A. The Nature of Teaching
Actually there are many definitions about teaching. Kimberly and Garmezy in Purnawinata (2008:5) state that teaching is showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something providing with knowledge causing to know or understand. In addition, Sardiman A.M (2003:3) states that teaching is an act of preparing condition that direct the students to get knowledge, skill, score, and attitude.
Besides the definition above, teaching also have some components. According to Nelson in Purnawinata (2008:6) there are many components of
teaching and learning process. Those components are: 1. The Teaching Aims
The teaching aims are the formulation of behaviour and skills, which have to be acquired by students after teaching learning. The contents of teaching are the result of teaching and learning expectation. 2. The teaching of Oral Language
Teaching and learning process will get better result when there are enough facilities that can help us to transfer the materials or the messages. It can also motivate the students to study hard.
Environment means “education” that will support teaching and
learning process. 5. Evaluation
Evaluation is a tool to measure the extent in which the teaching aims are reached.
B. The Nature of Reading
1. Definition of Reading
Simanjuntak in Fauzan (2009 : 7) states that reading is a process of putting the reader in contact and communication with ideas. As a matter of fact, human beings are pre programmed to perform language act, such as listening, speaking and writing.
In addition, Walker states that;
“Reading is an active process in which readers shift between source of information (what they know and what the text says), elaborate meaning and strategies, check their interpretation (revising when appropriate), and use the social context to focus their response.”
It is supported by Wainwright (2007 :37) that reading comprehension is process in which the reader has to decide linguistic symbol and reconstruct them up to meaningful whole intended by the writer .
From the previous definition, it can be concluded that reading is regarded as complex activity that involves various activities such as: looking, thinking, and understanding. Furthermore, readers must know each printed symbol of it.
In reading, it is not only comprehend the printed symbol but also had to know the acquisition of the meaning of the symbol. It is because this will bring readers to come to comprehend the content of the passage that has been read. In other word, reading and comprehension are two terms that cannot be separated. Comprehension not only depends on understanding the meaning of the sentence but also on understanding the awareness of organization of the reading materials.
2. The Components in Reading
a. Decoding Knowledge
Decoding knowledge is important for comprehension when determining the oral equivalent of a word helps a reader identify meaning. Knowing how to determine the oral equivalent of a written word enables beginning readers to access the meaning of most words in the oral language.
b. Vocabulary Knowledge
Vocabulary knowledge means word meaning used to determine the appropriate meaning of a word in particular context but is a particularly important aspect of reading instruction as children develop and explore less familiar subject areas with somewhat about specialized vocabularies.
c. Syntactic Knowledge
Syntactic knowledge means knowledge of word order rules that determine grammatical function and sometimes the pronunciation of words. Syntactic knowledge includes understanding word order that exists within sentences and it is permitted to determine the grammatical function of meaning and pronunciation of words.
Familiarity with the more syntactical pattern in English is important to develop reading ability and as the structure of the sentences.
Reading different literature is enjoyable to promote the development of discourse knowledge. Discourse knowledge means knowledge of language organization at units beyond the single sentence level includes the knowledge of structural organization of different types of writing. Knowing the structural organization of different types of writing is useful during reading comprehension. Besides that it is used to know whether your reading is likely to be true or false.
e. Readiness Aspects
Readiness refers to two different concepts, traditional and recent. Reading readiness is ability of a student to benefit from initial reading instruction. According to this view, a young child is either ready to begin reading instruction or else must continue to develop a number of readiness skill. Traditional readiness skill is important instruction during kindergarten and the beginning time of the first grade. Recently, reading readiness has wider definition. It includes being ready to read and understand a particular selection. Reading instruction, in this case, consists of activities that prepare students to read a specific story such developing background knowledge about the topic of the selection, learning new vocabulary word, understanding the purpose for reading selection or learning comprehension skills required to understand the selection.
Reading is not only a language process, but also it is an affective process. Language process is the way human beings process speech or writing and understand it as language. Meanwhile, affective process of comprehension includes a reader‟s attitude and interesting reading. All
readers comprehend better when reading becomes interested something for them.
The major components of reading influence someone very much in comprehending the text. Readers have different interpretation based on their understanding the text. If the major components of reading have been mastered well, the readers will comprehend the text perfectly (it means that the reader knows what the writer means in the text).
C. The Nature of Cooperative Learning
1. Definition of Cooperative Learning
As a learner-centered method, cooperative learning is a teaching method by which learners study by helping one another in small groups in their learning process in order to achieve a common objective (Açıkgöz in
Bolukbas and Keskin (2011:330)).
Another definition said that Cooperative learning is an in-class learning approach which is used to help learners develop a positive image both for themselves and their peers, and to improve problem solving and critical thinking skills in order to encourage learners in terms of social skills based on cooperation Gömleksiz in Bolukbas and Keskin (2011:330).
In addition, cooperative learning is a learning method in which learners help each other in terms of their learning process by making up small homogenous groups to achieve a common goal; and in which group performance is rewarded in several different ways.
There are differences between learners‟ studying in groups and
cooperative learning method. In group-work, learners can sit around a table while studying, but they cannot communicate with each other independently while studying together. Therefore, small study groups cannot affect each other positively. That‟s why, their communication can
be considered to be individual learning. Then, in cooperative learning, learners‟ efforts are rewarded as a group.
not need to learn how to cooperate since teachers manages the organization and the structure of the groups (Johnson in Bolukbas and Keskin (2011:331)).
In order for a group work to be a cooperative one, learners should be aware of the fact that they need to maximize the learning of both their own and their friends. In these groups, learners make an effort to maximize their own and other group members‟ learning since the
performance of cooperative learning groups is possible only when each individual struggles for the benefit of all group members.
For a group work to be considered a cooperative learning process, the following components and conditions should be taken into consideration:
1) Group reward: In order for members of a group to succeed, it is necessary for the group itself to become successful.
2) Positive interdependence: It creates a situation in which individuals make a common effort for the reward and their common goal which can be possible via positive dependence, positive product dependence, and positive process dependence.
3) Individual accountability: It means that group success depends on the learning of each individual. Every learner has the responsibility to learn the subject and do whatever must be done.
5) Social skills: It is about teaching learners how to build relations among individuals and encouraging them to use this.
6) Group processing: It is about identifying which behavior of the members benefit to the success of the group, and also which behaviors should continue and which ones should be modified.
7) The opportunity for equal success: It is about benefitting to the success of the group by developing their own behaviors and this can be achieved through a specific grading method (Açıkgöz in Bolukbas and
In cooperative learning method, the realization of individual objectives is dependent on the overall success of the group. Therefore, the ones who want to be successful are forced to help other group members. Wilkinson (1994) states that cooperative learning enables fast learners to help respectively slow learners in terms of improving their skills. In other words, every learner struggles to develop both themselves and other group members because it forces them to aware of the fact that the success of the group depends on the performance of each individual.
cooperative learning groups, even though the success of the group is the focus, it should be noted that it is also based on individual performance of the learners.
D. The Nature of Jigsaw Technique
1. Definition of Jigsaw Technique
According to Clarke J (1985), jigsaw is one technique which makes the independence of group members, promotes interaction and cognitive elaboration, and takes into consideration, the principle of the multiple perspectives and context as well as the construction of common knowledge.
In Addition, Jigsaw is a cooperative learning technique in which students work in small groups. Jigsaw can be used in a variety of ways for a variety of goals, but it is primarily used for the acquisition and presentation of new material, review, or informed debate. In this method, each group member is assigned to become an "expert" on some aspect of a unit of study. After reading about their area of expertise, the experts from different groups meet to discuss their topic, and then return to their groups and take turns teaching their topics to their group mates.
2. Advantages of Jigsaw
Jigsaw is said to be able to increase students‟ learning since ; a) It is less threatening for many students.
d) It reduces the teacher‟s dominance in the classroom (Longman Dictionary, 1998). Consequently, jigsaw strategy can successfully reduce students‟ reluctance to participate in the classroom activities and help create
an active learner-centered atmosphere. 3. Principles of Jigsaw
Johnson, et. Al (2010:115) put forward five principles for jigsaw strategy, those are:
a. Positive interdependence
Each group member‟s efforts are required and indispensable for the
group success. Each group member has to make unique contributions to the joint effort.
b. Face-to-face promotive interaction
Group members have to orally explain how to solve problems, teach one‟s knowledge to others, check for understanding, discuss concepts
being learned and associate the present learning with the past one. c. Individual and group accountability
The size of the group should be kept small, for the smaller the size of the group is, the greater the individual accountability may be.
The teacher is expected to give an individual test to each student, randomly examine students by asking one student to present his or her group‟s work orally to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the
each group as the leader, who is responsible for asking other group members to explain the rationale underlying the group answers, and monitor students to teach what is learned by them to the others
d. Interpersonal skills
Social skills are a necessity for the success of jigsaw learning in class. Social skills include leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, conflict-management skills and so on.
e. Group processing
Group members discuss how to achieve their goals and maintain the effective working relationships, describe what member actions are helpful and what are not, and make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change.
Jigsaw learning makes it possible for students to be introduced to the material and bear a high level of personal responsibility. It helps develop teamwork and cooperative learning skills within all students and a depth of knowledge is not possible if the students learn all of the material on their own.
E. The Nature of Recount Text
1. Definition of Recount
Sofyanda, et al (2005:95) states recount is a report of events or activity in the past. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative
2. Generic Structure of Recount
As kind of text recount also has generic structure, they are; a. Orientation: Introducing the participants, place and time b. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past
c. Reorientation: It is optional. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story
3. Language Feature of Recount
There are some language features in recount text, they are; • Introducing personal participant; I, my group, etc
• Using chronological connection; then, first, etc
• Using linking verb; was, were, saw, heard, etc
F. Teaching Recount Text Using Jigsaw
Here the steps of Jigsaw technique for teaching recount text;
1. Teacher divides the studentsinto6-8groups to make a home group, a group consist of 4-5students
2. Teacher gives different text of each group‟s members. 3.Teacher ask them to read it first
4. Teacher asks students who get the same text to make an expert group. 5. Teacher asks the students to discuss the text together in expert group. 6. Teacher asks the students back to their home group.
7. Teacher asks students to share the information that they got in expert group to the members of home group.
8. Teacher gives some questions to the groups.
G. Basic Assumption
Using jigsaw technique in classroom is the interesting way to make the students active in learning. The various teaching technique will be very meaningful activities for them. By using jigsaw technique, it can make them feel more challenging and interesting to follow the lesson. When the students are challenged and interested in doing the activities, it can make them easier to understand the material. From the previous explanation it will be effective for teaching recount text. Recount text is a text which reports an event or activity in the past. It usually tells about experience in the past. Most of students are still confused to comprehend the recount text. From the previous explanation it can be concluded that jigsaw is an effective technique to make teaching recount text more effective.