A study of semantic change: pejoration analysis in American History X Movie (1998) - USD Repository

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A STUDY OF O SEMA ANTIC CHANGE C : PEJORA RATION AN NALYSIS IN AMER RICAN HISTORY H X MOVIIE (1998) AN A UNDE ERGRADUATE TH HESIS Presented d as Partiaal Fulfillm ment of thee Requirem ments for the ddegree of Sarjana S Sa astra inn English Letters By YO OGA GHO OTAMA Studennt Numberr: 0842140 033 ENGL LISH LET TTERS STUDY S PROGRAM M DEPA ARTMEN NT OF EN NGLISH LETTER RS FACU ULTY OF F LETTER RS SA ANATA D DHARMA A UNIVE ERSITY Y YOGYAK KARTA 2014 4

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A STUDY OF O SEMA ANTIC CHANGE C : PEJORA RATION AN NALYSIS IN AMER RICAN HISTORY H X MOVIIE (1998) AN A UNDE ERGRADUATE TH HESIS Presented d as Partiaal Fulfillm ment of thee Requirem ments for the ddegree of Sarjana S Sa astra inn English Letters By YO OGA GHO OTAMA Studennt Numberr: 0842140 033 ENGL LISH LET TTERS STUDY S PROGRAM M DEPA ARTMEN NT OF EN NGLISH LETTER RS FACU ULTY OF F LETTER RS SA ANATA D DHARMA A UNIVE ERSITY Y YOGYAK KARTA 2014 4 ii

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(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI This soul prayeth not for victory, but for loss. This body kneeleth not in vain, but in blood. These eyes seeth not nil, but truth. These words are spoken not by me, but through. The Devil’s Blood (E) vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Be now by my side, O spirits that serve the Lord of the Bloody Scythe. Guide my steps towards Your Kingdom, And enlighten me with death's Blackened Light. For Thee, Love, and The Cult. viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and Foremost, I would like to give my deepest gratitude to my supervisors, Dr. Fr.B. Alip, M.Pd.,M.A., for his patience, immense knowledge, and motivation. Thank you for the support and suggestions. I am inspired of this undergraduate thesis and finally make it presentable. I am indebted to my co advisor, Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum., for her guidance in writing this undergraduate thesis, and the suggestions and corrections for the improvement of this undergraduate thesis. I also want to express my sincere gratitude to my fellow music, especially to my band Exhumation. Thank you Grave and Bones for sharing the same passion, dedication, and devotion through death music. Thank you for being there and helping me regain some sort of beautiful art in Death music. I also own endless gratitude to Iannoh, Dedhy, Matias, TJ, Tataa, Aryo Jungs, Deris, Mutia, Icha, Bayu Putrasangfajar, and Nikko. Last but not least, I would like to give my best regards to my dearest Yunior family. I thank my father and mother for supporting me throughout my studies at Sanata Dharma University. Thank you for helping me focus on my ideas. None of this would have been possible without your love and patience. Yoga Ghotama ix

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLEPAGE ................................................................................................... APPROVAL PAGE ......................................................................................... ACCEPTANCE PAGE .................................................................................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ............................................................................................................................. STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ............................................................... MOTTO PAGE ............................................................................................... DEDICATION PAGE ..................................................................................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................ TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................ ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... ABSTRAK ......................................................................................................... ii iii iv ..... v vi vii viii ix x xi xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ................................................................... A. Background of the Study ................................................................. B. Problem Formulation ....................................................................... C. Objective Of the Study ..................................................................... D. Definition Of Terms ......................................................................... 1 1 6 6 6 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................... 9 A. Review of Related Studies ............................................................... 9 B. Review of Related Theories ............................................................. 12 C. Theoretical Framework .................................................................... 19 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ............................................................... A. Object of the Study .......................................................................... B. Approach of the Study ..................................................................... C. Method of the Study ......................................................................... D. Data Analysis ................................................................................... 21 21 22 23 23 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ............................................................................ 25 A. Pejoratives in the Movie .................................................................. 26 B. What are pejorative used as part of pejoration ................................. 34 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ....................................................................... 43 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................ 45 APPENDIX ....................................................................................................... 47 x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT YOGA GHOTAMA.A Study of Semantic Change: Pejoration Analysis in American History X Movie. Yogyakarta. Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This undergraduate thesis concerns primarily in the pejoration of semantic change in American History X movie. The movie scripts provide a substantial number of offensive words that play an important role in the movie. The problems revealed for this undergraduate thesis are related to two matters as follows: (1) the identification of pejorative expression in the movie and (2) the analysis of pejorative expression as part of pejoration. In conducting the research on the subject matter, the researcher collected data by reading the dialogues on the script writing of the movie from David McKenna which provides 19040 words and 203 pages. The analysis of pejorative expression used two instruments, namely Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition (2008) and Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary (2003). The theory of pejorative by Richard Nordquist also supports the analysis of the first problem. The analysis of the pejorative expression is given on random technique. In order to analyze the second problem, the researcher used the theory of pejoration from Michel Breal (2001). There are several results of this research. (1) 29 pejorative expressions were found in the movie. (2) There are 16 pejorative expressions that used as part of pejoration expression in the movie. Therefore, not all of the pejorative expressions were used as pejoration expressions in the movie. xi

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK YOGA GHOTAMA.A Study of Semantic Change: Pejoration Analysis in American History X Movie. Yogyakarta. Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Skripsi ini pertama-tama berkonsentrasi pada masalah perubahan semantik pejorasi dalam film American History X. Naskah film tersebut menyajikan katakata offensif dalam jumlah yang banyak dan memainkan peran pentingnya di dalam film tersebut. Masalah yang diangkat dalam penelitian ini berkaitan dengan dua perumusan masalah, yaitu: (1) Penemuan ekspresi merendahkan di dalam film (2) Analysis ekspresi merendahkan sebagai bagian dari peyorasi. Dalam melakukan penelitian ini, penulis mencari dan mengumpulkan data dengan membaca seluruh dialog draf naskah film dari David McKenna yang menyajikan 19.040 kata dan 203 halaman. Analisis ekspresi pejoratif dipilih dengan menggunakan dua instrumen yaitu Kamus Cambridge Advanced Learner's 3rd Edition (2008) dan Kamus Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate (2003). Teori pejoratif dari Richard Nordquist juga mendukung untuk analisa materi pertama. Analisa ekspresi pejoratif dikumpulkan dengan metode acak. Untuk menganalisis materi kedua, penulis menggunakan teori pejorasi dari Michel Breal (2001). Hasil dari penelitian ini mencakup beberapa kesimpulan. (1) Terdapat 29 ekspresi pejoratif di dalam film. (2) Terdapat 16 ekspresi pejoratif yang digunakan sebagai ekspresi pejorasi di dalam film. Oleh karena itu, tidak semua ekspresi pejoratif merupakan bagian dari ekspresi pejorasi di dalam film. xii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Movies have been an important part of the cultural aesthetic for many years and it continues until today. It is an art form which widely acceptable for all over the world. Movies also become the new innovation of the entertainment world. It is also grown as valuable source where people able to gain inspiration and information from movies. On the other hand, linguistics is the study of language and it works on human language and how they communicate with an individual or even a group. Linguistics also focuses on the elements such as grammar, phonology and syntax in order to help people to understand the barriers of language. In some cases, they are both connected since language can determine the quality of a film based on its dialogue on the movie script. Nowadays, movie scripts play an important role in the movie. The words of the movie scripts, good or bad, they are appearing in order to show the connection of the dialogue and the image of the movie. American History X is a powerful movie in recent years. The direction of the movie creates an atmosphere of a strong performance of white supremacy in the states and broken down in a tragic consequences. 1

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 The movie also provides some provocative thoughts which turn out to be worth a story and offer a wide range of speakers from diverse social classes and therefore shows explicitly their distinctive usage of language. To sum up American History X provides plenty interesting discussion about racism words which build the tension among the audience. It is not a surprise that American History X shows a lot of dialogues that reflect the bad situation that happened. There are also so many offensive words, a form of racist language they demonstrate how language may function to set some actions in the movie. As for the example, the offensive speech in the movie is intended to ridicule, poses a threat, and belittle a person because of the cultural, racial origin, religious practice, political beliefs, and sexual orientation. Movies and linguistics are important for this research. It is important to understand the connection between them. Of course, the purpose of this research is to understand the linguistics used in the movie. Semantics as part of linguistic studies is the best way to approach the description and explanation of the word meaning in several scopes. In this research, semantics is the tool to generate the analysis of word meaning in movie script. It is also the foundation that language expression not only able to determine the quality of movie script but they have a meaning. Language expression is developed every day and the semantic representation of words is absolutely developed, by becoming broader or narrower, or by shifting. The new meanings which are developed by these cases are usually connected to the original one.

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 There are a number of ways in which semantic change can occur; for example the use of words can be narrowed down: 'acorn' used to mean ‘fruit’ in Early Modern English, but today it has narrowed down to a specific fruit, namely that of the oak tree (Denham and Lobeck, 2013: 309). For example, there is a use of the word to be widened and increased its range of meaning, 'salary' which originally meant ‘wages for soldiers’ but has come to mean ‘wages’ in general. As word may have more than one meaning, each word development able to be the bridge to create the semantic link between a new sense and the original. Since the research dealing with meaning change, there are classifications which are suggested for semantic change. The suggestion that meaning change may follow. Michel Bréal attempts some notions related to word changes or meaning changes in the 19th century. Those notions become the first reference and knowledge of this research. To sum up Bréal mentions the classification of semantic change into some types; pejoration, amelioration, restriction, generalization, metaphor, and contagion (Bréal, 2001: 52). Those classifications are the contribution of this research in order to show how things be divided into types of semantic change in any further explanatory progress. Therefore, it is possible to approach the language expression in the movie, also it is very important to have a method to approach this research from those points. Those classifications used in order to understand what the speakers say about others in the movie and how the speakers justify their personal attitudes and actions in the movie.

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 There are a lot of violence, dark, and terrible scenes in American History X, because the matter of different culture and race which caused bad effect of communication. This is an example that is taken from one of the movie script: ‘Well... look at our country. It's a haven for criminals. Black... brown... yellow... whatever. The words 'black, brown, and yellow' are offensive words because 'the actor' stated those words to describe someone's figure. In this case the actor intends to describe 'black' as the reference for identical race, economic status, parenthood, and etc. Those words being downgraded into something less favorable and refers to a specific group of people with particular experiences which is labeled as bad black people in the movie. The word 'black' in the movie considered to be offensive when the word is intended as the suggestive word of the colored people. On the other hand, pejoration takes a worsening place in English standard language; it is the process in which the word meaning becomes negative or showing lack of good sense. A lot of expressive dialogue which labeled as pejorative that discovered through this American History X movie. Pejorative are derogatory terms that are used to convey hatred and disdain. Words like ‘nigger, faggot, spinster, kike (as applied to Jews) or chink (for Chinese people)’ are but a few examples in a huge variety of expressions of hatred and contempt.

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 The main reason why a pejorative word is used, because the basic problem of stereotypes, unfamiliarity, selfishness, and family education are often happening in the script writing. In order to show there are cases of pejorative words which happened in the movie, these are the example: (a) “Who runs the place? The monkeys or the wetbacks?” (b) “F**k you, Cameron. You're a f**king chicken hawk...praying on kids.” The actor stated ‘monkey and chicken’ as the original meaning of ‘animals’ in English language, in order to use it as reference to offend someone, to treat them as animals. Those offensive words are pejoratives and have been downgraded to make the dialogue sound interesting and more applicable to each scene. However, this downgrading process called pejoration. Every pejorative and pejoration contributes in each dialogue to be more interesting. This phenomenon encourages the author to analyze how the pejorative and pejoration terms work in American History X.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 B. Problem Formulation This study has been designed to solve the problems which are formulated as follows: 1. What pejorative expressions are found in the movie American History X? 2. What are the pejoratives which are used as part of pejoration? C. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study of the pejoration analysis in the movie are mainly to answer the problems which are: 1. To find out the pejorative expressions found in the movie 2. To identify the use of pejorative as part of pejoration in the movie By doing so, the author will understand the finding of the regular pattern of pejorative expressions in the movie that's taking a role as part of pejoration expressions. D. Definition of Terms In the definition of terms, it is conceptually to define of a better understanding for reader, and to avoid the misunderstanding of certain terms. Thus, it is not necessary to define a term which is generally understood. Semantics: Semantics (as the study of meaning) is central to the study of communication and as communication becomes more and more a crucial factor in social organization, the need to understand it becomes more and more pressing. Semantics also at the center of the study of the human mind - thought processes,

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 cognition, conceptualization - all these are intricately bound up with the way in which we classify and convey our experience of the world through language. Because it is, in these two ways, a focal point in a man's study of man, semantics have been the meeting place of various cross-currents of thinking and various disciplines of study. Philosophy, psychology, and linguistics all claim a deep interest in the subject. (Leech, 1990: 9). Semantic Change: Semantic change in the context of words describes the gradual shift in the conventional meaning of words, as people use them in new types of context and this usage become normal. Often in the course of semantic change, a word shifts its meaning to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage. A semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. Every word has a variety of senses and connotations which can be added, removed or altered over time, often to the extent that cognates across space and time have very different messages (Blank,1999: 61). This change in meaning involves the altering, removing, and adding on meanings behind a word by following its classification. See the classification by Michel Bréal above (Page 3). Pejoration: It is a simple the concept of semantic changes in which a word's meaning worsens or degenerates and coming to represent something less favorable than it originally did. In pejoration, a word takes on a derogatory meaning. (Riemer and Bréal, 2010: 374). For instance, it is the process of a lexeme to develop a negative sense and when a word acquires more negative connotations.

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 Pejorative: Pejoratives are the class of expressions that is meant to insult or disparage. They include swear words and slurs. These words allow speakers to convey emotional states beyond the truth-conditional contents that they are normally taken to encode (Hom, 2010: 164-185). In addition, pejorative are consist of words and phrases that hurt, insult, or disparage someone or something. The label pejorative (or derogatory) are sometimes used in dictionaries and glossaries to identify expressions that offend or belittle a subject. Nonetheless, a word that's regarded as pejorative in one context may have a non-pejorative function or effect in a different context (Nordquist, 2007).

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies 1. Old Words, New Meanings: A Survey of Semantic Change amongst YorubaEnglish Bilingual Undergraduates by Anjola A. Robbin. In the following study, she concentrates in the extended meaning in semantic change. She views that the semantic changes are a common phenomenon amongst Yoruba-English bilingual undergraduates. She also adds some point that semantics change can help the broadening process of the vocabulary by giving new meaning to old words in the English language. Also, she realizes that the semantics change is motivated by socio cultural background, psychological background, even more encyclopedia forces. Along with the conclusion of her study, it is true that semantic changes can broad the progress of vocabulary and giving it words new meaning. Pejoration as one of the semantic changes terms, also tries to help some words change the new meaning though they concern on worsening them into negative meaning. This study and Pejoration analysis in American History X movie associated on the same terms which work in the cases of how meaning word can affect the attitude toward social relationship between two groups or more. Also, these works present as the semantic development in language using. 9

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 2. Language Analysis of the Movie American History X by Jessica Weber, Fabian Rätzer. In the following study, they concentrate on the differences of Standard American English and Black English, placing particular emphasis on phonological and grammatical distinctions as well as the specific usage of terms. Besides, it is also elaborate on the different social accents that plays a significant role in our determination of the traits of special accents of American English. Along with this introduction, there is an important point between the pejoration analysis and their study. It is obviously clear that both of the studies using the same object, American History X movie, which is offering the widest range of language using. This study is more about the discussion between the use of standard American English language and Black English and what roles they have in the movie and as there is particular language which can affect and help to create a new meaning in English language. Also, this study is concerned with some examples which reflect the difficulties in understanding Black English speakers. Even native speakers have problems to follow their speech and to figure out some individual words. It is more obviously clear to see that the pejoration study is different with their study, though both of them is dealing with the same approach of semantic field, but they are concerned with their each tendency, each of the study is dealing with the word meaning and the real expression of its words.

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 3. The Analysis of Pejoration and Amelioration in Alice Walkers The Color Purple by Yunawati In the following study the author wanted to know what words that experienced the pejoration and the amelioration process, and to describe what the process that makes the meaning change. Yunawati also found that history, society and people influence the shaping of the meaning changes, which is pejoration and amelioration process. Throughout this finding analysis, there are many words that experienced pejoration and amelioration in the novel The Color Purple. The pejoration and the amelioration processes happen because of several factors, there are society, history and people. The origin of the words that experienced the pejoration and the amelioration also gives contribution in shaping the new meaning of those words. The finding helps the reader of the Color Purple understand to the word that experienced the pejoration and the amelioration process, so that the reader will not take a wrong meaning while reading the novel. Along this brief explanation and conclusion, there is a relation between Yunawati’s study and pejoration analysis of this study. Both of them are dealing with the same approach semantics change pejoration. Though Yunawati is aiming to know the changes of words either it is degenerating or elevating meaning. People somehow confuse as a reader, so the author hopes that her finding may help the reader understand the word changing.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 B. Review of Related Theories This study belongs to a semantic study. Therefore, there will be semantics reviews in general which followed by detailed data reviews on pejoration. 1. Semantics There are several definitions about semantics, which are very relevant to this study: There are several definitions of semantics which offer the formulation to start on the study of meaning. Kreidler stated that linguistics semantics is the study of how languages organize and express meaning (Kreidler, 1998: 1) and Löbner pointed out that semantics also the part of linguistics that is concerned with the meaning (Löbner, 2002: 1). In very general terms, semantics is the knowledge that study all the aspects of meaning. It is a particular theory to understand the essence of meaning. The basic of this approach allows some speaker to communicate facts, feelings, intentions, and products of imaginations to the other speakers and to understand what they communicate to him or her. 2. Semantic Change Semantic change in the context of words describes the gradual shift in the conventional meaning of words, as people use them in new types of context and this usage become normal. Often in the course of semantic change, a word shifts its meaning to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 Semantic change is a change in one of the meanings of a word. Every word has a variety of senses and connotations which can be added, removed or altered over time, often to the extent that cognates across space and time have very different messages (Blank, 1999: 61). In addition to the general mechanisms like analogy, Bréal stated several ‘laws’. As a result, these are the types of semantic change and some example by Bréal, as follows: a. Pejoration The tendency to semanticize the more negative connotations of a word: for example, Old English 'boy' becomes Modern English 'knave' someone dishonest. Bréal also sees it as the result of euphemism, the tendency to veil disagreeable ideas, and to disguise such ideas with new terms that they later take on the taboo meanings they were meant to mask. It means that pejoration leads the process in avoiding some taboo word that speakers may use an alternative which in time acquires the meaning of the original and itself falls out of use (Bréal 2001: 55). Here are examples of English words that have undergone in amelioration process: Word silly criticize lust villain cunning queen Old Meaning happy appraise pleasure worker at a villa skillful homosexual Degraded Meaning foolish find fault with sexual desire wicked person sly wife

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 b. Amelioration The tendency to semanticize the more positive connotations of a word. It is a process of semantic change in which there is an upward shift in the meaning of the word: for example, kawaii 'cute' and its 'lovable' similarly develop from earlier meanings 'pitiful' and 'pathetic,' respectively (Bréal 2001: 55). In addition, amelioration is the process by which a word's meaning improves or becomes elevated, coming to represent something more favorable than it is originally referred to. Here are examples of English words that have undergone in amelioration process: Word angel knight earl governor fond minister Old Meaning messenger servant man pilot foolish servant Upgrading Meaning messenger of god rank below baronet count head of state affectionate head of ministry c. Restriction/Narrowing of meaning The change from subordinate level of subordinate level. Sometimes the narrowing may take place in only one part of speech: for example, 'erection', which was used of buildings and parts of the body from the sixteenth century on, is not now usually used for a building, although the verb erects still is, and children get 'erector' sets as presents (Bréal 2001: 56). In addition, It is a process by which a word of wide meaning acquires a narrower or specialized sense.

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 In other words, a word which used to have a more general sense becomes restricted in its application and conveys a special meaning in present day. Here are examples of English words that have undergone in restriction process: Word liquor meat disease poison wife accident girl Old Meaning liquid food discomfort drink woman event young person of either sex Narrowing Meaning alcoholic drink flesh of animals illness poisonous drink a married woman unfortunate event female young person d. Expansion/Generalization/Broadening of meaning The change from subordinate level to superordinate level. Sometimes the same root may undergo broadening in one language and narrowing in another: for example, 'ejaculate' was originally (in the sixteenth century) used for ejecting fluids from the body, and only later came to be used for 'locutionary acts' (Bréal 2001: 56). In addition, It is a process by which a word which originally had a specialized meaning has now become generalized. In other words, the term has extended to cover a broader and often less definite concept. Here are examples of English words that have undergone in generalization process: Word journal butcher companion Old Meaning daily one who kills goats one who shares Broadening Meaning paper periodical one who kills animals bread a company

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 e. Metaphor The mapping of one concept onto another. For Bréal metaphor is associated with images, and languages are full of metaphors: for example, Yakuza 'good-for-nothing (person)' becomes 'gangster' originally referred to the worst possible hand in a traditional game of playing cards. In addition, a metaphor is a trope, or figurative , in which a word or phrase is shifted from its normal uses to a context where it is evokes a new meanings. It is based on similarity and it originates from the Greek word which carrying from one place to another (Bréal 2001: 57). f. Metonym The association of one word with another: for example, A ’steering wheel’ would be a good metonym for ‘driving’, a ‘violin’ a good metonym for a ‘classical orchestra’, ‘bread’ a good metonym for a ‘baker's shop’, a ‘file folder’ a good metonym for ‘organizing documents in a computer’ (Bréal 2001: 57). Therefore, there are factors which facilitate the meaning change. These factors motivate the semantic change in English language development which is not static but growing every day. Bréal (1964 - 1900) and supported by Palmer’s theory (Palmer, 2001: 160) mention some characteristics for such factors which motivate the meaning change, those are:

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 i. Discontinuance of Language Language is handed down in a discontinuous way from one generation to another. ii. Vagueness in Meaning The generic nature of words, the multiplicity of their aspects, the lack of familiarity and the absence of clear cut boundaries facilitate shifts in usage. iii. Lost Motivation Some links of words, such as root of language are severed, so that, the sense may move far from its original meaning. iv. Taboo The meaning of a word is changing when it is used as a taboo word. v. Polysemy A word may acquire a new sense or scores of new senses without losing its original meaning. vi. External Factors such as cultural changes Due to the respect to 'laws' of semantic change, Bréal suggests that pejoration dominates over the other types of change mentioned above. With respect to the factors of semantic change, Bréal considers that pejoration pays attention to a certain role regarded by some semantic change. This opinion became the major motivation for the author to move further and predict the significant pejoration analysis in the movie. Below is the further explanation of pejoration itself.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 3. Concepts of Pejoration Bréal argued pejoration is the tendency to semanticize the more negative connotations of a word. In addition a pejoration also simply involves shifting from higher to lower value (Bréal 2001: 55) Blank also mentioned in his book and further pointed out that pejoration is the process whereby word meaning being worsens or degenerates and coming to represent something less favorable that it originally did. The word 'knave' is one of the numerous examples of this phenomenon in English. In modern English, the word knave means a 'dishonest man'. In old English, this word did not have an elevated meaning either, but it did not have at that time the pejorative connotations that it has these days (Blank, 1999:75). Pejoration develops through narrowing of meaning which happens when the item in question begins to co-occur in steadily more restricted environments — in terms of lexical grammar, when it becomes primed to occur with a more specialized set of items or, put another way, when the variety of its semantic preferences becomes smaller. Thus, pejoration is a set of semantic preferences, which consolidates its role as the conveyor of negative connotation departure of the word. It also functions as a process whereby the positive connotations of a word fall into negative connotation and claims to be the purpose of semantic pejoration.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 Another notion that support the theory claims that the process of pejoration begins with the reflection of the derivation pejorative meanings which are sometimes straightly-forward. For example, ‘son of a bitch’ appears in written form in 1833 and refers to the offspring of a lewd woman (Farmer, 1965: 202). This term is at the same time an example of a dead metaphor since we often hear it in contemporary usage in situations which are not necessarily pejorative in context. To summarize this, based on Bréal theory; the characteristics of pejoration are summarized as follows: pejoration = change from appreciative to pejorative from positive to negative from important to unimportant from neutral to negative. And it is basically derived from pejorative meanings. C. Theoretical Framework All the contribution of the theories and reviews are explained to support the progress and development of this study. It is to make exact predictions and make the accurate conclusion, it is also helping the author to finding the new meaning of words and to analyze the relationship between the source and the meaning change by using these theories. Each point and standpoint become an attempt to solve the problems which formulated in this study. The suggestion of the types of semantic change from the ‘Regularity in Semantic Change, Elizabeth Closs and Traugott, Richard B. Dasher, 2001’ enables the author to differentiate the classification of the semantic change and also to avoid the misunderstanding of the classification itself.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 In order to answer the problem formulation which formulated as the finding of pejorative expression, the author will use the theory of pejorative by Richard Nordquist. This theory will contribute to cognition on the finding of words that is hurt, insult, or offensive to someone or something in the script writing. The pejorative deals with the finding of pejoration expression which associates to the first problem formulation. Moreover, pejorative theory will allow the use of primal source to covers the validity of pejorative words. In order to answer the problem formulation which formulated as the finding of the use pejorative as part of pejoration, the author will use the theories of pejoration of Michel Breal in the book ‘Regularity in Semantic Change’. This theory will contribute a knowledgeable understanding on the issue dealing with the process of downgrading of a word's meaning as when a word with a positive connotation develops into the negative one. This theory later will operate in the investigation on certain words, which are previously predicted as pejorative words. This theory also will work on the role of pejoration regarding to the pejorative use in certain development. Pejoration later will contribute to formulating the second problem formulation of this study.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The main object of this study is American History X movie. According to IMDb, American History X is an American crime/drama film which was named by Empire magazine in 2008 as one of the greatest movie of all the time and involved in the top 250 movies all of all the time. This film was distributed by New Line Cinema. It is the first debut in 1998. The 2 hours movie got a big number in cross revenue, $23,875,127. American History X showing 10 nominations at Academy Awards, USA 1999 Nominated Oscar. This movie contribute as the most watching list and truly one of the film back then in 1998. Also, the movie was a corporation of many talented people such as: Tony Kaye (the versatile director who won a Grammy Award), the movie script was written by David McKenna; John Morrissey is the producer, music by Anne Dudley. However, the movie received an “R” or great rated because of many violent scenes with fighting, bad language (such as: f**k, what the hell, bullshit, and etc during the film). The background of it is Venice Beach in Los Angeles, California, USA with a strong actor force. Throughout the movie, the past and present are mixed together. 21

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 The movie told a story with two main characters: Derek and Danny Vinyard. Derek was frustrated about black communication because of his past. Therefore, he joined the D.O.C, a Neo-Nazi gang. Derek was the leader of that group. He used to lead his group to destroy and demolish a shop in the town. Derek also won a game with black group at the local basketball court to own the play place. One night, two black teens try to steal a Derek’s truck (which is given by his father). Derek used a gun to shoot them and killed one of them. Danny looked at the terrible sense. Derek was sentenced to imprisonment of 3 years. At this time, he met and made friend with a black inmate in the laundry room. And, he realized what he had done were absolutely wrong. He changed his mind and accepted black people. Danny tries to follow Derek’s mistakes. Danny joined the Neo-Nazi group. After backing him, Derek tried to pull his younger brother out of the dark marsh (the Neo-Nazi group). After existing of the Neo-Nazi group, the two brothers backed home and threw away all the D.O.C stuffs. At the end of the movie, Danny was killed by a black student before giving his assignment (the assignment is about Derek’s incarceration) at the restroom of Danny’s school. B. Approach of the Study The main approach in this study is semantic change; pejoration as the source of the theory of its comprehensive values in term of definition of semantic change (Bréal, 2001: 54).

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 This is the best way to approach and also to find out the way of meaning change which less elevated or degenerated from the original one in English language. C. Method of the Study 1. Data Collection The process of data collection in this undergraduate thesis employs a random selection method. The selection process covers the criteria that the offensive or pejorative words found in the movie script by using the description of Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition (2008) (CAL) and Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary (2003) (MWC). 2. Data Analysis This following process will take several steps. The first step is identifying the pejorative expression, as follows: a. Reading all the dialogues on the script writing and work in text. b. Scanning the offensive words, and start describing the function, authentic meaning dialogue per dialogue by using CAL and MWC in the movie c. Collect all the pejorative words and making description by using CAL and MWC in every pejorative word. These findings will determine the latter process of the second problem formulation. The second step is identifying the roles of the pejoration words in the movie as follows:

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 a. Scanning the pejorative words in the movie, and start describing the function and authentic meaning using CAL and MWC. b. Classifying the original meaning and meaning change of the pejorative words. c. Finding the pejoratives which are pejoration by looking up the etymology and the development of the pejorative words using CAL and MWC. On the last session of this following process, all the pejoration expression will cope into groups in order to make every analysis is transparent.

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS This part of undergraduate thesis writing aims to attain the analysis on the two problem formulations mentioned above of the finding pejorative expressions in American History X movie and the identifying pejorative expression as part of pejoration. The movie scripts of American History X contains 19040 words and 203 pages and it is written by from David McKenna (February 6, 1997) and all the data will take from this script writing. Two instruments for this analysis are Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary 3rd Edition (2008) and MerriamWebster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary (2003), in order to collect all the valid data focus on the pejorative words as characterized as a word or phrase that hurts and insults to someone. There are 29 pejorative words from the analysis evaluated by the present researcher. The following part will present the answer for the first problem formulation of this study. Below is the table of pejorative words in the movie: 25

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 A. Pejorative expression in the movie Table 1: pejorative expression in the movie No Word Function CAL MWC A person whose sexual behavior is considered strange and unpleasant To stop talking or making a noise Informal a stupid person A form of sexual perversion 1. Pervert Noun 2. Shut up Adjective 3. Ass Noun 4. Dick Noun 5. Pussy Noun 6. Faggot Noun 7. Pig Noun 8. Nigger Noun Offensive a black person 9. Shit Noun Offensive someone or something you do not like Offensive a penis Offensive a woman's vagina Offensive when it is used by people who are not homosexual Offensive a police officer To cause a person to stop talking Sometimes vulgar: a stupid, obstinate, or perverse person Usually vulgar: penis Usually vulgar: vulva. Usually disparaging: a male homosexual Usually disparaging: police officer Usually offensive: a black person. Usually vulgar: nonsense

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 No Word Function CAL MWC 10. Fuck Adjective Usually vulgar: mess 11. Bitch Noun 12. Black Noun Offensive to behave stupidly Offensive an unkind or unpleasant woman Offensive black person 13. Fucking Adjective 14. Motherfucker 15 Negro Noun Noun Offensive used to emphasize a statement, especially an angry one Offensive an extremely insulting name for someone you hate or for someone who has made you angry Offensive old-fashioned a black woman A lewd or immoral woman Characterized by hostility or angry discontent Usually vulgar: damned Usually vulgar: one that fucks Sometimes offensive: a member of a race of humankind native to Africa and classified according to physical features (as dark skin pigmentation)

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 No Word Function CAL MWC 16. Cracker Noun Silly, stupid or slightly mentally ill Offensive someone or something you do not like because they are unpleasant 17. Balls Noun 18. Monkey Noun Often vulgar: nonsense A person resembling a monkey 19. Negroid Adjective Offensive nonsense Informal a child who behaves badly Offensive old-fashioned specialized having the physical features of a black person from Africa 20. Asshole Noun Offensive unpleasant person 21. Fucker Noun Offensive a stupid person 22. Dumb Noun Offensive and annoying Sometimes offensive: a member of a race of humankind native to Africa and classified according to physical features (as dark skin pigmentation) A usually vulgar: a stupid, incompetent, or detestable person Usually vulgar: one that fucks Usually vulgar: stupid

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 No Word Function CAL MWC 23. Wetbacks Noun Usually offensive: a Mexican who enters the United States illegally 24. Chicken Noun Wetback is a derogatory term used to describe Mexicans who have immigrated illegally to the United States A coward or person who is not brave 25. Bastard Noun 26. Idiot Noun 27. Shithead Noun 28. Kike Noun 29. Spic Noun Offensive an unpleasant person A coward An offensive or disagreeable person A stupid Usually person or offensive: a someone who person is behaving affected with in a stupid idiocy way Offensive a Usually stupid, vulgar: a unpleasant worthless, and offensive, or unpopular detestable person person Offensive a Usually Jewish offensive: person Jew Offensive a Usually person from offensive: a SpanishSpanishspeaking American country

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 Based on the pejorative finding listed above, the used of CAL and MWC is suggested in order to know the authentic meaning of pejorative words that is defined as offensive words. Those standards are the instruments to identify the expression that is offending and labeled as pejorative. In American History X, the pejorative expressions appear in noun (25 numbers) and adjective (4 numbers) functions, as well as in numerous combinations through its functional shift. The descriptive element that is identified by using CAL and MWC contributes to the meaning in every dialogue of the sentences in which pejorative appears in order to negate the words that the speaker intends to convey and also contribute the expressive value of negative attitudes that every dialogue in the movie intends to convey. The use of pejorative often appear in order to dispose some speaker in a particular direction toward one's own viewpoint and against that of others. The use of pejorative also not more accidental, but rather than emotional language to express the negative attitude toward others in the fact that the speaker know the mutual original meaning and against the opposing viewpoints. Below are the example of the pejorative words which found in the movie; Seth: Where are you, you free motherfucker? Davina: He's on the phone, asshole! The word ‘asshole’ here is a noun and become as pejorative because the speaker used it as a vulgarity, and it's generally to describe people who are viewed as a stupid person.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 Pejorative term can explain how the word 'asshole' which literally means ' vulgarism to describe the ‘anus' refer to the extra - linguistics object as a stupid person. The speaker used the word 'asshole' as the explanatory progress of word to connect it to an action in order to convey his negative meaning toward another speaker. Here is another one the pejorative word that identified as ‘vulgar’ in authentic meaning and also a noun. Seth: Well...you can think of me drinkin' 'em then when you're studying with. fuckin'... White Trash in there. Davina scoffs and Seth looks up her shirt. Seth: Where is the fucker, by the way!? He's hiding from us. ‘Fucker’ is an offensive word and also often used as a term of abuse. The word 'fucker' originally come from the modern language and represent as a stupid person. This is currently used in a sense when the speaker wants to express the negative value about somebody's attitude who act like a stupid person. In short, pejorative 'fucker' is similar to 'asshole'. Danny: What about OJ, bitch!? Black Woman: They've done it to us again. ‘Bitch’ is also a noun and it means ‘female dog’ in authentic meaning, but in a particular way this word is able to direct some speaker to use it as a pejorative word. It is often the word ‘bitch’ become offensive, when the speaker used it against the woman’s attitude as the woman is rudely aggressive or freak.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 It is also vulgarism and suggested as high sexual desire if the word is addressed it to a woman, compared to a dog in a heat. Stacey: Fucking pervert, Dan! Danny: There's a black guy outside Der...breaking into your car. ‘Fucking’ is an adjective and provides an offensive statement on pejorative word. In dictionary meaning ‘fucking’ means 'to emphasize a statement, especially an angry one'. In a particular way, the word 'fucking' is used and functioned to express the expressive element in the dialogue to being spoken powerfully, because pejorative often appear and directly to be perceived when the words are being spoken with powerful voice and tone. Further point out, the pejorative word can be described as a tendency of language by the reference of offensive words and it is easy to find when the speaker used it to describe someone's figure in a negative way. The pejorative, often appear when the speaker understands the under the circumstances that they are might be proved as in anger, guilt, innocent, or etc. Pejorative also often appears in an expressive way, usually they are being spoken in raising or anger tone in order to make it intense. Seth: You're an idiot if you ask me. Derek: I'm not asking you. Seth: I'll take this Negro down. Derek: You can't take a shit, Seth. Shut up!

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 Above is another dialogue from the movie that is supporting the research that pejorative is being spoken in anger tone, the word like ‘shut up!’. Another pejorative characteristic as a noun can be found on the word ‘black’. The pejorative ‘black’ as a noun also acceptable to be perceived as offensive word rather than it become an adjective. For example: That man is a ‘black’ That man is ‘black’ Using black as a noun ‘that man is a black’ rather than an adjective ‘that man is black’ is often acceptable, because the description of the ‘black’ as a noun is more specific than using the description of the 'black' as an adjective. In another way, the word 'black' as a noun can imply a primary characteristic which 'black' is no longer described as a 'color' but it is referred as a figure of black people that African-American has. 'black' also generally described as a colored person who natively in American culture, it used to be racist word and considered as an offensive word. Here is the example of the pejorative ‘black’ from the dialogue of the movie: Danny: I hate the fact that it's cool to be black these days. Seth: Good. The word 'black' here become pejorative because the speaker used to refer to race or skin color of black people. Black people considered to be offensive in that movie because of the fact of white supremacy and white power who argued that black people are negative race toward the white race.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 Pejorative words has been appeared and advanced in the next explanatory progress as follow as pejoration process. Here, for the reason of semantic change and meaning change, the author is able to work with the interaction between pejorative and pejoration. The author aims to understand whether pejorative as part of pejoration or not regardless they are derived from the same pattern, offensive words. In the next problem formulation, the author will be more focus on the pejoration process and there will be also a table which offers a classification about pejorative which experienced in pejoration process. B. What are pejorative used as part of pejoration The following page on this study also aims to analyze the pejorative in pejoration process, in order to know what pejorative that used as part of pejoration and what pejorative are not used as part of pejoration. In the problem formulation (A) the words represent that pejorative appears in the position of offensive words to the fact that the words are described as derogatory meaning in authentic uses or dictionary meaning. Also pejorative are rather a simple expression of derogatory terms that are used to convey the offensive words in the fact that pejorative is only linguistics substitutes for offensive words and they are not meant to be processed, whereby words are being downgraded from the positive connotation as known as pejoration expression.

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 It means that not all of the pejorative are considered to be a pejoration expression. In order to answer the development of pejorative on the pejoration expression found the movie, it needs to look to the new use of the pejorative word that may be intercourse in the dialogue. As for example, the pejorative word ‘ass’ here that is taken from one of the dialogue in American History X: Danny: I knew it was you. Sweeney: Shut up and get your ass in here! It is considered that English 'ass' was derived from Latin word that is analyzed by using CAL and described as 'old use of donkey' in authentic meaning, where the word did not carry any negative meaning. Later the word 'ass' become pejorative, as it in turn 'ass' developed into negative meaning or downgraded to be considered as ‘a stupid person’ and considered to be a pejorative word as ‘a stupid person’. In this case, pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘ass’ lose its positive sense and/or acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone. The role of ‘ass’ here to make Sweeney to enable express her negative feelings toward Danny. The role of pejoration as the conveyer of negative connotation will attribute or enable the speaker toward the word what they meant to say.

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 Pejoration also takes a role as a tool to cover up the previous meaning or original meaning which described as positive meaning and may become devalued to the negative meaning with new terms or new meaning through the pejorative application and the speaker also taking part as the main reference to help the pejoration occurs and become the conveyer of its word. There are 16 words of pejorative application in pejoration expression which taking a different role in every dialogue in the movie, as pejoration occurs in a different function and context. On the next page there will be pejorative words which are pejoration, as follows;

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 Table 2: pejorative expression which are pejoration No. Words Function 1. Ass Noun Original meaning/etymology (Positive Meaning) Old use of donkey 2. Dick Noun A detective Penis 3. Pussy Noun Cat Offensive to vagina 4. Pig Noun Black farm animal 5. Bitch Noun A female dog 6. Black Noun Color 7. Negro Noun Native to Africa 8. Cracker Noun Biscuit 9. Ball Noun Body 10. Monkey Noun Animal 11. Dumb Adjective Silent A person who is unpleasant and difficult to deal with An unkind or unpleasant woman A black person with any dark skinned-race A black person with physical feature as dark skinned-race A poor Usually Southern white Complete nonsense and stupidity Someone who appear as stupid Stupid 12. Wetbacks Noun Mexican border 13. Chicken Noun Type of bird A Mexican Who enters the United States illegally Coward 14. Bastard Noun Child Unpleasant person 15. Idiot Noun Layman Stupid person 16. Faggot Noun Wood Homosexual Downgraded Meaning/Pejoration (Negative Meaning) Stupid person

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 The data listed above reflect that some of the pejorative words in the dialogues can alter the pejoration process, 16 pejorative are used as a part of pejoration process and 13 pejorative are not used as a part of pejoration process. Below is the explanatory progress of pejorative which are involved in the pejoration process. Davina: You're a pig. Doris: I don't like him in this house. ‘Pig’ as a noun and it is derived from the Middle English ‘pigge’ and described as ‘black farm animal’. ‘Pig’ is originally attributed as positive meaning and do not carry any negative meaning, but the latter ‘ pig’ is downgraded by people and described as ‘a person who is unpleasant and difficult to deal with’. The new meaning which added as negative charge from the original meaning will add a new position and also emotive charge. Pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘pigs’ lose its positive sense and/or acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone. The role of ‘pigs’ here to conveys Davina’s disparaging feeling to Derek that he is a bad person. Another example from the dialogue: Lawrence: Name your price, Cracker. Derek: No money...for the court. We win, you grab your shit and find a different place to run. ‘Cracker’ is a noun and it is originally derived from Middle English and described as ‘biscuit’ and also do not carry negative meaning, but later in Southern American, the word ‘cracker’ deliver a negative meaning.

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 As ‘a poor usually Southern white’ which means the pejorative ‘cracker’ is downgraded from the positive meaning into negative meaning. Nowadays, the word ‘cracker’ often applies to described someone as a poor person. Pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘cracker’ loses its positive sense and/or acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone. The role of ‘cracker’ is here to make Lawrence to express his racial feelings that ‘cracker’ is a bad person for him. Another example from the dialogue: Cammeron: How was it in there with all those fucking monkeys, man? You're lucky they didn't kill you. Derek: I agree. ‘Monkey’ is a noun and originally from German language whose original meaning as ' a nonhuman primate mammal' and is obviously in a positive meaning rather than negative meaning. Nowadays, the word 'monkey' can be used in a more negative sense as 'someone who appear as stupid'. The word 'monkey' is frequently described as animals, however, this can be used to refer to people negatively as when someone is called 'monkey' who act silly and funny. Pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘monkeys’ loses its positive sense and/or acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone. The role of ‘balls’ is here to make Cammeron to convey his disparaging feeling to someone who appears as a stupid person. Another similar words to pejoration monkey is ‘chicken’. Below is the example of the dialogue: Derek: Fuck you, Cameron. You're a fucking chicken hawk...praying on kids. Cammeron: I don't pray on fucking anyone.

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 ‘Chicken’ is an adjective and it refers to the same meaning as ‘monkey’. Both of them are animal while ‘chicken’ is originally mean ‘type of bird’. Nowadays, people can refer to other speaker as ‘coward’ by using this word. Pejoration occurs when a lexeme ‘chicken’ loses its positive sense and/or acquires negative one. It is used to express the vulgar intensive word to someone. The role of ‘chicken’ is here to make Derek to enable express his anger feelings toward Cammeron. The word ‘chicken’ here conveys a downgrading meaning becomes ‘coward’. Finally, there is a notion to explain pejorative as a part of pejoration expression. Pejorative as a part of pejoration process begins with a metaphorical departure from the original and authentic meaning sense by which the pejoration it is occur to improve the negative connotation reference and it is influenced by the character those who find it is low quality in order to enable to express contempt or less respectable meaning. Danny: What about OJ, bitch!? Black Woman: They've done it to us again The origin of word 'bitch' in English language is related to female of the species, particularly dog. The metaphor produces a new concept of the main meaning which means the word 'bitch' is experienced the extending meaning through metaphor, transfer, and shift. This departure evokes a new meaning.

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 Through this metaphor, the new meaning appears when the speaker ignore the feature which distinguish human and nonhuman beings in order to express this similarity in sexual behavior, and latter with the progression, the word 'bitch' now associated with the meaning of 'unpleasant woman'. On the other hand, pejorative are not used as pejoration process because the words do not process or develop into something. Some pejorative already stand with its own vocabulary and do not add something new meaning whether they are changed into positive meaning or negative meaning. Those 16 words of dialogue one simply offensives words in which already exist in authentic meaning and stands in their own, as vocabulary items. Danny: What're you doin'?! Derek: Your brother's a piece of shit! Based on the description of CAL, ‘shit’ carries an offensive or vulgar expression of meaning. It is used to express the nonsense word toward another character in the movie. The word 'shit' is not the process of pejoration, because it is not change into negative meaning or add new meaning, and ‘shit’ is appearing as it is. Apart from that, pejoration appears to enable the speaker in every dialogue willing to express and address the offensive word to the other reader or listener. The negative direction which is valued through pejoration expression makes every pejorative word more essential in every dialogue of the movie.

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 Every dialogue in the movie conveys the intensity of each dialogue in negative connotation meaning. The use of this negative connotation makes every dialogue more interesting than using English standard language. For the overall cases, not all of the pejorative word are used as a part of pejoration expression in the fact that pejorative is the fundamental element of pejoration expression, and they contribute better understanding to readers meaning. Some pejorative words already exist with their own vocabulary, they do not have to develop into something new but they already have a meaning which can be used in certain dialogue. On the other hand, sometimes pejorative can alter the pejoration process. The notion of pejorative as part of pejoration expression often happens when the word begins with the substitution of new meaning from the older one. In addition, pejorative are used as a part of pejoration when some characters need to convey their offensive feeling toward another character and also when they have a contrast change and involving new meaning from an old meaning in order to carry the development of a less favorable meaning. Pejorative are not used as a part of pejoration when the particular word does not associate with the old feature of the word.

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Based on the researches on this thesis writing, the conclusions of pejoration analysis in the movie American History X have been discovered. There are many words that experienced pejorative and pejoration in the movie. Those happen because of several factors: the background of the movie, history, and purpose of the movie. On the other hand, pejorative and pejoration also contributes to the development of the English language. The first problem presents pejorative expression found in the movie. Two instuments, CAL and MWC, have been utilized in order to collect data and make an excellent finding in the sense that it provides the accurate data for the reader. Based on the analysis, 29 pejoratives were identified. The second problem was the use of pejorative as part of pejoration process, whether they were always experienced in pejoration process or not. It was found that not all of the pejorative are experienced in pejoration process since pejorative has its own vocabulary and not associated with their old utterance meaning in semantic change terms. Further point out, the use of pejoration in the movie is to help the movie reach its climax in every dialogue in the fact that sometimes the characters need to raise their tone and use some non-English standard language, in order to help the movie more dramatic and attracted. 43

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 As the last line of this analysis, it is very necessary to observe and capture the concepts of pejorative in pejoration process to know the interesting part of those combination form in English language. There is an obvious approach to pejorative as the pejoration is being used to allow some speaker to convey their act with offensive words toward the speaker. The pejorative and pejorativon tendencies are also leading the audience and the reader understand meaning change in the English language as they are appearing to facilitate communication, and reach the intended meaning of many vocabularies and expressions in English language communication.

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Breal, Michel. Semantics: Studies in the Science of Meaning. London: William Heinemann, 1900. American Libraries. (https://archive.org/details/semanti csstudie02postgoog). March 11, 2014. Closs, Elizabeth Traugott and Richard B. Dasher. Regularity in Semantic Change. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of the University Cambridge, 2004. C.S. Lewis. Studies in Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Study in Words Online. (http://books.google.co.id/books/about/Studies in_Words.html?id=SiemFffHcC&redir_esc=y). March 11, 2014. Denham, Kristin and Anne Lobeck. Linguistics for Everyone: An Introduction. Boston: Michael Rosenberg, 2009. Hom, Christopher. "Pejoratives". Philosophy Compass.n.p. (http://philpapers.org/rec/HOMP). November 1, 2014. 2014. Kemmer, Suzanne. "Words in English". Meaning of a Word.np. 2003. (www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words04/meaning). May 13, 2014. McIntosh, Colin. “Cambridge Advanced learner's Dictionaries - 3rd Edition. Electronic Version”. Cambridge: University Press. Merriam-Webster's 11th Collegiate Dictionary “3rd Edition Electronic Version”. Merriam Webster Inc: July 30, 2003. Nordquist, Richard. "Pejoration". Our Grammar and Composition Expert.n.p. 2014. (www.grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/pejorterm.htm). February 11, 2014. Palmer, F. R. Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Quick Randolf, 1985. Riemer, Nick. Introducing Semantics (Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics. New York: Cambridge, 2010. Robbin, AnjolaA. "Old Words, New Meanings: A Survey of Semantic Change amongst Yoruba-English Bilingual Undergraduates". Undergraduate Thesis. Ibadan: Lead City University, 2013. Valenzuela, Javier. "Semantica Iglesa". What is Semantics. Unit 1. Spain: Universidad de Murcia, 2008. 45

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 Weber, Jessica and Fabian Rätzer."Language Analysis of the Movie American History X". Undergraduate Thesis. Tampere: University of Tampere, 2007. Yunawati. "The Analysis of Pejoration and Amelioration in Alice Walkers The Color Purple". Undergraduate Thesis. Depok: Gunadarma University, 2011. Online Resources: www.urbandictionary.com www.thesaurus.com

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Pejorative Expression Exchanges In these pages of undergraduate thesis, the lists of dialogues are managed in the list designs for the precise analysis. The words which are italicized are the pejorative. These are the dialogues of pejorative in the movie. (1) Stacey: Fucking pervert, Dan! Danny: There's a black guy outside Der...breaking into your car. (2) Danny: I knew it was you. Sweeney: Shut up and get your ass in here! (3) Danny: There's dick for waves. Chris: I don't care. I just wanna get wet. (4) Chris: Why do you think we fuckin' quit? Danny: I hear you. Jason: Daryl Dawson's a pussy faggot. (5) Derek: What is it, Danny? Danny: You got pigs outside. (6) Seth: Drop the t.v., nigger. Black Man: Fuck you! (7) Derek: Look at the shit. Immigration...welfare...AIDS...they're all the problems of the non-white. Look at the statistics. Reporter: Most of these issues you're referring to though son are related to- 47

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 (8) Derek: Millions of white Europeans came to this country and flourished within a generation! A generation! So what the fuck is wrong with these people?! Reporter: What does any of this have to do with your father? (9) Murray (O.S.): I do not have a problem with him as an individual, alright!? Sweeney (O.S.): Oh shit Murray sure you do. You hate this kid. (10) Sweeney: Great writing. I can't correct it though. It wreaks too much of shit. Danny: Come on, man! I followed directions and wrote an "A" paper. (11) Danny: What about OJ, bitch!? Black Woman: They've done it to us again. (12) Danny: I hate the fact that it's cool to be black these days. Seth: Good. (13) Davina: You're a pig. Doris: I don't like him in this house. (14) Derek: What the fuck, Curtis? You fuckin' nigger? Want some crack? Curtis: No! (15) Derek: Pull your fucking stupid head out of your ass then. Curtis: Okay. Jesus. (16) Seth: Lucky piece of shit! I'm through "Monkeying" around with your ass! Lawrence spins around and challenges Seth. Lawrence: Fat, pasty, pale, pastrami eating, cracker, motherfucker. A hundred bucks says I make you my bitch. (17) Seth:When I want your fucking opinion I'll ask for it, fuckhead. Help me cover here, guys. Cammeron: You got a big fucking mouth, fat kid. (18) Seth: I'll take this Negro down. Derek: You can't take a shit, Seth. Shut up!

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 (19) Lawrence: Name your price, Cracker. Derek: No money...for the court. We win, you grab your shit and find a different place to run (20) Lawrence: You got a lot of fucking balls, man. Bring it. Right now. Derek: Oke! (21) Jason: Cammeron dropped us off a copy. Dope fucking shit, man. It's all about reclaiming the country. I'll let you read it when I'm done. Danny: Fuck that. I just read Mein Kampf. (22) Derek: There's a redhead out there looking for you. Go talk to her. Cammeron: Fuck! You go with. (23) Cammeron: How was it in there with all those fucking monkeys, man? You're lucky they didn't kill you. Derek: I agree. (24) Chris: Little Henry the negroid? Danny: Everyday there's something over there, man. (25) Davina: What do you want!? Seth: Open up, bitch! (26) Seth: Where are you, you free motherfucker? Davina: He's on the phone, asshole! (27) Seth: Come in here and I'll show you, maggot. Danny: Fuck off. When'd you start carryin'? (28) Seth: Nigger lovin' Jew media calling the shots. Watch cartoons. It's the only t.v. that's safe nowadays. Doris: No one's safe--until we all are.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 (29) Seth: Listen to you. You callin' me a blimp, you fucking Democrat?! Davina: Yes! I am! (30) Seth: Well...you can think of me drinkin' 'em then when you're studying with fuckin'... White Trash in there. Davina scoffs and Seth looks up her shirt. Seth: Where is the fucker, by the way!? He's hiding from us. (31) Derek: Get a clue, you dumb shit. Hey! Look at me! Don't be a dickhead. Sweeney cares about you. Seth: Sweeney does? Since when? (32) Cammeron: Who runs the place? The monkeys or the wetbacks? Derek: The Mexicans. (33) Derek: Fuck you, Cameron. You're a fucking chicken hawk...praying on kids. Cammeron: I don't pray on fucking anyone. (34) Lamont: Oh man! You sick fucking bastard! You sick pig! Derek: And you don't!? Shut up! (35) Derek: Stupid?! You have anything else to say, you little pussy! Hunh?! Stevie: Fuck you! (36) Seth: Sweeney's a fuckin' nigger on a power trip, Vinyard. That's what he was like when we were there and that's how he is now. It'll never change either. A nigger is a nigger. Derek: Fuck! (37) Stacey: I hope you kill that fucker. Derek looks back at her and straight to Cameron. Cammeron: He might have a gun. (38) Stacey: I hate that fucking Korean. I hope you smash his face in. Derek: Just be ready, okay?

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 (39) Cammeron: Ebony and Ivory back there! Almost all of those orange kid Relationships are black man and white women and I'm fucking sick of seein' it! I wouldn't mind so much if it were more even. Seth: Huge dicks, Cam. That's all it is. (40) Seth: You're an idiot if you ask me. Derek: I'm not asking you. (41) Derek: We're here tonight cause we got immigration problems spiraling out of control. We got Asians up the ass...taking over our land with their fucking Yen. Mexicans...flocking into this place like some giant fuckin Pinata was shattered. All: Yeah! (42) Seth:Wheto's your fucking green card, asshole? Derek: Can't hide from me, motherfucker! (43) Derek: If he did though! If that shithead killed Dan...you would have believed the beating to be justified and so would everybody else. But since he didn't hit anyone...it's "Hands Across America" for the son of a bitch. Stacey: I'm with you, honey. All the way. (44) Stacey: You callin' me a liar, Rosen Kike? Murray: Hey goddammit! You talk to me with respect or! (45) Murray: I never said she was a liar. Derek: Weasel like that again Murray...you fuckin' ponytail, pussy, bagel eating, teacher, faggot...and I'll cut your shylock nose off. Make no mistake. (46) Murray: He's not a kid, Doris. We were kids. We didn't call people kike. Doris: It's just gonna take some time with him. What can I do? (47) Jason: We're here, dude. Chris: Drop your dick and grab your stick.

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 (48) Chris: Who?! Why is he calling here!? Fuck you, Sweeney! Asshole! Jason: Get a fucking job, you reggie! (49) Danny: You fuckers are going to get me booted! Dr. Sweeney? I'm sorry. Sweeney: Just make sure it's on my desk tomorrow, Danny. (50) Seth: You're an idiot if you ask me. Derek: I'm not asking you. (51) Seth: What if he writes something stupid and that nigger turns you in? Jesus. He didn't testify, Der. They can use that shit and re-try you. Derek: Sweeney's not gonna do anything, Seth. He helped get me released. (52) Cassandra: You're full of shit! Jason: If he ain't here, he's comin'. (53) Danny: What're you doin'?! Derek: Your brother's a piece of shit! (54) Chris: Holy shit. Father Vinyard!? Jason: Son of a bitch. (55) Cassandra: Stacey's meandering around here somewhere! Have you seen the Bitch?! Derek: The only person I've seen is Seth. (56) Cammeron:I thought you already turned that fucker in? Danny: My teacher cried to Sweeney, man. have to do another one (57) Cammeron: Oh man. Fucking Sweeney. Stacey: Meanwhile, niggers and spics do their reports on Malcolm X and fuckin Fidel Castro. (58) Cammeron: How was it in there with all those fuckin' monkeys, man? You're luck they didn't kill you. Derek: I agree.

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 (59) Derek: Just sit there and relax for a second. Danny: I don't wanna relax! You looked like an idiot back there! (60) Stevie: Man...you are a stupid motherfucker. You know that? When are you? Derek cracks him in the face and Stevie falls to the ground. Derek: Stupid?! You have anything else to say, you little pussy! Hunh?! (61) Derek: All right. How are you? Lamont: I'm fucking incarcerated, man. With a bunch of faggots! How you think I'm doin'? (62) Cop: Son of a bitch. Derek: Pretty shitty assignment you got. (63) Doris: Nooo...what you don't see are minorities on the boards of Fortune 500 companies cause whites won't stand for it. Dennis: Doris! I'm tired of your damn argument! You sound like an idiot! (64) Doris: You can be a stupid son of a bitch sometimes. Dennis: And then we have naive fools like her. (65) Seth: Derek's a fuckin' traitor pussy. Cammeron: Well...we might be pussies too if we got treated the way he did.

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