B R E VS E S N E T S R O R E C N A R E T U N I S Y B E D A M H T R U O F E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E F O S T N E D U T S R E T S E M E S M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E

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ASARJANAPENDIDIKANTHESIS

s t n e m e r i u q e R e h t f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r P

to Obtaint heSarjanaPendidikanDegree inEngilshLanguageEduca iton

y B

o d e P i n a y ir A a y r u S g n e j A a i s n a n e V

8 9 0 4 1 2 1 9 0 : r e b m u N t n e d u t S

M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

F O T N E M T R A P E

D LANGUAGEANDARTSEDUCATION N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S

A T R A K A Y G O Y

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ASARJANAPENDIDIKANTHESIS

s t n e m e r i u q e R e h t f o t n e m ll if l u F l a it r a P s a d e t n e s e r P

to Obtaint heSarjanaPendidikanDegree inEngilshLanguageEduca iton

y B

o d e P i n a y ir A a y r u S g n e j A a i s n a n e V

8 9 0 4 1 2 1 9 0 : r e b m u N t n e d u t S

M A R G O R P Y D U T S N O I T A C U D E E G A U G N A L H S I L G N E

F O T N E M T R A P E

D LANGUAGEANDARTSEDUCATION N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S

A T R A K A Y G O Y

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v i

“Peace Iilvewtihyou ;Mypeace Igivet oyou ;no tast hewo lrdgive sdo I e

b t r a e h r u o y t e l t o n o D . u o y o t e v i

g rtoubled ,norl eti tbef earful”.(John )

7 2 : 4 1

“Obstacle saret hosef irghftult hing syous eewhenyout akeyou reyes fo f you r l

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g ” .(HenryFor d)

“Nobridsoarst oohighi ftis oar swtih ti sownwings” .(WliilamBlake)

(Thi sThesisi sDedicatedt o r e h t o r B y M d n a s t n e r a P y

M )

v i

“Peace Iilvewtihyou ;Mypeace Igivet oyou ;no tast hewo lrdgive sdo I e

b t r a e h r u o y t e l t o n o D . u o y o t e v i

g rtoubled ,norl eti tbef earful”.(John )

7 2 : 4 1

“Obstacle saret hosef irghftult hing syous eewhenyout akeyou reyes fo f you r l

a o

g ” .(HenryFor d)

“Nobridsoarst oohighi ftis oar swtih ti sownwings” .(WliilamBlake)

(Thi sThesisi sDedicatedt o r e h t o r B y M d n a s t n e r a P y

M )

v i

“Peace Iilvewtihyou ;Mypeace Igivet oyou ;no tast hewo lrdgive sdo I e

b t r a e h r u o y t e l t o n o D . u o y o t e v i

g rtoubled ,norl eti tbef earful”.(John )

7 2 : 4 1

“Obstacle saret hosef irgh ftult hing syous eewhenyout akeyou reyes fo f you r l

a o

g ” .(HenryFor d)

“Nobridsoarst oohighi ftis oar swtih ti sownwings” .(WliilamBlake)

(Thi sThesisi sDedicatedt o r e h t o r B y M d n a s t n e r a P y

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v

Y T I L A N I G I R O S K R O W F O T N E M E T A T S

k r o w e h t n i a t n o c t o n s e o d , n e tt ir w e v a h I h c i h w , s i s e h t s i h t t a h t e r a l c e d y lt s e n o h I

e h t d n a s n o it a t o u q e h t n i d e ti c e s o h t t p e c x e , e l p o e p r e h t o f o k r o w e h t f o s tr a p r o

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Y July17, 2013 r

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o d e P i n a y ir A a y r u S g n e j A a i s n a n e V

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S T N E M G D E L W O N K C A

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M endless grattiude i sdedicated to Lord Jesu sChrist and Mother y

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o t d e s s e r d d a s i e d u ti t a r g t s e p e e d y

M mysponsor ,Carla Sih Prabandari , ,

. d P .

S M.Hum . I thank he r fo r guiding , assisitng and supporitng me in e b s y a w l a o t e m d e l e v a h n o it a c i d e d d n a e c n e it a p r e H . s i s e h t s i h t g n i h s il p m o c c a

. s i s e h t s i h t g n it a e r c f o s s e c o r p e h t g n ir u d c it s a i s u h t n e d n a g n o rt s

s k n a h t f o s t o

L areaddressedt oYuseva Ariyan iIswandari ,S.Pd. ,M.Ed. d

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a Drs .Barl iBram ,M.Ed. ,Ph.D. fo rproofreading my thesi sin thei rbusy ir

c r i e h T . e m

it itcism sand suggesiton sdeifntiely have mo itvated me to improve k

n a h t o t e k il d l u o w I . e r o m s i s e h t y

m Yuseva Ariyan iIswandari ,S.Pd. ,M.Ed. , a

n it s i r h

C Lhaksmtia Anandari , S.Pd. , Ed.M. and Fideil s Chosa n

a d n a h u t s a

K i ,M.Hum. fo rallowing me to take the data from thei rC iritca l g

n i k a e p S d n a g n i n e t s i

L (CLS )2 classes . Iwould also ilke to thank the fou trh n

i s t n e d u t s r e t s e m e

s C LS2classe so fthe2012/2013academicyearf o rgiving me o

t n o i s s i m r e

p record t hei rperformance sand use them as t hedata fo rmy t hesis . o

t d e s s e r d d a e r a s k n a h t e r e c n i s y m , s e d i s e

B al lELESP lecturers who have

s g n i h t y n a m t h g u a

t tomeacademicallyandnon-academically ,whichwli lbevery I

. e r u t u f y m r o f l u f e s

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i x

S T N E T N O C F O E L B A T

Page

E G A P E L T I

T ... i E

G A P L A V O R P P

A S ... ii Y

T I L A N I G I R O S ’ K R O W F O T N E M E T A T

S ... v I

S A K I L B U P N A U J U T E S R E P N A A T A Y N R E

P ... v i T

C A R T S B

A ... v ii K

A R T S B

A ... v iii T

N E M G D E L W O N K C

A S ... ix S

T N E T N O C F O E L B A

T ... x i S

E L B A T F O T S I

L ... x iv S

E C I D N E P P A F O T S I

L ... x vi

N O I T C U D O R T N I .I R E T P A H

C ... 1 .

A ResearchBackground ... 1 .

B ResearchProblem ... 4 .

C ProblemLimtiaiton... 4 .

D ResearchObjecitves... 5 .

E ResearchBeneftis ... 5 .

F Deifniitono fTerms ... 6

E R U T A R E T I L D E T A L E R F O W E I V E R . I I R E T P A H

C ... 1 0

.

A Theoreitca lDesc irp iton... 1 0 .

1 Grammar... 1 0 .

2 SimplePas tTense... 11 .

3 Subject-VerbAgreement... 12 .

4 Speaking ... 16 .

5 Errors... 18 .

a Deifniitono fErrors ... 18 .

b Type so fErrors ... 18 )

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ii x )

2 TheMistake ... 19 )

3 TheLapse... 19 .

c Type so fGrammaitca lE rrors ... .... 1 9 )

1 SimpleAddiiton ... 2 0 )

2 Omission ... 2 0 )

3 Misformaiton... 2 0 )

4 Misordeirng ... 2 1 .

d Cause so fErrors... 2 1 )

1 IntelranguageI nterference ... .. 2 2 )

a Translaiton ... 2 2 )

b Socio ilnguisitc sStiuaiton... 2 3 )

2 InrtailngualI nterference ... 2 3 )

a O -ver generailzaiton ... 2 3 )

b Ignoranceo fRuleRest ircitons ... 2 4 )

c IncompleteAppilcaitono fRules... 2 5 )

d FalseConcept sHypothesized... 2 5 .

e Howt oDfiferenitatebetweenError sandMistakes ... .. 2 6 .

B Theoreitca lFramework ... 2 7

. I I I R E T P A H

C RESEARCHMETHODOLOGY ... .... 3 0 .

A ResearchMethod ... .. 3 0 .

B ResearchParitcipants... 3 1 .

C ResearchSetitng ... .. 3 2 .

D Insrtument sandDataGatheirngTechnique... 3 2 .

E DataAnalysi sTechnique ... 3 4 .

F ResearchProcedure ... 3 5

. V I R E T P A H

C RESEARCHRESULTSANDDISCUSSION... 3 7 .

A Type so fSubject-V erbAgreemen tErrors ... 3 7 .

1 DataPresentaitonont heTypes o fSubject-V erbAgreemen t s

r o r r

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ii i x .

2 Analysi sont heTypes o fSubject-VerbAgreemen tErrors 4 0 .

B PossibleFactorsI n lfuencingStudentst oProduceSubject-Verb s

r o r r E t n e m e e r g

A ... 4 7 .

1 DataPresentaitonont hePossibleFactorsI n lfuencingStudentst o t

c e j b u S e c u d o r

P -VerbAgreemen tErrors... 4 8 .

2 Analysi sont hePossibleFactorsI n lfuencingStudent st o t

c e j b u S e c u d o r

P -VerbAgreemen tErrors... 4 9 .

C Type so fTensesErrors ... 5 3 .

1 DataPresentaitonontheType so fTense sErrors... 5 3 .

2 Analysi sontheType so fTense sErrors... 5 6 .

D PossibleFactorsI n lfuencingStudentst oProduceTenses s

r o r r

E ... 5 9 .

1 DataPresentaitonont hePossibleFactorsI n lfuencingStudentst o e

c u d o r

P Tense sErrors ... 5 9 .

2 Analysi sont hePossibleFactorsI n lfuencingStudents t o e

c u d o r

P Tense sErrors ... 6 0 .

E Othe rFindings ... 6 2

. V R E T P A H

C CONCLUSIONSANDRECOMMENDATIONS... 65 .

A Conclusions ... 65 .

B Recommendaitons ... 6 7

S E C N E R E F E

R ... 7 0

S E C I D N E P P

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v i x F O T S I

L TABLES

e g a P s

r o r r E f o s e s u a C d n a s e p y T n o n o it a c if i s s a l C 3 e l b a

T ... 3 4

t c e j b u S f o s e p y T 1 . 4 e l b a

T -VerbAgreemen tErrors ... 39 2

. 4 e l b a

T TheUtterancesContainingMisformaitono fPlura landSingula r m

r o

F ... 4 1 3

. 4 e l b a

T TheUtterance sContainingMisformaitonDeailngwtihSpecia l e

s n e T t n e s e r P e l p m i S n i s e s a

C ... 4 2 4

. 4 e l b a

T TheUtterance sContainingMisformaitoni nAdjecitveClause .. 4 3 5

. 4 e l b a

T TheUtteranceContainingMisformaitoni nPassiveVoice ... 4 4 6

. 4 e l b a

T TheUtterance sContainingOmissiono fAuxiilaryVerb... 4 5 7

. 4 e l b a

T TheUtterance sContainingOmissionofI n lfecitona lMorpheme 4 6 e

h T 8 . 4 e l b a

T Utterance sContainingSimpleAddiitonErrors ... 4 7 t

c e j b u S n i s r o r r E f o s e s u a C n o y c n e u q e r F 9 . 4 e l b a

T -VerbAgreemen t

s e s a

c ... 4 8 e

h T 0 1 . 4 e l b a

T Utterance sIn lfuencedbyOver-Generailzaitoni n t

c e j b u

S -VerbAgreemen tCases... 5 0 e

h T 1 1 . 4 e l b a

T Utterance sIn lfuencedbyFalseConcept sHypothesizedi n t

c e j b u

S -VerbAgreemen tCases... 51 2

1 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtteranceIn lfuencedbyI gnoranceo fRuleRestircitons i n t

c e j b u

S -VerbAgreemen tCases... 5 2 3

1 . 4 e l b a

T Type so fTensesErrors ... 5 5 4

1 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtterance sContainingMisformaitonont hePresen tPattern e

s

U inPas tContext... 5 7 5

1 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtteranceContainingMisformaitonont hePas tPatternUse t

x e t n o C t n e s e r P n

i ... 5 7 6

1 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtteranceContainingMisformaitonont heUseo fAuxiilary e

v it c A n i b r e

V Voice ... 5 8 7

1 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtterance sContainingOmission... .... 5 9 8

1 . 4 e l b a

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v x 9

1 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtteranceIn lfuencedbyOver-Generailzaitoni nTenses s

e s a

C ... 6 1 0

2 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtteranceIn lfuencedbyFalseConcept sHypothesizedi n s

e s n e

T Cases... 6 2 1

2 . 4 e l b a

T T heUtterance sContainingMistakeandErrorsi nPlura land n

u o N r a l u g n i

S ... 6 3 2

2 . 4 e l b a

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i v x F O T S I

L APPENDICES

e g a P :

A x i d n e p p A

n o i s s i m r e P f o r e tt e

L ... 7 3

: B x i d n e p p A

e l p m a

S s fo Lette ro fConsent ... .. 8 0

: C x i d n e p p A

s n o it p ir c s n a r

T o fParitcipants’Utterances ... 8 3

: D x i d n e p p A

ASummaryandSomeSample so fQuesitonnarieResutl... 1 13

: E x i d n e p p A

d n a s e p y T n o n o it a c if i s s a l

C Cause so fErrorsi nSubject-Verb t

n e m e e r g

A Cases ... 1 30

: F x i d n e p p A

d n a s e p y T n o n o it a c if i s s a l

C Cause so fErrors inTense sCases... 1 44

: G x i d n e p p A

s t n e m e ri u q e R m u m i n i

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2

f o t n o r f n

i the clas sbecause they need to give insrtuciton sto the student sand

, s r e h c a e t e h t s a , s e d i s e B . m e h t o t s l a ir e t a m e h t n i a l p x

e theyareexpectedt obethe

s l e d o m e l o

r fo rthe students .Being a role model ,a teache rha sto deilver the

t c e r r o

c utterancesinf ron toft heclass .

n i ,) 7 0 0 2 ( r e e v n a T o t g n i d r o c c

A producingu tterances correclty ,aspeake r

e t a ir p o r p p a n a t c u rt s n o c o t s a h , s i x e l e l b a ti u s r o f k o o l o t s a

h syntacitc srtucture

n e h e r p m o c a e s u o t s d e e n d n

a sible accent .Besides ,a speake rshould think ,

e m it e m a s e h t t a s a e d i s s e r p x e d n a e z i n a g r

o . Therefore,t oproduceutterancesina

, y a w d o o

g theELESPstudents, sa theteache rcandidates, need to pu tgramma ra s

n r e c n o c r i e h

t .Inothe rword ,st heyareexpectedt ocomposegrammaitcallycorrec t

s e c n a r e tt

u in thei rspeaking .However ,based on the researcher’ sobservaiton ,

e r e h

t w ere many student sfaiilng to produce grammaitcally correc tutterances

y e h t n e h

w spoke. The utterances they deilvere d in thei rspeaking violated the

n i d e t a t s s e l u

r thegramma.r

n i s g n i d n if e h t n o d e s a

B smal lresearch conducted by t heresearcher, t he

r a m m a r g n i s m e l b o r

p w ereencounteredbythefou trhs emesters tudent so fELESP

g n i k a e p s r i e h t n

i .They faced dfiifcutli es in two aspect so f grammar ,namely

t c e j b u

s -verb agreemen tand tenses especially simple pas ttense. They did no t

r e t s a

m thecorrectr ulesi n subject- rv b e agreemen tand tenses .Consequenlty, t hey

e c u d o r

p d subject-verbagreemen terror sandtenseserror swhent heyspoke .

f o y ti li b a n i e h

T ELESP studentsi n gramma rcan l ead to some problem s

e h t r o

f i rfuture .In fact ,ELESP student sare going to be teachers .Hence ,thei r

e c n e t e p m o c n

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4

e h t , y d u t s s i h t n

I aspec to fspeaking tha ti s observed i s only planned

s i h c e e p s d e n n a l p y ll a i c e p s e e g a u g n a l n e k o p s , ) 4 0 0 2 ( a m o u L n o d e s a B . h c e e p s

e c n e t n e s n i r e tr o h s y l n o s i ti t u b e g a u g n a l n e tt ir w n i r a m m a r g y b d e c n e u lf n i ll it s

e h t , s e d i s e B . e g a u g n a l n e tt ir w n a h

t possible factors ea r only studied on

l a u g n il a rt n

i factors .

.

B ResearchProblem

e h t d e t c u d n o c r e h c r a e s e r e h

T study based on four main problems .They

. s w o ll o f s a e r a

.

1 Wha tkind so fsubject-verb agreemen terror sare found i n Engilsh Language

m a r g o r P y d u t S n o it a c u d

E students ’utterances?

.

2 Wha tare possible factor sin lfuencing the student sto produce subject-verb

t n e m e e r g

a errorsi nthei ru tterances?

.

3 Wha tkind so ftenseserror sarefound in Engilsh LanguageEducaiton Study

’ s t n e d u t s m a r g o r

P utterances?

.

4 Wha tarepossiblef actorsi n lfuencing t hestudentst o producetenseserrors i n

r i e h

t utterances?

.

C ProblemLimtia iton

e h t y b n w a r d s n o it a ti m il e m o s e r a e r e h t , h c r a e s e r s i h t g n it c u d n o C

. r e h c r a e s e

r Frist ,thi sstudy i sa survey on some smal lgroups in six C iritca l

g n i k a e p S d n a g n i n e t s i

L (CLS )2 classe sof ELESP .The researche rrandomly

e h t e s o h

c students’ presentaitons to berecorded .Then ,20 recording scontaining

e h t e b o t n e s o h c e r e w s r o r r e y n a

(22)

l a c it a m m a r g n o s e s u c o f y l n o y d u t s s i h t , d n o c e S . d e z il a r e n e g e b t o n n a c y d u t s s i h t

r e h c r a e s e r e h t t a h t o s s r o r r

e doesno tconcernanyothe rerror sexcep tgrammaitca l

. s r o r r

e Moreove,rtheaspect so fgrammaitca lerrorst ha tbecomet hef ocusint hi s

e r a y d u t

s onlys ubject-verbagreemen terror sandtenseserror .s

.

D ResearchObjecitves

d e t a l u m r o f s a h r e h c r a e s e r e h

T four objecitve sbased on the problem s

y d u t s s i h t n i d e n o it n e

m .Theobjecitve soft hi sresearch :a re

.

1 to ifnd ou tthe kind so fsubject-verb agreemen terror s found in Engilsh

’ s t n e d u t s m a r g o r P y d u t S n o it a c u d E e g a u g n a

L utterances.

.

2 to ifnd outt hepossiblef actorst hat i n lfuencet hestudentst oproducesubject

t n e m e e r g a b r e

v errorsi nthei rutterances.

.

3 to ifnd ou tthe kind so ftenses error sfound in Engilsh Language Educaiton

’ s t n e d u t s m a r g o r P y d u t

S utterances.

.

4 to ifnd ou tthe possiblefactor stha tin lfuence the students t o produce tenses

n i s r o r r

e thei rutterances.

.

E ResearchBeneftis

s tl u s e r e h t s t c e p x e r e h c r a e s e r e h t , y d u t s s i h t g n i o d y

B wli lcontirbutes ome

: o t s ti f e n e b

.

1 EngilshLanguageEducaitonStudyProgramLecturers

P S E L E e h t , y d u t s s i h t f o t l u s e r e h t g n i v a h y

B lecturerscan i mprove t he

o t g n i o g e r a y e h t s l a ir e t a

m deilver to the students ,especially the mateiral s

g n i s s u c s i

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n o it c e lf e r d n a e s n o p s e r l a c it ir c l a r o e v i g o t e l b a e b o t d e t c e p x e e r a s t n e d u t

s based

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0 1

I I R E T P A H C

F O W E I V E

R RELATEDLITERATURE

, s tr a p n i a m o w t f o s t s i s n o c r e t p a h c s i h

T namely thetheoreitca ldescirpiton

, tr a p t s ri f e h T . k r o w e m a r f l a c it e r o e h t d n

a the theoreitca ldesc irpiton ,discusse s

e m o

s theo ire srelated to thi sstudy. Meanwh lie ,al lmajor relevan ttheo ires are

d e ll a c t r a p d n o c e s e h t n i d e z i s e h t n y s d n a d e z ir a m m u

s thetheoreitcalf ramework .

t a h t s e ir o e h t e h t e r a e s o h

T suppo trther esearchert oconductt hestudy i n ordert o

m e l b o r p h c r a e s e r e h t e v l o

s s. I nt hi spar,t t her esearcherr elates et h theo ire st o the

m e l b o r p h c r a e s e

r s .

.

A Theoreitca lDescrip iton

e h t , n o it c e s s i h t f o t r a p t s ri f e h t n

I researcher discusse sgrammar .The

tr a p d n o c e

s present sthe rules in simple pas ttense .Meanwhlie ,the rules fo

t c e j b u

s -verb agreemen ta re desc irbed in the thrid patr .In the fou trh patr ,the

r e h c r a e s e

r discussest het heo iresi ns peaking .Meanwhlie,t het heo ire sabou terror s

e r

a elucidatedint he iftfhpatr .

.

1 Grammar

s i r a m m a r g “ ) 6 9 9 1 ( n a w S n o d e s a

B the rule stha tsay how word sare

, d e n i b m o

c arranged and changed to show dfiferen t meanings” (p . xx ii)i.

s t c e p s a o w t s e d u l c n i r a m m a r g , ) 6 9 9 1 ( k c o L o t g n i d r o c c

A , namely the

. s d r o w f o e r u t c u rt s l a n r e t n i e h t d n a s d r o w f o t n e m e g n a r r

a Reviewing those

r e h c r a e s e r e h t , s e ir o e h

t considers tha tthe deifniiton proposed by Lock i sbette r

n o it i n if e d e h t n a h

(28)
(29)

2 1

, y lt n e c e r , e r o f e

b and previously .According to Swan (1996) ,there are some

s n e t t s a p e l p m i s f o s n o it c n u

f e .Theyareasf ollows .

.

a Weuset he simplepastt enset o t alk abou tmany kind so fpas tevents: shor,t

s n o it c a d e h s i n if y l k c i u

q and happenings ,longe r stiuaitons , and repeated

s t n e v

e .

] 2

[ Pete rbrokeawindowl as tnigh.t

] 3

[ Is pen tal lmychlidhoodi nScoltand.

.

b Thes implepasti scommoni ns tory-telilngandwhenwearet elilngpeople

t u o b

a pas tevent .s

] 4

[ Oneday t heP irnces sdecided t ha tshed tid n o ilkestaying a thomeall

, y a

d sos het oldherf athert hats hewantedt oge taj ob...

.

c Thes implepasti so tfenusedwtihr eferencest o ifnishedpeirod sand

. e m it f o s t n e m o m

] 5

[ Is awJ ohnyesterdaymorning .Het oldme…

.

3 Subject-verbAgreement

n o d e s a

B Qurik e ta.l (1997) ,“Concord (also t ermed a'greemen't )can be

p i h s n o it a l e r e h t s a d e n if e

d between t wo grammaitca lunti ssuch t ha toneoft hem

r a l u c it r a p a s y a l p s i

d feature (eg pluraltiy )t hat accord swtih a displayed (o r

)t i c il p m i y ll a c it n a m e

s featurei nt heothe .r”( p.755) .Therule sareasf ollows .

.

a As ingulars ubjectr equ rie sas ingula rverb .

6

[ ]My daughte r watche s television atfe rsupper . (singula r subjec t+

b r e v r a l u g n i

(30)

.

b Apluralsubjectr equ rie saplura lverb.

7

[ ]My daughter swatch television atfe rsupper .(plura lsubjec t+ plura l

b r e v )

.

c Whent hesubjecti sr eailzedbyanounphrase,t hephrasecount sassingulari f

r a l u g n i s s i d a e h s

ti .

8

[ ]Thechangeinmaleatttiude si smos tobviousi ni ndusrty.

9

[ ]Thechange sinmaleatttiudes aremos tobviousi ni ndusrty.

.

d Fin tieandnon ifntieclause sgenerallycoun tass ingular.

0 1

[ ]Howyougott heredoes tn o concernme.

1 1

[ ]To rteatt hema shostage si scirmina.l

2 1

[ ]Smokingcigarette si sdangeroust oyou rheatlh.

.

e Preposiitona lphrase sandadverbsf uncitoningass ubjec talsocountass ingular

3 1

[ ]Int heevening si sbestf o rme .

4 1

[ ]Slowlydoe si !t

.f Anapparen texcepitonf o rclausesi st henominalr elaitveclause .

l a n i m o

N relaitveclause sareont hecon itnuumf romclauset onounphrase.

f o n o it a t e r p r e t n i e h t n o s d n e p e d r e b m u n r i e h t , d r o c n o c f o e s o p r u p e h t r o

F the

h w e h t f o r e b m u

n -element .Wtih t hedeterminer swha tandwhatever ,t heconcord

e h t n o s d n e p e

d numbe roft hedeterminednoun .Conrtast[ 17 ]and[ 1 ] 8 below:

5 1

[ ]Wha tweresupposed t o benew proposal swerein f actmodiifcaiton s

s e n o r e il r a e f o

6 1

[ ]Wha twa sonceapalacei snowaplieofr ubble .

7 1

(31)

4 1

8 1

[ ]Whati dea sheha sarehi swfi 'e .s

.

g Averbcount sass ingula rfit hef ris tverbi na ifn tieverbphraseha sasingula r

m r o f .

9 1

[ ]Mys onhasnoi ntenitonofs pendingavacaitonwtihme.

0 2

[ ]Mys on shavenoi ntenitonofs pendingavacaitonwtihme.

.

h Theappilcaitonoft hegeneralr ulei sr est irctedi ns evera lgeneralr espects.

b r e v e h t r o f t p e c x E ) 1

( be,t heverb show sadisitncitono fnumbe ronly i n the3rd n

i d r o c n o c w o h s t o n s e o d y ll a r e n e g b r e v e h t , e c n e H . t n e s e r p n o s r e

p thepas:t

2

[ 1 ]Mydaughterwatchedtelevisionatfers uppe.r

2

[ 2 ]Mydaughterswatchedtelevisionatfers uppe.r

b r e v e h

T bedisplay sconcordalsoi nt he3rdpersonpas:t

2

[ 3 ]Mydaughte rwa swatchingt elevisioni nmybedroom.

2

[ 4 ]Mydaughter swerewatchingt elevisioni nmybedroom.

,s b r e v e ti n if n o N . e v it a c i d n i e h t n i y l n o d e y a l p s i d s i d r o c n o c r e b m u N ) 2 (

.s n o it c n it s i d r e b m u n o n e k a m s e v it c n u j b u s d n a , s e v it a r e p m i

: s n o it c n it s i d r e b m u n o n e k a m s e ir a il i x u a l a d o M ) 3 (

2

[ 5 ]Mydaughte rmaywatcht elevisionatfers uppe.r

2

[ 6 ]Mydaughtersmaywatcht elevisionatfers uppe .r

e c l e C , s e d i s e

B -Murcia da n Larsen-Freeman (1999 )also proposerule sfo r

s e s a c e m o s e l b u o rt y lt n e t s i s r e

p ins ubject-verbagreement .Theyareasf o llows .

.

a Co llecitve noun s may take etihe r a singula r o r plura l verb in lfeciton

g n i n a e m e h t n o g n i d n e p e

d .

2

(32)

[ 82 ]Ours choolt eamhavewonal lti sgame .s( Individualt eammembers)

.

b Some common and prope rnoun sending in –s ,including –ics noun sand

r a l u g n i s a e k a t d n a y ti t n e e l g n i s a f o d e v i e c n o c s y a w l a e r a , s e s a e s i d n i a tr e c

. n o it c e lf n i b r e v

[ 92 ]Physicsi sadfi ifcul tobjec.t

.

c Tilte so fbooks ,plays ,operas ,flims ,and such works take the singula rverb

f n

i lecitonevenwhent heyareplurali nf orm.

3

[ 0 ]ThePriate so fCarirbeani smyf avourtief lim .

.

d Noun soccurirngi nset soft wot aket hesingula rwhen t henounpai ri spresen t

n e h w l a r u l p e h t e k a t t u

b pai ri sabsent .

3

[ 1 ]Apai ro frtousersi sont hes ofa.

3

[ 2 ]Theses hoe sneednewheels .

.

e Anumbe ro fnormallyt akest heplural ,whliethenumbe rtakest hes ingula.r

3

[ 3 ]Anumbe rofs tudent shavedroppedt ha tcourse.

3

[ 4 ]Thenumbe rofs tudentsi nt hiss chooli s2,000 .

.f Fraciton sand percentage stake a singula rverb in lfeciton when modfiying a

. n u o n l a r u l p a y fi d o m y e h t n e h w n o it c e lf n i b r e v l a r u l p e h t d n a n u o n t n u o c n o n

3

[ 5 ]Onehal foft het oxicwasteha sescaped.

3

[ 6 ]Twot hrid soft hes tudent sares aitsifedwtiht heclas .s

.

g Thenoun smajortiyandminortiyarevairouslydescirbeda ssingular ,plura lo r

.s tl u s n o c e n o r a m m a r g e c n e r e f e r h c i h w n o g n i d n e p e d , e v it c e ll o c

)

1 An absrtac to rgeneirc meaning tha trefer sto supeirortiy o fnumbers ;the

r o n a m u h e b n a c e c n e r e f e

(33)

6 1

3

[ 7 ]Thegrea tmajortiyi shelples .s

)

2 As peciifcmeaningwhereoneoft woo rmores et sha sanumeirca lpluraltiyo r

.l a r u l p r o r a l u g n i s r e h ti e n a c y ti r o ir e f n i l a c ir e m u n

[ 83 ]Themajortiywas/weredeterminedt opres stist/hei rvictory .

)

3 A speciifc meaning where mos t(majortiy )or l ess t han hal f(minortiy )o fan

.l a r u l p e b d l u o h s y e h T . o t d e r r e f e r g n i e b s i s n o s r e p f o t e s ti c il p x e

[ 93 ]Amajortiyo fmyf irend sadvise ti .

.

h Plura luni tword so fdistance ,money and itme take singula rverb in lfeciton

d e il p m i s i y ti t n e e n o n e h

w bu ta plura lverb in lfeciton when more than one

.t c e j b u s e h t n i d e d o c n e s i y ti t n e

4

[ 0 ]1,000mliesi sal ongdistance.

4

[ 1 ]2do llar sareont het able .

.i Artihmeitca loperaitons( add,s ub rtact ,muitplyanddivide)t aket hes ingula.r

4

[ 2 ]Oneplu soneequalst wo.

.j The quanit ifer sal l(of) ,a l o tof ,lot sof ,and plenty of take t hesingula rverb

b r e v l a r u l p t u b t n u o c n o n s i n u o n d a e h t c e j b u s e h t fi t n e m e e r g

a agreement i f

.l a r u l p s i n u o n d a e h t c e j b u s e h t

4

[ 3 ]Al o to fnonsensewa spubilshedaboutt hei nciden.t

4

[ 4 ]Al o to fpeoplewerepresen twheni thappened .

.

4 Speaking

m o r f d e e c o r p o t n e e s e r a s r e n r a e l “ , l a r e n e g n i ,) 4 0 0 2 ( a m o u L o t g n i d r o c c A

d n a e r o m g n i w o n

k more ,from using simple srtucture to using more complex

” ll a t a y n a f i w e f g n i k a m o t s r o r r e y n a m g n i k a m m o r f d n a , s e n

(34)
(35)
(36)
(37)

0 2

)

1 SimpleAddiiton

o t g n i d r o c c

A Dulay ,Bur tand Krashen (1982) ,“simpleaddiitoni st heuse

ll e w a n i r a e p p a t o n d l u o h s h c i h w m e ti n a f

o -formedutterance” (p .158) .Fromt he

e h t t a h t s e d u l c n o c r e h c r a e s e r e h t , n o it i n if e

d learner eu s s two dfiferen t ilnguisitc

m e

ti s toaword .I tcanbef oundoutf romt heexamplebelow.

[45] *Somestudent sdoes no tunderstandt hemateiral .

[ e c n e t n e s m o r

F 45,] t hel earne rproduces simple addiiton error sin which

e

h put sa ilnguisitc tiem, namely thrid person singula r– sfo rthe the verb .The

b r e v d n a t c e j b u s e h t n e e w t e b t n e m e e r g a e h t w o h s d l u o h s e c n e t n e

s in which both

n i e r a m e h t f

o plural form . The sentence should be S eo m students od no t

l a ir e t a m e h t d n a t s r e d n

u .

)

2 Omission

s i n o i s s i m o , ) 7 9 9 1 ( s il l E o t g n i d r o c c

A leavingou tan tiemt hati sr equried .

e h t , n o it i n if e d e h t m o r

F researcherconcludest hatt helearner od se no tpu tan tiem

d e d e e

n int hes entence .I tcanbef oundi nsentence[ 46] .

[ 6] *4 Hef ree

Sentence [ 6] s4 i na example o fthe sentence containing omission .The

e c n e t n e

s lacksauxiilaryverb.I tcanbet heauxiilaryverbis ,was ,ha sbeen ,o rhad

n e e

b dependingont hecontex.t

)

3 M si formaiton

o t g n i d r o c c

A Elils( 1997) ,misformaitonwhich eh calledmisinformaitoni s

(38)

e h t , n o it i n if e

d researcherinferst hatt helearnercompose sasentencewtihawrong

m r o

f .Fo rexample ,themisinformaitoncanbefoundfroms entence[47].

[47] * I od myhomeworkyesterday

nI sentence [47 ,] t he learner use sthe wrong grammaitca lpattern fo r

t s a p e l p m i

s tense .The l earnershould usetheverb did rathert han do .Therefore ,

heproduce smisinformaitonerror sinwhichheputst hepresentformo fverbi nt he

t s a p e l p m i

s sentence.

)

4 Misordeirng

n a n i s d r o w e h t g n it t u p s i g n ir e d r o s i m “ , ) 7 9 9 1 ( s il l E o t g n i d r o c c A

” r e d r o g n o r w e h t n i e c n a r e tt

u (p .18). Fo rexample ,i toccursi nthewrongorde ro f

n u o n e h

t phrase insentence[ 48].

[ 84 ] *Il ostt hecovert hebook

[ e c n e t n e s t s a p e l p m i s e h t m o r

F 48 ,]i tcanbeanalysedthatt heorde roft he

n u o

n phrase for t heobject i sincorrect .The word book should bepu tbefore t he

d r o

w cove rbecause timodiifest heword cover. Thesentenceshould beIl ostt he

r e v o c k o o

b .Based on Elil s(1997) ,“the mos tcommon grammaitca lcategory o f

. ) 8 1 . p ( ” e s n e t t s a p s i r o r r e

.

d Cause so fErrors

h s ir r o N o t g n i d r o c c

A (1983) , the cause s o f error s are fris t language

, n o it a l s n a rt , e c n e r e f r e t n

i genera l orde r o f dfiifcutly , over-generailzaiton ,

l a ir e t a m d n a s e l u r f o n o it a c il p p a e t e l p m o c n

i -induced error .s Meanwhlie ,

according t o Richard s(1974) ,errors t hat t he l earner sproducearei n lfuenced by

s a h c u s s r o t c a f y n a

(39)
(40)
(41)
(42)
(43)

6 2

x e r o F . y r o e h t e h t f o n o it p e c n o c s i

m ample, t hel earnerst hink t ha twasist hemark

c n i tl u a f e h t e s u a c y a m t I . e c n e t n e s t s a p e l p m i s l l a f

o reaitng sentencesuch as in

4 5 [ e c n e t n e

s .]

[54 ]*Oneday,i twa shappened.

.

e Howt oDifferentiatebetweenError sandMistakes

e h t , y d u t s s i h t n

I researcher need sto d fiferenitate between errors and

e k a t s i

m s .Accordingt oElils( 1997 ,)t heways todisitnguishbetweentheerro rand

e k a t s i m e h

t a :reb y

.

a Checkingt heconsistencyofl earners ’performance

i s n o c e h

T stency deal swtih t hefrequencyo ferrorst he l earner sproduced .

s e m it f o r e b m u n e h t s n a e m y c n e u q e r f , ) 3 8 9 1 ( h s ir r o N o t g n i d r o c c

A t he erro r

r u c c

o s .I tcanber egardedi nt woways .Theyareasf ollows .

)

1 Absolutef requencyo fanerro r t(henumbe ro fitmest hatt heerro roccurs)

)

2 The numbe ro f itmes t heerro rcould haveoccurred (relaitve t o t he l ength o f

) g n it ir w f o e c e i p e h t

f o g n it ir w f o e c e i p a s e c u d o r p r e n r a e l a f i , e l p m a x e r o

F 200 words and

s e k a

m 20error ,s i tcan beassumed thatt henumbe ro ferrorsi st wenty .However ,

r e b m u n e h t , ) 3 8 9 1 ( h s ir r o N n o d e s a

b o ferror scan be calculated in relaitve

y c n e u q e r

f by mulitplying t henumbe rby onehundred and dividing t heresul tby

, e c n e H . s d r o w f o r e b m u n l a t o t e h

t 2 𝑥 0020100 = 10 .Thus ,the numbe ro f itme sthe

. n e t s i d e r r u c c o e v a h d l u o c r o r r e

.

(44)
(45)

8 2

f o s e ir o e h t e h t , s r o r r e ’ s t n e d u t s g n i s y l a n a n

I Norirsh (1983) and Elil s

) 7 9 9 1

( w ere appiled .According to Norirsh (1983) ,error scan be divided into

r o r r

e s ,mistakes and lapses .Thi stheory helpe d the researche rin differenitaitng

n e e w t e

b errors ,mistakes and lapses because the researche ronly focused on the

r o r r

e s .Based on Elils( 1997) ,errorscan bedivided i ntoerror sand mistake .sThe

e k a t s i

m s proposed in Elils’ stheory a re the same a sthe combinaiton o fthe

e k a t s i

m s and t hel apses proposed i n Norirsh’st heory .Supporitng t heanalysi son

e r e f fi

d ntiaitngbetweenerrors ,mistakes andl apses t , her esearche ralsoappiledt he

. s il l E y b d e s o p o r p y r o e h

t According to Elil s(1997) ,the ways to disitnguish

n e e w t e

b the erro rand the mistake a yre b checking the consistency o flearners ’

e c n a m r o f r e

p na d asking t he l earners t o correct t he devian tforms .By basing on

s t n a p i c it r a p e h t k s a o t d e d i c e d r e h c r a e s e r e h t , y r o e h t s i h

t f orcorrecitngt hei rown

s e c n a r e tt

u .

e li h w n a e

M ,the researche rneeded a theory to suppor tthe answe rt o the

t e h t , e c n e H . s m e l b o r p d e t a l u m r o f d ri h t d n a t s ri

f heory proposed by Dulay ,Bur t

n e h s a r K d n

a (1982 )wa sappiled .According t o Dulay ,Bur tand Krashen (1982) ,

e r a s r o r r e l a c it a m m a r g f o s e p y t e h

t simpleaddiiton ,omission ,misformaiton and

p l e h y r o e h t s i h T . g n ir e d r o s i

m e d the researche rto classfiy the types fo errors

a t a d e h t n i d n u o

f .

r e h c r a e s e r e h

T also h ad to ifnd ou tthe answe rt o the second and fou trh

m e l b o r p h c r a e s e

r s which a re abou tthe cause so ferrors .In orde rto obtain the

r e h c r a e s e r e h t r e w s n

a distirbuted quesitonnaries to the paritcipant sabou tthe

o t r e d r o n i , s e d i s e B . s r o r r e g n i k a m n i m e h t g n i c n e u lf n i s g n i h

(46)

s r o r r e f o s e s u a c e h t n o s e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t f o t l u s e

r ,t her esearche ralso appiled the

f o s e s u a c e h t t u o b a ) 4 7 9 1 ( s d r a h c i R d n a ) 3 8 9 1 ( h s ir r o N f o y r o e h

t errors .These

r o e h

t i peshel e dther esearchert ocrosscheckt her esul toft hequesitonnariess ot ha t

r e h c r a e s e r e h

(47)
(48)
(49)

2 3

e h t y b d e s u e r u g if a , r e h c a e t a e b o t g n i o g e r a y e h t e s u a c e b t i w o n k o t e v a h

e h t s a s t n e d u t

s mode lfo rthem in applying Engilsh .Therefore ,they have to be m

d i o v a n a c y e h t t a h t o s s r o r r e r i e h t f o e r a w

a aking any grammaitca ldeviance . y

e h

T w ereobservedwhenhavingpresentaiton i nf ron toft heclass .Then , Ichose t

a h t s t n e d u t s e m o

s w erejudgedt obet her epresentaitves fort hisr esearch.

.

C ResearchSetitng

h c r a e s e r e h

T w asconductedonFebruary26thMarch8t ,h 2013i n Sanata

. y ti s r e v i n U a m r a h

D Ther ecording soft hestudent sw eretaken on February 26th -

1 h c r a

M st, 2013 in C iritcal Listening and Speaking 2 c slas es .A tfe rthat ,the

e b ir c s n a rt r e h c r a e s e

r d the recording on February 27thMarch 4th ,2013 and t he

k s a r e h c r a e s e

r e d theparitcipantst ocorrectt hei rown r ecording sonFebruary 5th

8th ,2013 whlie a tthe same day ,the quesitonnarie sw ere distirbuted in C LS 2 s

e s s a l

c .Ther esearche rchoseCLS2classe sbecauseintheseclasses, t hestudent s k

o o b a m o r f y r o e h t a t n e s e r p t o n d l u o

w o rany othe rreference sbutt hey t ired t o t

n e s e r

p thei rciritcal t hought t oward sthegiven t opics .Therefore, t herewould be y

n a

m more chance sfor t he student sto produce t hei rown sentence srathe rthan s

k o o b m o r f s e c n e t n e s e h t g n it a e p e

r orj ournals .

.

D InstrumentsandDataGatheringTechnique

i h t n

I sstudy,t her esearche rusedtes tandquesitonnarieast hei nsrtuments . e

ri a n n o it s e u q e h

T w as used to answe rthe research problems deailng wtih the .

s r o r r e e h t g n i c n e u lf n i s r o t c a

f Thequesitonnariewas used so t hat t heresearche r n

if o t s e c r u o s e r o m e v a h n a

(50)
(51)
(52)
(53)

6 3 ,

e s o h

c she reviewe d some book sand journal swhich are closely related to the e h t r o f s i s e h t o p y h e h t d e t a e r c r e h c r a e s e r e h t ,s e ir o e h t e m o s g n i d a e r r e tf A . c i p o t

s r e w s n

a t o research problems .Then, t heresearche rrecorded t hepresentaitons fo e h c r e h c r a e s e r e h t ,s d r a w r e tf A . s g n i d r o c e r e h t d e b ir c s n a rt d n a s t n a p i c it r a p e h

t cked

n o it p ir c s n a rt e h

t s and asked t heparitcipants t o correctt hegramma roft hei rown n

o it p ir c s n a

rt s .Then ,the researche rgave quesitonnaries to the paritcipant sand .

tl u s e r e h t d e s y l a n

a Atfer t ha,t t he researche rcrosschecked t he resul tof t he t es t s

r e w s n a e h t , n e h T . s e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t d n

a t otheformulatedproblem sweredrawn .

s i s y l a n a e h t n o d e s a

(54)

7 3

V I R E T P A H C

N O I S S U C S I D D N A S T L U S E R H C R A E S E R

f o s t s i s n o c r e t p a h c s i h

T if ve secitons related t o t he formulated problem s e

p y t e h t t u o b a s e s s u c s i d t r a p t s ri F . r e t p a h c t s ri f e h t n i d e t a t

s s fo subject-verb

t n e m e e r g

a error sobtained from the crosscheck between tes tand researcher’ s .

s i s y l a n

a Meanwhlie ,the possible factor sin lfuencing subject-verb agreemen t s

r o r r

e ea r clairifed in t he second patr .Those p s eatr a r meant t o answer t he fris t d

n o c e s d n

a formulated problems .Meanwh lie ,the thrid and fou trh formulated m

e l b o r

p s oft hiss tudya reelucidated ni thethridandf ou trh trp sa .I nthet hridpa tr , n

o s e s u c o f r e h c r a e s e r e h

t the types fo tenses error smade by the students . w

n a e

M hlie, t hepossiblef actorsi n lfuencingtheparitcipantst oproducet hetenses s

r o r r

e are discussed in the fou trh pa tr .In the iftfh pa tr ,the researche rprovide s .

s g n i d n if r e h t o

.

A Types fo Subject-verbAgreemen tErrors

f o y c n e t s i s n o c e h t g n i s y l a n

A deviaitonf orm sproducedbyt hes tudent ,st he t

d e n i m r e t e d r e h c r a e s e

r hatt hephenomenafound i n subject-verb agreemen tw ere .s

r o r r

e Thedeviaiton form sproduced by t heparitcipant sw eere t h systemaitcally .

s r o r r e s a d e r e d i s n o c e c n a i v e

d Therefore,t herew asnoneedt odea lwtih mistake s .

s e s p a l r o

o w t o t n i d e d i v i d s i t r a p s i h

T s ub secitons, namely data presentaiton and t

n e s e r p r e h c r a e s e r e h t , n o it a t n e s e r p a t a d n I . n o i s s u c s i d a t a

d s the resul to fthe

e v i g d n a e l b a t f o m r o f a n i h c r a e s e

(55)
(56)

1 . 4 e l b a

T Type so fSubject-VerbAgreemen tErrors

s t n a p i c it r a

P Subject-verbAgreemen tErrors n

o i s s i m

O Misformaiton SimpleAddiiton

1 2 2 -

2 4 7 -

3 - 3 -

4 - 2 -

5 3 3 -

6 1 1 -

7 2 - -

8 3 2 -

9 1 5 -

0

1 2 2 -

1

1 8 - -

2

1 2 - -

3

1 3 - -

4

1 4 - -

5

1 2 - -

6

1 - 4 4

7

1 - 4 2

8

1 2 5 -

9

1 3 2 -

0

2 - 2 2

l a t o

T 42 44 8

e g a t n e c r e

P )( % 4 4.7 4 6.8 8.5

e h t , e l b a t s u o i v e r p e h t n o n w o h s t l u s e r e h t g n ir e d i s n o

C analysisfoundt ha t

t c e j b u s n i s r o r r e d e c u d o r p s t n a p i c it r a p e h t f o l l

a -verbagreement .Theerrorst hey t

s i s n o c d e c u d o r

p e d o fomission error ,misformaiton erro rand simple addiiton r

o r r

e and none o fthem produced misordeirng error ni thei ru tterances . The t

a h t t u o d e r u g if r e h c r a e s e

r therew 2ere4 omissionerrors , 44 misformaitonerror s s

r o r r e n o it i d d a e l p m i s 8 d n

a made by the paritcipants .Omission errors were 5

1 y b d e c u d o r

p ou to f20 paritcipant swhlie 14 ou to f20 paritcipant smade n

o it a m r o f s i

m errors ni theutterances .Besides ,onlyt hreeparitcipant smadeerror s .

(57)

0 4

n

I a view o fthe numbe ro fthe error smade ,the analysis found tha tthe s

a w s r o r r e f o r e b m u n t s e g g i

b misformaiton erro ,rwhich contirbuted 46. 8%o fal l t

I . s r o r r

e showed tha t the paritcipant s encountered the bigges t problem in .

m r o f l a c it a m m a r g f o e s u t c e r r o c e h t g n i d n e h e r p m o

c Meanwhlie ,a tthe second

2 4 , e c a l

p ou to f94 error sw ereomission errors, which actually contirbuted abig e

h t o t r e b m u

n data .Therefore,t her esearche rstated t ha ttheothe rbigproblemt he o

s l a s a w g n i k a e p s n i d e c a f s t n a p i c it r a

p incompleitngt heutterance swtihal ltiem s .

d e ri u q e

r Meanwhlie ,simple addiiton error sw a the l eas tproducing error smade n

a p i c it r a p e h t y

b t .sI tw ascounteda smucha s8.5%oft heerrors . t a h t t u o d e r u g if o s l a r e h c r a e s e r e h t ,t l u s e r e h t g n i s y l a n

A on the average ,

e d a m s t n a p i c it r a p e h

t four errors .However ,paritcipan t2 w as the person who e

1 1 s a w h c i h w s r o r r e f o r e b m u n t s e g g i b e h t e d a

m rrors ,consisitng o f4 omission s

r o r r

e and7misformaitonerrors .Meanwhlie,t hel eas tnumbe ro ferror swa smade ,

4 t n a p i c it r a p y

b paritcipan t7 ,paritcipan t12 and paritcipan t15 w ho contirbuted o

w

t error sonly . .

2 Analysis t on heTypes o fSubject-VerbAgreemen tErrors n

o n o i s s u c s i d e h t s n i a t n o c t r a p s i h

T the types fo error smade by the t

c e j b u s n i s t n a p i c it r a

p -verb agreement .The researche rdescirbes more abou tthe e

p y

t s o ferror sby giving example sand more explanaitons .The example sgiven e

r e

w takenf romt heutterance smadeby t heparitcipants .Howeve ,rt her esearche r y

l n

o took some utterancest ha tcould bet hebes trepresentaitve soft he data .The e

b ir c s e d r e h c r a e s e

r s thedataf romt het ypeo ferrort hat dh a thebigges tnumbert o e

h

(58)
(59)
(60)
(61)

4 4

v it c e j d a n i t n e d e c e t n

a e clause need sarelaitve pronoun fi t hefollowing word i s t

n u o c n e t n a p i c it r a p e h t , e r o f e r e h T . t c e j b u s a t o

n ered a problem to compose a t

c e r r o

c adjecitveclausei n whichhedid no tpu tanyr elaitvepronoun betweent he d

r o

w s anyoneandwant .Moreove,ri nt hes econdutterance,t heparitcipan tdidno t h

c a tt

a thet hridpersonsingulari n lfecitont othewordwant . )

4 Misformaitoni nPassiveVoice

s a w b r e v y r a il i x u a t c e r r o c e h t g n i m r o f t a h t t u o d e r u g if o s l a r e h c r a e s e r e h T

. s t n a p i c it r a p r o f m e l b o r p

a Theutterancet ha tcoulds howt heevidencei sprovided 5

. 4 e l b a t n

i .

5 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtteranceContainingMisformaitoni nPas isveVoice .

o

N TheUtterance TheRigh tForm so fUtterance

.

1 Sexpatrybeorganised. Sexpatry si organised.

.l a t e k ri u Q n o d e s a

B (1985 ,) t hepattern f o rpassivevoicei ssubjec t+ be e

l p i c it r a p t s a p

+ .Theauxiilaryverbbeshouldbechangeddependingont he itme e c n a r e tt u e s n e t t n e s e r p e l p m i s r o f e g n a h c e h t , e s a c s i h t g n i c a f n e h W . e c n e u q e s

b r e v y r a il i x u a e h t , e r o f e r e h T . d e d e e n s a

w bein t he utterance should bechanged o

t n

i isbecauses expatryneed sathridpersons ingula rverb. .

b Omission

s i n o i s s i m o “ , ) 7 9 9 1 ( s il l E n o d e s a

B leaving ou tan tiem t hat i srequried” )

8 1 . p

( .Theresearche r ifgured out t ha t42 ou to f94 errorst heparitcipant smade e

r e

w omissionerrors .From t hedatacollected,t her esearche rfound outt hatt here e

r e

(62)

( e m e h p r o m l a n o it c e lf n i f o n o i s s i m o d n a b r e v y r a il i x u a f o n o i s s i m

o - /s -es) .The

s e b ir c s e d r e h c r a e s e

r mthe onebyone. )

1 Omissiono fauxiilaryverb e

h

T second type o ferrors ,which brough tdfiifcu tly t o t heparitcipants i n .

r o r r e n o i s s i m o s a w g n i k a e p

s According to Qurik e ta.l (1985) ,in subject-verb e

b n a c b r e v e h T . b r e v a s d e e n t c e j b u s y r e v e , t n e m e e r g

a a regula rverb ,an

e l p i c it r a p t s a p d n a b r e v y r a il i x u a n e e w t e b n o it a n i b m o c e h t r o b r e v y r a il i x u a

a t a d e h t n o d e s a B . e c i o v e v i s s a p n i d e ri u q e r s i h c i h

w collected ,theanalysisfound h

t att heparitcipant swhomadeerrorsi n omission did no tpu tanyauxiilary verb s e

h t n

i u tterances .Theutterancesf oundareprovidedi nt able4.6.

e l b a

T 4 .6TheUtterances ContainingOmis isono fAuxiilaryVerb .

o

N TheUtterances TheRigh tForms fo Utterances

.

1 Theyea isertogett hemate iral .s Theyareea isertogett hemateiral .s .

2 Plasitcs urgery ifrs tneeded Plasitcs urgeryi sifrs tneeded . .

3 ..s.omethingt ha tjutsr elatedtowomen. ..s.omething tha t i s jus t related to

. n e m o w

n w o h s e l p m a x e e h t m o r

F in table 4.6 a tthe fris tto thrid utterance ,s the e

h t r o f d e ri u q e r s b r e v y r a il i x u a e h t t u p t o n d i d s t n a p i c it r a

p utterances .Ass tateda t

t s ri

f u tterance, t heparitcipan thad no concern on putitng auxiilary verb between d

r o w e h

t theyand easier .Thesamecasealsohappenedwtiht hesecondutterance h

c i h w n

i iswa smissingbetweenthes ubjec tplasitcs urgeryandt hepas tparitciple d

e d e e n t s r

if .Meanwhlie ,a tthe th rid utterance ,the paritcipan tdid no tpu tany e

h t n i b r e v y r a il i x u

a adjecitve clause which i sbetween the word sthat and just d

e t a l e

r .BasedonQu rike ta.l (1985 ,)t hridsingula rsubjectr equrie saverbending (

e m e h p r o m l a n o it c e lf n i h ti

(63)
(64)

e r e

w some utterances containing simple addiiton errors .They are provided in .

8 . 4 e l b a t

8 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtterance sContainingSimpleAddi itonErrors .

o

N TheUtterances TheRigh tForm so fUtterances

.

1 So , every morning I’m wake up a t6 …

,. m .

a Sa.om ,,.e…very morning Iwake up a t6

.

2 Ithink al lo fyou wants to be ilke thi s .

e r u t c i p s i h t n i n o s r e

p Ipet rhsionnki anlt lhoi f spyoicutu wrea .nt tobe ilket hi s

o t g n i d r o c c

A Qurik e ta.l (1985) ,in simple presen ttense ,the subjec t s

e ri u q e

r etiheranauxiilaryverbo raverb .Theybothcanno tbeputt ogetheri na n e

c n a r e tt

u .On the othe rhand ,the researche r ifgured ou ttha tthe fris tutterance n

r e tt a p e h t d e t a l o i

v Qurik e ta.l proposed .The paritcipan tappiled the auxiilary b

r e

v amint heutterancewhereasi twa sno tnecessarybecauset heutteranceneeds .

b r e v y r a il i x u a n a n a h t r e h t a r b r e v

a Besides ,based on Celceand Larsen(1999) , e

h t

“ quanit ifer sall( of) ,al o to ,fl ot so fand plentyt akesingula rverbagreementi f d a e h t c e j b u s e h t fi t n e m e e r g a b r e v l a r u l p t u b t n u o c n o n s i n u o n d a e h t c e j b u s e h t

” l a r u l p s i n u o

n (p .62) .Sincet heword you in t he second utterance si considered ,

m r o f l a r u l p s

a the following verb should be rtansformed ni to a plura lform . d

r o w e h t , e r o f e r e h

T wanstshouldbechangedintowant .

.

B Possible Factor s In lfuencing Student s to Produce Subject-Verb

s r o r r E t n e m e e r g A

e r e h

T a retwos ub pa trsi n t hi sseciton, namelydatapresentaiton and data .

n o i s s u c s i

(65)
(66)
(67)
(68)

ti “ , ) 4 7 9 1 ( s d r a h c i R n o d e s a

B occurred due to generailzaiton o fthe 3rd person 3

e h t r o f g n i d n e r a l u g n i

s rdpersonplural”(p .175) . .

b F eal s Concept sHypothesized

s t n a p i c it r a p e h t d e c n e u lf n i r o t c a f e l b i s s o p s i h

T in dfiferenitaitng between g

n o r w o t e u d e g a u g n a l t e g r a t e h t n i m r o f e h

t comprehension .According to “

, ) 4 7 9 1 ( s d r a h c i

R thi sdeirve sfrom fautly comprehension o fdisitnciton on the ”

e g a u g n a l t e g r a

t (p .178). Theparitcipant screatedsomeutterancesi n lfuenced by r

o t c a f s i h

t .Table4.11providest hoseutterances .

1 1 . 4 e l b a

T TheUtterancesI nlfuencedbyFalseConcept sHypothe iszed in t

c e j b u

S -VerbAgreemen tCases .

o

N TheUtterances TheRigh tForm so fUtterances

.

1 Animei salsocomefromJ apan. AnimealsocomesfromJ apan. .

2 So ,everymorningI’mwakeupa t6a.m. So ,everymorning Iwakeupa t6a.m. .

3 Thi sacitvtiybeheldi nt heclub.s Thi sacitvtiyisheldi nt heclub .s

t s ri f e h

T utterance violate sthe subject-verb agreemen trule sin which in e

s n e t t n e s e r p e l p m i

s , asubjec tneed setiherauxiilaryverbo rverb .Theycanno tbe .

e s n e t t n e s e r p e l p m i s n i r e h t e g o t t u

p According t o Celce and Larsen (1999) ,“in (

n o it c e lf n i r a l u g n i s n o s r e p d ri h t e h t e s u e w , e s n e t t n e s e r p e h

t - sort hebeformi s )

” y ti t n e e n o o t s r e f e r t c e j b u s e h t

fi (p .59) .Theparitcipan tputt hebe mfor , namely s

i before the verb come because he had a fautly comprehension toward sthe c

A . r e k r a m t n e s e r

p cording to Richard s(1974) ,the be form is commonly i s e

li h w e t a t s t n e s e r p r o f d e c u d o rt n

i is+ing i spresented fo rthe presen taciton . i

s n e h e r p m o c g n i v a

H on on tha tway ,the paritcipant though ttha tthe be form, y

l e m a

n is nc a beusedast hepresen tmarker .Therefore ,heproducedt heutterance t

s ri f e h t n i d e d i v o r

(69)

2 5

e h t f o e l p m a x e d n o c e s e h t n i d e r r u c c o o s l a e s a c e h

T false concept s

d e z i s e h t o p y

h case in which they in lfuenced the paritcipant sto create utterance .s

r o r r e g n i n i a t n o

c Thecaseon t hesecond utterancei sa ssameasthecaseon t he t

s ri

f utterance .The thing tha tmakes i tdfiferen ti sonly the kind o fsubjec tand s

i h t h c i h w n i b r e

v utterance contain sfris tperson singula rrequi irng zero verba l .

g n i d n

e Thi sparitcipan tmade erro rbecause he though ttha the could apply the b

r e v y r a il i x u

a am a sthe presen tmarker .Therefore ,he though ttha tin every e

h t , t c e j b u s n o s r e p t s ri f g n i n i a t n o c e s n e t t n e s e r p e l p m i

s be form, namel y am

e h t n i t u p e b d l u o h

s utterancebeforet heverb . e z i s e h t o p y h s t p e c n o c e s l a f f o e c n e u lf n i e h

T d also occurred in the thrid e

c n a r e tt

u .However ,the case i sdfiferen tfrom the fris tand second u tterance . n

o d e s a

B Qu rik e ta.l (1985) ,thepattern fo rpassive voicei ssubject+ be+ pas t e

l p i c it r a

p .Learning t hepattern o fpassivevoice, t he paritcipan tthought t hat t he f

o e s

u bebeforet hepas tparitciplewast hepassivemarker .Therefore ,hedid no t e

h t e g n a h

c beformaccordingt ot he itmes equenceint het h ridutterance . .

c Ignoranceo fRuleRest ircitons , ) 4 7 9 1 ( s d r a h c i R n o d e s a

B thi sfactor deal swtih the appilcaiton o fthe n

o c o t n r e tt a

p text i n which i tdoe sno tapply .The researche rfound t hi skind o f e

s a

c int heutterancest hatt heparitcipant screated .Table4.12showst heexample .

1 . 4 e l b a

T 2 TheUtteranceInlfuencedbyIgnoranceo fRuleRestricitons in t

c e j b u

S -VerbAgreemen tCases .

o

N TheUtterance TheRigh tForm so fUtterance

.

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