it. At night I considered what Krishna had revealed, and why he’d pricked the bubble of my romance no sooner than it had formed. He was trying to teach me something. Was it to be aware of the dark motivations that lay behind seemingly benign actions? Was it to notlet myself be carried away by emotion, to see myself instead as part of a larger political design that would affect the fate of Bharat? Was it to teach me how to wear the armor of caution so that no one could reach past it to break my heart? (2008: 58-59) From both commentaries, the arranged marriage to a woman sometimes is something scary. The marriage sometimes arranged in any intension, for example political intention. Marriage has possibility to make unhappy life of a woman. It is confirmed, then, in the primary narrator’s opinion about Gandhari and Kunti’s marriage below. Gandhari’s marriage, although she’d given up so much for its sake, was—like Kunti’s—not a happy one. (Later I would wonder if that was what gave them strength, both these queens. But perhaps I’d got the

(98) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 84 cause and effect mixed up? Perhaps strong women tended to have unhappy marriages? The idea troubled me.) (2008: 76). The shifting of the embedded story to extradiagetic level exposes the cultural context about marriage that marriage is arranged by the father and sometimes it is not pure marriage because the marriage is intended for political reason. For women, this marriage is unhappy marriage. Nevertheless, they would disobey this kind of marriage, remembering they live in the patriarchal society. The shifting of embedded story and extradiagetic narrative level also leaks the culturally ideal women and the narrator’s perspective toward it. The embedded story about a culturally ideal woman can be found in the story of Damayanti. This is the story, in the bareness of its bones: Nal the Nishad king loved the beautiful princess Damayanti. At her swayamvar, she chose him over gods. One of the gods, Kali, infuriated by this, tricked Nal into losing his kingdom in a game of dice to his brother Pushkar. (Nal did, however, stop short of wagering his wife.) Nal then begged Damayanti to return to the safety of her father’s palace, but she would not leave him. When he lost his last piece of clothing, she tore her own sari and shared it with him. But he left her sleeping in a forest, believing it would be the best for her to be rid of him. They suffered apart for many years. Finally, he— deformed now, and with a false name—became the charioteer of King Rituparna, who was an expert at dice, and learned the subtleties of the game from him. Meanwhile, Damayanti, back in her father’s kingdom, sent out searchers for her husband, and suspecting this charioteer to be Nal, invited Rituparna to a swayamvar. But the swayamvar was only a ruse so she could meet Nal. At this meeting, there were accusations and weeping, forgiveness and new declarations of love. Nal regained his handsome looks, challenged Pushkar to another game of dice and regained his kingdom Yudhisthir said, “Look how Nal never swerved from righteousness, no matter what happened. And Damayanti never rebuked him for his losses but gave him all the support a man needs when in trouble.” (2008: 208209).

(99) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 85 According to this embedded story, the ideal woman is a woman who is loyal to her husband no matter what happens, she will give her husband all support needed by man. The primary narrator as below questions this embedded story. I said, “And how did he repay her? By abandoning her in a forest. How was that righteous?” Yudhisthir looked pained. The sage diplomatically declared it was time for his prayers. I went to the kitchen. But I couldn’t put Damayanti out of my mind. Waking in a forest not unlike this, with only the sounds of night animals for company, how frightened she must have been—and how brave. Because she didn’t go back to her parents right away. Instead, she searched for Nal for years. Once she was almost stoned to death as a witch—her, a princess who had been famed the world over for her beauty! That’s what loss can do to you, I thought, touching my own matted hair, wondering if I, too, looked like a witch. I knew, though Yudhisthir was too polite to ever say so, that I was no ideal wife. He would have been happier with someone like Damayanti. She was a better woman than I. (But is better the word I was looking for? At what point does forbearance cease to be a virtue and become a weakness?) Once I returned to my father’s home, I wouldn’t have kept searching for my husband. And had I called for a second swayamvar, I would have made sure it was a real one (2008: 209-210). The given opinion shows that the primary narrator agrees with this the portrait of ideal women and tries to be one of them. She questions what the ideal woman will get while she gives all support to men. This question is a form of manifestation of feeling envy to man caused by inequality. Man gets what he wants from women, but women get nothing from the man. While, in the other embedded story, the narratorgivesa clear opinion about what good women will get after life. This following quotation is a general condition about what will they get after life. The boundaries of afterlife are even more complicated than the rules that pen us in on earth. Depending on their deeds, the dead can be dispatched to many different abodes. Fortunate brahmins are sent to Brahmaloka, where they can learn divine wisdom directly from the Creator. The best

(100) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 86 among kshatriyas go to Indraloka, filled as it is with pleasures both artistic and hedonistic. Lesser warriors must be content with the courts of the god of death, or the sun and moon deities. For evildoers, there are one hundred and thirty-six levels of hell, each corresponding to a particular sin, and each with its own set of tortures, such as tongue-tearing, being boiled in oil, or being devoured by ravenous birds, all of which our scriptures describe with great relish (2008: 155) Responding what will they get after life, the primary narrator gives a different opinion about what will the good women get after life. Dhri’s tutor was of the opinion that virtuous women were sent directly into their next birth, where, if they were lucky, they reincarnated as men. But I thought that if lokas existed at all, good women would surely go to one where men were not allowed so that they could be finally free of male demands. However, I prudently kept this theory to myself (2008: 155). From the narrator’s commentary, the woman seems to want to be free from male demands. However, they cannot reject the norm as a virtuous or the ideal woman and as the consequence they should allow man’s demands. Instead of making them free from man’s demand by becoming man, this commentaryrejects the incarnation of the virtuous woman. The narrator gives another opinion to this case. She is—was—oh, I don’t know how to say it!—your royal fa-ther’s eldest daughter, then she did something terrible and King Drupad sent her away. Now she’s returned. They say for the last twelve years she’s been in a forest somewhere, performing the strictest austerities—eating only leaves of the holy bel tree, standing neck-deep in freezing water all winter, that kind of thing—so that now she’s been turned into a great and dangerous warrior.” (2008: 44). This embedded story is taken from the story about Sikhandi. The narrator then gives argumentation about this superwoman, Sikhandi. Sikhandi walked with a panther grace, light and assured on the balls of his feet. Yes, his. What I’d interpreted as Dhai Ma’s expression of disapproval was the literal truth: Sikhandi, who was born a woman, was now a man! Clearly, he wished there to be no misunderstanding about

(101) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 87 this: he was clothed only in a white cotton dhoti his wiry upper body bare, his nipples flat and burnished as copper coins. He carried a bow, which he leaned against the wall before approaching me. His cheekbones were like knives. His almond-shaped eyes gave him a foreignness that was not unattractive. Around his neck hung a garland of white lotuses (2008: 45-46). In extradiagetic narrative level quoted above, the narrator recognizes Sikandhi as a man. Since Sikhandi tries to be superwoman who radically equal to man, she loses her identity as a woman. Thus, it is clear that according to the narrator’s perspective, virtuous women are not equal to man. It is could be noticed, then, that the relationship between extradiagetic narrative level and embedded story, is not only giving the additional information, but the relationship could functions more to reveal the cultural context within the story. The cultural context is given by the narrator through the narrative level represents her idea or perspective of women. Thus, related to the Public and Private domain of women and men, women through the using of narrative levels, creates their own world in the narrative. The woman narrator creates the Public world of her own in the storyworld through the narrative levels and its relations based on her own perspectives, ideas, opinions, critics, and her ideal. Since woman becomes the creator of the world, she has both power and authorities in the storyworld.

(102) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION As written in the title, this research discusses the narrator and feminism on the novel The Palace of Illusion by Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakaruni. It works onthree problem formulations.They are plot structure of the story based on Problem-Situation patterns, the position of the narrator, and the way the narrator redefines women in this work through the plot structure and the position of the narrator.Those problem formulations lead three achievements of this researchthrough the analysis of plot structure, narrator position and its relation to feminism. Thus, the goal of this research is prove that such technique of narrative could be related toward feminism issues and give new definition of women. The plot structure of the story is analyzed by using Problem-Solution patterns. Problem-Solution patterns, such as Situation, Problem, Response, Result, and Evaluation, are used in order to categorizing the plot of the story. The categorizing process results four passages that consist climatic peak on each passage. The four passages are: 1. The King of Drupad set a marriage for Panchaali by holding a contest (chapter 1 to 15). 2. Pandava loses to Kurava in a dice game (chapter 16 to 26). 88

(103) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 89 3. The Great War between the Pandava and Kuravas occurs in Kuruksetra (chapter 27 to 37). 4. The crisis occurs in Hastinapur and Pandava after the Great War (chapter 38 to 43). The climatic peak on each passage is marked by a moment of crisis for a character within the story. Those five climatic peaks makes the plot structure of the story is considered as multiple climax plot structure. The negative result and evaluation on asingle climatic peak leads to the new situation in the next climatic peak. Then, when the new situation becomes problematic, it leads to the next climatic peak. This process works continually until the ending of the story which is positive result and the evaluation signedby achievementof goal(s). In this narrative, the position of the narrator is decided by observing the narrative level, type of the narrator, and point of view of the narrator on the four passages that afterwards is generalized. Based on the analyses toward the narrative level, this narrative uses all of narrative levels. They are extradiagetic, diagetic, and metadiagetic narrative level. The embedded narrative serves as explanatory, thematic relationship and a contrast to the extradiagetic level. In extradiagetic narrative level, the primary narrator is the first person internal narrator. The narrator is one of woman characters in the story named Panchaali. The narrator narrates her own life story based on Panchaali perspective, thus she becomes the focalizer of the story. Since the narrator is one of the protagonist characters, the narrator is restricted to though, feeling, and perspective

(104) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 90 of the character. However, in some cases, the primary narrator uses first person external, third person external, internal, and omniscient narrator. In embedded story, the narrator uses first, second and third person narrator. The points of views are used by the narrator in this narrative level are external, internal, and omniscient. Relating the plot analyzed before and the feminist issues, the writer looks the constancy in every passage. Structurally, the writer categorizes the events in every passage and picks some samples to elaborate the categorization. The categories of the event that are taken based on the experienced events are “gain” and “loss”. In every passage, constantly, the woman character mostly represented by Panchaali, has always experienced “loss”. On the other hand, the male character mostly represented by Pandava always experience “gain”. The woman character is positioned as involved character and blamed as the cause of something bad happens. Taking into account, woman charactersuffers more than man character. The constancies of plot structure on loss and gain pattern and position of woman character in the story seems to emphasize woman’s suffer. Nevertheless, the constancies above, is not only emphasize that woman suffermore than man. It also emphasizes the power of woman in facing those terrible events that can be derived from the constancy of woman characteristics. From the analysis of the position of the narrator before, this narrative called as an autodiegetic narrative that requires an overt narrator. In most part of this narrative, the narrator uses a first-person pronoun that refers to the narrator itself. As an autodiegetic narrative, this narrative is considered as in a private

(105) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 91 situationrather than in public. The private situation brings “emancipation” to the narrator as a woman character within the story. In the private situation, the narrator could talk everything freely based on her own perspective. This narrative may be seen as untrustworthy narrative since it uses one perspective subjectively. However, it makes the narrator free to give view about ‘sensitive’ issues. Her overtness can rise the reader’s sympathy for certain characters and develops a framework for the story world and the reader’s reception of it. This position gives extra emphasis to the highlighted condition of women in the plot structure. The contribution of narrator’s point of view to feminism lays on the violence of the rule. The shifting from internal point of view to another point of view affects the recounting and interpretation process. The violation of the rule of point of view is used to pass over the limitation in internal point of view. In this situation when the unlimited point of view embodied to woman character who becomes the narrator,it makes the woman narrator is able toknow everything and what she knows is reliable. In an indirect way, it shows how a powerful woman characteras the narrator in the story. With the violations of the rules, women open the opportunity to enter the men’s world through the abilities of accessing the public domain. Besides adding more information, some embedded stories represent the culture that is positioned as ideal perception of the story. Since the narrator is the first person internal narrator, the primary narrator in possible to give her opinion, perception and critics toward the cultural context. Through the narrative level, women could create their own public world and have both power and authorities

(106) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 92 in that world. Taking into category, at least, the mentioned cultural contexts criticize by the narrator are the birth of a boy and a daughter, marriage, and ideal women or wives. The relation between embedded story and extradiagetic level reveals a patriarchal system as a cultural context within the story. In this cultural context, the narrator not only allows the rule of the patriarchal system, but also she orders the equality between man and women. Other cultural context found in the embedded narrative is the culture in marriage that the father arranges a marriage. In this cultural context, the narrator not only endures such marriage, but also she questions the existence of the marriage. The last cultural context discussed is the perspective of ideal women. The ideal woman is a woman who is loyal to her husband no matter what happens, she will give her husband all support needed by man. The portrait of virtuous or the ideal woman is a woman who serves man’s demand. In this cultural context, the narrator follows the perception of the ideal women. Moreover, she questions and denies that the incarnation of virtuous is a man. She argues that woman is not a man. The woman is a woman. The woman does not have to be a man in a radical way. When a woman takes the radical way, it means that she loses her identity as a woman. What should a woman do is recognizing and using her unique power in an appropriate way. It could be concluded, then, that plot structure gives emphasis to the constancy of the women’s suffering and in such away, redefines the power and the toughness of women in facing the suffering. The type and point of view of the

(107) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 93 narrator contribute to bring opportunity for women to be god in her own world.While the narrative level exposes the cultural context and women’s perspectiveto the literary works. The private level narration is used as the strategy to compromise the stereotype of woman's narrative, negotiate the private and public domain, and challenge the public domain. As a novel that focuses on women and lives of women, Divakaruni’s The Palace of Illusiongives space for women to articulate their silenced voice among the great epic of Mahabharata. This novel and its narrator is not only the matter of form, but also it becomesthe way for women to show their existence and break the women’s literary silence.

(108) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms 7th Edition.USA: Earl Mc Peek, 2003. Banerjee, Chitra. The Palace of Illusions. New York: Doubleday, 2002. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory 3rd edition. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009. Donovan, Josephine. Women and the Rise of Novel, 1405-1726. New York: St. Martin Press, 2000. Fabri Hartanto, Kenan.The Location of Narrator in Jaroslav Hasek’s The Good Soldier Schweik: A Study on Narrative Situation. Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2013. Fludernik, Monika. An Introduction to Narratology.London:Rouledge, 2009. Genette, Gerard. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. New York: Cornell University Press, 1983. Hoydis, Julia. “A Palace of Her Own: Feminine Identity in the Great Indian Story” Gender Forum An Internet Journal for Gender Studies. No. 38 (2012). Passages to India. (www.genderforum.org/issues/passages-toindia/a-palace-of-her-own). November 1, 2013. Keen, Suzanne. Narrative Form.New York: Palgrave Mac Millan, 2003. Keay, John. India a history. New York : Grove Press, 2000. Lanser, Susan S. Toward A Feminist Narratology. 1986. Feminisms: An Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism. ed. Warhol, Robyn R. New Brunswick, 1997: pp. 674-693. Page, Ruth. E. Literary and Linguistic Approaches to Feminist Narratology. New York: Palgrave Mac Millan, 2006. Prince, Gerald. Narratology: The Form and Functioning of Narrative. Berlin: Mouton Publisher, 1982. 94

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