RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By DIYAN KRISNAWATI Student Number: 104124008 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By DIYAN KRISNAWATI Student Number: 104124008 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM By DIYAN KRISNAWATI Student Number: 104214008 Approved by July 14, 2014 Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M. Hum. Advisor Paulus Sarwoto, S.S., M.A., Ph.D. Co- Advisor July 14, 2014 iii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM By DIYAN KRISNAWATI Student Number: 104214008 Defended before the Board of Examiners On July 21, 2014 and Declared Acceptable BOARD OF EXAMINERS Name Signature Chairperson : Dr. F.X. Siswadi, M.A. ________________ Secretary : Dra. A.B. Sri Mulyani, M.A. ________________ Member 1 : M. Ananta Tri Suryandari S.S., M.Ed. ________________ Member 2 : Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum. ________________ Member 3 : Paulus Sarwoto, S.S., M.A., Ph. D. ________________ Yogyakarta, July 25, 2014 Faculty of Letters Sanata Dharma University Dean Dr. Fransiskus Xaverius Siswadi, M.A. iv

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya Mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Diyan Krisnawati : 104214008 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencatumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 25 Juli 2014 Yang menyatakan, Diyan Krisnawati v

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis. Yogyakarta, July 10, 2014 Diyan Krisnawati vi

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI I am a type of person… if you ask a question, and I don’t know the answer…I’m gonna tell you that I don’t know. But I bet you what. I know how to find the answer, and I will find the answer. Chris Gardner - The Pursuit of Happiness vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am writing this page to show my gratitude for everyone who has supported me to finish my study. I would like to say thank to Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M. Hum., for the guidance and spirit so I can accomplish my study punctually, Paulus Sarwoto, S.S., M.A., Ph.D., for giving me criticism and advices to strengthen my study. I also thank for my ‘very important person’ in my life: Gregorius Budi Subanar Sj, Baskara T. Wardaya, SJ, Mr. Bega, Mr. Jati, for giving me support, time, and little discussion toward my study. Thank you so much. This study means nothing without support of my friends in 10’ English Letters including the staff. I am thankful to be your friend and partner. I also want to thank my friends in my boarding house, the owners, my lovely bicycle: senja, Peer Partner, for all mothers and fathers in my surroundings who help me to provide my needs for my study, and everyone else that cannot be mentioned here one by one. Thank you for a good time and a bad time, to make me to be what I am now, to keep in touch even though it seems hard somehow. Last but not least, no words can express my deepest gratitude for my family, thank you for your trust, support and pray my beloved mother, Martini, father, Sugeng, my lovely sister Winda Oktavia, and my brother, Bagus Sapto Nugroho. My greatest Savior Jesus Christ, thank you for not leaving me. No matter what I have done and decided. Thank you. Diyan Krisnawati. viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ............................................................................................ APPROVAL PAGE .................................................................................. ACCEPTANCE PAGE ............................................................................. LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ....... STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ........................................................ MOTTO PAGE ......................................................................................... ACKNOWKEDGEMENTS ..................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................... ABSTRACT ............................................................................................... ABSTRAK ................................................................................................... ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix xi xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ............................................................ A. Background of the Study................................................................. B. Problem Formulation ...................................................................... C. Objectives of the Study ................................................................... D. Definition of Terms ......................................................................... 1 6 6 7 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ........................................ A. Review of Related Studies .............................................................. B. Review of Related Theories ............................................................ 1. Theory of Character and Characterization ................................ 2. Theory of Setting....................................................................... 3. Theory of Symbol ..................................................................... 4. Theory of Myth ......................................................................... 5. Theory of Re-vision…………………………………………… 6. Theory of Structural Analysis……………………………….. . 7. Review of the Story of King Ahab in the Bible ........................ C. Theoretical Framework .................................................................... CHAPTER III : METHODOLOGY ....................................................... A. Object of the Study.......................................................................... B. Approach of the Study .................................................................... C. Method of the Study ........................................................................ 26 28 29 CHAPTER IV : ANALYSIS (RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS) ........... A. Re- visioning The Myth of King Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym ................................................................................ 1. The Myth of King Ahab in the Bible .................................. 2. Ahab as a Myth in The Devil and Miss Prym ..................... 3. Chantal Prym as The Re-vision of the Myth of Ahab ......... B. The Results of the Re-vision ................................................... 1. The Table of Re-vision........................................................ 2. The Factors that Cause Re-vision ....................................... 3. The Function of Re-vision .................................................. 31 42 39 50 63 63 65 67 8 10 12 13 13 17 19 22 24

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ................................................................ BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................... APPENDIX: Summary of Paulo Coelho’s The Devil and Miss Prym ...... 69 72 74

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT KRISNAWATI, DIYAN. RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. It is familiar for us hearing a term ‘myth’. Some people assume that myth is a kind of a story or a legend. The rest believe that myth is a story to keep people behaves according to the norm. Nevertheless, myth is more than a story. It is a type of speech. Roland Barthes says that myth is not only a type of speech but also a motivated and stolen language. It is used to reach a certain aim of certain people. The problem happens when most of people accepting the myth improperly. It causes people live in chaos and fear. Thus, it is important to understand myth rationally. That is what Paulo Coelho did. Through The Devil and Miss Prym he makes a ‘re-visionary’ work by relating it with the story in the Bible, Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard. The Devil and Miss Prym is his way to revision some characters in the Bible and re-create them with a new vision. Revision has close understanding with the term re-imagine or re-write. Re- imagine is when we see a chair as a chair. In the other hand, re-vision is when we see a chair from anything which moves round the chair. This study has two problem formulations as guidance for the writer to make her stay on focus with the topic. First is how The Devil and Miss Prym re-vision the myth of King Ahab in the Bible. It analyzes and explains the process of revision which Coelho did. Second is what the results of the re-vision are. It covers: the table of re-vision’s process, the factors which cause to conduct re-vision, and the function of re-vision. The method which is used in this study was a library research. The primary source of this study is a book from Paulo Coelho entitled The Devil and Miss Prym. The secondary data are some books about myth, character and characterization, re-vision, and also some information from the internet sites. The approach that the writer applies in this work is structuralism. It studies a certain object which has meaning but that meaning or essence is in the outside. It also concerns with the study of the text intrinsically and extrinsically. The results of this study are: (1) The Devil and Miss Prym can be concluded as the re-vision of King Ahab myth since the characters in the novel substitute the characters in the Bible and they appear distinctively in their characterization (2) The novel is written based on the fact that our life cannot be separated from myth since myth may appear, reach, even corrupt everything ( language, meaning) (3) The Devil and Miss Prym can be regarded as the myth of freedom since it revision some concepts that harden in society in which they understand it improperly. xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK KRISNAWATI, DIYAN. RE-VISIONING THE MYTH OF KING AHAB IN PAULO COELHO’S THE DEVIL AND MISS PRYM. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Tentu tidak asing lagi bagi kita mendengar istilah mitos. Beberapa orang beranggapan bahwa mitos adalah sebuah legenda atau cerita rakyat. Sebagian lagi percaya bahwa mitos adalah cerita yang mampu membuat kita mematuhi normanorma yang ada. Namun, mitos ternyata lebih dari sekedar sebuah cerita. Mitos adalah cara berkomunikasi. Tidak hanya itu, menurut Roland Barthes mitos juga dapat disebut bahasa curian dan bahasa yang memiliki motivasi tertentu. Permasalahan yang sering terjadi adalah ketika orang- orang tidak tepat dalam menalar sebuah mitos. Hal itu menyebabkan manusia hidup dalam kekacuan dan ketakutan. Maka dari itu, penting untuk mengerti mitos dengan baik. Hal inilah yang Paulo Coelho lakukan. Melalui The Devil and Miss Prym ia membuat sebuah karya ‘re-visionary’ dengan menghubungkan itu pada sebuah cerita di Alkitab, Ahab dan Kebun Anggur Naboth. The Devil and Miss Prym adalah cara yang ia gunakan untuk me-re-vision beberapa karakter di Alkitab dan membuat ulang mereka dengan sudut pandang yang berbeda. Pengertian re-vision hampir sama dengan istilah re-imagine atau re-write. Re- imagine adalah saat kita melihat sebuah kursi sebagai kursi sedangkan re- vision adalah cara kita melihat kursi dari hal apapun yang mengelilingi kursi tersebut. Studi ini memilik dua pertanyaan sebagai bahan acuan agar penulis tetap fokus pada topik. Pertama, bagaimana The Devil and Miss Prym menilik kembali mitos King Ahab di Alkitab. Poin ini menganalisa dan menjelaskan proses dari revision tersebut. Kedua, apa saja hasil dari re-vision. Bagian ini meliputi: tabel proses re- vision, faktor-faktor penyebab perlunya melakukan re-vision, dan fungsi dari re-vision itu sendiri. Metode yang digunakan dalam studi ini adalah riset perpustakaan. Sumber utama pada studi ini adalah sebuah novel karya Paulo Coelho berjudul The Devil and Miss Prym. Sumber kedua yaitu beberapa buku tentang mitos, karakter dan karakterisasi, re-vision, dan juga beberapa informasi dari internet. Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan strukturalisme. Pendekatan ini mempelajari sebuah objek yang memiliki makna namun makna tersebut berasal dari luar objek. Strukturalisme juga menitik beratkan pada studi sebuah teks baik secara intrinsik maupun ekstrinsik. Hasil dari studi ini: (1) The Devil and Miss Prym dapat disimpulkan sebagai re-vision dari mitos Raja Ahab di Alkitab karena karakter di dalam novel menggantikan karaker yang ada di Alkitab dengan karakterisasi yang berbeda (2) Novel ini ditulis berdasarkan fakta bahwa hidup kita tidak dapat dipisahkan dari mitos karena mitos dapat muncul, menjangkau, dan merusak segalanya (bahasa, arti) (3) Novel ini adalah kontra mitos atau mitos pembebasan karena novel ini mendobrak beberapa konsep yang mengeras di masyarakat yang terlanjur diterima dengan tidak tepat. xii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study It must be familiar to us hearing a term of myth especially in a very traditional society. Some people assume that myth is a legend or a folktale which is usually tells about a special creature or character. The rest argues that myth is a history that keeps people to behave in accordance with the norm. Nevertheless, to divine myth is not a practical thing since myth is almost the same with a legend. Eliade, the thinker of myth, he started the definition of myth as an expression of the sacred in words: it reports realities and events from the origin of the world that remain and events from the origin of the world that remain valid for the basis and purpose of all there is. Consequently, a myth functions as a model for human activity, society, wisdom, and knowledge. Typically, the myth presents itself as telling its listeners of a time altogether different from the time of our experience (“In the beginning…”), whereas the typical fairy tale, no matter how wonderful its events, begins “Once upon a time…”, that is to say, a time like ours (Eliade, 1987: 263-264). Regarding to the Eliade‟s perspective of myth it is logical why myth is always linked to the story or legend or something that had happened in the past. It is because myth has been born to understand and to tell the process of the universe, the beginning of something in the world that cannot be simply understood. It has its own time where man has not been existed yet. However, if we see myth more closely (especially myth as a modern science), it is more than a story or a legend. It is “the way of speech” with its complexity. Myth contains a message. The message consists of an ideology or 1

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 concept that used to reach a certain aim. It is what Barthes means that “myth is a motivated speech”. As Susan Sontag has mentioned in her book, A Barthes Reader, Barthes emphasizes that motivation in myth is unavoidable. “It is nonetheless very fragmentary. It is not “natural”: it is history which supplies its analogies to the form (Sontag, 1986:113)”. When considering the importance of myth in this analysis, the writer supports the idea of myth by Richard Ellmann, he examines myth as: the realms of nature, of cultural history, and of unconscious thought. The modern return to mythical forms is in part an attempt to reconstitute the value-laden natural environment that physical science has tended to discredit. Myths are public and communicable, but they express subliminal mental patterns that come close to the compulsive drives of the unconscious (Elmann, 1965: 617). Thus, it is not surprising that many people have been hindered in understanding myth. For instance, after watching Cinderella many people especially children believe that a step mother is a terrifying person. It is a myth and of course it contains an ideology which is “a step mother is must be a frightful person”. Somehow, myth can be so easily accepted by people without think it first, whether it is true or not. This case motivates the writer to study the power of myth. Fortunately, the writer finds the portrait of the circumstance where people tend to be the victim of myth (since they understand myth improperly) in The Devil and Miss Prym by Paulo Coelho. The writer chooses it as the primary source of her study since this novel issuing the significance of myth, which is the myth of King Ahab. One of the stories in the Bible, titled Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard it narrates that King Ahab is known as the wickedest King of Israel. Ahab worships

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 to evil including his wife, Jezeebel. He killed Naboth in order to take the possession of Naboth‟s vineyard. Then, God sends Elia to confront Ahab and give him punishment. Before God gives His punishment, Ahab has already repented his sin. Nevertheless, in the following day he commits sin until the end of his life. Consequently, the idea of this story causes people think Ahab is identically with a bad character and always be bad character. It grows as a myth that King Ahab is the wickedest king and as a king he can do anything he wants. Meanwhile, King Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym emerges distinctively. It is started with the story about a remote village named Viscos. In the past, Viscos was the place where people so easily committing a sin. Under Ahab‟s government, murder, robbery, and prostitute are legal to be done. Until one day, Ahab was blessed by St. Savin and made Ahab realized that he could become a good person. He changes Viscos into the place of a small paradise where the good people live. Ahab even is known as a person who brings peace to Viscos. After the death of Ahab, he becomes a myth in the heart of people in Viscos. It keeps the society to behave as good as possible. They obey the norm and keep Viscos like they keep themselves. The story has not finished yet. This holy place later is horrified by the arrival of evil. He comes and dresses as a pilgrim. His name is Carlos but Coelho calls him as a Stranger. He challenges Chantal Prym to take his wager. In one week this village must kill somebody and as a reward Viscos will get eleven gold bars. After some days, Chantal feels ready to say the wager to the whole people.

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 Now, Viscos is in a difficult situation. They have to choose between the eleven gold bars or killing somebody. They decide to kill Berta, the oldest woman in Viscos. Chantal comes and convinces people that gold means nothing than one soul, Berta. She tells the myth of Ahab and Saint Savin to the stranger who seems unsatisfied with her story. Finally, there is no one killing Berta including the stranger. From those two stories, the writer finds a strong relation between the story Ahab and Naboth’s vineyard and The Devil and Miss Prym. This relation is playing with the characters for the most. The Devil and Miss Prym comes up with a new character and characterization in which associating the characters in Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard. Harmon and Holman say that the influence of the Bible on English Literature can merely be suggested not closely traced (Harmon and Holman, 2009:63). It means that Bible is only used for the benchmark to create a new story. While, the existence of King Ahab which is found in the novel cannot be regarded as a kind of a perfect coincidence but it is made by purpose. What is the purpose? The writer finds it is an interesting topic to be analyzed since Coelho comes up with his idea that is the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth through The Devil and Miss Prym. “Re- vision is when the author makes a story and put it another way, it is a way of „defamiliarising‟, of; making strange‟, the naturalised or habitualised world of conventional perceptual reality, of „seeing things as they really are” (Widdowson, 1999: 114).

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 Regarding the theory of re-vision above it encourages the writer to put a question why Coelho did re-vision of King Ahab. Why he allows the presence of Ahab‟s myth in his novel. Why he chooses the figure of King Ahab. Is there something wrong with the Bible or in the people‟s way in interpreting or understanding the myths? Does myth actually have a massive impact toward human life? Like what Elmann has mentioned above that “myth is communicable but it tends to be accepted without any deeper analysis” (Elmann, 1986, 113). In The Devil And Miss Prym, it can be seen that the myth of Ahab was successful to communicate with the people in Viscos to be a good person. In other word, myth can be regarded as an applicable tool in the society to teach them how to be a well- behaved person. However, that myth also has weakness. It influences the people in Viscos to attempt as long as possible to be a perfect man. It eventually creates the society who is afraid of change, the society who lives in a fake happiness. According to Northrop Frye as cited in Graham Good‟s article, Northrop Frye And Liberal Humanism, myth is divided into two: they are the myth of concern and the myth of freedom. The myth of concern is what holds a group, community, or society together. It has a strong desire to transform the university into a society of concern, like church or political party. The myth of freedom is what sees truth as correspondence to reality as verified by the individual. It appeals to such self-validating criteria as ―logicality of argument or (usually a later stage) impersonal evidence and verification. It is inherently liberal, helping to develop and honouring such values as objectivity, detachment, suspension of judgment, tolerance and respect for the individual (http://cinema2.arts.ubc.ca/units/canlit/pdfs/articles/canlit148Northrop(Good).pdf, March 28, 2014).

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 Both the myth of concern and freedom can be found in a society obviously including in a society like Viscos. However, to know whether The Devil and Miss Prym is the myth of concern or freedom it needs an approach to answer that. In this study, the writer applies structural analysis. Structural analysis enables the writer to identify the reason why Coelho makes re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth, how it elaborates, and what the function of the re-vision itself; it leads to the conclusion whether The Devil and Miss Prym is the myth of concern or the myth of freedom. B. Problem Formulation Identifying the re-vision of myth in the story requires a comprehensive analysis. Therefore, it is a must for the writer to make some problem formulations. There are two problems have been formulated: 1. How does The Devil and Miss Prym re-vision the myth of King Ahab in the Bible? 2. What is the result of the re-vision? C. Objectives of the Study The first objective of this study is to analyze and elaborate the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth as depicted in the novel. The second is indentifying the result of the re-vision and categorizing whether The Devil and Miss Prym is the myth of concern or the myth of freedom.

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 D. Definition of Terms Since each person may have their own interpretation of some terms, it is important to define some terms to avoid misconception. The terms that must be defined can be seen below: 1. Myth According to Campbell, myth is an organized of stories (i.e., “myths”) by which we explain our beliefs and our history. Beneath the story- lines, myths usually confront major issues such as the origin of humanity and its traditions, and the way in which the natural and human worlds functions on a profound, universal level (http://mythsdreamssymbols.com/campbell.html, April 13, 2014). Roland Barthes gives an idea of myth as a type of speech. It is a system of communication, that it is a message. This allows one to perceive that myth cannot be possibly be an object, a concept, or an idea; it is a mode of signification, a form (Sontag, 1986: 93). 2. Re-vision Peter Widdowson points on his book, Literature he argues that re- vision is to see in another light; to re- envision or perceive differently; and thus to recast and re-evaluate the „original‟. (1999:164-165). Besides, Rich defines re- vision as the act of looking back, of seeing with fresh eyes, of entering an old text from a new critical direction- is for us more than a chapter in cultural history: it is an act of survival. Until we can understand the assumptions in which we are drenched we cannot know ourselves (Rich, 1972: 18).

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies The Devil and Miss Prym was written in 2000 by Paulo Coelho. The novel in which temptation becomes the prominent topic has attracted some people to study the story. The first study has done by Agnes Yudita Larasatingrum (English Letters Department of Sanata Dharma University, 2001) entitled Deviant Character Of Chantal Prym In Paulo Coelho‟s The Devil and Miss Prym. She studied the significance of Chantal Prym who was regarded as a deviant character by the society. Using sociological approach she analyzed the society behavior and treatment toward Chantal Prym. Her analysis has some results. They are: Chantal regrets her being as a part of Viscos society. This regret leads her to be labeled by the society as a deviant character. According to her analysis Chantal can be considered as a pure deviant since she tries to fight and struggle to reach what she really wants (Larasatingrum, 2008: 55). The second study was conducted by Sheme Mary P U, Phd student, research and PG Department of English, St Thomas‟s College, Thrissur, Kerala, India. The title of her study is Relocating The Soul in Paulo Coelho‟s Novel The Devil and Miss Prym. Mary involves the theory of Sigmund Freud about id, ego, and super ego in analyzing the characters. One example, when Chantal decides to run away from Viscos and bring the gold bar with her Mary indicates it is what Freud calls id (the pleasure principle) (Marry, 2013:43). 8

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 The result of her study is she states that Chantal Prym as a person who is able to regenerate the goodness in the minds of the people and the social construction was shattered by the interference of an individual soul firmly adhered to the morality principle (superego). She was successful to transform id into superego to the society replacing the common interest restoring the moral code (Mary, 2013: 45). The last is the study from Jeena Ann Joseph entitled The Way of Salvation: Paulo Coelho‟s The Devil and Miss Prym. Joseph acknowledges Coelho as is a brilliant writer. It can be seen from her statement she says that: Though he makes no distinction among religious, his catholic inclinations are very much visible in the texts. It is not because Catholicism is the best religion, but religion close to his heart. He felt he needed something more than atheism in his life and he chose Catholicism as a way of communicating with the mystery. Each and every book can be given a religious outlook; He seem to evolve a unique by combining the religious fictional and revitalizing elements together (Jeena, 2011: 63). Joseph finds that this is an amazing story of Coelho because it draws the eternal fight between the angels and devils for the soul of mankind is out into the form an intriguing allegorical story (Joseph, 2011: 68). She is also arguing that the way Coelho creates his work can be a model of self-salvation. In other words, after reading this story the readers can light their life and to be closer with God. (Joseph, 2011:66). If they pay close attention to the Chantal and Carlos as the battle between good and bad, in this study the writer focuses on different point of view which is the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth in The Devil and Miss Prym analyzed by structural analysis.

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Character and Characterization a. Character One of the intrinsic elements of the story is character. It often appears as a human character. It has a name to be called, it has physically appearance, and it has emotion. Baldick explains character as a personage in a narrative or dramatic work; also a kind of prose sketch briefly describing some recognizable type of person (Baldick, 1990: 33). Abrams as he points in his book, A Glossary Of Literary Terms defines characters are the person presented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what the say-the dialogue-and by they do-the action (Abrams, 1993:23). Richard Gill comes up with the idea of character that someone in a literary work has some sort of identity, an identity which made up by appearance, conversation, action, name and (possibly) thoughts going on in the head (Gill, 1995: 127). For clearer understanding of this theory, E. M. Forster argues that characters are the actors that the author makes in his delirious excitement and their nature is conditioned by what he guesses about other people, and about himself, and is further modified by the other aspects of his work (2000: 55).

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 b. Characterization Characterization can be assumed as a method that the author chooses in describing the character. It comes up with the questions what the characters do and what their contributions to the whole story. It is a decisive part of the story whether the story will be plausible or not. Baldick concludes characterization as the representation of persons in narrative and dramatic works. It can be direct method by means it looked from the attributions of qualities in description or commentary. It can be indirect method when we see the character from his action, speech, or even his appearance (Baldick, 1990: 34). Abrams says that characterization is when the author presents the acting and speaking of the characters and leaves the reader to infer what motives and dispositions lie behind what they say and do (Abrams: 1993:24). Meanwhile, Richard Gill examines characterization as a method or the way in which the character is created. He divides it into two methods telling and showing. In telling, the reader informs directly the reader about the character; whereas in showing, the reader is left together what the character is like from what he or she sees. In addition, Gill emphasizes that characterization will be taken for granted in a good deal of what we say and attention will be taken by what characters are like. It can be taken from the way characters speak and think. And then, it is also taken from the appearance of characters (Gill, 1995: 127- 138).

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 This point is closely related to the dress. Clothes have several functions in novels. First, clothes as an expression of personality. Second, clothes are sometimes used to indicate social status. Clothes can also help to create the atmosphere of a book. Clothes can sometimes be an essential element in the development of the plot (Gill, 1995: 139- 144). Furthermore, the characterization in the novel can be done when we see the social standing of characters, the name of the character (is there any significant about the character‟s name?), the company of characters it may come to the question in what company characters appears. The last is from what the character does along with the plot (Gill, 1995: 139- 144). 2. Theory of Setting As mentioned in A Glossary of Literary Terms by M.H. Abrams, setting is: The general locale, historical time, and social circumstances in which its action occurs; the setting of single episode or scene within a work is the particular physical location in which it takes place (Abrams, 1993:192). Furthermore, Watson emphasizes that setting is more than when and where. It is what he calls an integral setting: Exerts a great deal of influence upon the values, speech, and actions of characters, the movement of plot, and the presentation of theme and mood; integral setting can also serve as a symbol. A setting defined as integral means that a careful and full description of the setting is provided in concrete terms, characters move through the setting, not simply over it (Watson, 1999: 638). To catch the readers‟ eye of course setting must be interesting and „beautiful‟. It is created smoothly so the reader may feel the atmosphere and adventure that characters have. In this study the setting covers the society in two different places first is in the Bible and second is in the novel.

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 3. Theory of Symbol Kennedy and Giogia say that symbol is always trying to say about something else. It is a thing that suggests more than its literal meaning. Symbols generally do not “stand for” one meaning, nor for anything absolutely definite; they point, they hint, or, as Henry James put it, they cast long shadows (Kennedy and Giogia, 1999: 217). Like other elements of the story, symbol has its function importantly. It helps reader to make a picture in mind so that the reader may get the whole meaning of the story. Chris Baldick adds symbol is an object that represents for something else. A symbol is a specially evocative kind of image (see imagery); that is, a word or phrase referring to a concrete object, scene, or action which also has some further significance associated with it: mountains, birds, and voyage have all been used as common literary symbol (Baldick, 1990: 218-219). In this work, the symbols that we are focus on are the presence of vineyard in the Bible and the presence of eleven gold bars in The Devil and Miss Prym. 4. Theory of Myth To start the significance of myth, it is important to look back what myth in a very basic understanding is. Basically, myth can be concluded a story in which tells about the process of forming of the world like what Eliade and Campbell have explained. Myth has some functions. First, myth grants continuity and stability to a culture. Second, myth presents guidelines for living. Third, myth justifies a culture‟s activity. Four, myth gives the meaning of life. Five, myth explain the unexplainable. Myth helps us to understand world, for example, they may state that a drought caused by angry deity. The last, myth offers role models ((http://mythsdreamssymbols.com/campbell.html, April 13, 2014).

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 In the other hand, myth has been observed further and it conducts a developed understanding that myth is not only a legend but also a system of communication. As cited in Susan Sontag‟s book, Roland Barthes mentioned his theory titled, Myth Today. He classifies the definition of myth into some major definitions. The first one is myth as a type of speech. Myth is a system of communication that it is a message. Because of that everything can be a myth provided it is conveyed by a discourse. Since myth as a type of speech, it can only be analyzed when it is applied or used. “Myth is laden with literary selfindulgence, revolt, images, in short with a type of social usage which is added to pure matter” (1986:93-95). Myth is when we see beyond a particular object whether it written or pictorial and it hides a hidden motivation of individual. For instance, the candidate of president uses batik during his campaign. We have had the ideology that batik is symbolized Javanese culture. What he means by wearing batik in the campaign instead of using another type of cloth, is because batik will support him to show off to the audience, that he has a power as what batik has. The second is myth as a semiological system. “Myth is a peculiar system, in that it is constructed from semiogical chain which existed before it: it is a secondorder semilogical system (Sontag, 1986: 95-99)”. He adds that: That, which is a sign in the first system, becomes a mere signifier in the second. It is in which one speak about the first. The relation concerns with the objects which belong to different categories, that is why it not one of equality but one of equivalence. The total associative of the first two terms will form: the signifier, the signified, and the sign (Sontag, 1986: 95-99).

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 The signifier represents the meaning (form), signifier consist of form and meaning but they are never is any contradiction or conflict. The meaning is always there to present the form. The signified represents concept. The signified can have several signifiers; that is why we can find many signifiers for one signified. The correlation of the first two is the sign. However, it is will cause the ambiguity if use the word sign again because signifier has been formed by the signs of the language. So that, the third term of myth is the signification (Sontag, 1986: 107). Besides as a motivated language, myth also has the signification as the naturalization of the concept. It involves and speaks through Nature. For example, the price fall fruit and vegetable because they are in season not because the government has so decided. “This is why myth is experienced as innocent speech: not because they were hidden, they could not efficacious- but they are naturalized (Sontag, 1986:118)”. The last is myth as a stolen language. To simply understand the myth as a stolen language, remember that the function of the myth always to transform a meaning into form. It means that myth takes over or colonizes the language (concept which is already settled) to strengthen it. Barthes gives an example: For instance, the fall in prices has started. But what fall? That due to the season or that due to the government? The signification becomes here a parasite of the article, in spite of the latter being definite (Sontag, 1986:118). Through myth, a person is assumed can read meaning of language beyond what it implies there. Thus, somehow myth requires a wide knowledge to understand a meaning.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 “This is why Barthes says that myth can reach everything, corrupt everything, and even the very act of refusing oneself to it (Sontag, 1986:118)”. As written in Graham Good‟s article, Frye categorizes myth into two types, the myth of concern and the myth of freedom. The myth of concern is what holds a group, community, or society together. It has a strong desire to transform the university into a society of concern, like church or political party. What is true for concern is what society does and believes in response to authority, and a belief, so far as a belief is verbalized, is a statement of willingness to participate in a myth of concern. The typical language of concern therefore tends to become the language of belief. It is inherently traditional and conservative, placing a strong emphasis on values of coherence and continuity. It originates in oral or preliterate culture and is associated with continuous verse conventions and discontinuous prose forms. And it is ―deeply attached to ritual, to coronations, weddings, funerals, parades, demonstrations, where something is publicly done that expresses an inner social identity (http://cinema2.arts.ubc.ca/units/canlit/pdfs/articles/canlit148Northrop(Good).pdf, March 28, 2014). In the contrary, the myth of freedom is what sees truth as correspondence to reality as verified by the individual. It appeals to such self-validating criteria as ―logicality of argument or (usually a later stage) impersonal evidence and verification. It ―stresses the importance of the non-mythical elements of culture, of the truths and realities that are studied rather than created, provided by nature rather than by social vision. It originates in the mental habits which a writing culture, with its continuous prose and discontinuous verse forms, brings into society (http://cinema2.arts.ubc.ca/units/canlit/pdfs/articles/canlit148Northrop(Good).pdf, March 28, 2014). One thing that makes the two categories of myth is far different. If the myth of concern is “what holds”, the myth of freedom is “what sees”. As what has mentioned above that the myth of concern usually is run by church or political party or even certain norms in society, their objective is to hold a group to shape their mind in accordance with them.

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 For instance, church teaches you about Ten Commandments. Meanwhile, the myth of freedom gives you a space to argue, to re-think, to see something that usually as a society concern critically. It comes from self- awareness that there are many things in society that makes you think in the box and you have to find the way out. For example, the reason you have to study in a university after you have graduated from senior high school, you have to be able to be good in science rather than in language and so on. 5. Theory of Re-vision Peter Widdowson mentions on his book, Literature that re- vision is the term deploys a strategic ambiguity between the word revise: „to examine and correct; to make a new, improved version of; to study anew‟, and re-vision: to see in another light; to re- envision or perceive differently; and thus to recast and reevaluate the „original‟. (1999:164-165). Re- vision is when the author makes a story and put it another way, it is a way of „defamiliarising‟, of; making strange‟, the naturalised or habitualised world of conventional perceptual reality, of „seeing things as they really are‟ (Widdowson, 1999: 114). Rich defines the project thus: Re-vision- the act of looking back, of seeing with fresh eyes, of entering an old text from a new critical direction- is for us more than a chapter in cultural history: it is an act of survival. Until we can understand the assumptions in which we are drenched we cannot know ourselves (Rich, 1972: 18).

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 There are some principal characteristics of „re-visionary‟ works: 1. that they tend to „re-write‟ canonic texts- those „classics‟ which have a high profile of admiration and popularity in our literary heritage; 2. that they keep the original text in clear view, so that it is not just the „source‟ of new modern version but a constantly invoked intertext for it; 3. that, in this way, they denaturalise the original in exposing those discourses which we no longer see in it because we have learnt to read it in restricted and conventional ways; 4. that they not only re- write the original as a different, separate, new work, but re-cast, and thus repossess and liberate, the original as itself a „new‟ text to be read newly- enabling us to „see‟ a different one to what we thought we knew as, say, Jane Eyre, Robinson Crusoe, King Lear, The Tempest or „An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard‟; 5. that they make us see parallels (or contrast) between the period of the original text‟s production and that of the modern work; 6. that they invariably have a clear cultural- political thurst, especially on behalf of those exploited, marginalized and silenced by dominant ideologies, in demanding that the political inscription and cultural complicity in oppression of past texts be revised and re-visioned as part the process of restoring a voice, a history or an identity to the erstwhile oppressed (Widdowson, 1999: 165-166). The writer realizes that the use of the word re-vision will cause the ambiguity for the reader. In the world literature, the term re- imagine or re- write

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 are more familiar to be used. However, re- vision is distinctive from the others two. Re- imagine derives from the prefix re- and a verb imagine. It is to form again a picture or idea of something in your mind (Oxford, 2008: 220). Re- write derives from the prefix re- and a verb write. It is to produce something in written form so that people can read (Oxford, 2008: 516). These two terms are stopped only to picture and write again. In the other hand, re- vision comes up with deeper definition which can be found in six principles above. Furthermore, re- vision is different with the word revision. Re- vision derives from the prefix re- and vision. Beside, revision comes from a verb revise and suffix ion-. Re- vision can be understood as re- envision since they have same understanding which is the ability to see or picture something (Oxford, 2008: 495). Since one of six principles of re-vision is it tends to re-write so that it can be understood that re-vision also involves the activity of re-write or re- imagine itself. Meaning to say, re-vision cannot be separated with the act to re-write and re- imagine. What makes it different is re- vision re-write and re- imagine a work comprehensively; even it analyzes everything that rounds the object of analysis. 6. Theory of Structural Analysis Eagleton emphasizes that structural analysis is first, it is an analytical not evaluative. Second, it refuses the „obvious‟ meaning of the story and seeks instead to isolate certain „deep‟ structures within it, which are not apparent on the surface. The third is if one can say the particular content of narrative is replaceable; there is a sense that the „content‟ of the narrative is its structure. This

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 does not follow for a simple belief that you should look at things „structurally‟. You can examine a poem as a „structure‟ while still treating each of its items as more or less meaningful in itself (Eagleton, 1996: 82- 83). For instance, we see the sun in the poem because its relation with (for example; the moon) the other object within the poem not from our own mind. Eagleton adds that the relation between the various items of the story may be ones of parallelism, opposition, inversion, equivalence and so on; as long as this structure of internal relations remains intact, the individual units are replaceable (Eagleton, 1996: 83). According to Barry structural analysis is the analysis that focuses on studying of certain object which has meaning but that meaning or essence it in the outside. Meaning is always an attribute of things, in literal sense that meanings are attributed to the things by human mind, not contained within them (Barry, 2002: 39). Barry makes a verbal diagram of structural analysis as we can see below: Parallels Plot Echoes Structure Reflections/ repetitions in Character/ motive Contrasts Situation/ circumstance Patterns Language/ Imagery We are looking in the factors listed on the left and we expect to find that factors on the right. In this study, the writer only focus on the analysis of character/ or motive, setting, and symbol as the objective of this study. It is how

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 parallels, echoes, reflection/ repetitions, contrast, and patterns of King Ahab in the Bible can be found through character/ motive, setting, and symbol in The Devil and Miss Prym. Try to recall that myth is a semiological system, so does the language as the primary object to be analyzed for structural study. Myth only can be seen from its utterance, which is the language. According to Ferdinand de Saussure (18571913) language is a systems of signs. Each sign was to be seen as being made up of a „signifier‟ (a sound- image, or its graphic equivalent) and the „signified‟ (the concept of meaning) (Eagleton, 1996: 84). For example, the three black marks c- a- t are the signifiers to the signified cat in and English mind. The relation between signifier and the signified is arbitrary. The word has a meaning only by virtue of its difference from the others. Give the example for the word cat, it has meaning not in itself but because it is not „cab‟, or „cad‟, or „bat‟ (Eagleton, 1996: 84). Besides arbitrary, Saussure also argues that the meaning of the words are (what we might call) relational. Meaning to say that the object is defined because the internal relation with another. In simple understanding, it is like paired opposite. For instance, we could have no concept of „day‟ without the linked of concept „night‟. The last is language constitutes our world, it doesn‟t just record it or label it. The meaning is always attributed to the object or idea by the human mind, and constructed by and expressed through language (Barry, 2002: 41-44). Since the study focuses on the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth as depicted in The Devil and Miss Prym, it is important to draw the relation among of the three concepts which have been issued in this study. They are myth, re-vision, and structural analysis. The writer finds that myth is interesting to be talked about. It is

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 interesting topic because myth is not only about the story or legend from the old time, whereas it is a type of speech (Sontag, 1986: 93). Besides, myth usually tends to destroy anything by naturalizing the concept which has been settled (Barthes: 1986: 118). Therefore, the significance of myth must be treated carefully. To analyze the true meaning of myth it is applicable to conduct re-vision. In this context, it is the process to rethink or to re-evaluate the „original‟. The Devil and Miss Prym is one example of re-vision that the author done. Coelho „re-vision‟ the myth of King Ahab in the Bible by creating the story of The Devil and Miss Prym. To study this topic the writer chooses structural analysis as her approach. It directs the writer to map the parallelism between the myth of King Ahab in the Bible and in the novel. It is also applicable because structuralisms concerns in studying myth and how myth is being re- vision within the story. 7. Review of the Story of King Ahab in the Bible It is written in the Bible (King I 21: 1-29) that King Ahab is the wickedest king of Israel. He has a wife named Jezebel. Jezebel is known as a bad woman who worships to Satan. One day, Ahab asks for Naboth‟s vineyard but Naboth refuses it because the vineyard belongs to his ancestor. Ahab comes to palace. He looks so sullen and refuses to eat. Jezebel comes to Ahab and asking what happens to him. Ahab tells to his wife that Naboth refuses to sell his vineyard to him.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 Hearing that news, Jezebel encourages her husband to take the vineyard. It is written in the seventh verse that: Jezebel his wife said, “Is this how you act as king over Israel? Get up and eat! Cheer up. I‟ll get you the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite.” After that, Jezebel makes a letter falsification to kill Naboth. Jezebel claims Naboth has rebelled the king and God. Finally, Naboth is dead and Ahab can gain the vineyard. His deed is heard by God, He sends Elia the prophet to convey His message to Ahab. In the verse 18- 19, God says that: 18 “Go down to meet Ahab king of Israel, who rules in Samaria. He is now in Naboth‟s vineyard, where he has gone to take possession of it.19 Say to him, „This is what the LORD says: Have you not murdered a man and seized his property?‟Then say to him, „This is what the LORD says: In the place where dogs licked up Naboth‟s blood, dogswill lick up your blood—yes, yours!‟. When Elia delivers God‟s command Ahab is panic and frightened. He tore his clothes, put on sackcloth and fasted. He lay in sackcloth and went around meekly. After God heard that Ahab has regretted his sin, God cancelled to give disaster to Ahab, He will bring the disaster in the days of Ahab‟s son. It is not only Ahab gets the punishment from God but also Jezebel. In the verse 23 it is said that 23 “And also concerning Jezebel the LORD says: „Dogs will devour Jezebel by the wall of [b] Jezreel.24 “Dogs will eat those belonging to Ahab who die in the city, and the birds will feed on those who die in the country.” This story has come to the conclusion that it is not surprising why Ahab is labeled as the wickedest king of Israel who allows himself to be controlled by his wife. It is a myth that has attached to Ahab until now.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 The fact is Naboth is dead but the Almighty of God remains there. This shows to the reader especially the Christians the jealousy of God. Ahab loves the worldly things than Him. Moreover, he chooses Jezebel to be his wife. Jezebel, Sidonian by birth, is not just a worshiper of Baal but an active propagandist for Baal-worship and a persecutor of the followers of the lord. Her abuse of her royal power against the innocent Naboth is, in a way, the least of the indictment against her (Miles, 1995: 178). The concept of punishment is also being introduced here. It is when Ahab realizes that he has done a big sin. However, Ahab is committing sin over and over again. Does God give the punishment again? Do we need to commit sin first then we able to repent of our sin? Through The Devil and Miss Prym these curiosities may find the answer. C. Theoretical Framework Regarding to the previous studies that have been mentioned before, the writer feels it is a challenge for her to see the novel from another point of view, which is, The Re-vision of King Ahab „s Myth In Paulo Coelho‟s The Devil and Miss Prym. Thus, this work not only develops the previous studies but also invents something new. To solve the first problem of this study the writer uses the theory of character and characterization, setting and symbol by Baldick, Abrams, Madden, Richard Gill, Jerry J. Watson, and E. M. Forster.

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 To elaborate the re-vision the writer uses a structural analysis approach. The first theory comes from Barry under the title The Beginning Theory, the second is from Saussure, and the third is from Terry Eagleton, Literary Theory- An Introduction. It is also helped by the theory of re-vision by W. J. Harvey, Peter Widdowson, and Adrienne Rich. Realizing the importance of myth in this study, the writer uses the theory of Myth Today by Roland Barthes and The Importance of Myth by Joseph Campbell, Mercia Eliade, and Jack Miles‟s GOD A Biography, so that, the writer can understand myth properly. The last, to answer the second problem formulation which is the function of re-vision of myth in The Devil and Miss Prym, the writer applies the theory of myth from Northtop Frye which she explains in his book The Critical Path.

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The Devil and Miss Prym written by Paulo Coelho and first published in 2000. It has been translated into more than twenty languages and The Devil and Miss Prym is an English version of O Demonio E A Senhorita Prym, the Portuguese original edition, published by the arrangement of Sant Jordi Asociados, Barcelona, SPAIN. This novel then translated by Amanda Hopkinson and Nick Caistor and published by HarperCollins Publishers in 2001. The Devil And Miss Prym (205 pages) concludes the trilogy And on the Seventh Day. The first two books were: By The River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept (1994) and Veronika Decides to Die (1998). Each of the three books is concerned with human daily life. We often find a matter of love, death and power in life. It is a matter of choice and it challenges us to do our best. For him, “the challenge will not wait, life does not look back (Coelho, 2000: x).” This novel takes place in a fictional place named Viscos. It is a remote village with 281 inhabitants settled there. It is a big number enough but there are only some of them are influential in Viscos: Chantal, Berta, the hotel landlady, the priest, the mayor, the mayor‟s wife, the blacksmith, and the owner of most of the lands around the village. Viscos is known as a paradise; the place where goodwill grows, far away from civilization, and a peaceful place with the fresh air. However, their happiness is only at a glance. If we take a look deep inside, it is no 26

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 more than a fake happiness. They do their daily routine just the same with what they have done yesterday. Everything is under controlled and seems so flat. Suddenly, the silence is broken up by the evil that comes and dresses as a pilgrim. He called the „Stranger‟. He enters Viscos and sees Chantal who just sits beside the river. He chooses Chantal Prym to tell his wager to all people. In one week Viscos must break one of Ten Commandants that is “Thou shalt not kill”. As a reward, Viscos will gain eleven gold bars. It is hard to be imagined that the holy place like Viscos is now being tested by the Stranger to do the evil thing, murder. And besides, Viscos was controlled by the story of their ancestor which is King Ahab. He is a good figure for them, a king who blessed by St. Savin and brings peace to Viscos. The myth of King Ahab has been growing for many years as their controller to think and act. This is the proof that Viscos is a village with a high honor to their ancestor. They still believe in myth and superstition. Nevertheless, it is about the eleven gold bars. It can afford the needs in Viscos even until their grandchild‟s generation even more. It can save Viscos from the machine that will destroy what their ancestor has built by their sweat. Fortunately, they decide not to kill anybody but they almost kill Berta. Berta saved by Chantal who is brave to shout to all people that it is just a trap made by the Stranger. It is a fool thing to believe in Stranger who asks them to kill. It is not a new thing for Paulo Coelho inserting the story from Bible into a novel. His strength is he is able to see the Bible as a literature text. Coelho shows us how to understand life through his novel. As a Catholic, he has a good comprehending about his religion even others religion. He always sees from

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 another side in which sometimes we just ignore it. Which is theoretically we may call it re-vision. The Devil and Miss Prym is one example of it. This story cannot be separated with the story in the Bible, King Ahab And Naboth’s Vineyard. It says so because both of them have a strong correlation. The writer finds out an obvious relation within these two different stories. Ahab is associated by Chantal and Naboth is associated by Berta. The vineyard associated by eleven gold bars and Elia the prophet is associated by St. Savin and so on. These relations have pushed the writer to dig up more about The Devil and Miss Prym. The writer wants to analyze whether this re-vision which seen in the novel is the myth of concern or the myth of freedom. B. Approach of the Study Realizing to the fact that to criticize a literary work is not a simple thing; therefore, the writer is equipped by approach. Since the study focuses on the myth of King Ahab and its re-vision in The Devil and Miss Prym therefore the writer chooses the structural approach. The story must be divided into three layers. The first layer is the myth of King Ahab in the Bible, the second layer is the myth of Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym, the last is The Devil and Miss Prym as the final re-vision of the myth of King Ahab. Regarding this complexity, it is applicable to use structural approach since structural approach is concerned with the internal relational of the signs to one another. So that, the writer is able to analyze the relational of the signs among those three layers. Structuralism as what Chris Baldick has mentioned in Criticism and Literary Theory 1890 to the Present that:

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 The radical shift of focus encouraged by such works was a redirection of attention from properties of individual works or authors to the underlying „codes‟ governing literary (and other) works in general: what mattered now was not so much what a novel or poem might mean, but how it produced its meaning, or how readers produced meaning from it (Baldick, 1996:167). Structural is interested in how the signs within the story work. It believes that words define one to another to gain its meaning. It is usually therefore produces significance, coherence, and binary thematic oppositions in a literary work (Culler, 1996:167). Therefore, it is a proper choice to apply this approach. C. Method of the Study In this opportunity, the writer took a library research as a method of her study. The library research had done by reading some books related to the topic that the writer wanted to analyze. Firstly, the writer read Paulo Coelho‟s novel which was The Devil and Miss Prym as the primary object of this study. Secondly, the writer tried to find out the related studies about this novel by browsing the information in the internet sites and reading some books. There were several studies which discussed about The Devil and Miss Prym with a distinctive topic. After comprehending it, the writer took a position what topic she analyzed. The topic fell to the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth that the writer found within The Devil and Miss Prym. Thirdly, the writer formulated some problem formulations and decided the approach which applied in answering the problems. Two problem formulations had been formulated. The first is how The Devil and Miss Prym re-vision the

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 Myth of King Ahab in the Bible. The second is what the function of the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth. The next step was answering the problems by applying the theories and approach in analyzing the work. The theories used in this work are theory of character and characterization, theory of setting, theory of symbol, theory of myth, theory of re-vision, theory of structural analysis, and the review of King Ahab in the Bible. While, the approach applied in this study was a structuralism approach. The last step was withdrawing a conclusion. This step was the final process of this study. It contained to review of the previous discussion of the topic which had been analyzed.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS A. Re- visioning the Myth of King Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym The word re-vision is not a new thing in the world of literature. Like what Widdowson has mentioned before, that re-vision is the act of „looking back with fresh eyes‟. It means the „re-writing‟ of texts which have been constructed and owned by another interest such as cultural, patriarchal, or imperial/ colonial power (Widdowson, 1999:165). This is also what Paulo Coelho does. Through his brilliant novel, The Devil and Miss Prym he conducts a re-vision which is the myth of King Ahab in the Bible from the story Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard. He plays with the characters, setting, and symbol. It means that there are some characters, setting, and symbol in the novel which assumed as the association of the characters, setting, and symbol in the Bible. This phenomenon refers to the criteria of the re-vision itself which is they not only re-write the original as a different, separate, new work, but re-cast, and thus repossess and liberate, the original as itself a „new‟ text to be read newly- enabling us to „see‟ different one to that we thought we knew as (Widdowson, 1999:165). While, one of six principals characteristic of „re-visionary” works is that they make us see parallels (or contrasts) between the period of the original text‟s production and that of the modern work (Widdowson, 1999: 166). Therefore, the 31

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 next step to analyze the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth is the writer must show the parallel. To draw the parallel, the writer is supported by the idea of Barry that, in structural analysis instead of going straight into the content, in the liberal humanist manner, the structuralist presents a series of pararells, echoes, reflections, patterns, and contrasts, so that the narrative becomes highly schematised (Barry, 2002:52). In this study, in order to conduct a re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth the writer focuses on the characters only. It is how parallels, echoes, reflections/ repetitions, contrasts, and patterns in the Bible can be found through characters/ motives. Setting, and symbol in The Devil and Miss Prym. The explanation of the parallels can be seen as follows: B. The Description of the Parallel 1. The Myth of King Ahab in the Bible: Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard To do the re-vision, it is a must for the writer to know the original text first (Bible). It is what Widdowson means in „re-visionary‟ work that they keep the original text in clear view, so that it is not just the „source‟ of a new modern version but a constantly invoked intertext for it (Widdowson, 1999: 165). Therefore, in this section the writer has to analyze where King Ahab and other characters come from for the first time in a history of literature (regarding Bible as a literary text). They appear for the first time in the story in the Bible titled Ahab and Naboth Vineyard. This story becomes the original text or the root of this re-visionary study.

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 Abrams as he points in his book, A Glossary Of Literary Terms defines characters are the person presented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what the say-the dialogue-and by they do-the action (Abrams, 1993:23). In this part, the characters are covering King Ahab, Jezebel, Elijah the Prophet, Naboth, the society as a setting, and the presence of the vineyard as a symbol. a. King Ahab Baldick concludes characterization as the representation of persons in narrative and dramatic works. It can be direct method by means it looked from the attributions of qualities in description or commentary. It can be indirect method when we see the character from his action, speech, or even his appearance (Baldick, 1990: 34). The first characterization of King Ahab is he is known as the wickedest king of Israel. It can be seen from his attitude toward Naboth. As a king he has already had everything but he still wants to possess Naboth‟s vineyard. It is mentioned in the Bible: 21 Some time later there was an incident involving a vineyard belonging to Naboth the Jezreelite. The vineyard was in Jezreel, close to the palace of Ahab king of Samaria. 2 Ahab said to Naboth, “Let me have your vineyard to use for a vegetable garden, since it is close to my palace. In exchange I will give you a better vineyard or, if you prefer, I will pay you whatever it is worth (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). It can be seen his vanity as a king. He wants the vineyard because it is near to his palace. He sees everything from money. He thinks he can get anything since he is a king and he is rich. Ahab does not appreciate what Naboth has been done

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 to the vineyard. Of course he has managed his vineyard to fulfill the needs. It is possible not only for himself needs but also his family. On the contrary, Ahab wants to replace it by vegetable. As a king Ahab does not have any respect to his people, to honor people‟s sweat. It is what Roland Barthes calls myth as a semiological system. It is „signified‟ represents concept and „signifier‟ represents form (Sontag, 1986: 95). In this case the „signified‟ is the myth of king Ahab. The „signifier‟ signifies the concept of king. The myth is: “he is a king who can do anything he wants”. The second, he is a kind of person who does not want to accept the truth, which is the rejection of Naboth. Relating the statement above, the writer supports the idea of structuralism, it is refusing the „obvious‟ meaning of the story and seeks instead to isolate certain „deep‟ structure within it, which are not apparent on the surface (Eagleton, 1996:83). Thus, it enables the writer to identify the motive behind the rejection of Naboth. The prominent point is not about Naboth who refuses giving the vineyard to Ahab but the reason why Naboth does not want to give it. It is because Naboth is trying to obey God‟s command. He refuses to give it to anyone since it is the heritance of his ancestors (I King 21:3). This part eventually explains the third characterization of King Ahab which is as an unreligious person. It says so because Ahab allows himself to be controlled by devil. It is written in the verse 25 that: There was never anyone like Ahab, who sold himself to do evil in the eyes of the LORD, urged on by Jezebel his wife.26 He behaved in the vilest manner by going after idols, like the Amorites the LORD drove out before

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 Israel (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). From the quotation above it is not surprising anymore why Ahab gets angry with Naboth. It is because Naboth is in the track of God and it means that it against King Ahab who worships to devil (Baal). Ahab is also a weak king and easy to give up. It can be seen from his action after he knows that Naboth does not want to give the vineyard to him. He lies on his bed sulking and refused to eat (I king 21:4). Imagine, as a king he is doing something like that. Whereas, he can think another strategy instead of refuse to eat. Nevertheless, since he is very easy to give up he prefers to refuse to eat in order to express his anger at that time. His weakness is also supported by the presence of other character which is Ahab‟s wife, Jezebel. The reader may see how Jezebel drives her husband to be the wickedest king of Israel so easily. When Jezebel explains her idea to kill Naboth, Ahab does not do any resistance. It is mentioned in the Bible that she said: 15 As soon as Jezebel heard that Naboth had been stoned to death, she said to Ahab, “Get up and take possession of the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite that he refused to sell you. He is no longer alive, but dead.” 16 When Ahab heard that Naboth was dead, he got up and went down to take possession of Naboth‟s vineyard (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). It proves that Ahab is a weak king. He does not mind to be „poisoned‟ by his wife. He cannot fight the devil which settles in the heart of his wife. In fact, it forms Ahab to be a worse person even until his death; he is dead as a sinner.

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 b. Jezebel Jezebel can be regarded as a cunning woman. It is proved by her idea to make a letter under the name of Ahab. She decides to do that because she knows the name of King Ahab has a power to wage her plan. She claims Naboth has cursed the king and The Lord too. By hearing that news, thus, it is very possible people kill Naboth fearlessly. It is what Barthes means that myth is defined as a stolen and motivated language (Sontag, 1986: 118-121). What Jezebel has done, which is the use of King Ahab‟s name is an evidence that myth is a stolen and motivated language. It is a stolen language because it takes something to be possessed. What means „something‟ here is a meaning. Barthes says that nothing can be safe from myth, start from the very lack of meaning (Sontag, 1986: 119). The meaning itself is the name of Ahab. What people know about Ahab is he is their king and they will never let anyone giving harm to their king. The meaning is stopped there. They do not think that killing someone is a sin as long as it is done in order to bow the command. As what written in the verse 13-14: 13 Then two scoundrels came and sat opposite him and brought charges against Naboth before the people, saying, “Naboth has cursed both God and the king.” So they took him outside the city and stoned him to death. 14 Then they sent word to Jezebel: “Naboth has been stoned to death (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). It is a cruelty of Jezebel by killing Naboth in that way. She steals the name of Ahab to influence people to kill Naboth. She is conscious that Ahab as a king of Israel has a big influence toward his people to gain whatever she wants even if it is to show her love to her husband.

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 In addition, it is true that language is constitutes the world (Barry, 2002: 4144). By the time Jezebel says “Naboth has cursed both king and Lord”, people are able to kill a man immediately. It happens since Jezebel uses the word „curse‟ (something that causes harm or evil, Oxford, 2011: 109) rather than „cheat „or „against‟ or anything else. It eventually forms people even the place into people and place which dare to do evil thing, which is murder. It also shows us how language has an important part in shaping people‟s mind. If we talk about the term wife of course we must relate it with the term of husband. She is Jezebel the wife of the King Israel, Ahab. It does not stop there. Jezebel is not only presenting as a wife but also as a „bright‟ provocateur of devil. It is narrated that: Jezebel his wife said, “Is this how you act as king over Israel? Get up and eat! Cheer up. I‟ll get you the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite.”8 So she wrote letters in Ahab‟s name, placed his seal on them, and sent them to the elders and nobles who lived in Naboth‟s city with him (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). 7 When Jezebel says that “is this how you act as king over Israel?” it is eventually shows that Jezebel is good to be a provocateur. She says that not because she loves her husband and it feels right to stand for Ahab to get the vineyard. As a woman Jezebel knows the characteristic of man. They do not like to be underestimated. In fact, the sentence of Jezebel has encouraged her husband to agree with her idea to kill Naboth without forgiveness. It can be concluded that Jezebel as wicked as his husband even more. Furthermore, Jezebel as a woman and a wife as well, she comes as an evil character instead of an obedient character. She is able to take a control of her

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 husband and it causes someone has been killed. It develops the idea that if woman is only identical with an obedient character is wrong. It is a myth. In this story, Jezebel shows how brave she is in conducting such a thriller doing. It is shows us that devil may appear in whatever they want. It is not only in a bad figure but also a lovely figure; in this context is Jezebel, Ahab‟s wife. c. Elijah the Prophet Miles describes Elijah as a wonderworker, champion of the poor and implacable opponent of a corrupt religious and civil authority. Elijah‟s great opponent is Jezebel (Miles, 1995:178). In this story, Elijah can be assumed as a loyal prophet. His loyalty can be seen when he is willing to convey the Lord‟s word. He wants to do that even he knows that meeting with Ahab means meeting with Jezebel too, his great opponent. He is able to control his emotion and he is successful to tell the Lord‟s word to Ahab. It is said in the Bible: Ahab said to Elijah, “So you have found me, my enemy!” “I have found you,” he answered, “because you have sold yourself to do evil in the eyes of the LORD. 21 He says, „I am going to bring disaster on you. I will wipe out your descendants and cut off from Ahab every last male in Israel—slave or free (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). 20 Even Ahab calls Elijah as his enemy. Elijah is not angry with Ahab‟s treatment toward him. He keeps going His mission which is giving Ahab punishment. This part is evidence that Elijah is not only a loyal prophet but also a patient one. From this conversation there are two ideas that come up into the surface. First, it is the concept of prophet. The ideology of the prophet is “a prophet must be an “angelic” person”. He is a person who has a strong faith to God.

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 Second, since Ahab has done something against the God‟s rule thus, God give him punishment. The question now, it is true or false that doing a mistake or committing sin will drive us to the punishment. In another word, it is true or wrong that every single time we do a mistake we will get the punishment and doing a good deed will gain a reward. Again, it is about language in which it is a relational. Mistake means nothing without punishment and being a good person is useless without a reward. It is a myth that has been put in human‟s mind that “doing a mistake is a stupid thing since it causes you of being punished”. If it says so, it is clear why Ahab looks very frightened and worried when he knows God will give him „disaster‟. It can be seen in the verse 27. It is mentioned there that when Ahab heard these words, he tore his clothes, put on sackcloth and fasted. He lays in sackcloth and went around meekly. d. Naboth It is interesting to talk about Naboth. First, Naboth is an obedient person. Besides an obedient person he is also categorized as a loyal and gallant person. It can be seen from his response when he knows that Ahab wants to take the possession of his vineyard. In the third verse he said that but Naboth replied, “The LORD forbid that I should give you the inheritance of my ancestors, (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version= NIV, April 1st, 2014). As an ordinary person he is brave to refuses Ahab‟s request. In the time of banishment anyone who is against the king must be killed. Naboth

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 knows that his refusal will kill him but he does not give up. He says bravely that it is a must for him to keep the vineyard because it is the commandment of God. Although Naboth has been dead but the presence of God remains there. The death of Naboth brings an issue how must we do to keep our word to God. It also breaks the myth that “death is the end of life”. In the contrary, everything which seems an end it is exactly the beginning. For instance, a student who gets a bad score in his test will say “Jesus, I got an E again, what should I do?” Whereas, the answer is clear, you must do a remedial test. The question must be if you get an A in your exam, what should you do next? Many people are framed in this concept and cause them difficult to move on from their problem. Furthermore, one thing can be learnt from Naboth. He does not do any resistance when he knows he will be killed by people. He surrenders his life to God. So that, if a person says that “you must do anything to keep your life secure”, it is a myth. People forgot that somehow they must allow something happens as it should happen even it brings you to feel the pain like what Naboth has chosen. e. The Vineyard The existence of vineyard is also strengthening the plot of the story. The vineyard can be regarded as a symbol since it stands for something else which is the symbol of the presence of God. From the conversation in which the vineyard is being mentioned it is precisely explains the significance of the vineyard itself. In the Bible grape is classified as a special fruit. It can be seen from some stories in the Bible. Grapes usually are cultivated in order to produce wine. In the Bible,

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 it is narrated wine is served as a drink for wedding and then in the Last Supper God stated that this wine is a symbol of His blood. Now, it is clear why the yard is the vineyard not the other fruit. This fact is also can be seen from Naboth‟s statement that: But Naboth replied, “The LORD forbid that I should give you the inheritance of my ancestors (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version= NIV, April 1st, 2014).” It is a symbol of the presence of God. This is also strengthened by Ahab: 21 Some time later there was an incident involving a vineyard belonging to Naboth the Jezreelite. The vineyard was in Jezreel, close to the palace of Ahab king of Samaria. 2 Ahab said to Naboth, “Let me have your vineyard to use for a vegetable garden, since it is close to my palace. In exchange I will give you a better vineyard or, if you prefer, I will pay you whatever it is worth (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). Ahab‟s will to changes the vineyard into a vegetable garden is indicating the implementation of Ahab‟s refusal to the presence of God. Even he tries to pay the vineyard whatever it is worth. f. Society Society here appears as a setting of place where some characters contribute their actions. In the story Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard, Ahab‟s people appear as an obedient society. Unfortunately, their obedience is in the wrong line. They follow a wrong king, Ahab. When they asked to throw stones to Naboth until he is dead they do it immediately. So the elders and nobles who lived in Naboth‟s city did as Jezebel directed in the letters she had written to them.12 They proclaimed a fast and seated Naboth in a prominent place among the people. 13 Then two scoundrels came and sat opposite him and brought charges against Naboth 11

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 before the people, saying, “Naboth has cursed both God and the king.” So they took him outside the city and stoned him to death. 14 Then they sent word to Jezebel: “Naboth has been stoned to death (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV, April 1st, 2014). It can be seen that even the elders and nobles are willing to do as Jezebel directed in the letters she has written to them. They do it because they think if they refuse it they will have the same fate like Naboth, which is being killed. Moreover, Ahab is their King, as good people it is good to obey the king‟s rule. The milestone where people kill Naboth is a legend (signified), it is a myth and the ideology that comes up from it is “the people always have to be obedient to their king, the final decision is in the king” (signifier). 2. The Myth of Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym In this part the writer enters to the first process of re-vision. This is a part where Ahab appears for the very first time in the novel and he accompanied by some others character. The descriptions are related to the re-vision of some characters that Coelho done and they appear as the representation or the reflection from the characters in the Bible, they are: Ahab, Saint Savin, and the setting is the society. The descriptions are: a. Ahab The first criteria of re-vision which is they tend to „re-write‟ canonic textsthose „classics‟ which have a high profile of admiration and popularity in our literary heritage (Widdowson, 1999: 165-166). It is the fact that Coelho is a wellknown writer. His works must be popular and plausible work in the world of literature. One of his amazing novels is The Devil and Miss Prym.

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 When the writer reads it, she finds the name of Ahab which is familiar with the one in a Bible character. Because of that, the writer feels it is important to investigate Ahab first. Finally, the investigation finds out the answer. The presence of Ahab in the novel is a re-vision of King Ahab in the Bible. Now, Coelho brings him to a different era, which is in the era of Celts and Romans. In the beginning of this story, Ahab is known as the wickedest and selfish murder. Like what the author narrates in the novel: The wickedest of them all, an Arab called Ahab, controlled the whole village and the surroundings area, imposing extortionate taxes on the local farmers who still insisted on maintaining a dignified way of life (Coelho, 2007: 24). From the description above it is clear that Ahab takes a control of his area. He arranges everything so that he can gain whatever he needs. He imposes extortionate taxes on the local farmers. Ahab is also can be categorized as an arrogant person. Take a look at to the conversation between Saint Savin and Ahab: One day, Savin came down from his cave, arrived at Ahab‟s house and asked to spend the night there. Ahab laughed: „You do know what I am a murderer who has already slit a number of throats, and that your life is worth nothing to me? (Coelho, 2007: 24). The way he introduces himself to St. Savin is very arrogant. He is proud of being the wickedest murder in Viscos. In a further explanation, it is mentioned that Ahab does not like to share his glory with St. Savin. He does not want anyone to be more popular than him even he plans to kill Saint Savin that very night. It is also depicted in the novel that Ahab is a suspicious man who no longer believed in the existence of Good (God) (Coelho, 2007:25).

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 The writer finds a repetition in the existence of Ahab. It is what Barry means of parallel and echo which are found in character or motive when the writer is dealing with structuralism (Barry, 2002: 52). The presence of Ahab in the novel is parallel with the presence of King Ahab in the Bible, Ahab as a wicked person. The characterization of Ahab as an evil is being „echoed‟ or reused by the writer. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presence of Ahab as a murder in The Devil and Miss Prym is substituting the position of Ahab in the Bible. The re- vision is started when Ahab and Saint Savin have a little conversation as what the writer has mentioned above. He says to Ahab that he is tired of living in a cave and he would like to spend at least one night here with Ahab, (Coelho, 2007: 24). Surprisingly, Ahab allows Saint Savin to sleep one night in his house. It is indicating that Ahab begins to open his heart to accept the truth (accepting God) that Saint Savin brings as a saint. While Saint Savin closes his eyes and go to sleep, Ahab spends all night sharpening his knife. The next morning, Saint Savin finds Ahab crying at his side. He said: “You weren‟t afraid of me and you didn‟t judge me. For the first time ever, someone spent a night by my side trusting that I could be a good man, one ready to offer hospitality to those in need. Because you believed I was capable of behaving decently, I did (Coelho, 2007: 25).” From that moment on, Ahab abandons his life of crime and set about transforming the region. The re-vision here is Ahab is not a wicked person anymore. He is reborn as a good one. Regarding this condition, there is one important point. It is the reason why the author repeats to describe Ahab as wicked as Ahab in the Bible in the early of the story.

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 There is something that Coelho wants to emphasize. The repetition is exactly showing that Ahab is truly an evil. However, even an evil person is capable to behave decently. It means that if someone says “bad is bad and good is good” it is a myth. It can be explained by Barthes‟s theory of myth that myth as a stolen language. It means that myth takes over or colonizes the language (concept which is already settled) to strengthen it (Sontag, 1986: 118-121). Coelho steals the myth of Ahab which is totally a bad figure to convey his message that even a wicked person like Ahab is capable to be a good person including you. Ahab is also a wise and kind- hearted person. It is shown by Berta‟s opinion: “I keep thinking about Ahab, our great hero and reformer, the man who was blessed by St. Savin...”Because he could see that even the most insignificant of actions, however well intentioned, can destroy everything (Coelho, 2007; 48).” He can be concluded as a wise person from the way he sees things. So one day he invites his friends to supper and cooks a succulent piece of meat for them. Unfortunately, he realizes that there was no salt. Then, he asks his son to go to the village and buy some salt, but pay a fair price for it: neither too much nor too little. And Ahab replies: “The only reason anyone would salt more cheaply than usual would be because he was desperate for money. And anyone who took advantage of that situation would be showing a lack of respect for the sweat and struggle of the man who labored to produce it (Coelho, 2007: 49). It is obvious that Ahab is wise and kind- hearted person since he is really paying attention and appreciating to a little thing may destroy even a village. Besides, Ahab is very philosophical and firm person. The power that he has is

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 able to change Viscos into a better village. It is the power to see his surroundings philosophically and firmly. Like what Chantal tells in the story: Ahab managed to achieve that transformation. At no point did he try to convince anyone, because he knew what people were like; they would confuse honesty with weakness, and his authority would immediately be place in doubt (Coelho, 2007:75). Ahab really understands what people think. Whatever he does is very philosophical. It is supported by his idea to make a monument. He calls all the villagers together for the inauguration of the gallows. He reads out the series of new laws that protect farmers, encourages the raising of livestock and rewards anyone bringing new trade to Viscos. In the last sentence he says that from then on, everyone would either have to find honest work or leave the village (Coelho, 2007: 75). From the decision that Ahab has taken the reader may see Ahab and his firmness. He knows that to be honest is difficult thing but he must be firm. Everyone would either have to find honest work or leave the village. To transform the village into a better place is not easy thing but Ahab makes it since he understand human nature: “it isn‟t to abide by the law that makes everyone behave as society requires, but the fear of punishment. Each one of us carries a gallows inside us (Coelho, 2007: 77)”. It is step by step the re-vision of Ahab revealed by Coelho. If the past Ahab is categorized a wicked, evil, unreligious, and weak person, Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym changes 180° which is Ahab a kind-hearted man, wise, philosophical minded, firm, and even he named as person who brings peace in Viscos. The myth does work which is besides a motivated and stolen language,

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 myth is also a semiological system: the signifier (Ahab brings peace to Viscos), the signified (Ahab as a good person). Finally, there is a presence of signified through the signifier. b. Saint Savin In The Devil and Miss Prym, Saint Savin can be regarded as a minor character. However, his significance is precisely giving the impact to the story for the most. It is because without the presence of Saint Savin Ahab will never change into a good person and so does the Viscos. Meanwhile, the existence of Saint Savin here is substituting the position of Elia the Prophet and also Naboth in the Bible. It says so since they have a similarity in characterization especially their duty is same, to „conquer‟ Ahab. The re-vision is started with an unexpected response that Saint Savin gives when Ahab snarls him. He answers to Ahab that he is tired of living in a cave and he would like to spend at least one night here with Ahab, (Coelho, 2007: 24). Saint Savin is willing to sleep with Ahab the wicked murder instead of keeps a distance from him. This is the point where Coelho re-vision or more accurately he strengthens the character of Elia. Besides as a loyal, patient person the criteria to be a priest is you must trust your enemy that someday he will be a better person. This is an interesting point because it is often being forgotten by people. It is what God mean ‟love your enemy as you love yourself”. It is not that difficult as what Saint Savin done. Surprisingly, there is no punishment here. Saint Savin prefers to give Ahab reflection in which giving Ahab trust than to punish him. It is being trusted by Saint Savin which punishes Ahab (indirectly).

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 From this part, the reader may see that punishment is not always about giving penalty or judge them that they are wrong but it is about giving your respect to their fault and giving them chance to be a better person. Saint Savin can also be regarded as the representation of Naboth since his life is in dangerous like Naboth. It is stated in the novel that: “Ahab knew the saint‟s reputation, which was as great as his own, and this made him uneasy, for he did not like having to share his glory with someone so weak. This he determined to kill him that very night (Coelho, 2007: 25). In order to keep his reputation Ahab is on the point of killing Saint Savin. It is not only about keeping his reputation but also defeating his enemy. Moreover, Saint Savin is a big threat for Ahab because he is a good man and it is different with him who no longer believes in the existence of Good. The re-vision occurs when Ahab does not kill Saint Savin. At this point, it reemphasizes that giving punishment is good when it does not stop in judging the target but respect. In this occasion Saint Savin „punishes‟ Ahab by giving him trust and it works, his life is saved, Ahab becomes a good man, so does people in Viscos. c. Society According to Watson, society in Viscos can be regarded as the integeral setting (Watson, 1998:638). Since most of the story involves the presence of society there. It is equipped by the conflict and actions that the characters conducting. The society in The Devil and Miss Prym is quite different with the society in the Bible since Ahab has transformed Viscos to be the place where good people live. In the past, Viscos was little more than a frontier post, populated

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 by bandits feeling from justice, by smugglers and prostitutes, by confidence tricksters in search of accomplices, even by murderers resting between murders (Coelho, 2007: 24). “Fortunate still takes side with Viscos, after Saint Savin blessed him Viscos reborn as a little paradise; it becomes an important trading center on the border two countries (Coelho, 2007: 25)”. While Ahab‟s people as narrated in the Bible are categorized as an obedient society, in the novel the society is also obedient but it follows the right track, the new Ahab. Not all of them do obey the rule. When Ahab asks them to do an honest work some of them are leaving and Ahab does not barricade them. It is evidence that Ahab knows people may have their own choice. Even though he is a leader there he cannot force them to follow his rule. Again, through the re-vision that Coelho done in society people may see first, as a leader or whatever you are you cannot do anything you want. Second, there are many choices in life one of them is what the writer has been mentioned above, “being obedient”. It is not about the importance of being obedient that Coelho wants to emphasize but a decision to be obedient itself. It is coming from our awareness or our fear. The uniqueness from this part is the writer cannot find the character that is parallel with the character of Jezebel and the vineyard. Nevertheless, it does not mean that the devil (Jezebel) and the Good (the vineyard) disappear. It is exactly the re-vision itself. Through Ahab, Coelho wants to show us the battle that Ahab experiences all alone. It can be assumed that now the devil is within the soul of Ahab and he shows us who the winner of that battle is. Then, the vineyard is

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 replaced by people inViscos who have changed to be decent people. It is supported by the reason why Ahab wants to kill Saint Savin. It is because he wants to be the only one who is respected in Viscos. What Ahab experiences is actually what most people experience too in their daily life. Now it is clear where „Jezebel‟ and the vineyard go. They do not go anywhere; they keep fighting in there; in Ahab‟s heart and people in Viscos. 3. Chantal Prym as the Re-vision of the Myth of Ahab This part is the second and the last process of the re- vision. The same with the first process of re-vision, this part explains how The Devil and Miss Prym can be regarded as the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth as written in the story of Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard and how this novel is strengthening the myth of the new Ahab (the first process of re-vision). It involves some characters: Chantal, the stranger, the priest, Berta, the eleven gold bars, and the society. Here is the description: a. Chantal By applying Saussure‟s theory that is language is relational (Barry, 2002; 41-44) the writer can reveal the real reason of Chantal‟s presence. It is relational because we do not see from what characteristics that describe Chantal but how Chantal‟s characteristics have something to do with other characters. After analyzing Chantal‟s characterization, there is something that binds Chantal and other characters. It is temptation that binds them. The word “them” is referred to Chantal, King Ahab in the Bible, and the new Ahab. Three of them are being tested or tempted to commit sin. Now, it is clear that Chantal‟s presence “has

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 something to do” with Ahab‟s presence. They are in the same position whether to commit sin or not. The re-vision appears since Chantal has been chosen by the stranger to tell his wager to break one of Ten Commandments: „Thou shalt not kill.‟ It reminds us of Ahab in the Bible. When Jezebel gives the idea to kill Naboth in order to take the possession of Naboth‟s vineyard, it is actually representing Ahab is in a difficult situation, which is temptation. He is being tempted by his wife to have such an immoral corporation to kill Naboth. As a king he has power to say no since it contravenes the law. However, Ahab is not that strong to refuse it. He does not pass the temptation and causing Naboth‟s death. In The Devil and Miss Prym Chantal does pass the temptation. She is even a person who is able to disqualify the murder for Berta. Chantal is a person who is not very potential or influential like King Ahab. It can be seen from other characters opinion toward her. Chantal can be regarded as an inferior. She is inferior because she is the youngest woman who used to go to bed with the hotel guests and it is not an appropriate to behave like that in Viscos. As what the author has mentioned in the story: By now, the news would have reached Viscos, and its inhabitants- out of envy or jealousy- would start spreading rumors about the girl. Saying that there were numerous reports that she often used to go to bed with the hotel guest... (Coelho, 2007: 33). It seems for Chantal that she is being underestimated by people because of her deed. Not only that, her inferiority can be seen from her thought: the net result: no gold no reputation (Coelho, 2007:33). Relating that statement, Chantal emphasizes her mind again:

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 …but for many generations to come she would be remembered as the woman who saved the village from Evil‟s second visitation. Maybe they would make up legends about her; the village‟s future inhabitants might refer to her as a lovely young woman, the only one who had not abandoned Viscos, because she knew she had mission to fulfill. Pious ladies would light candles to her, and young men would sigh passionately over the heroine they had never known (Coelho, 2007: 91). From those quotations above it seems that Chantal lacks attention. Chantal has a certain mission why she has to continue the „game‟ that the stranger offers her. It is because she wants people in Viscos to know who really she is. The inferiority is also strengthened by other comments toward Chantal which is the landowner. He said that: Miss Prym was the one person in the village who could not be trusted she thought she was different from everyone else and was always saying that one day she would leave (Coelho, 2007: 137). From that sentence, it shows us how complicated to be Chantal is. She is a type of person who is disliked by people. Since Chantal thinks that she is different with others in Viscos and it is eventually puts her in a difficult position which is being inferior. This situation is getting worst when Chantal tell to the people about the stranger‟s proposal to kill somebody in one week. She becomes the only one to blame. Since she is an orphan (Coelho, 2007: 30) she does not have someone to defend her in that kind of bad situation. This is what makes Chantal distinctive with King Ahab in the Bible and also as the first re- vision that Coelho did for King Ahab through Miss Chantal Prym. That is “a king can do anything he wants” is a myth. Chantal is not a king (superior) but she can do something great. The point here is to do something good

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 is not started with you have a power, you are popular, you have an authority and so on but you do see the chance and dare to take a choice. Besides, Chantal is an ambitious woman and love challenge. The presence of the stranger is exactly what she has been waiting for so long. It is to make a change in her life. It is stated in the story that Chantal: For a moment she was afraid, but her fear was quickly replaced by a desire for adventure:…Then she got up and followed the stranger, convinced that this would prove to be yet another disappointing encounter, (Coelho, 2007: 9). Chantal‟s approval upon the Stanger‟s offer can be assumed that she do love challenge. A murder can challenge a woman like Chantal because Chantal is ambitious. She has many dreams and she needs money to make it comes true: She thought she could overcome all obstacles, find a husband, get a job in the big city, be discovered by a talent scout who happened to be visiting that out-of-the-way place in the hope of finding peace, get a career in the theater, writer a bestseller, have photographers calling out to her to pose for them, walk along life‟s red carpets (Coelho, 2007: 31). To get what she dreams of she approves the stranger to kill somebody in Viscos. It is just the same as to get the vineyard Ahab approves Jezebel‟s idea to kill Naboth. Unexpectedly, the stranger gets failed. Chantal is not King Ahab who is easy to give up. Just try to recall the time when Naboth refuses to give his vineyard Ahab just coming home sullenly and refusing to eat. In the contrary, Chantal allows herself to be involved in that insane game. It proves that Chantal is stronger than Ahab and she knows what kind of problem she wrestles to. The re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth through Chantal reaches the climax when Chantal attempts to disqualify the „game‟ itself in the end of the story. She does it is because she can control herself for not killing Berta. Different with

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 Ahab, Chantal still has conscience to win the battle in her heart. After she is telling the sordid „game‟ she just crying. She was aware that, although the street was empty, from behind the curtains in darkened rooms, the eyes of Viscos were watching as she walked back home. It didn‟t matter; it was far too dark for anyone to see her tears (Coelho, 2007:82). That part explains us that Chantal‟s conscience still works. Tear does not solve anything. Chantal screws up her courage to change people‟s decision to kill Berta. “I‟m telling you the story for one simple reason: gold itself has no values. Absolutely none. We cannot eat it or drink it or use it to buy more animals or land. It‟s money that‟s valuable, and how are we going to turn this gold into money? (Coelho, 2007: 193).” This is the first attempt of Chantal in changing their mind. Her attempt is still not working. Then, she tries again by sharing her fear that she feels since the Stanger calls her for a murder. “You can shoot if you like, but since I know this is a trap set by the stranger, I want nothing to do with this murder. “ But if I am right, the mayor would soon be behind bars, and people would come to Viscos to find fout whom he stole this treasure from. Someone would have to explain, and it‟s not going to be me (Coelho, 2007: 195). From Chantal‟s statement we can feel the anger and worry of Chantal pouring with the people. The anger of being foolish because of the Stanger‟s trap and worried that they will keep committing murder. Good attempts will always tell. Finally, there is no one shoot Berta, no shoot no murder. The presence of Chantal can be regarded as the rejection of King Ahab‟s myth since she always does the opposite of King Ahab‟s choice. Besides, in the

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 novel she is a character that strengthens the myth of Ahab. If Ahab decides not to kill Saint Savin, Chantal decides not to kill Berta. Through the re-vision Coelho wants to show us that the profoundest changes take place within a very reduced time frame (Coelho, 2007: ix). Change does not mean you will lose everything that you familiar with. Like what Viscos has done, they change their mind and they still get the eleven gold bars. It is precisely brings you to what you really need that is the change itself. b. The Stranger The presence of Stanger reminds us with Jezebel. They are relational because both of them are in the same position. They are presented as a seducer (devil). If in the Bible the seducer is presented as Jezebel who is exactly a wicked woman, in The Devil and Miss Prym the seducer is coming as a pilgrim. The question is why pilgrim. The answer will be the aim of this study which is revision. The pilgrim here is the signified. It has many signifiers. The pilgrim is someone who makes a journey to a holy place (Oxford, 2011: 311). He must be someone who has a decent will which is holy place. He must be a religious person because what he looks for is a holy place. However, Coelho blurs all of those signifiers. Now, the pilgrim is coming as a seducer. What Coelho means is even the devil may appear as a very decent figure that is a pilgrim. He does not look like a wicked person like Jezebel. He is charming, rich, and friendly indeed. It can be seen from his attitude when he lives in Viscos. He enjoyed listening to stories about the region, about the previous generations who lived in Viscos. Whatever the truth of the matter, he was an

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 agreeable character, and the inhabitants of Viscos were convinced that they would miss him when he left on the following Monday (Coelho, 2007: 2021). From that description it can be concluded that how impressive the Stanger is. He is also very rich since he brings eleven gold bars and each weighing two kilos. Not only that, his richness can be seen when he buy and pay something in Viscos. On the following three nights, he paid-again in cash- for a round of drinks for everyone. Viscos had never seen anything like it, and they soon forgot about the contradictory stories, and the man came to be viewed as friendly, generous, and open- minded, prepared to treat country folk as if they were the equals of men and women from the big cities (Coelho, 2007: 21). To make his plan done smoothly the Stanger realizes that he must gain their trust first. It is not only their trust but also their weakness which is the imagination of living in a big city. From the presence of the Stanger readers may figure out the reason why Coelho choose pilgrim as his „tool‟ to do re-vision toward the presence of Jezebel. Besides a lovely person devil may appear as a religious figure that is the pilgrim. c. The Priest The significance of the priest is replacing the position of Elia in the Bible and also Saint Savin in The Devil and Miss Prym. The presence of the priest can be understood as the most „interesting‟ topic to be analyzed. It is because he is totally doing the opposite of Elia and Saint Savin‟s deed. As what has been mentioned in the first process of re-vision, Elia and Saint Savin come as loyal people.

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 However, the re-vision happens in the body of the priest. He breaks the myth that “a priest must be an angelic person”. It says so since the priest agrees to kill somebody in order to get the eleven gold bars. The priest who tends to be a good and kind- hearted figure is now changing into the wicked one. It is started when he says a term of „sacrifice‟. “What do you think, Father?” asked the hotel landlady.”The only thing I know well is my religion, in which the sacrifice of one individual saved all humanity (Coelho, 2007: 108).” When the priest says a word „sacrifice‟ he has begun his own game. He uses that word since he is a priest. This is what Barthes means myth is a naturalization of concept. This is the part in which myth operates as innocent speech: not because its intentions are hidden- but because they are naturalized (Sontag, 1986: 118). By the time the priest says the word „sacrifice‟ it is meant as a real „sacrifice‟ or it has something to do with the priest‟s motivation. The word sacrifice has a definition as a fact of giving up something valuable to you for a good purpose (Oxford, 2011; 338). In the other hand, the word murder can be understood as crime of killing somebody deliberately (Oxford, 2011: 289). Those two words are far different. It is obvious now why he chooses that word it is because people can kill somebody without any guilt. He did it because he has a certain aim. This aim is caused by his inner conflict that he is hopeless to be the priest in that village. For the most part, few troubled to make the effort to attend the two weekly Masses- one on Saturday and one on Sunday, both at eleven o‟clock in the morning; even so, he made sure to celebrate them, if only to justify his presence there. He wished to give the impression of being a busy, saintly man (Coelho, 2007: 127).

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 It can be concluded that he feels his presence is not really important for people in Viscos. Even he says he wishes to give impression of being a busy, saintly man. He knows people want that gold and to be regarded as a part of Viscos he must be in the same direction with them. What he wishes is coming true. To his surprise, that day the church was so crowded that he had to allow some of the congregation up onto the altar steps, otherwise they could not have fitted everyone in (Coelho, 2007: 127). Now people are in his trap. He is successful in convincing people to break one of Ten Commandments: “Thou shalt not kill”. He is also a cunning priest. It can be seen when they are trying to find the victim. “Are you offering yourself up for sacrifice, Father?” “If it‟s for the good of the community,” “There is only one thing,” the priest went on. “You would need to convince everyone that it is not a mortal sin to kill a minister of God.” “You can explain it to Viscos yourself!” “I can‟t do that,” said the priest. “Martyrs offer themselves up when the people want to kill them. They never incite their own death, for the Church has always said that life is a gift from God. You‟ll have to do the explaining (Coelho, 2007: 139-140). From the answer of the priest it can be seen how slick he is in protecting himself. Like what Berta says, fine words. They are just an excuse for cruelty and injustice (Coelho, 2007: 179). His guile leads people to choose between Miss Prym and Berta. Then, they choose Berta. Up to here, the re-vision is very obvious how Coelho describes the priest as the wicked man. The point here is even a good man like the priest can be an evil in his life. d. Berta Since Berta is the victim of this sordid game it can be assumed that her presence has a relation with the presence of Naboth as depicted in the Bible. Both

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 of them have some similarities. One of them is as a superstitious person. She is superstitious because she belief in myth which is the myth of Ahab. “I keep thinking about Ahab, our great hero and reformer, the man who was blessed by St. Savin…Because he could see that even the most insignificant of actions, however well intentioned, can destroy everything (Coelho, 2007: 48).” The presence of Ahab‟s myth inspires her to understand life in Viscos. Berta is not only believing in myth but also able to see „thing‟. It is stated in the story that it is happens: she “saw through” other people, and could tell what their feeling were (Coelho, 2007: 52). Thus, for the first time she looks the stranger she knows that he is accompanied by the devil. Different with Naboth who tends to be more powerful in keeping the vineyard Berta looks more resigned. Logically, she is more resigned than Naboth since she is very old. She cannot shout loudly like Naboth. She can fight if she wants but she cannot. The point is not in the age but in her submission. Even she looks calm when she hears she will be the one they sacrifice. “Thank you so much for your visit, but I‟m fine, really, in perfect health, ready to make every necessary sacrifice, including being on one of those stupid diets to lower my cholesterol levels, because I want to go on living for a long while yet (Coelho, 2007: 158).” Berta knows that this is her fate. She is trying to make this as simple as possible. She is afraid but she is trying to concentrate on something else. The re-vision occurs when Berta is not dead but Naboth is dead. The death of Naboth emphasizes the situation where Ahab does not have any courage to choose, to change Jezebel‟s idea. In the contrary, the life of Berta shows the situation where people in Viscos are brave to change their mind even in a very

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 short time. Berta‟s life can be concluded as a form that strengthens the presence of Saint Savin in the previous section since both of them are saved. It proves that people may change their mind even it seems impossible. The most important thing from Berta‟s existence is she confirms the priest‟s deed: She was sad, very sad, to have to leave like this, but she did not want to feel she was a victim: doubtless God had chosen this role for her, and it was far better than the one He had chosen for the priest (Coelho, 2007: 181). It is better for Berta to die than live but she does what the priest does. There is no excuse for killing somebody including by putting ourselves as His left arm. It is precisely Berta is the true priest since she gives all of hers to God. Fortunately, Chantal comes and saves her life and also the life in Viscos. e. The Eleven Gold Bars The eleven gold bars here represent the vineyard in the story Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard in which it causes someone almost dead, which is Berta. If in the previous explanation the vineyard represents the presence of God the eleven gold bars are representing a thing that haunts people‟s life which is the temptation. Gold (signified) promises wealth, prosperity, and happiness. They are what Viscos and people in the world look for. It can be seen from the description below: The girl turned to look at the stranger. “As for the other ten gold bars,” he went on, “they are worth enough to mean that none of the inhabitants of this village would ever need to work again (Coelho, 2007: 16). Eleven gold bars are totally seductive at that time. It can afford inhabitants in Viscos even they no need to work anymore. When the vineyard is replaced by gold it changes everything that familiar in Viscos. It stated in Viscos that

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 everyone was excited now; at last, Viscos had become a place where different, important things happened (Coelho, 2007: 171). The most astonishing part is when they do the plan for murder in a church together with their Father. “I need to start preparing for Saturday Mass,” he went on. “Why don‟t we meet up later this evening?” Everyone immediately agreed, setting a time late in the day, as if they were all immensely busy people with important matters to deal with (Coelho, 2007: 108-109). Once more, they set a time late as if they are busy. Actually, they are not that busy. They do that to make sure that everything is under controlled and they can finish the „game‟ immediately then get the gold bars. Back to the story Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard, Naboth is the only one who stands for the vineyard until it brings him to death. Surprisingly, in The Devil and Miss Prym all of people except Berta want that gold bars. This difference is the revision itself. It is how Coelho figures out that gold is more powerful than the presence of God since it promises wealth and guarantee your life can be happily ever after. It does not mean that having gold bars is wrong but the way you get that gold that justifies whether you are wrong or right. And it is wrong to kill somebody only for gaining the eleven gold bars. f. Society The re- vision toward the society in the novel can be seen clearly from the very first time the author creates his story. The re- vision is that Viscos is a good and peaceful place. It is distinctive with the society in the Bible where people worship to an evil king. The characteristics of Viscos can be seen from Chantal‟s opinion:

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 Chantal knew that she lived in a village of decent men and women who honored their commitments, people who walked with their heads held high and were respected throughout the region (Coelho. 2007: 23). Viscos is the place where the good people live. It is more than a good place it is a little heaven with its beautiful view. However, it makes Viscos to be a monotonous village. Like what Chantal says that: She was all too familiar with the silence of this remote place, which signified not peace and tranquility, but a total absence of new things. It was a wretched place, in which everything was predictable, organized and reliable (Coelho, 2007: 28-29). Everyday in Viscos is same. The silence that Viscos has is precisely because there is nothing great happening in Viscos. It happens because they are afraid. First, they are too afraid to change since they keep the myth of Ahab tightly in their heart. It is what Campbell means that the function of myth is to offer the role model, which is Ahab (http://mythsdreamssymbols.com/campbell.html, April 13, 2014). His presence controls them to behave as a good person. Second, they are also afraid of losing everything familiar with Viscos. Like what Berta mentioned in text: “That‟s true. But I‟m not sure that it‟s cowardice exactly. I think everyone is afraid of change. They want Viscos to be as it always was: a place where you can till the soil and tend your livestock, a place that welcomes hunters and tourists, but I agree with you on one point: they all think they have everything under control, when, in fact, they control nothing (Coelho, 2007: 49-50). Now they are in a big problem. In one side they are good people but in the other side they are a „robot‟. It seems Coelho wants to add more. Viscos suddenly becomes a place where the important thing happens, murder. This is the second re-vision of the society in Viscos. Even though the people are good they are

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 finally willing to commit murder. It stated that Viscos is not that a religious place (Coelho, 2007: 127). This point is emphasized by the priest, he said that: “Damned indeed,” the priest said. “For more than twenty years, I‟ve tried to bless this village, but no one heard my calls. For the same twenty years, I‟ve tried to inculcate Good into men‟s hearts, until I finally that God had chosen me to be his left arm, and to show the evil of which men are capable (Coelho, 2007:179). From the quotation above it can assumed that even Viscos has changed to be good inhabitants for years it does not mean that they are really pure people. This is a portrait that bad and good are in one person is true. The point of re-vision is how people in Viscos dare to take a decision, to change. At one point society in the novel and in the Bible is the same: they are capable of losing someone‟s life. At least, there is one point that society in the Bible is not capable of. It is to change their mind in a very reduced time to step backward from killing somebody (Berta). C. The Result of the Re-vision 1. The Table of Re-vision In this part, the writer simplifies the process of re-vision by drawing a table. The writer uses the theory of myth as semiological system by Roland Barthes to reveal the re-vision step by step. The second column is King Ahab in the Bible as the root for this study. The third column is the myth of Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym. It is also the first process of re-vision. The last column is Chantal Prym as the Re-vision of the Myth of King Ahab. This table is read from the left to the right side. Each column presents six characters. The re-vision can be seen started from the third column until the last

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 column. To elaborate the re-vision of the myth in the novel the writer puts all of the characters as the „signified‟ who have some „signifiers‟. The contrasts that the writer finds are what we call the result of the re-vision itself. Number 1. The Myth of King Ahab in the Bible Signified: Ahab superior can do anything he wants Signifier: a wicked king of Israel, a weak man, a murderer of Naboth, an unreligious man Naboth is dead 2. 3. Signified: Jezebel a devil comes as a lovely figure Signifier: an evil wife, a cunning person, a „bright‟ provocateur a lovely wife Signified: Elijah the prophet punishment, priest must be an angelic man Signifier: loyal, patient Ahab repents his sin, being faithful to God 4. The Myth of Ahab in The Devil and Miss Prym Signified: Ahab superior cannot do everything he wants Chantal Prym as the Re-vision of the Myth of Ahab Signified: Chantal Prym Inferior but she can do something great Signifier: a wise and kind-hearted leader, a firm person, a philosophical man, someone who brings peace to Viscos no one is dead - Signifier: inferior, kind- hearted, ambitious and brave woman, love challenge no one is dead Signified: stranger a devil comes as a religious figure Signifier: friendly, charming, rich, seductive, impressive a pilgrim Signified: Saint Savin, no punishment priest must be an angelic man Signified: the priest no punishment priest is not always a good man Signifier: a holy man, a patient and loyal saint Ahab becomes a decent man being faithful to God Signifier: agrees to commit murder, wicked priest , slick The priest agrees to kill Berta Signified: Naboth, Signified: Saint Savin, death does not mean submit his life to God Signified: Berta submit her life to be

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 65 an end 5. 6. sacrificed Signifier: loyal, gallant, obedient, superstitious, the presence of God remains there Signified: the vineyard God is everything Signifier: a holy man, a patient and loyal saint, his life is saved Signifier: superstitious, resigned, her life is saved Signified: Viscos being respected in Viscos is everything Signified: the eleven gold bars gold is everything Signifier: the presence of God sacrifice Naboth Signifier: a good place Viscos as a terrible place Signified: The society people must obey the rule’s king Signified: The society in Viscos people may choose whether to obey the rule or not Signifier: wealth, temptation, prosperity, happiness Sacrifice Berta Signified: The society in Viscos people break the rule Signifier: obey the king Ahab‟s rule Naboth is dead Signified: obey the rule of Ahab people in Viscos turn to be a good people Signifier: dare to make change Berta is saved From the table above it can be seen the re-vision of King Ahab‟s myth. Through character and characterization the writer can identify the re-vision one by one to the end of the story. It is not only the characterization that Coelho re-vision but also the concept as the content of myth which each character brings. The concepts are written in italic. The concept is the „signified‟ and the form from the signified is the „signifier‟.

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 66 2. The Factors that Cause Re-vision The result of the re-vision is not coming to an end in the area of character and characterization. After analyzing the re-vision the writer may sum up the nearest possibility why Coelho did a re-vision through his novel. There are some factors can be concluded: a. The truth that our life cannot be separated from myth. Eliade argues that myth reports realities and events from the origin of the world that remain and events from the origin of the world that remain valid for the basis and purpose of all there is (Eliade, 1987: 263). It is why myth is always talking about the process of creation something including every single thing in our nowadays. Our life today is the result of the myth in a very primitive time. Such as, we use knife to cut beef because our ancestor used pebble to cut the beef too. The matter is not in the knife or the pebble but it is in the idea to cook beef. We have to chop it first into pieces in order to make it easier to cook. That case also happens in this novel. It can be found in the Bible that a sinner must be punished. The matter is not in the Bible but the way we accept the idea of punishment. Punishment does not stop in judging the mistake. Punishment is allowed when it is given wisely. It is given by respect and trust. Therefore, they can get a chance to be a better person. b. It is not only myth which is close to us but also myth can corrupt and reach everything. Barthes defines myth as a type of speech, a semiological system, and as a stolen language. First myth is regarded as a system of communication. “It is laden with a type of social usage which is added to pure

(79) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 67 matter (Sontag, 1986: 94)”. Since myth is a type of speech everything can be a myth including every character in this novel. Coelho steals the image of Ahab to communicate his critic and point of view by doing re-vision. For instance, many people trapped to the thought that people cannot change. Ahab is Ahab. He is an immoral and arrogant king. Coelho appears with a new breathe, people may change. Ahab can be a good even better person, including you. Second, myth as a semiological system in which myth is in a second order semiological system. It always requires people to see something critically. Why the priest uses the word „sacrifice‟ rather than „kill‟. Due to he is a priest or due to his act to protect himself. 3. The Function of Re-vision Frye differentiates the function of myth into two: the myth of freedom and the myth of concern. After analyzing the re-vision of myth in this study, The Devil and Miss Prym can be categorized as the myth of freedom because it smashes some myths (concept, ideology) in society in which many people accept it improperly. For instance, someone who did a mistake must be punished. It is not always like that as what the Saint Savin has done to Ahab. A priest must be a perfect religious man, gold promises happiness, and the devil must appear as an evil person. All of them are the concepts that people have accepted and it harden in human‟s thought. In real life, more or less the society, certain groups even parties they are involved in shaping all of the concepts and it is good to understand first before we involve that concept.

(80) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 68 The Devil and Miss Prym can be categorized as the myth of freedom since it invites the reader to think rationally and realistic. As what Frye has mentioned before that the myth of freedom is it appeals to such self-validating criteria as ―logicality of argument or (usually a later stage) impersonal evidence and verification (http://cinema2.arts.ubc.ca/units/canlit/pdfs/articles/canlit148- Northrop(Good).pdf), March 28, 2014). In this story for instance Chantal and people in Viscos decide not to kill Berta. They are successful to break the myth that “gold is everything”. They prefer to give an honor toward his ancestor and themselves that they never kill somebody which is merely to get the gold bars. The Devil and Miss Prym is a portrait where people in Viscos struggle for their destiny. To get out from the box, the concepts that society even the past times have been formed for them. According to Campbell the myth in The Devil and Miss Prym shows its functions when first, myth grants continuity and stability to a culture which is the stability of Ahab‟s myth. Second, myth presents guidelines for living. It is how people in Viscos have a high honour to their ancestor and Ahab. Third, myth justifies a culture‟s activity. It is when people do not like Chantal because she is different with others. Four, myth gives the meaning of life. It occurs when Berta feels excited in telling the myth of Ahab. Five, myth explain the unexplainable. Myth helps us to understand world. It is when the stranger tries to find the answer about the good and bad. The last, myth offers role models. One of them is Ahab as a man who brings peace to Viscos(http:/mythsdreamssymbols.com/campbell.html, April 13, 2014).

(81) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The Devil and Miss Prym is the re-vision of King’s Ahab myth as depicted in the story of Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard. It is supported by the parallelism of character that the writer finds in both of the story. In the Bible the characters are King Ahab, Jezebel, Elijah the prophet, Naboth, the vineyard, and the society. Besides, in the novel it has two sequences. First, it is Ahab as a myth in Viscos. It covers Ahab, Saint Savin, and the society. Second, it is The Devil and Miss Prym as the final of the re-vision toward King Ahab’s myth. They are Chantal, the stranger, the priest, Berta, the eleven gold bars, and the society. Chantal replaces the position of King Ahab and the new Ahab since they are in the same position which is being tempted to commit murder. The stranger substitutes the present of Jezebel in the Bible since both of them are coming as a seducer. The priest can be assumed replacing the position of Elijah and Saint Savin regarding that three of them are saint man. Berta is concluded as a substitution of Naboth and Saint Savin since she has the same destiny which is a person who will be sacrificed by people. The eleven gold bars replace the existence of the vineyard and Viscos because they have one thing that bounds them; their existence is the temptation for human life. The society is still in its position as the society but they are different in behavior. The re-vision occurs in each character in the novel. First, when the new Ahab becomes a good and wise person. He is also kind- hearted and firm leader. 69

(82) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 70 He is a philosophical man and known as a person who brings peace to Viscos. Then, the re-vision of the new Ahab is strengthened by Chantal. She comes as an inferior but she can disqualify the murder of Berta. She is kindhearted, ambitious, and brave woman. Second, the re- vision occurs in the character of Jezebel. She is an evil, cunning, and a ‘bright’ provocateur. Jezebel can be regarded as a devil that comes as a lovely figure for her husband. She is replaced by the stranger who looks friendly, charming, seductive, and impressive. Third, Saint Savin’s presence appears to strengthen Elijah that a saint must be faithful to God. The re-vision happens when the priest does the opposite. He chooses to commit murder with people in Viscos. Fourth, the re-vision for Berta and Saint Savin happens when they are saved but Naboth not. Both Saint Savin and Berta strengthen the character of Naboth. It emphasizes the issue of submission to God. Fifth, the eleven gold bars is the form of the re-vision from the vineyard and Viscos. The re-vision is placed when Coelho changes the temptation is not about to keep the vineyard and Viscos anymore but gold which promises wealth and prosperity. It indirectly explains that gold (money) is the biggest problem for people to deal with. Sixth, it is about the society. The revision can be seen clearly when Coelho makes Viscos as a good society. It is different with the society in the Bible where people commit sin without feeling guilty. There are two factors as the background of conducting re-vision. Firstly, our life cannot be separated from myth. What we have today is the heritance of what we had had in the beginning of the creation of the world. Secondly, it is the power

(83) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 71 of myth which is it can corrupt and reach everything especially something that lack of meaning. According to Campbell the myth in The Devil and Miss Prym shows its functions when first, myth grants continuity and stability to a culture which is the stability of Ahab’s myth. Second, myth presents guidelines for living. It is how people in Viscos have a high honour to their ancestor and Ahab. Third, myth justifies a culture’s activity. It is when people do not like Chantal because she is different with others. Four, myth gives the meaning of life. It occurs when Berta feels excited in telling the myth of Ahab. Five, myth explain the unexplainable. Myth helps us to understand world. It is when the stranger tries to find the answer about the good and bad. The last, myth offers role models. There are many myths in the novel presented by some popular figures that shows us how to set our life free. One of them is Ahab as a man who brings peace to Viscos (Campbell, The Importance of Myth).

(84) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1993. Adams, Charles. J. ed. and Joseph M. Kitagawa. The Encyclopedia of Religion. Mircea Eliade. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1987. Baldick, Chris. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Baldick, Chris. Criticism and Literary Theory 1890 to the Present. New York: Longman Group Limited, 1996. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory. New York: Manchester University Press, 2002. Bull, Victoria ed. Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary. New York: University Press. 2011. Campbell, Joseph. “The Importance of Myth”. Myths-Dreams-Symbols. Gifford Fence Middle Tennessee and Gifford Fence Orlando. n.d. (http://mythsdreamssymbols.com/campbell.html). April 13, 2014. Coelho, Paulo. The Devil And Miss Prym. New York: Harper Perennial, 2007. Eagleton, Terry. Literary Theory An Introduction. New York: Blackwell Publishing, 1996. Ellmann, Richard ed. and Charles Feidelson, JR. The Modern Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, 1965. Forster, E. M. Aspects Of The Novel. London: Penguin Books, 2000. “Frye and the Social Context of Criticism.” South Atlantic Bulletin 39 (November 1974), 63-72. Gill, Richard. Mastering English Literature. London: Macmillan Press Ltd, 1995. 72

(85) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 73 Good, Graham. Northrop Frye And Liberal Humanism. 77-79 n. d. (http://cinema2.arts.ubc.ca/units/canlit/pdfs/articles/canlit148Northrop(Good).pdf) March 28, 2014. Harmon, William and Hugh Holman. A Handbook to Literature. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. Hengeveld, Nick. “Kings 21:1-29 (New International Version)”.Bible Gateaway. Biblica Inc. n.d. (http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Kings+21%3A129&version=NIV). April 1st, 2014. Joseph, Jeena Ann. “The Way of Salvation: Paulo Coelho’s The Devil And Miss Prym.” Teresian Journal of English Studies.Vol. 3. No 1 (October 2011): pp. 62-69. Kennedy, X.J and Dana Giogia. An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry and Drama Seventh Edition. New York: Longman Inc, 1999. Larasatingrum, Agnes Yudita. Deviant Character of Chantal Prym In Paulo Coelho’s The Devil and Miss Prym. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2008. Madden, Frank. Exploring Fiction Writing and Thinking about Fiction. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 2002. P U, Sheme Mary. “Relocating The Soul In Paulo Coelho’s Novel The Devil And Miss Prym.” Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL). Vol.1. Issue. No 2 (June 2013): pp. 42-45. Rich, Adrienne. “When We Dead Awaken: Writing as Re-vision”, Woman, Writing, and Teaching. Vol. 34 No. 1 (Oct 1972): pp. 18-30. Sontag, Susan. ed. A Barthes Reader. New York: McGraw- Hill Ryerson Ltd, 1986. Watson, Jerry. J. “An Integral Setting Tells More than When and Where.” The Reading Teacher. Vol. 44 No. 9(May, 1991): pp. 638-646. Webster, Merriam. Dictionary and Thesaurus. Encyclopedia Britannica Company. Merriam- Webster Incorporated. 2014. (http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/re-imagine) June 26th, 2014. Widdowson, Peter. Literature. New York: Routledge, 1999.

(86) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Summary of the Paulo Coelho’s The Devil and Miss Prym. This is a story about a remote village named Viscos where there are only several potential people live there: the hotel landlady, responsible for the wellbeing of tourist; the priest, responsible for the care of souls; the mayor, responsible for the hunting regulations; the mayor’s wife, responsible for the mayor and his decisions; the blacksmith, who had survived being bitten by the rogue wolf; and the owner of most of the lands around the village. However, the story of Viscos cannot leave its three dominant characters. They are the youngest Chantal, the oldest Berta, and the role model of Ahab. In the past, Viscos is the place inhabited by the very dregs of humanity, and everyone take this for granted, saying it was the consequences of a curse put on the village by the Celts. Everything is change after Ahab has been blessed by Saint Savin and he changes Viscos to be a good place. That is when Viscos ceased being merely a frontier post, inhabited by outcast, and became an important trading center on the border between two countries. The presence of Ahab is eventually weighing people in Viscos to behave as a good man. Unfortunately, it shapes them to be a person who is afraid of change. They do not look that happy as they seem. They are a people who are afraid of losing everything familiar with them. There is nothing interesting to settle in Viscos. The story today is the same with yesterday. Morever, they will be the last generation who live in Viscos. There is no child left and the village was suffering 74

(87) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 75 from myth from their ancestor that the bad luck happens in Viscos today is caused by their mistake in the past. It is clear that people in Viscos is a person who is afraid of change and still believe in superstitious. The existence of Ahab in Viscos itself has a relation with the story of King Ahab in the Bible which is Ahab and Naboth’s Vineyard. The difference is in the re-vision that Coelho done in each of the characters in the novel. Coelho substitutes the characters in the Bible with their own character as the writer has been mentioned in the beginning of this story. He does re-vision in all of the characterization that characters have in the Bible and remake it through his novel. The re-vision can be seen clearly when Viscos has a pilgrim as their guest. He is Carlos, the stranger. He comes and brings eleven gold bars with him. He will give it to people in Viscos with one condition: they have to kill somebody by the end of the week. Up to this part, Chantal, Berta, and Ahab show the importance of their presence. Chantal arouses people in Viscos from their ‘dream’ of fake happiness, Berta whose presence as a victim and Ahab who keeps people behave decently. Now, Viscos turns out to be the place where important thing happens. The Stranger tests people in Viscos, who live in fear with God and who refuse to believe anything they did not fit in with what they were used to believing to kill someone to save their village from the destruction. All of them are the portrait of people’s life where they accept myth improperly. It is exactly shapes them to be a society who hates change in life which is precisely keeps on changing.

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