Hidden transcript in Bob Marley`s and The Black Brothers` selective song lyrics as a Counter Power Domination.

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ABSTRACT

  However, as their music tend to be consumed for leisure and pleasure, people start to loose the cognitive part of itwhich is to grasp the meaning and to intellectualize the message that its lyric carries. In attempt to unveil the hidden message in the song, this study employs James Scott's concept of hidden transcript whichconsists of elements which become the rhetoric in Bob Marley's and The Black Brothers' lyrics.

THE GRADUATE PROGRAM OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2015

  D Thesis Advisor A THESIS Hidden Transcript in Bob Marley's and The Black Brothers' Selective Song Lyrics as a Counter Power Domination byIriano Yedijah Petrus AwomStudent Number 116332007 was defended in front of the Thesis Committeeand declared acceptable Thesis Committee Chairperson : Sri Mulyani, M. ____________ Yogyakarta, 23 Februari 2015 The Graduate Program Director Sanata Dharma University Prof.

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

  The community reflects the passion of the youth in the island to favor reggae music which was popularized by the legendaryJamaican artist Bob Marley and preserves the legacy of the island's legendary pop band The Black Brothers. Emerging from the spirit of the Black powermovements, Bob Marley gives a sense of affinity and engagement to the people ofPapua especially the youth that his music and message represent the spirit of freedom and resistance against injustice that have been experienced by them forso long.

1 Top Forty, Punk Rock and Rap. Many people in other countries especially the

  Third World and Black countries have recognized their own trouble in the expression of this loudest voice and have identified the suffering with music. Bob th Marley's 7 album, "Survival" is covered with all flags of Black nations in the world including Papua New Guinea (PNG), the neighbor country of West Papua.

1 Worth, David Steven. Rastaman Vibration: The Rhetoric of Bob Marley, Unpublished thesis, Texas: Texas

  The Black Brothers, a popular band from Papua, the eastern most province of Indonesia, was once appeared to be one of the forefront and greatest bands inthe nation in the 1970s and became the epitome of Papua popular music. Bob Marley has an international significance to thestruggle of the oppressed, especially in Third World countries and Black nations as shown in aforementioned album's "Survival." The album is covered with theflags of all independent Black nations in the world, including Papua New Guinea(PNG), the neighboring country of Indonesia, just across the border of Papua.

4 Scott's concept of hidden transcript by focusing on two basic questions: (1) What

  The essence of song is an equality 5 of music and text, in other words, song is a bridge that connects music and text that can enable a message to be clearly delivered. While emotionally and cognitively, music affects people by inviting them to relate to the themes of its lyrics to personal experience as a part of the act of processing 9 the message of a song.

1. Review of Related Studies

  Sonfor considers The Black Brothers' song as oral poetry based on the assumption by Flanagan that poetry is a literary work, written or orally used toexpress the thought and feeling of the author. He makes a clear division of patterns in relation to the structuresof Bob Marley's metaphorical expression which he views as a form of Bob Marley's rhetorics in addressing protest and critics.

9 Rastafarian language. His discussion is quite helpful since it provides the basic

  Dawes analyzes all songs in Bob Marley's nine albums Unlike the previous studies above, which mainly focus on each artist this present study would attempt to investigate the works of Marley and the BlackBrothers in figuring the possible link between the two artists that their songs possess elements of hidden transcript as a form of resistance against hegemonyand oppression by the power domination toward their respective social groups. This study also would attempt to link the disciplines of popular music study and literary study through the analysis of lyrics as a text.

2. Review of Jamaica and Papua Socio Political History

  Review of relevant literature on the social and political contexts in whichBob Marley and The Black Brothers's music emerged is necessary to understand the condition which illuminate message in songs of Bob Marley and the BlackBrothers. This ill-fated hegemonic and repressive condition somehow affects the method Bob Marley and The Black Brothers usedin their critique.

2.1. The Jamaican Socio-Political History

  Among others are Revelation 5:2-5, in which a descendant of David is described as able to loose the seven seals; Ezekiel37:22-25, in which a descendant of David is prophesied to be ruler of the world;Isiah 43:1-15, 65:9, in which descendant of Jacob is prophesied to be the ruler of 13 the world (Nicholas, 1979 in Worth). There could be some reasons behind the shooting, but one of them was because of the resentment 18 by the JLP of Bob Marley’s close relation to Michael Manley from PNP .

2.2. The Papuan Socio-political History

  Despite victory of the majority in the voting, on the proclamation day of the Indonesia independence,Soekarno made no mention of New Guinea to be part of the new nation. The Anatomy of Betrayel: The United Nations and the Indonesian Takeover of West Papua, On July 1946, a conference was held in Malino, Southern Sulawesi for representations from eastern parts of the archipelago to discuss the possibility ofIndonesia federation which consist of four full autonomous states.

34 Enarotali, Byak, and Jayapura. As a response Indonesian government began its

  Some were forced to flee across the border of Indonesian and Papua New Guinea 36 and lived in exile. West Papuan experience of Indonesiancolonialization has caused the raising of what is called by Johanes Baptist Metz as"memoria passionis" or collective memories of suffering that they long for freedom.

3. Theoretical Concepts

  This section discusses several concepts that are considered important in the analysis of Bob Marley and The Black Brothers’ lyrics in relation to eachrespective's socio-political sphere. These are the entry points into the journey to understand the wit of literary work in criticizing hegemonic and oppressive powerdomination.

3.1. Cognitive Poetics

38 Steinholt uses the concept of cognitive poetics to link up the relation

  The Anatomy of Betrayel: The United Nations and the Indonesian Takeover of West Papua, He uses Peter Stockwell's cognitive poetics concept, namely reading which involves mental process and poetics concern on the craft of literature. Furthermore, the key to have a better understanding literary values and meanings lies in the ability to have clear view of its text and context.

3.2. Conceptual Metaphor

  An example is "man is wolf." In the example man is the tenor, the subject of the metaphor and wolf is the vehicle, the frame into which man has been placed. "Life is one big road with lots of signs/ so when you driving through the road don’t youcomplicate your mind/ Flee from hate/ mischief, and jealousy." Here life is tenor, subject of the metaphor, and big road with lot of signs is vehicle, the frame intowhich life has been placed.

3.3. Hidden Transcript

  While public transcript is the official script of the domination which ties both the 48 oppressor and the oppressed into modes of acceptable behaviour, the hidden transcript is what occurs below the surface. It is through this sense that the writer assumes the works of Bob Marley and especially The Black Brothers are the arts of political disguise.

3.4. Memoria Passionis

The concept of memoria passionis was proposed by German theologian,

54 Johannes Baptist Metz. There are two types of memory: static memory which is

4. Theoretical Framework

  only the recall of the past without any action and dynamic memory which the recall of the past springs to the present and the future. Mostly the translation version is a free verse for the sake of The writer also uses library research as well as online interviews throughFacebook with members and relatives of The Black Brothers.

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW INTO THE REALM OF BOB MARLEY AND THE BLACK BROTHERS’ CRAFTS - CONTENT ANALYSIS Bob Marley and The Black Brothers are the embodiment of popular music

  As an adjective it indicates that something be it a person, a product, a practice, or abelief is commonly liked or approved of by a large audience or the general 1 public. Therefore popular music is a type of music that is mostly exposed in the mass media and appeals to a largeaudience besides being economically and commercially profitable.

1. Bob Marley's Music

  The spirit even got stronger with the revival of socio-religious movement ofRastafari which had sprung in Jamaica around 1930s and the advent of Jamaican 4 (Ethiopia); 4) Marijuana is used as sacrament. Psalms 104:14 to claim its sacramental properties:"He causeth the grass to grow for the cattle, and herb for the service of man, that 5 he may bring forth food out of the earth."In musical industry the early music producers in Jamaica who had4 established recording companies previously in the late 1950s decided to stop5 Peterson, David J.

1.1. Theme in Bob Marley's songs

  Growing up in the ghetto street of Kingston, Bob Marleywas known as one of the rude boys with a nick name "tuff gong." Despite of having this rebellious and aggressive quality Bob Marley offered a more subtleand peaceful way in dealing with the oppressive system. Bob Marley knows for sure that at the time of tribulation where the hopeless and powerless have no place to lean on, religion or spirituality is a way of other thanpolitical action that can possibly turn to be effective means for salvation and 12 liberation.

1.2. Bob Marley's Lyrical Style

  There are several source of influence to illuminate the characteristics ofBob Marley's songs namely Rasta language, Jamaican urban and rural wisdoms, and spiritual and mysticism. Bob Marley grew and spent most of his life time inthe center of the peasants where he would get in touch daily.

1.2.1. Rasta Language

  Before one enters into the realm of Bob Marley’s works it is very significant to take a look into the general pattern in his lyrics. Most reggae lyricswould employ Rasta language, an extension of Jamaican creole or Patois, a typical 14 broken English that developed during the time of slavery among the slaves.

15 Roberts. Pollard divided Rasta talks into four categories: First, words which

  The words are changed to reduce incompatibility and arbitrariness between linguistic sign and the meaning; third, the category of I words. I is tied up with the concept of sight because I is homophone to eye which is the "satta" which means relax or have a seat comes from the word sit.

1.2.2. Jamaican Grounded Metaphor

  This might because of the idea that the richness of the wisdom dwells in the center of the peasants where the oral This thesis focuses on the songs that contain the Jamaican grounded metaphors (patois or street language and local wisdom) and spiritual groundedmetaphors (Rastafarianism, Bible, and mysticism). A pot on the fire constitutes the communal pot of the ghetto in the government yard of Trench town as he would also sing in “No Woman No Cry.”“I remember/ when we used to sit /in the government yard in Trench town”.../log woods burning through the night/ and we would cook corn meal porridge.” Themessage is obvious that despite of the positive observation, i.e.

1.2.3. Spiritual Grounded Metaphor (Rasta and Biblical Reference)

  He also emphasizes the same message in "Could You Be Loved" and in"Get Up Stand Up." In the first, he sings“in the darkness there must come out the light.” Jah as the light is the source of hope for the people in the tribulation. Bob Marley sings more about the shadow of oppression in "Revolution."The lyrics are as follows, “Can’t trust the shadow of the dark/ so my friend I wish you could see.” Living in the dark is scary and full of terror that people cannotmove freely but once the sun comes in they are free to move even dancing.

1.3. Bob Marley's Lyrical Form

  In the opening verse of the song there is an echo line of assonance, "in my day to day." While in the second versehe plays with a rhyme that is magnificent. BobMarley's intention to employ vernacular Jamaican patois might suggest many things and one of them would be to boost a distinctive identity as a form ofresistance to the oppressive system.

2. The Black Brothers' Music

  The emergence of Papuan popular music started around 1950s to 1960s when there were a lot of Hawaiian groups spread in almost big towns in Papua. He is like Papuan version of Jamaican Joe Higgs whomentoring music and harmonies to local youths and the man behind those early groups and bands in Jayapura including The Black Brothers.

33 Biak. Being convinced that Jakarta offer the best opportunity to pursue their

34 Mercys). They also played several numbers of their own songs which attracted

  In1977, the band had a golden record award, and became one of the most expensive bands for a show in Indonesia with other famous groups like God Bless and SAS. Reportedly in 1982 when they were settled in Netherland, their disco version ofPNG (Papua New Guinea) song "Jalikoe" reached third place on a European disco 37 chart.34 The Black Brothers can be considered as a unique band because they blend35 Ibid, p.

2.1. Theme in The Black Brothers ’ songs

  Out of the five themes the two most dominant ones are romance and IrianJaya with the significant numbers of twenty one and sixteen out of the total sixty six songs (see table 6 in appendix 1). This is to prove the band's real characteristicas a typical popular band to sing of love song yet they might also lead to something deeper than just a romantic in the perspective of cognitive poeticswhich emphasize on the cognition of reading the lyric as a literary text by considering the context.

2.2. The Black Brothers' Lyrical Style

  The Black Brothers' lyrics are a mixture of Papuan folk chants with popular music which have a nuance of wisdom and mystic beside poetic lovestories, and social critics. Carrying this spirit The Black Brothers’ songs resonate with the deep emotion of the people.

2.2.1. Romantic Grounded Metaphors

  Another example of biblical allusion is also depicted in “Hari Kiamat”(The End of the Day) about the condemnation and the doom of the evil doers. Here lie the basic teachings of Jesus when He said in verses 27 and 28:“You shall love the Lord you God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself.

2.2.2. Papua Grounded Metaphor

  Another characteristic in The Black Brothers’ songs is the glorification of "Hutan lebat yang meluas, sungai berliku-liku/ Irian Jayaku ku bangga akan (Lush forest as far as you asalku...Indah nian alammu sejuk nyaman cuacamu" could see/ winding rivers flowing by/ O My Irian Jaya/ I’m really proud of my native...how lovely is your nature/ the weather is cool and cozy). That is why to some extend The Black Brothers existed to tell that the people of Papua have come into the light and therefore theyare supposed to live triumphantly.

2.3. The Black Brothers' Lyrical Forms Lyrically The Black Brothers is far away less rhythmical than Bob Marley

  Despite the lyrics consist of a lot of metaphoric expressions yet the lyrics do not have significant rhyme patterns. As a example is "Keroncong Gunung Cyclop" (Song of Mt. Cyclop) where they sing "Betapa agungnya/betapa megahnya/tinggi kau menjulang/bagaikan seorang raja dikelilingi ribuan bukitmu/di kakimu terentang The theme of a song designates its tone.

3. The Sense of Affinity between Bob Marley and The Black Brothers

  The similarity on which the interaction is based comes from the common aspects shared by the tenor andvehicle to form a meaning which is called "ground." However, as the grounds for constructing and interpreting metaphors and personifications are based incommonly accepted notions as Leff suggested, the context which determines their meaning may be immediate (bound to the audience or occasion) or it may besocial. By seeing all of these features of lyrical styles and forms in Bob Marley’s and the Black Brothers’ songs, the writer argues that both of the artists wouldlikely to have intended purpose in using them as their method and a medium to A much deeper insight into the song to see the hidden transcript is discussed in the next chapter.

CHAPTER 4 THE HIDDEN TRANSCRIPT IN BOB MARLEY’S AND THE BLACK BROTHERS’ SONGS In the previous chapter, the focus is on the content and structure of the

  A comparative analysis on the selective lyrics of each artist major-label studio albums is to explore the role ofmusic or song in the construction of hidden transcript in impoverished Black communities in hegemonic post-colonial Jamaica and in “still colonized” Papuasociety. The implementation of these two forms of power dominations are intended toperpetuate or secure power control over the subordinate groups, and to repress the political rivals and the possibility of people’s revolts.1 In understanding the general circumstances of explicit and implicit power2 Fontana, Benedetto.

2. Bob Marley and The Black Brothers' Music and Song as Counter-Dominant Power Alternative

  This can be seen in the emerge of movements which emphasize on raising cultural and political awareness and mobilization of thepeople such as United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), Rastafarianism inJamaica and Koreri in Papua, West New Guinea Council and OPM international campaigns for Papua. In addition, the writer assumes that the shifting was stronglyinfluenced by the involvement of intellectuals or academicians, religious leaders In an effort to break with the colonial past or dealing with brutal oppressive system music and song seem to be one of promising solutions.

3. Bob Marley and The Black Black Brothers’ Songs as the Language of Resistance

  Based on Oxford English Dictionary resistance is defined as "the act, on the part ofpersons, of resisting, opposing, or withstanding." It is said that from 1417 to 1874, usage of the term begins with resistance to "enemies" and "Rights of Sovereignty"and later shifts to "national resistance." The emphasis of the term has moved from individual acts to collective processes, and so has the meaning. This research conceptualizes the music and songs of Bob Marley and TheBlack Brothers to be contained with hidden transcript that manifested through public sphere as a form of counter-power domination alternative and analyzes theselective lyrics of each artist as a critique of each artist's respective social and political order.

4.1. The First Element of Hidden Transcript: Metaphor

  Depiction of thisgeneral suffering can be seen in Bob Marley's "So Much Troubles In The World": "We the street people talkin'/ Yeah, we the people strugglin'/...so much trouble in the world..."Here Bob Marley asserts himself as part of the people who suffer by using person plural pronoun "we." In describing the suffering he experiences, he is notjust talking for himself but rather for his community. The line "full of suffering" gives a nuance of many kinds of There are several kinds of sufferings that they portray namely the sufferings because of poverty, racism, violence, and imprisoned life.

4.1.1. Metaphoric Depiction of Poverty in Bob Marley's and The Black Brothers' Songs

  "The making of songs about poor people, the writing of the story of the people of Trench Town into history and time, was an act of defiance and 28 resistance." Another problem for the poor besides the lack of food is the shelter. To get the message we need to stop and listen to it, feel it and then find something of its transformative power,"Feel it in a one drop/...we're making the one stop/...now feel this drumbeat/as it beats within/playin' a riddim/resisting against ism and skism." The pleasure of music is not the only aim, but a way to struggle and a way to give a single blow to "them" who cause the problems.

4.1.2. Metaphoric Depiction of Racism in Bob Marley and The Black Brothers' Songs

  In all of those songs Bob Marley points out that there are several causes of racism namely the system of slavery, the system of colonialism, the postcolonialist and neo-colonialist policies of Europe. The message of the song is that "black is beautiful" as the famous slogan of the Black Powermovements of the 1960s would suggest.

4.1.3. Metaphoric Depiction of Violence in Bob Marley and The Black Brothers' Songs Bob Marley clearly addresses the issue of violence in some of his songs

  In "Slave Drivers" Bob Marley opens the first verse with "The crack of a whip" which provokes a historical monologue about slavery. Recalling the brutalizedancestors in the past has caused his blood runs cold in anger that could possibly lead to explosives respond.

38 These new forms of slavery have long been entrapped people's mentality. Therefore they have to realize and stand up to make a change

  He claimed that he was being protected by "HisMajesty." While Bob Marley clearly tell stories and condemn the violence, it seems quite likely that The Black Brothers purposefully obliterate or hide the issuebecause the possible cause could be the sensitivity of the issue in Indonesia during the New Order regime of Soeharto. Somehow, in a contemporary usage suanggi also specifically refers to the policemen or military force who dressed in uniform of brutality just like what isdepicted in Bob Marley's "Burnin' and Lootin'." Therefore "huembello" is a crying and hysteric panic that chaos is ready or in the progress of happening.

43 Papua during 1960s to 1980s. The infiltration of OPM freedom fighters would

  lead to numbers of innocent people missing, jailed, tortured and killed just like what is depicted by Bob Marley in "Johnny Was." This political unrest situation 44 has caused thousands of refugees across the boarder of RI and PNG. They seek for an asylum like The Black Brothers themself in 1979.

42 Nasution, Ikhwanuddin. "Sistem dan Kode Semiotika Dalam Sastra:Suatu proses komunikasi," LOGAT: Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa dan Sastra, Universitas Sumatra Utara, Vol IV No 2 (2008), p. 111. Web. July 2. 2014

43 <http://repository.usu.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/16736/1/log-okt2008-4%20(1).pdf>.

4.1.4. Metaphoric Depiction of Prison in Bob Marley's and The Black Brothers' Songs

  This concrete jungle of Trench Town in Jamaica is a physical place that entrapped the Blacks who have been stolen from Africa, as Bob Marley wouldsing it in "Natty Dread," "Natty is twenty thousand miles away from home." Trench Town has been a place of hard living, poverty, illiteracy, and oppression. Bob Marley and The Black Brothers have one thing in common in that they both connect the marginalized status of their social groups to race and cryabout the consequences of being poor and black in a country where reality is defined and justified by the dominant race and hegemonic power.

4.2. The Second Element of Hidden Transcript: Anonymity

  Basicallythere are three types of anonymity associated with network of communication that may be of interest: Sender anonymity, where the adversary cannot tell which usersent that message; Receiver anonymity, where the adversary cannot tell which destination a specific message is sent to; and, Relationship anonymity, where the 46 adversary cannot tell which destination a user communicates with. According to James Scott, anonymity is one of techniques that serve to shield the subordinate groups' identity while facilitating open criticism, threats, 47 and attacks.

4.2.1. The Sender Anonymity

  It is clear that many times a singer acts as the sender of a message in a song that he sings. However, in a certain case which relates to a sensitive matter, a singer tends to position himself as an observer and create a unanimous lore to make itseems like a rumor despite it can be based on a true event.

4.2.2. The Receiver Anonymity

  This technique is due to the fear of retaliation, that by doing it 50 much of the fear is dissipated. "We sick and tired of your ism-skism game/Dyin' and goin' to heaven inJesus name, Lord/We know when we understand/Almighty God is a living man/You can fool some people sometimes/But you can't fool all the peopleall the time" (Get Up Stand Up)"Them belly full but we hungry/an angry man is an angry mob" (ThemBelly Full)"Now you get what you want/do you want more/...

51 Church. The line "almighty God is a living man" is a reference to Ethiopian

  In this sense the figure can be the hypocrites51 who specifically relate to the rich and corrupt politicians like what Bob Marley In "Crisis" Bob Marley opens it with a statement of what was going on inJamaica, "They say the sun shines for all/But in some people world it never shines at all." The sun is a symbol of hope and optimism. "Kaum Benalu" (Parasites) is a symbol of hypocrites just like what Bob Marley would also sing in "Who The Cap Fit," "hypocrites and parasites will come up and take a bite." Both in Bob Marley and The Black Brothers's song, thegreedy image of parasites share the same characteristic that they would usually mingle with the people just to take advantage out of them.

4.2.3. The Relationship Anonymity

  Thus we can conclude that it is a sarcasm to the white In The Black Brothers we can see the typical example of relationship anonymity in "Misteri" (Mystery). Here The Black Brothers also employ the image of (sun or shine) like what Bob Marley would also use in some of his "Cahaya" songs like "Sun is shining," "Get Up Stand Up," and "Crisis." Sun and shine symbolizes hope, truthfulness and happiness.

4.3. The Third Element of Hidden Transcript: Euphemism

  As example among others are like the word "cock" is replaced by"rooster," the word "vagina" is replaced by "Miss V," "make love" for "having sex," the word "gosh" for "God," "Jeez" for "Jesus," "darn" for "damn" and "heck"for "hell." Euphemism is said to be a deception when it gives a false impression. Therefore, euphemism is generally related to doublespeak which can be found in three main categories of discourse: law enforcement and military, 60 political and nuclear which sometimes function as a means of propaganda.

4.3.1. Euphemism as Sweet Talking

  Ann and urban Kingston, Bob Marley was exposed to the rural proverbs and street language which he later on utilized inhis songs. Therefore in discussing a certain issue, asinger tends to use euphemism as sweet talking to soothe the roughness and vulgarity.

61 Furthermore he makes a good parable of man's and woman's genital to

  It depicts the life of a woman who has cultivated a drug habit, who models for a 62 65 living and was a part of the jet set, and whose ego is causing her undoing. Under the issue of prostitute both of their songs have similarities in regard to the aim of euphemism which is to makeit less offended and its another layer of meaning in relation to socio-economic condition.

4.3.2. Euphemism as Deception

  In some of his songs Bob Marley directly declared himself to be a militant "Crazy Baldhead" is a sarcastic song about the hypocrisy of the non-Rastas. It is no wonder in manyof their songs, The Black Brothers would refer to the land with the term "IrianJaya instead of "Papua." For the writer, the use of the term in their lyrics has a nuance of resistance if we take a closer look.

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Bob Marley and The Black Brothers are two different artists who are separated by language, musical genres, socio-political background, and geography. However, parallels can still be drawn from their artistic works as this thesis has

  Hence the primaryconcern of the government is to keep the thousand islands to be in tact under the nation's motto in Sanskrit (Javanese) "Bhineka Tunggal Ika" (Oneness InDiversities) just like Jamaican slogan "Out of Many,One People." In This present study has also shown that out of their respective socio-political unrest, both Bob Marley and The Black Brothers found a solution,i.e. There are some more interesting questions to be elaborated into further research that can help to raise people's cognitive consciousness upon the message As a final remark, the major difficulty in this study lies in the fact that it is hard to cover all Bob Marley and The Black Brothers' songs deeply and equally.

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