Posibilities In Developing Bukit Lawang As An Ecotourism
CHAPTER II THE REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE
2.1.1 Definition of Tourism
Theobald (1994) suggested that “etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, ‘tornare’ and the Greek, ‘tornos’, meaning ‘a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis’. The meaning changed in modern English to represent ‘one’s turn’. The suffix –ism is defined as ‘an action or process; typical behavior or quality’, while the suffix, -ist denotes ‘one that combined, they suggest the action’. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and
- –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represent a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a roundtrip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist.
According to Law No. 10/2009 on tourism, tourism is a wide range of tourist activities are supported by a range of facilities and services provided by the public, employers, Government and Local Government.
In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.” In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its
Recommendations on Tourism statistics
a) Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country travelling only within this country.
b) Inbound tourism, involving non-residents travelling in the given country.
c) Outbound tourism, involving residents travelling in another country.
According to WTO (World Tourism Organization) (1995:5) the meaning of tourism is activities of person travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries including Indonesia, because it brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services available, contributing an estimated 5% to the worldwide gross domestic product (GDP), and it creates opportunities for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These services industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships, and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.
2.1.2 Definition of Tourist
According to Law No. 10 year 2009 concerning the mention of tourism tourist are people who do the tour. While Sihite (2000:49) notion tourists can be divided into two, namely:
1) Local tourists are tourists in the country or domestic tourists. 2)
Foreign tourists are citizen of a country that held out the environment tour of the country (into the other country).
According to WTO (World Tourism Organization) (1995:5) the meaning of tourist is overnight visitor, visitor staying at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited.
According IUOTO (International Union of Official Travel Organization), in Gamal Suwantoro (2009:4) use restrictions on tourists in general: visitors that every person who comes into a country or other residence and usually with the intent to do anything except work pay. So there are two categories of visitor designator, namely:
1) Tourists are visitors staying temporarily, at least 24 hours in a country.
With the intention of travelling tourists can be classified into: Cruise (leisure), for purposes of recreation, vacation, health, study,
religious, and sports.
2) Travelers (excursionist) temporary visitors is someone living in a country visited in less than 24 hours.
Relationships (relationship), trade, family, relatives, MICE, etc. Based on the description above, it can be concluded that the tourists are the ones who do the activities with the purpose of obtaining pleasure trip, not to work, settle down and earn living.
2.1.3 Definition of Nature Tourism
Nature tourism is responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people. It is tourism based on the natural attractions of an area. Examples include bird watching, photography, stargazing, camping, hiking, hunting, fishing, and visiting parks. These experiential tourists are interested in a diversity of natural and cultural resources.
Nature tourism provides incentives for local communities and landowners to conserve wildlife habitats upon which the industry depends – it promotes conservation by placing an increased value on remaining natural areas. As nature tourism becomes more important to the local economy, communities have additional incentive to conserve their remaining natural areas for wildlife and wildlife enthusiasts.
2.2.1 Definition of Ecotourism
Hector Ceballos-Lascurain (1987) says, “Nature or ecotourism can be defined as tourism that consist in travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objectives of studying, admiring, and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural manifestations (both past and present) found in the areas.
In 1991, The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) say, “ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well being of local people.” The World Conservation Union (1996) say that ecotourism is environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features – both past and present) that promotes conversation has low negative visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations.
Generally, ecotourism deals with living parts of the natural environments. Ecotourism focuses on socially responsible travel, personal growth, and environmental sustainability. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Ecotourism is intended to offer tourist insight into impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats.
Responsible ecotourism programs include those that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for local communities. For these reasons, ecotourism often appeals to advocates of environmental and social responsibility.
2.2.2 The Ecotourism Activities
Activities to do in ecotourism, namely:
- Trekking Trekking is a part of adventure travel, it involves visits to remote areas, lodging in tents and minimal accommodation. It is done for adventure and expedition.
- Hiking Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often in mountainous or other scenic terrain. People often hike on hiking walls. Studies have confirmed the health benefits of different types of hiking, including losing excess weight, decreasing hypertension, and improving mental health.
- Camping Camping is an outdoor recreational activity. The participants (known as campers) leave urban areas, their home region or civilization and enjoy nature while spending one or several nights outdoors, usually at a campsite. Camping may involve the use of a tent, caravan, cabin, a primitive structure, or no shelter at all. Camping as a recreational activity
th became popular in the early 20 century.
- Rafting Rafting is the challenging recreational outdoor activity of using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on white water or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s. it is considered an extreme sport, as it can be dangerous.