The meanings of the decision to commit suicide as seen in Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho`s Veronika Decides to Die - USD Repository

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THE MEANINGS OF THE DECISION TO COMMIT SUICIDE AS

SEEN IN VERONIKA, THE MAIN CHARACTER OF PAULO

COELHO’S VERONIKA DECIDES TO DIE

  

A SARJANA PENDIDIKAN THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  

By

Marianus Sadeg Jelau

Student Number: 071214123

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

  

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

2012

  This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to My beloved father, Yohanes The Late mother, Paula My dearest brothers and sister: Yanuarius, Yeremias, Ignasius, Oktaviano, and Veronika.

  

ABSTRACT

  Jelau, Marianus Sadeg. 2012. The Meanings of the Decision to Commit Suicide as

Seen in Veronika, the Main Character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

Yogyakarta: English Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

  This study discusses Veronika Decides to Die, a literary work written by a Brazilian novelist, Paulo Coelho. Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die tells about the life of the main character, Veronika, who decides to commit suicide by swallowing the sleeping pills. The objective of this study is to see the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. There are two problems to be answered in this study (1) “How is Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides

  

to Die is described in the novel?” and (2) “What are the meanings of Veronika’s

  decision to commit suicide?” This study applies library research method. The primary data of this study is the novel of Paulo Coelho, entitled Veronika Decides to Die. The secondary data are gained from various books and the Internet sources which are closely related to this study. The theories used in this study are the theory of character, methods of characterization, the theory of psychoanalytical psychology, and the theory of motivation. The approach that is used in this study is psychological approach.

  There are two findings after analyzing the novel. The first is about Veronika’s characteristics. Veronika is a woman of twenty-four-year old who is beautiful, pretty, and attractive. Veronika is also described as a sympathetic, an organized and a curious woman who has critical and logical thought. Furthermore, Veronika is described as a person who lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem and self-actualization needs. The second is about the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. The literal meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide are that she is afraid of her future life; she is powerless in facing life, and she is afraid of her fate. The true meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide are that Veronika cannot control the id and Veronika lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem-needs, and self-actualization needs.

  Finally, future researchers are suggested to explore more about the factors that influence Veronika’s decision to commit suicide as seen in Paulo Coelho’s Veronika

  

Decides to Die. Moreover, the writer suggests the English lecturers to use Paulo

  Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die as material to teach Prose II in English Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University. Key words: true meaning, literal meaning, suicide, and characteristics.

  

ABSTRAK

  Jelau, Marianus Sadeg. 2012. The Meanings of the Decision to Commit Suicide as

Seen in Veronika, the Main Character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Penelitian ini membahas novel Veronika Decides to Die, sebuah karya sastra yang ditulis oleh seorang novelis Brazil, Paulo Coelho. Novel Paulo Coelho

  

Veronika Decides to Die menceritakan tentang kehidupan dari tokoh utama,

  Veronika, yang memutuskan untuk bunuh diri dengan menelan obat tidur. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat makna dari keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri. Terdapat dua rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini yang akan dijawab (1) “Bagaimana Veronika, tokoh utama dari novel Paulo Coelho Veronika Decides to Die dideskripsikan dalam novel ini?” dan (2) Apa makna dari keputusan Veronika untuk mati?”

  Penelitian ini menerapkan metode studi pustaka. Data utama dari penelitian ini adalah novel Paulo Coelho yang berjudul Veronika Decides to Die. Data tambahan diperoleh dari berbagai buku dan sumber-sumber internet yang berkaitan erat dengan penelitian ini. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori-teori seperti teori karakter, metode karakterisasi, teori psikoanalisis psikologi, dan teori motivasi. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan psikologis.

  Ada dua temuan setelah menganalisis novel ini. Pertama tentang karakteristik Veronika. Veronika adalah wanita muda berusia 24 tahun yang cantik, ayu, dan menarik. Veronika juga digambarkan sebagai orang yang simpatik, teratur, dan selalu ingin tahu yang berpikiran kritis dan logis. Selanjutnya, Veronika digambarkan sebagai orang yang kekurangan kebutuhan akan rasa cinta dan rasa memiliki , harga diri dan aktualisasi diri. Kedua tentang makna dari keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh

  

diri. Makna harafiah dari keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri adalah bahwa dia

takut akan kehidupan masa depannya, dia tak berdaya dalam menghadapi kehidupan,

dan dia takut akan kematiannya. Makna sebenarnya dari keputusan Veronika untuk

bunuh diri adalah bahwa Veronika tidak bisa mengendalikan id dan Veronika

kekurangan kebutuhan akan rasa cinta dan rasa memiliki, kebutuhan akan harga diri,

dan kebutuhan akan aktualisasi diri.

  Akhirnya, para peneliti berikut disarankan untuk mengeksplorasi lebih lanjut

tentang factor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri

seperti yang terlihat pada novel Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Dicides to Die. Selain itu,

penulis menyarankan kepada para dosen Bahasa Inggris untuk menggunakan novel

Paulo Coelho Veronika Decides to Die sebagai bahan untuk mengajar Prosa II di

Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Kata kunci: makna sebenarnya, makna harafiah, bunuh diri, dan karakteristik.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  Writing this thesis is a series of hard-work that is both energy and time consuming. What it would be without the blessing from the Lord Jesus Christ.

  Therefore, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to the Almighty God, Lord Jesus Christ, for His wonderful love and guidance so that I could finish this thesis.

  I would like to express my gratitude for my lovely parents, my father Yohanes Jelau and the late mother Paula Di for their love and everything they have given. I also thank my brothers Yani, Yeri, Ighy, Viano, my sisters Veronika, Margaretha, Wati, and my lovely nephews Vicko, All and Paula for their love that motivate me to live.

  My deepest gratitude goes to my advisor, Drs. Antonius Herujiyanto, M.A. for giving valuable corrections and advice on my thesis. I thank him for his patience and understanding. I also would like to thank all lecturers of English Education Study Program for teaching me for about four years. They all have inspired me to be all that I can be.

  I would like to give my deepest thank to Ka’e Frengky for his help in grammar correction and all my best friends Lala, Seto, Rara, Asep, Popon, Asti, Tommy, Wendy for being my best friend and give me spirit to study in PBI. I also give my respect to all my best friends Zeppot, Kele, Engkos, Denos, Tedong, Lia, Ejun, Asri for love, support and all the great things we have done together. Moreover, I would like to thank Bu Dhani and Bu Tari for helping me during my study in PBI.

  A special thank goes to Margaretha Rosita K. for his great love, patience, and attention. She is my place to share joys and sorrows. I would like to say thank you for accompanying me doing my thesis and helping me to solve my problems.

  Last but not least, I would like to give my respect for those whom I cannot mention individually, but surely this thesis could not be done without their support and help. May God always bless us.

  The Writer .

  MARIANUS SADEG JELAU

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITILE PAGE ....................................................................................................i

  APPROVAL PAGE ...........................................................................................ii

PAGE OF DEDICATION ................................................................................

iv

  STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ................................................. v

  PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI .............................................vi

  ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................vii

  ABSTRAK .......................................................................................................viii

  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................................................................ix

  TABLE OF CONTENT ..................................................................................... x

  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ....................................................................... 1 B. Objectives of the Study.......................................................................... 6 C. Problem Formulation............................................................................. 6 D. Definition of Terms ............................................................................... 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Review of Related Theories................................................................... 9

  1. Theory of Character .................................................................... 10

  2. Method of Characterization......................................................... 10

  3. Theory of Psychoanalitical Psychology....................................... 13

  4. Theory of Motivation.................................................................. 16

  B. Theoritical Framework ........................................................................ 22

  C. Context of the Novel ........................................................................... 23

  CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study.............................................................................. 25 B. Approach of the Study......................................................................... 26 C. Method of the Study ............................................................................ 28

  CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS A. Characteristics of Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die ...................................................................... 29 B. The meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide ...................... 40

  1. The litteral meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide ... 41

  2. The true meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide ...... 47

  CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions............................................................................................ 62 B. Suggestions ............................................................................................ 67

  1. Suggestion for Further Researchers............................................. 67

  2. Suggestion for English Teachers ................................................. 68

  3. The Implementation of Teaching Prose II ................................... 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY

  ............................................................................................ 71

  

LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1: The summary of Veronika Decides to Die.................................. 74

APPENDIX 2: Auto Biography of Paulo Coelho ............................................... 76

APPENDIX 3: Syllabus of Prose II.................................................................... 83

APPENDIX 4: Lesson Plan................................................................................ 85

APPENDIX 5: Material ..................................................................................... 88

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the introduction of this study; this chapter consists of

  four sections. The first section is the background of study, which presents the reason of choosing this topic. The second section is the problem formulation, which presents the problems of this study in the form of two research questions. The third section is the objectives of the study that contains the purpose of writing this thesis. The fourth part is the definition of terms, which provides the explanation of the terms used in this study.

1.1 Background of the Study

  Literary works always bring their own effects to the readers which depend on how the readers interpret the work. The readers’ knowledge, experiences, education, concerns and interests affect the way in interpreting a literary work. It is possible that one similar literature is considered either good or bad based on the readers’ point of view.

  According to Hudson (1958), literature conveys idea, truth, and even factual event. Literature is considered as a reflection of reality. It is a vital record of what people have seen, what they experienced of it, what they have thought and felt about those aspects of life itself which have the most immediate and enduring interest for all of us as the readers (para.10). Since literature is considered as a vital record of what people have seen, experienced, thought and felt about reality or the truth of life, people can investigate the truth of life behind the text and the aim of it.

  Literature is also a product of society. It is developed along with the development of the society in which it is produced. Wellek and Warren (1962) support that “literature is an expression of society and is determined by or dependent on its social setting, social change and development” (p. 96).

  In making a good story, the society becomes an important background. The society gives an important effect to the composition. As Langland (1984) in Society

  

and the Novel says that “the condition in the real world can be applied in the pattern

  of art” (p.5). It means that the real condition or the society can be a good basis for the writer to form a good literary work.

  The real condition in our life can become an inspiration for the author to produce a literary work. In the novel the author also uses the real condition as his or her inspiration in producing a literary art. Hutchin (1986) in The New Encyclopedia

  

Britannica said that “novel is a literary work. It is a genre of fiction, fiction may be

  define as the art craft of contriving, through the written words, representations of human life that instruct or divert or both” (p. 276).

  Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is one of the examples of literary works which was written based on the reflections of the experience of the author’s life. In this novel, the author provides the readers a story of life of the main character that influences the main character’s paradigm of life. Through this novel, the readers may learn about how to view life and face all the challenges and problems in life.

  Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is chose to analyze because it is an interesting and very motivating novel. The story of this novel told about a young woman of age 24 who could not explore her talents and potentialities. This situation influenced her paradigm of life and led her to committed suicide. The story had delivered a great message to the readers including the writer of this study to explore all the talents and potentialities we have. The story of this novel motivates the writer to explore all the talents and potentialities to reach a better life. This novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die which is written based on the personal experience of the author’s life also inspires the writer to struggle in running the life and always view life positively. Another reason of choosing Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die as the novel to be analyzed is to see the meaning of one’s decision to commit suicide through the main character of Paulo Coelho’s

  Veronika Decides to Die.

  Furthermore, the writer provides the summary of Coelho’s Veronika Decides

  

to Die. The summary is provided to help the readers of this study understand the story

  of the novel. The writer believes that if the readers of this study understand the story of the novel, they can also understand the analyses of the novel which is written in

  chapter 4 of this study. Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die talked about the life of a young Slovenian

  1997. Veronika was the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. However, there were some other characters such as Veronika, Zedka, Mari, Eduard, and Dr. Igor.

  Paulo Coelho described Veronika as a 24-year-old woman who worked as a librarian in Ljubljana, Slovenia, one of the republics created by the dissolution of

  Yugoslavia

  . The author described Veronika as the main character who decided to commit suicide by swallowing four packs of sleeping pills. There were two reasons lay behind Veronika’s decision to die. First, she thought that her life was monotones. The second reason was she felt powerless to fight against the wrong things that happen in her society.

  Furthermore, Paulo Coelho described Veronika as young and attractive woman who had a perfect life because she had a loving family, friends, boyfriends, and a job in a library. However, Veronika had never felt a true love. Actually, Veronika’s parents loved her very much, but in the other side, that love had limited her to actualize her dream to be a pianist. Veronika’ parents did not want Veronika to be a pianist. Her parents asked her to study law and forget her dream to be a pianist. For the sake of her parents’ dream, Veronika had to sacrifice her dream to be a pianist. As the consequence, Veronika could not actualize herself because she did not want to hurt her parents.

  Veronika lived her life as her parents’ expectation. This situation influenced Veronika’s way of thinking about life. She viewed life in a different perspective from others. Veronika felt that life was meaningless. Veronika’s negative perspective about life led her to a decision to commit suicide.

  On the morning of 11 November 1997, Veronika committed suicide by swallowing four packs of sleeping pills, but her suicide attempt was failed.

  Veronika’s failure in committing suicide led her to an asylum called Villete. In Villete, Veronika’s new environment, Dr. Igor told her that she only had few days to live because her heart had been damaged due to the overdose of sleeping pills.

  Veronika started to feel afraid of her future life after knowing that she was still alive. Veronika was also afraid of her fate after knowing that she only had few days to live. Then, she started to think about another way to end her life. Veronika asked Zedka to give her some more sleeping pills. However, Zedka could not give her those pills.

  Since she could not get some more sleeping pills, Veronika decided to live her life as other lunatics in Villete. In Villete, she did everything she had never done before such as playing a piano at night. In Villete, Veronika lived her life in a different way from her previous life. Veronika built relations with the patients in Villete such as, Zedka, Mari, and Eduard and experienced a new life.

  During the time of waiting for her death, Veronika tried to express herself and explored all her talents and potentialities. She played a piano at night. Veronika also experienced some feelings such as love, hatred, and courage. Veronika fell in love with Eduard, a schizophrenic man. She experienced a new life which was totally actualize herself without pretending to be someone else just to fulfill her mother dreams and avoid from others’ judgments.

  The writer would like to explore through the content of the story to find out Veronika’s characteristics and the meaning of her decision to commit suicide. In this study the writer will use some theories to support the analysis. Theories that will be used in this study are theory of character, method of characterization, theory of motivation, and theory of psychoanalytical psychology. Psychological approach is applied to see the deeper meaning of the novel.

  1.2 Objectives of the study

  The objective of this study is to see the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide as seen in Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. To find out the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide, the writer will focus on analyzing the characteristics and the psychology of Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. The meanings of Veronika’s decision will be revealed in chapter IV of this study.

  1.3 Problem formulation

  There are two problem formulations of this study as the main points that will be analyzed in chapter IV. These two problem formulations are correlated; the first problem formulation is linked to the second problem formulation. The meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide can be revealed after knowing Veronika’s characteristics. The problems of this study can be formulated as follows: 1) How is Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to

  Die, described in the novel?

  2) What are the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide?

1.4 Definition of terms

  The following part is the meaning of certain words used in the study. There are two terms to be explained in this part, they are suicide and true meaning. The purpose of defining these two terms is to avoid misunderstanding in perceiving some important terms in this research.

1.4.1 Suicide

  The meaning of suicide in this study refers to the definition of suicide in ADAM’s Illustrated Health Encyclopedia which was adapted from adam.about.com.

  In ADAM’s Illustrated Health Encyclopedia, suicide is the act of deliberately taking one's own life. Suicidal behavior is any deliberate action with potentially life- threatening consequences, such as taking a drug overdose or deliberately crashing a car. Suicidal behaviors almost always occur in people with depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and alcohol dependence. People who attempt suicide are often trying to get away from a life situation that seems impossible to deal with.

  Many who make a suicide attempt are seeking relief from: bad thoughts or feelings, feeling ashamed, guilty, or like a burden to others, feeling like a victim, and feelings of rejection, loss, or loneliness.

1.4.2 True Meaning

  The true meaning here is the extrinsic aspects of the literary works. The definition of meaning in this study refers the definition of meaning explained by Audi. According to Audi (1999),

  “Meaning is the conventional, common, or standard sense of an expression, or of a non-linguistic signal or symbol. Literal meaning is the non-figurative. Synonymy is the sameness of literal meaning. In another sense, meaning is what a person intends to communicate by a particular utterance. Meaning means the extrinsic aspects in the literary works. It is not the literal meaning. It is has two aspect, literal meaning or surface meaning and non6 literal meaning or deeper meaning” (p. 545).

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW In this chapter, the writer will explore some theoretical reviews in order to

  support the analysis. This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section provides a review on related theories. This section comprises the important concepts of characters and methods of characterization, theory of psychoanalytical psychology and theory of motivation. These theories are used to help the writer in answering the problems in Coelho’s novel towards the reason of Veronoka as the main character who commits suicide. The second section is dealing with theoretical framework. In this section the writer states the theories that are used to analyze Coelho’s Veronika

  

Decides to Die. In this part, the theories and reviews will be synthesized to make

  them operationally applicable to the problems. The third section deals with context of the novel. The historical approach when the novel was written by Paulo Coelho.

2.1 Review of Related Theories

  In this part the writer will provide some theories related to the topic of this study. They are theories of character, methods of characterization, theories of psychoanalytical psychology and the theory of motivation. Those theories will be used to answer the problem formulations formulated in the previous chapter.

  2.1.1 Theory of Character Character is one of the most important elements in the literary works.

  According to Stanton (1965), “character is a person who does the action in a story” (p.17). Furthermore, Abrams (1981) explains that a character is “an individual who exists in a dramatic or narrative work and he/she has moral dispositional qualities that can be seen from his/her dialogue and action; dialogue and action have important roles in understanding the characters” (p. 20).

  Milligan (1983, p. 155) states that there are two kinds of character in the fictional story: major character and minor character. A major character is the most important character in a literary work. He/she plays a very important role because everything he/she does becomes the content of the story. A major character becomes the centre of the story because he endures problems, conflict, happiness, sorrow, etc. from his/her actions; through which the readers know the author’s message of the story. The minor characters are characters that play less important role than major character does. Their appearance supports the main character to develop the story so that they appear only in a certain setting. They do not endure the problem of the story.

  2.1.2 Methods of Characterization Characterization is the way the author characterize the characters.

  Characterization plays an important role in building the idea of a story. Rohrberger and Woods Jr. (1971, p. 20) in Reading and Writing about Novel define characterization as the process by which an author creates character, it is the device that he/she makes the readers to believe a character in the particular type of person he/she is. An author does this way to make a stereotype of someone existing in a real world situation comes real during the reading.

  According to Murphy (1972, p. 161 -173), there are nine methods in which the readers can understand the character. The first method is related to personal description. Personal description related to the description about what the characters are like. It tells the readers the details of the characters’ appearance such as the face, skin complexion, eyes, hair, and the clothing.

  The second method is about how a character is seen by the other characters. Instead of describing the character directly, the author can describe a character through the eyes and opinions of other characters in the story. Through this way the readers are able to grasp a character’s personality and appearance which can also determine a character’s characteristics.

  The third method is related to speech. Some information and clues about a character can also be revealed through the character’s speech. The readers will be able to grasp the characteristics of a character through the way he/she speaks.

  The fourth method is linked to the past life. Another way to describe a character is by giving some information about a character’s past life. A character’s past life will affect how she/he behaves in her/his present life. Moreover, a character’s past life giving comments, using the character’s thoughts and speech in conversations, or by using other characters’ point of view and comments.

  The fifth method is about the conversation of other characters. The characteristics of a character can be revealed through a conversation of other characters. The author can give the readers some clues about the characteristics of a character in the story through the conversation of other characters.

  The sixth method is related to the reaction. The author can also give descriptions of a character’s personality by letting the readers know how the character reacts to various situations and events. Therefore, through his/her reaction, the readers can understand the mental and moral qualities of a character in the story.

  The seventh method is linked to the direct comment of the author. The author can describe or comment on a character in the story directly. In this way, the readers will understand easily the characteristics of a character in the story.

  The eighth method is related to the thoughts. The author can give the readers direct knowledge of what a character in the story is thinking about. By knowing what in the character’s mind, the readers will know his/her characteristic.

  The last method is about mannerism. The author can describe a character’s mannerisms, habits, or idiosyncrasies. It can tell the readers some clues about the characteristics of a character in the story.

2.1.3 Theory of Psychoanalytical Psychology

  Hurlock (1974), in Personality Development, states that the individual aspect of human life concerns with the physical changes and individual’s personality development. Individual’s personality development is usually influenced by two factors, which are individual’s early experience within his family and the important events that happened outside the home or the social aspect (para.19-20). In 2000, Huffman, M. Vernoy and J. Vernoy define “personality as an individual’s unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions that defines you as a person: how you are different from other people” (p. 464).

  Moreover, Worchel and Shebilske (1989) in their book Psychology;

  Principles and applications explain:

  Personality as the unique set of behaviours (including thoughts and emotions) and enduring qualities that influence the way a person adjusts to his or her environment. Personality is seen as influencing, guiding, and motivating behaviour.” Personality is what someone really is toward his or her own life want to be. Personality is what makes people unique and causes them to act or see situations different from anyone else (p. 461). Furthermore, Worchel and Shebilske (1989) describe Sigmund Freud’

  Psychoanalytic theory; the structure of personality: Freud believes that the individual’s personality is the scene of a never-ending battle: On one hand there are primitive and unacceptable drives striving for expression, while on the other hand there are forces trying to deny or disguise these impulses. Freud not only viewed the personality as a battlefield, but he also identified the participants in this battle: the id, the ego, and the superego (p. 471).

  Sigmund Freud defines these three elements of personality. The first element of personality is known as the id. The second element is known as the ego and for the third element is called the superego. These three elements of personality are working together to create complex human behaviors.

2.1.3.1 The Id

  Id operates at the unconscious level of our personality. Each of us has a savage quality at the root of our personality. According to Freud, people are born with two instinctual drives that serve as the basic motivation for all behavior. One called eros and another one is called thanatos.

  Eros is the drive for survival. Included in this drive are the needs to eat and

  drink, to be warm, and above all to engage in sexual activity. The energy force that propels the person to satisfy these drives is called libido.

  Thanatos, is a destructive drive. The aim is to destroy others, but there is also

  a self-destructive aspect to it. In fact, Freud took the grim position that “the aim of all life is death.” This self-destructive impulse is seen not only in suicide, but also in the harmful excesses in which so many people engage, such as drinking alcohol, smoking, and overacting. It is the unconscious desire for self-destruction. The id, like savage, wants to satisfy these primitive drives in the most direct and immediate way. It is not concerned with logic, reality, or manners. It functions on pleasure principle, which dictates the immediate satisfaction of drives.

  2.1.3.2 The Ego

  The ego is a person’s view of physical and social reality. It tries to satisfy the id impulses by taking into account the possibilities of reward and punishment that exist in a situation. In other words, it works on the reality principle. Although each of us may have the primitive desires, it is clear that we could not function long in our social world if we give free expression to the savage within ourselves. For example, suppose you are very thirsty and see a nice cold beer in a restaurant. Your Id impulses would tell you to grab the beer and drink it. The Ego, however, would calculate the possible result of this action; the worst thing may happen. Thus, the Ego would direct you to order and pay for your own beer.

  2.1.3.3 The Superego

  We can view the Id as operating on the signal “I want it now.” The Ego answers this demand by saying “Let’s be realistic and get it in a way that won’t cause trouble.” These two forces, however, must also controlled by the Superego, which says, ‘Think. Is it right to want it?” The Superego represents our conscience. It includes the moral values of right and wrong that are largely instilled in us by our parents. The Superego makes us feel guilty when we have done the wrong thing. As you might imagine, people who are dominated by the Superego will be very uptight and self-conscience; they must constantly ask themselves, “Is it right to feel or act this way?” It is also the superego that motivates us to better ourselves and to live up There are two parts of the superego. The first part is called the ego ideal. The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those, which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment. The second part is called the conscience. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.

2.1.4 Theory of Motivation

  The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. In psychology, there are many theories of needs that are introduced. Each theory has its own consideration and understanding. The theory of needs applied in this thesis is The Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Harold Maslow.

  Different from Freud’s psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes unconscious and irrational forces as the controlling factors in behaviors, the theory introduced by Maslow is called as humanistic psychology. As the other psychologists, Maslow believes that human beings are free to make their own choices. According to Hjelle and Ziegler, (1981), human are considered as the conscious agents. It means that they are free in deciding, choosing, and doing their actions (para.365). Therefore, each human being is said to have certain motives in doing some actions in order to fulfill their needs.

  Frank. G. Goble (1971), in his book entitled The Third Force, the Psychology

  

of Abraham Maslow, confirms Maslow’s theory that persons, whose basic needs are

  fulfilled, will have a healthier, happier, and more effective life. On the contrary, those whose basic needs are not completely fulfilled show some psychological disorder symptoms (para.89).

  Furthermore, Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) describe that Maslow believes that human beings are born with some innate needs. These needs are arranged in the order of their potency in a hierarchy of needs. The needs are: (1) Basic physiological needs, (2) Safety needs, (3) Belongingness and Love needs, (4) Self-esteem needs, and (5) self-actualization needs or the needs of personal fulfillment. The lower the need is, the stronger it is. The higher the need is, the weaker it is (369).

  The first four layers in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are called as Deficiency Needs or D-Needs. Meanwhile the top is called as Growth Need, Being Values, or B- Needs. Figure 2.1 below is the picture of Maslow’s pyramid of the hierarchy of needs.

  

Self-Actualization

Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

  

Physiological Needs

Figure 2.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

2.1.4.1 Physiological needs

  Physiological needs are the basic, lowest and the strongest one in the hierarchy of needs. The needs are biological needs that cover the needs for food, drink, oxygen, activity and sleep, sex, protection from extreme temperatures, and sensory stimulation. These needs must be fulfilled at some minimal level by each human in his life. If these needs are not satisfying yet, the person will be not motivated by other higher needs. Hjelle and Ziegler in Personality Theories explain:

  For our chronically and extremely hungry man, Utopia can be defined simply as a place where there is plenty of food. He tends to think that, if only he is guaranteed food for the rest of his life, he will be perfectly happy and will never want anything more. Life itself tends to be defined as unimportant. Freedom, love, community feeling, respect, philosophy, may all be waved aside as fripperies that are useless, since they fail to fill the stomach. Such a man may fairly be said to live by bread alone (p. 372).

  Hence, it is obvious that the physiological needs control human’s thought and behaviors to gain satisfaction of these needs. Unless these basic needs are completely fulfilled, human will not pursue other higher level needs.

2.1.4.2 Safety needs

  After the physiological needs are fulfilled, human will start to pursue another need that is Safety or Security needs. The needs consist of the needs of certainty, order, structure and predictability in one’s environment, and safety from war, crime, natural disasters, riots, and societal disorganizations.

  As it is stated by Hjelle and Ziegler (1981), Maslow believes that the safety needs are readily observed to infants and young children because of their helplessness and dependency on adults. Infants will be frightened when they are suddenly dropped or startled by loud noises and flashing lights. Since they realize that they are powerless in such situations. These dangers can be neutralized when one has experience, knowledge, and education about them. When one knows some information about certain dangers, it makes him feel that he will find some ways to handle them. As a result, he will not feel completely powerless (para.370).

  2.1.4.3 Belongingness and Love needs

  Once the safety needs are fulfilled, the next needs will emerge in human motivation. The needs are the Belongingness and Love needs. These needs are expected to be found both in one’s society and family. Different from the Freudian, Maslow asserts that the belongingness and love needs are not similar to the needs of sex. He emphasizes that mature love involves giving and receiving. It requires more emotional fulfillment than sexual fulfillment. To fulfill these needs, one will try various ways. They might join with certain groups which share them their interests, having lovers, having friends, and many others. Furthermore, Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) explain:

  Rather he contended that mature love involves a healthy, loving relationship between two people that includes mutual respect, admiration, and trust. Maslow also stressed that a person’s needs for love involve both giving and receiving love. Being loved and accepted is instrumental to healthy feelings of worth. Not being loved generates futility, emptiness, and hostility (p. 372).

  2.1.4.4 Self-esteem needs

  Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) explain that when the belongingness and love needs are fulfilled, one will pursue the next higher needs, self-esteem needs. Maslow divides these needs into two categories: self-respect and esteem from others. Self- esteem needs cover the desire for competence, confidence, personal strength, adequacy, achievement, independence, and freedom (para.372).

  Meanwhile, one needs prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, status, fame, reputation, and appreciation from others to satisfy the self-esteem needs. Goble (1971) defines that someone whose self-esteem needs are satisfied will be more confident and productive. On the contrary, one’s lack of self-esteem needs will cause inferiority, powerlessness, despair, and even with frustration (para.76).

2.1.4.5 Self-actualization needs

  According to Hjelle and Ziegler (1981), the last and highest needs in Maslow’s pyramid of needs are the Self-actualization needs. Maslow introduces self- actualization as one’s capability to be everything he/she wants and is capable of it.

  These needs are the psychological needs which develop and exploit all of his/her capabilities, potentialities, and talents to be everything he/she wants. The development and exploitation of one’s capabilities, potentialities, and talents will enable him/her to improve him/herself thoroughly and reach a healthy mental condition. These needs include the opportunity and freedom to make one’s dreams and hopes come true (para.372).

  Easily identifying self-actualization, there are some characteristics of self- actualized people as it is stated in Frank. G. Goble’s The Third Force, the Psychology

  

of Abraham Maslow. People whose self-actualization needs are satisfied will do

  everything as best as they can. They are able to view life wisely and purely. They view life as what it is and do not consider life as what they want. They are not emotional and more objective in undergoing life. These people will not let their hopes deceive them. They will still learn from others to improve themselves. Therefore, it causes them be more precise in making judgment on others.

  Based on Maslow’s statement in A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological

  

Rooting of the Value-Life, the self-actualized people are already satisfied in their love

  needs. They have friends, feel loved and love worthy. Their self-esteem need is also fulfilled since they already respect themselves and have status in life. They do not feel anxiety, inferiority, worthlessness, or isolation. Moreover, they love their job and do it as best as they could since they feel that it is right and suitable for them.

  Maslow (1969) adds that the self-actualized people possess their spiritual life. It is defining characteristics to create a full human nature. Having spiritual life means that they have already found the reason of their existence, their meaning of life. The meaning of life is a part of real self that reveals the identity and full humanness of an individual (para. 47)

2.2 Theoretical Framework

  The theories reviewed in the previous part are very important for the writer to get into the analysis part. In analyzing Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die, the writer uses some theories. The theories are theory of character, method of characterization, theory of psychoanalytical psychology, and theory of motivation.

  Theory of character, method of characterization, and theory of motivation will be useful to determine the characteristics of the main character in the novel and help the writer to answer the first problem formulation, in which the writer will give a clear description about Veronika’s characteristics in Paulo Coelho’s novel Veronika

  Decides to Die.

  In order to answer the second problem formulation, the writer will use theory of psychoanalytical psychology and theory of motivation. These theories are used to find out the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. Freud’s psychoanalytical psychology theory is applied to help the writer to explain about the first true meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide which is related to the the analyses that Veronika cannot control the id. Furthermore, Maslow’s theory of Motivation is applied to explain the second true meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide which is related to the analyses that Veronika is lack of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

2.3 Context of The Novel

  Veronika Decides to Die is a novel written by Paulo Coelho. This novel consists of 210 pages.

  The original version Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die was written Portuguese. The novel was translated into English by Margaret Jull Costa and published in 1999 in the United States of America by Harper Collins Publisher Inc.

  

New York. Paulo Coelho is a Brazilian author who likes to use his personal

experience as the inspiration in writing a literary works.

  Veronika Decides to Die, is one of Coelho’s novels that is written based on

  his personal experience when he was sent to a mental hospital by his parents for three times because he wanted to be a writer. Besides Veronika Decides to Die, Paulo Coelho also wrote some other famous novels such as The Alchemist, The Pilgrimage,

  

Eleven Minutes, The Valkyries, By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept, the

Fifth Mountain, and Warrior of the Light: A Manual.

  Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is a novel which tells a story of a journey of life of a young Slovenian woman called Veronika. Veronika is the main character of this novel. The author of this novel described that Veronika was 24-year-old when she decided to commit suicide on November 11, 1997 by taking four packs of sleeping pills. The authors’ description about Veronika’s age above shows that Veronika, as the main character of the novel, lived in the situation of what it is described as a civil war when the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the early-to-mid 1990’s. As the consequences of this civil war, thousands of people, soldiers and civilians were killed. This is the social and political context of Coelho’s Veronika

  Decides to Die.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methods of the study to solve the problems

  formulated in chapter I. This chapter consists of three main points to discuss. The first point is about the object of this study, which provides the information related to the novel. The second point is approach of the study, which presents the information about the approach used in analyzing the novel. The last point is the method of the study, which informs the steps in conducting this study.

3.1 Object of the Study

  The object of the study is Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. Paulo Coelho is also the author of the best seller The Alchemist. This novel was translated from Portuguese to English by Margaret Jull Costa and published in 1999 in the United States of America by Harper Collins Publisher Inc. New York. This novel consists of 29 sections and 210 pages long. This novel was firstly published in Portuguese in 1999. Veronika Decides to Die is a novel written by a Brazilian author named Paulo Coelho. Paulo Coelho who was born on August 20, 1946, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is an author who likes to use his personal experience in writing a literary work.

  Veronika Decides to Die is one of his novels that he wrote based on her

  personal experience when he was a young man and he was sent three times to a mental hospital by his parents because he wanted to be a writer. Through the life of the main character of the novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die, Paulo Coelho reveals his personal experience. Paulo Coelho created a fictional character named Veronika who decides to commit suicide and who feels powerless to change anything.

  There are five major characters of this novel who play great roles. Veronika is the main character; she is the center of the story. The other characters are Zedka who suffers from depression, Mari who suffers from panic attack and Eduard, a schizophrenic man with whom Veronika is falling in love. The last character is Dr.Igor, who believes that the cause of insanity is Vitriol, a poison which the body produces and Veronika is becoming the object of his experiment.

  The major character that will be analyzed in this study is Veronika, but the writer also regards other characters. However, the discussion on Veronika’s characteristics cannot be separated from the other characters since they are play role in influencing Veronika’s personality.

3.2 Approach of the Study

  This study uses a psychological approach as one of the Critical Approaches— introduced by Rohrberger and Woods, Jr. in their work Reading and Writing About

  

Literature published in 1971. The Critical Approaches which are introduced by

  Rohrberger and Woods, Jr are The Formalist Approach, the Biographical Approach, the Sociocultural-Historical Approach, the Mythopoeic Approach, and the Psychological Approach. According to Rohrberger and Woods, Jr a critical approach to literature necessitates an understanding of its nature, function, and positive values.

  Furthermore, Rohrberger and Woods, Jr. (1971) state that “one must know what literature is, how to read it, and how to judge it” (p. 3). Moreover, Rohrberger and Woods, Jr. believe that it is necessary to use the critical approaches, which consist of five approaches, in order to understand a literary works.

  In this study, the writer uses Freud’s psychoanalytic theory as the main approach. Freud composed that humans have three elements of personality: the id, the ego and the superego. Psychological approach is used to answer research questions formulated in chapter I as the problem formulations. This approach can help the writer to understand the main characters’ personality and the literal meaning of the decision to commit suicide. The psychological approach is also useful for the writer to find the extrinsic aspects of the novel or the true meaning. The psychological approach helps the writer to interpret the psychological aspect of the main character in the novel. The character is analyzed to draw the clear lines to the understanding of character psychology.

3.3 Method of the Study

  The method used in the study was library research. There are two kinds of sources were used; the primary and the secondary. The primary source was Paulo Coelho’s novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die. The secondary sources were books and articles on theories and approach used in the analysis.

  The research was conducted in several steps. The first step was to select a literary work that was going to be analysed. In this step the writer chose Paulo Coelho’s Novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die. The second step was having a thorough reading of the novel for several times, in order to have a better understanding of the story and the subject that is going to be analyzed. It helped the writer in marking the main points of the content which was used to find the significant elements. The third step was deciding the topic to be discussed and formulating the problems related to the topic. The fourth step was collecting the secondary sources, theories and approach, related to the topic or problems that would be analysed. The secondary data were from some books and online references. The next step was applying the theories and approach to answer the problem formulation. The approach and theories were used to help the writer in analyzing the novel based on the two problem formulations. The last steps were drawing conclusion based on the result of the analysis and giving some suggestions to the future researchers who want to analyse Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the writer tries to answer the questions formulated in the

  problem formulation. This chapter is divided in two parts. The first part deals with how Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die, is described.

  In this part the writer will describe Veronika’s characteristics. In the second part, the writer will analyse the literal and true meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide as seen in Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

4.1 Characteristics of Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s “Veronika

  Decides to Die”

  Characters are the central point of the readers’ interest. Each character has a different role in making the novel more interesting and dramatic. Coelho’s Veronika

  

Decides to Die involves some major characters such as Veronika, Mari, Zedka,

  Eduard, and Dr. Igor. Veronika is the main character who is the focus of the story and the analysis of this study.

  Murphy (1972) states nine methods of characterization that can be used to understand a character deeply, they are personal description, characters as seen by other characters, speech, past life, conversation of other characters, direct comment of the author, character’s reaction to various situations and events, thoughts, and mannerism (para.160-173). In this analysis the writer will apply all those methods to understand the characteristics of the main character in Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

  Furthermore, the theory of motivation will also be used to understand the personality of the main character. In this part, the main character will be analysed in details. Quotations from the novel will be used to support the characterization. The writer will only focus on describing the characteristic of Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die to help the readers understand Veronika’s characteristics.

4.1.1 Veronika is young, pretty and intelligent

  There are some descriptions of Veronika, the main character, portrayed by the author of this novel. Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to

  Die described herself as a young, pretty and intelligent.

  Since I only took sleeping pills, I’m not disfigured in any way: I’m still young, pretty, intelligent, I won’t have any difficulty getting boyfriends, I never did (p. 21). Veronika’s description of herself is also supported by some remarks of the other characters. Veronika is known as a beautiful young woman of age 24. A nurse in Villete described her as a young and pretty woman. “…, I kept wondering why a pretty young girl, with her whole life ahead of her, should want to kill herself…” (p. 65).

  Moreover, Mari, one of the lunatics in Villete described Veronika as a young, pretty and healthy woman. How Mari described Veronika could be seen from her conversation with Eduard when they were talking about Veronika.

  …”And it’s because of the girl,” said Mari. “We’ve seen a lot of people die here, always when they least expected it, and usually after they’d entirely given up on life. But this is the first time we’ve seen it happening to a young, pretty, healthy person with so much to live for.” (p. 150). Veronika was in the age of twenty four when she decided to commit suicide. Veronika is considered as a mature individual who is able to make her own choices as revealed through a conversation between Dr. Igor and Veronika’s mother when Veronika’s mother came to see Veronika in Villete.

  “…How old is she? “Twenty-four.”

  “So she is a mature, experienced woman who knows what she wants and is perfectly capable of making her own choices…” (p. 78)

4.1.2 Veronika has an attractive appearance

  Moreover, the author described Veronika as an attractive woman who could attract others’ attention to her appearance. “When she entered a room everyone would turn to look at her…” (p. 67). The description above shows that Veronika is a person who has attractive appearance which is able to attract people’s attention.

  A more details description was made by the lunatics in Villete when Veronika was missing. The lunatics portrayed Veronika as a woman with green eyes and brown hair.

  That night, when they were all together for supper, the inmates noticed that four people were missing… Finally, the girl with green eyes and brown hair was missing.” (p. 195). The descriptions of Veronika’s appearance above prove that Veronika is an attractive and beautiful woman who can attract everyone’s attention.

4.1.3 Veronika is an Organized Person

  Furthermore, beside her physical appearance, Veronika also has some other personal characteristics that can be seen through the way she thought and interacted with other people. The author described Veronika as an individual who had an organized life. It can be seen in the beginning of the novel.

  “She does her routines of cleaning her room, brushing her teeth and lying down before she took the pills. She chooses to do all of her routines rather than doing anything else she never does before. She likes to keep everything right in order (p. 1)”. Veronika’s choice to live in a convent with strict rules shows that Veronika is an organized person.

  “She rented a room in the convent because the nuns required all the tenants to be back at a certain hour, and then they locked the door. Anyone still outside after that had to sleep on the street” (p. 44). By living in a convent Veronika can maintain an organized life. The convent with strict rules limits her interaction with other people and it plays an important role to measure and organize her relationship with other people. Her decision to live in a convent with the aim to have an organized life limits her to fulfill the needs of love and belonging.

  Another example that shows Veronika as an organized person can be seen from Veronika’s monologue about her life.

  I’ll try to read a book, turn on the TV to see the same old programs, set the alarm clock to wake up at exactly the same time I woke up the day before, and mechanically repeat my tasks at the library (p. 21). Veronika’s characteristic as an organized person led her to follow the rules applied by the society even though she was still questioning about the rules that limit her to actualize herself. Moreover, it led her to be a well-prepared person. Veronika always planned everything well, even for her suicide attempt. In the beginning of the novel, the author described that Veronika prepared for her suicide attempt for nearly six months before she actually did it (p. 3).

  As an organized and well-prepared person, Veronika always thinks before act and she plans everything carefully in order to make no mistakes. In her planning to commit suicide, Veronika considered every possible action to commit suicide that would upset everyone less. Veronika considered slashing her wrist, jumping off from a tall building, shooting and hanging before finally she took the pills. Veronika thought that taking the pills was the best option for everyone (p. 3). Veronika’s consideration on how to commit suicide proves that she is an organized person, well prepared, and well controlled.

  Veronika’s characteristic as an organized person has kept her away from troubles and given her a secure feeling. Veronika’s decision to live in a convent with strict rules provided her a chance to organize her life and kept her away from troubles. However, her characteristic as an organized person also led her to commit suicide. Her way to get four packs of sleeping pills proves that her characteristic as an organized person has helped her to commit suicide. In getting the sleeping pills, Veronika planned to tell a lie to her friends. She complained to her friends that she got a problem to sleep at night.

  … In response to her complaints that she could no longer sleep at night, two friends of her managed to get hold of two packs each of a powerful drug, used by musicians at a local nightclub (p. 4).

4.1.4 Veronika is a critical, logical, and curious person.

  Moreover, the author described Veronika as a, critical, logic and curious person who always gave comments and questioned something. In a certain situation Veronika questioned the God’s existence. “In her heart of hearts, though, there was still a doubt: What if God did exist?” (p. 8). After arguing with herself, Veronika decided to answer the question using her logic.

  “If God exist, and I truly don’t believe he does, he will know that there are limits to human understanding. He was the one who created this confusion in which there is poverty, injustice, greed, and loneliness…if God exist, he will be generous with those creatures who chose to leave this earth early…” (p. 8). Using her logical thought Veronika concluded that if God did exist, He would know that she would end her life and God would not be shocked with her actions (p.

  8). Veronika preferred to use her logic to answer her problem, and sometimes her logic tended to be cynical as when she reacted to Sufi master’s instruction in Villete.

  “You see how far we’ve come?” said Veronika to Mari. “Some madman decided it was possible to grow flowers in winter, and nowadays, throughout Europe, we have roses all year round. Do you think even a Sufi master, with all his knowledge, could do that?” (p. 100). Veronika’s logic thought prevented her to trust or to follow anything useless and beyond her logic. Veronika always used her logic to protect herself from being influenced by other people or other conceptions.

  Moreover, the author characterized Veronika as a curious person. Veronika always tried to know something in detail; she did anything just to find out the detail information of something that she really wanted to know clearly.

  “Veronika noticed her reaction at once, which alerted her instincts. Had she been here longer than she had thought? Was she still in some danger? She began to pay attention to each gesture, each movement the two men made; she knew it was pointless asking questions; they would never tell her the truth, but if she was clever, she could find out what was going on (p. 26-27). Veronika’s reaction to the situation when she had a conversation with the two doctors shows that she was trying to know something in detail. During the conversation with the two doctors, Veronika noticed a change in the young doctor’s face and she became more aware of every gesture the two doctors made, and immediately she knew that there was something wrong with her. It shows that she is trying to watch for the details.

  Veronika‘s ability to think logically and critically has helped her to organize and plan something for her life. It enabled Veronika to live well-prepared and well- ordered. However, in the other side, her logical and critical thought led her to commit suicide. How Veronika’s logical and critical though influenced her to commit suicide can be seen from her reason of committing suicide. Veronika thought that she would gain nothing by continuing to live and everything is wrong in this world (p. 7).

4.1.5 Veronika is a sympathetic person

  Besides Veronika is a logical and critical person, she is a very sympathetic person. During her life in Villete Veronika showed that she could be a very sympathetic person. She showed her concern when Zedka was getting a treatment, even though Zedka was a new person in Veronika’s life. Veronika screamed and shouted uncontrollably when she saw Zedka’s treatment. Veronika knew that the treatment hurt Zedka and so she did all she could to stop the treatment.

  “Veronika started calling to Zedka, shouting, threatening that she would go to the police, the press, and the human rights organizations. “Calm down. You may be in a mental hospital, but you still have to abide by certain rules.” She saw that the man was utterly serious, and she was afraid. But since she had nothing to lose, she went on shouting.” (p. 49). Veronika was shouted to get the attention from the nurse, to make the nurse stop the treatment. Although that Veronika was threatened by the nurse and for a while Veronika felt scare, but she still kept shouting because she knew that the nurse would not harm her anyway, even if she would not lose anything since she is already dying. Veronika’s effort to stop the treatment proves that Veronika is a sympathetic person who cares about others’ suffering.

  On another occasion, Veronika also gave her sympathy to Eduard. Veronika tried to save Eduard from electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Veronika shouted when she saw Eduard having ECT treatment. Veronika was shouted to stop it even though it was useless since Eduard had already been unconscious (p. 159).

  Moreover, Veronika gave her attention to Mari. “Veronika stopped playing for a moment and looked out at Mari in the garden. She was wearing only a light jacket against the cold night air. Did she want to die? (p. 113). Veronika’s action to stop playing piano proves that she cared about Mari’s condition.

  All that Veronika did to Zedka, Mari and Eduard shows that she cares about those people even though they are new people in her life. Even though that Veronika gave only a little attention to Mari, it still proved that Veronika cared about her. Veronika’s characteristic as a sympathetic person can also be seen in her second reason of her decision to commit suicide.

  The second reason was more philosophical: Veronika read newspapers, watch TV, and she was aware of what was going on in the world. Everything was wrong, and she had no way of putting things right-that gave her a sense of complete powerlessness. (p. 7) The quotation above shows that Veronika was very concerned with the social situation but she could not do anything to fix all the wrong things happened in her society. Veronika’s characteristic as a sympathetic person had given her guilty feeling because she had no power to express her sympathy by struggling against those wrong things as she did to Zedka, Mari, and Eduard.

  

4.1.6 Veronika lacks of belongingness and love needs, the self-esteem needs and

the self-actualization needs

  Maslow defines that to fulfill the belongingness and love needs one will try various ways. They might join with certain groups which can share them their interests, having lovers, having friends, and many others (as cited in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1981, p. 372). Comparing to the definition above, it can be concluded that Veronika was lack of belongingness and love needs since she had never joined a certain group during her life. Veronika chose to live in a convent that limited her interaction with others. Veronika had some friends and boyfriends, but she never had a best friend and a true lover. Veronika had never felt the sense of belonging since she never joined a certain group. Veronika built a relationship with some boyfriends, it was based on sexual desire that gave her the feeling of emptiness.

  I’ll make love with them in their houses or in the woods, I’ll feel a certain degree of pleasure, but the moment I reach orgasm, the feeling of emptiness will return (p. 21) The citation above shows that Veronika made love with some boyfriends was not because she loved them or she felt of being loved by those boyfriends. Veronika was lack of belongingness and love needs since she had never felt true love.

  Furthermore, Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) explain that according to Maslow, the self-esteem needs cover self-respect and esteem from others (para.372). Based on that explanation, the writer can conclude that Veronika’s suicide attempt is an action of self disrespect. By attempting suicide, Veronika does not respect herself. Veronika’s decision to commit suicide proves that she cannot regard and respect herself. Veronika’s desire to kill herself also proves that she lacks of the self-esteem needs.

  “That’s why I was crying,” said Veronika, “When I took the pills, I wanted to kill someone I hated…” (p. 65). The citation above shows that Veronika does not respect herself that is shown by her desire to kill herself.

  According to Goble (1971), self-esteem is closely related to self-actualization. The self-actualization needs can be fulfilled if the self-esteem needs has already be fulfilled. On the contrary, if the self-esteem needs is not fulfilled yet, so the self- actualization needs will also not be fulfilled (para. 76).

  According to Maslow, self-actualization needs are the psychological needs to develop and exploit all of his capabilities, potentialities, and talents to be everything he wants. Moreover, Maslow states that these needs include the opportunity and freedom to make one’s dreams and hopes come true. (as cited in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1981, p. 372).

  Veronika was lack of self-actualization needs since she did not improve her talents and potentialities to actualize herself. In her childhood, Veronika realized that being a pianist was her biggest dream. Veroika realized that she had the talents and potentialities to be a great pianist as her teacher said in her first lesson.

  Veronika had known since her childhood that her true vocation was to be a pianist. This was something she had felt ever since her first lesson, at twelve. Her teacher had recognized her talent too and had encouraged her to become a professional. (p. 94) The citation above shows clearly that Veronika has a dream to be a pianist. dream. Veronika had to sacrifice her dream because she was afraid of hurting her mother.

  Her parents would still have loved her, but, afraid of hurting them, she had not dared to pay the piece of her dream. That dream as now buried in the depth of her memory, although sometimes it was awoken by a concert or a beautiful record she happened to hear. Whenever that happened, though, the feeling of frustration was so intense that she immediately sent it back to sleep again (p. 94). Veronika’s decision to sacrifice her dream to be a pianist proves that she cannot develop and exploit her talents and potentialities. Her parents’ expectations and dreams had prevented Veronika to actualize herself. This situation led Veronika to a feeling of frustration that influenced her behavior and her way of thinking about life.

4.2 The meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide This part will discuss the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide.

  In order to find the meaning of Veronika’s decision; the discussion will be divided into two parts. The first part will be discussed the surface meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. The second part will focus on discussing the deeper meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide.

4.2.1 The Literal meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide 4.2.1.1 Veronika is afraid of her future life.

  Veronika is a person who always has a different perspective about life. Veronika has never positively viewed her life as the meaningful, precious, and beautiful one. In spite of thinking life as a meaningful one, she thought that life is a boring routine that will end in a vain and powerlessness. Veronika is a person who feels that her life is repeating the same things in its each day until it becomes a tragedy.

  …She was even happier that she would not have to go on seeing those same things for another thirty, forty, or fifty years, because they would lose all their originality and be transformed into the tragedy of a life in which everything repeats itself and where one day is exactly like another (p. 10). The quotation above shows that Veronika cannot see something different in her life. It makes her bored and unable to see the objective of her life. According to

  Veronika, everything in her life is just alike. Veronika thinks that what she experienced yesterday was the same as what she experience today and will be the same as what she will experience tomorrow. It shows that Veronika is afraid of facing the same routines in her future life. Veronika also feels afraid of losing her happiness.

  She thinks that all the things that make her happy now will lose their originality and be transformed into a tragedy; it means that she will lose her happiness. Veronika’s fear of losing her happiness makes her very convinced with her idea that there is no use of continuing life because she will find no happiness in her future life.

  Veronika’s perception of life above also influences her to think that life will end with a tragedy and it is a matter of waiting for a death. Veronika thinks that death will certainly come and end this life. Therefore, she chooses to fetch the death by committing suicide before she loses all the things that make her happy. Veronika does not want to run the monotones and boring life any longer because it will end in vain. Then, she chooses to commit suicide.

  Veronika views life in a different perspective from other people. Veronika builds a different concept about life that later it leads her to a decision of committing suicide. Veronika’s perspective of life which is really different from others makes her afraid of her future life. Veronika thinks that any bad things will come to her future life. Veronika thinks that her future life will be full of suffering and it makes her very convinced to commit suicide. Veronika’s fear of her future life becomes one reason of her suicide attempt.

  The first reason: everything in her life was the same and, once her youth was gone, it would be downhill all the way, with old age beginning to leave irreversible marks, the onset of illness, the departure of friends. She would gain nothing by continuing to live; indeed, the likelihood of sufferings would only increases. (p. 10) Veronika’s reason above proves clearly that she feels afraid of facing her future life. Veronika does not want to have future life because she thinks that in her future life she will repeat the same and monotones routines. Then, Veronika thinks that death is the only solution to run from the boring life and avoid her of being older and weaker. Veronika thinks that continuing life will only waste her energy without giving any meanings. Moreover, Veronika thinks that death will free her from illness, sufferings, and the departure of friends.

  Moreover, Veronika feels that she has experienced everything in her age of twenty four but she got no small achievement. Veronika’s view of life affects her way of thinking and then it makes her to see life from a negative perspective. Veronika thinks that in her future life she will face only sufferings, nothing else and it makes her afraid of her future life. Veronika believes that there is no use of spending time to live in the world because there are only sufferings. Veronika thinks that living in this world is the same as waiting for death, so what life is for.

  At twenty-four, having experienced everything she could experience −and that was no small achievement

  −Veronika was almost certain that everything was ended with death. That is why she had chosen suicide: freedom at least. Eternal oblivion (p. 8). The citation above proves that Veronika views life negatively and it influences her thought. She thinks that there is no happiness, joy, and good things that will come to her future. However, life is painful and it will end in vain. Then, she starts to feel afraid of her future.

  Moreover, Veronika is afraid of her future life because she does not want to face the same and monotones routines in her future life. It can be seen from her monolog when she awakes and finds herself still alive. Veronika looks frustrated at the possibility of getting back to her routines.

  I’m alive, thought Veronika. Everything’s going to start all over again. I’ll have to stay in here for a while, until they realize that I’m perfectly normal. Then they let me out, and I’ll see the streets of Ljubljana again, its main square, the bridges, the people going to and from work…I’ll go back to my same old programs, set the alarms to wake up at exactly the same time I woke up the day before, and mechanically repeat my tasks at the library…( p. 21) Veronika thinks about her next life when she realizes that she is still alive. Veronika realizes that she will do the same routines again which will be monotones like before. Veronika starts trying to imagine her next life. Veronika imagines what her life will be if she decides to continue her life. Veronika tries to describe a positive concept of her life that she will not find any difficulties when she comes back to the society she has belonged, Veronika thinks that she will be accepted once more. Furthermore, Veronika imagines that she will marry a man that she is obliged to love. As time goes by, her marriage will also lose its happiness as her parents’ marriage. However, she will still remain as a good wife and a mother who takes care of her family. She will pretend that her marriage is still good to cover all of the sufferings caused by the fake happiness she has made herself as her mother has done until now (p. 21--24).

  Veronika bought her interior monolog to a close and made a promise to herself: She would not leave Villete alive. It was best to put an end to everything now, while she was still brave and healthy enough to die. (p. 24) Veronika’s imagination of her next life after her failure attempt to commit suicide strengthens her to end her life once more. Veronika does not want to wait any longer to die. Veronika promises not to leave Villete alive. Veronika feels more convinced to end her life again when she is diagnosed that she has heart damage and only has few days to live. Veronika’s desire not to leave Villete alive shows that she is afraid of her future. She is afraid of going back to her former routines. Veronika is afraid of doing the same routines in her future life.

4.2.1.2 Veronika is powerless to face her life Veronika lived in the times when the dissolution of Yugoslavia happened.

  During that time there were many injustice happened to the people there. Moreover, Ten-day war in Slovenia gave the bad impact to the people there. As a Slovenian, who lived at that time, Veronika saw many injustices and wrong things happened.

  However, Veronika had no power to fight against those wrong things.

  All those negative and bad impacts influence Veronika’s paradigm about the world. Veonika views either her life or the world in a different perspective from others. For life, Veronika thinks that her future life will be full of suffering and it will end in vain. Furthermore, Veronika thinks that everything is wrong in the world and she can do nothing for the world. Veronika’s perception that she can do nothing for the world gives her a sense of complete powerlessness. Then, it leads Veronika to question about her existence that may mean nothing to the world where she finds many wrong things and injustices happen and exist. Veronika thinks that her life does not give any roles to the world and there is nothing more she can do to the world. It becomes the second reason of her decision to commit suicide

  The second reason was more philosophical: Veronika read newspapers, watch TV, and she was aware of what was going on in the world. Everything was wrong, and she had no way of putting things right-that gave her a sense of complete powerlessness. (p. 7) The citation above shows Veronika’s feeling that she lives her life without meaning. Veronika experiences a feeling of meaningless. Veronika thinks that she lives for nothing, nothing she can do to better the world that has become a worse place to live since there are many wrong things happened. Veronika sees all the bad things happen in the world but she cannot do anything to change the world. Then, Veronika thinks that there is not any reason to stay any longer in this world if she cannot change what should be changed. Veronika’s feeling of mean nothing to the world proves that Veronika feels a sense of complete powerlessness.

4.2.1.3 Veronika is afraid of her fate

  Veronika was sent to the mental hospital after she failed in her attempt to commit suicide. After the failure of her suicide attempt, the doctor told her that she only has view days to live. It leads Veronika to feel afraid of death. Then, Veronika starts finding ways to get some more pills.

  “Your heart was irreversibly damaged, and soon it will stop beating altogether.” “What does that mean?” she asked, frightened (p. 28). The citation above shows that Veronika is in the situation of waiting for her death. She is not fetching the death as she did when she swallowed the pills. At the time when Veronika swallows the sleeping pill, she knows that death will come soon. Veronika is now in a different situation, she does not know when the death will come. Veronika is diagnosed that she has heart damage and only has a few days to live. Veronika is in the situation of waiting for death that could come in any days. Veronika does not know the exact time the death will come. It means that Veronika will be haunted by death. This situation leads Veronika to the feelings of fear.

  During the night, however, she began to feel afraid. It was one thing to die quickly after taking some pills; it was quite another to wait five days or a week for death to come, when she had already through so much (p. 30). Veronika’s fear of death convinces her to end her life soon. Veronika prefers to fetch the death rather than wait for it. Veroika thinks that by fetching the death she can prepare and be ready of it. Veronika decides to end her life again. Then Veronika plans to take another overdose pills. Veronika interacts with other lunatics in order to get the pills. Veronika asks Zedka who suffers of depression to help her in getting the pills.

  “…You must understand how awful it is to have to wait for death; you must help me” (p. 36).

4.2.2 The True Meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide 4.2.2.1 Veronika cannot control the Id.

  Worchel and Schebilske (1989) explain about Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytical theory of personality. Sigmund Freud defines three elements of personality, known as the id, the ego, and the superego that working together to form human behaviors. Freud explains that Id operates at the unconscious level of our personality. The id works unconsciously in human personality. Furthermore, Freud explains that the id of human personality is divided into two instinctual drives that serve as the basic motivation for all behavior. One is called Eros, the motivation to survive and the other one is called Thanatos, the motivation to destroy. The id, the ego and the super ego are working together to form human behaviors. If the id works unconsciously, then the ego and the super ego work consciously. The ego and the super ego have the roles to control the id. The id works based on the pleasure principle, but the ego works on the reality principle. The ego will bound the needs of the id if it is not appropriate with the physical and social view. The super ego has the role to motivate us to better ourselves and to live up to our ideals. The super ego represents our conscience. Therefore, it is important to keep the balance of those three elements, the id, the ego, and the super ego to better human life (para.461-171)

  Veronika’s decision to commit suicide and her suicide attempt prove that she cannot keep the balance of the id, the ego, and the super ego. Veronika’s suicide attempt proves that unconsciously she tries to fulfill the needs of thanatos, a destructive drive. Unconsciously, Veronika also tries to find the pleasure feeling by committing suicide.

  Literally, Veronika does not explain that she commits suicide to find the pleasure feeling, but it can be seen from her reason of committing suicide that she is happy to end her life. Veronika commits suicide with the reason that she does not want to do the same routines that she feels bored of it for another years. Veronika tries to avoid the reality that in her future life she will face the same routines. Veronika thinks that her future life will not give any pleasure feeling but tragedy.

  …She was even happier that she would not have to go on seeing those same things for another thirty, forty, or fifty years, because they would lose all their originality and be transformed into the tragedy of a life in which everything repeats itself and where one day is exactly like another (p. 10).

  Veronika’s fear of her future that she thinks it will be transformed into tragedy leads Veronika to avoid the reality. Veronika’s desire to avoid the reality proves that the ego which works based on the reality principles is dominated by the id which works based on pleasure feelings. The id which works based on the pleasure principles dominated Veronika’s personality. It leads Veronika to ignore the ego and the super ego. Veronika’s decision to commit suicide and her suicide attempt also shows how the id plays a big role to Veronika’s behavior. Veronika’s desire not to continue her life by committing suicide that she thinks it will give her pleasure feeling proves that she does not give any spaces to her ego and super ego. Veronika does not think of any worst things that will be caused by her suicide.

  The example of how Veronika’s ego cannot control the id can be seen from Veronika’s consideration of her parents’ feeling about her death. Veronika realizes that her death will give the bad impact to her parents but she thinks that her parents would get used of her death eventually (p. 3). Veronika’s thought that her parents would get used of her death eventually proves that the id has gives a big role that affects Veronika’s behaviors. Verronika ignores all the impacts of her suicide just to fulfill her unconscious need of a pleasure feeling.

  Veronika’s consideration of her parents’ feeling about her death also shows that her ego tries to control the id needs, but the thanatos within herself has dominated Veronika’s personality. Veronika still keeps on her plan of destroying herself by committing suicide that she thinks it will give her a pleasure feeling.

  Moreover, Veronika’s superego cannot control her id. Freud defines that the superego represents our conscience and it includes the moral values of right and wrong that are largely instilled in us by our parents. Further, Freud explains that the superego makes us feel guilty. In her decision to commit suicide and her suicide attempt Veronika never includes the moral values, Veronika does not consider that her suicide attempt against the moral values. Moreover, Veronika does not feel guilty of her action to commit suicide and the bad impact caused by her suicide. Veronika does not feel guilty of breaking the moral values. Veronika ignores all the bad impact of her suicide to the society and her parents. Veronika’s behavior of breaking the moral values shows that her superego cannot influence her personality and her behaviors. Veronika’s superego cannot control her id. Veronika’s id has dominated her superego. The thanatos has played a big role that leads Veronika to keep on her plan to commit suicide even though she has to break the moral values that means she ignores her superego.

  Freud defines that the id functions on pleasure principles, which dictates the immediate satisfaction of drives. Veronika’s suicide attempt proves that Veronika is dictated by the id which functions on pleasure principles to satisfy that needs of the id immediately. In the other words, Veronika’s suicide attempt is a way to fulfill the need of the id which operates at unconscious level of human personality.

  Veronika’s decision to commit suicide and her suicide attempt is influenced by the id, especially the thanatos, a destructive drive. Veronika’s personality is Veronika’s behaviors can be seen from her plan to commit suicide. Veronika plans to commit suicide by swallowing four packs of sleeping pills. Veronika knows that swallowing overdose of sleeping pills can damage her heart and kill her, but she still swallows those four packs of sleeping pills. It shows that the thanatos has influenced Veronika’s personality that leads Veronika to an action of self-destructive.

  In order to get the pills, Veronika pretends that she has a problem with her night sleep and complaints to her friend about it.

  … In response to her complaints that she could no longer sleep at night, two friends of her managed to get hold of two packs each of a powerful drug, used by musicians at a local nightclub (p. 4). Veronika’s effort to get the pills proves that her unconscious desire of self- destruction affects her behaviors. Veronika has to tell a lie to her friend by pretending of having a problem with her sleep. Veronika’s desire to fulfill the thanatos need leads Veronika to break the reality principles and the moral values. Veronika has to lie her friend in order to get the pills that later she will use those four packs of sleeping pills to destroy herself and give her pleasure feeling. The id makes Veronika does not feel guilty of lying her friend. Veronika’s id is very dominant in her personality and it makes her ignores her ego and superego.

  As the consequences of her failure in committing suicide, Veronika must live in a asylum called Villete. Villete is the famous lunatic asylum in Slovenia. Living in an asylum brings a new environment to Veronika’s life. The environment of Villete is completely different from Veronika’s former environment. In the asylum, the insane people are free to act the way they want. Veronika is one of the insane people who live in Villete, she is also considered of having mental disorder. Veronika realize that as a patient of Villete who is considered to have mental disorder she has an opportunity to act freely as she want without being worry of others’ judgments.

  ...at one point she remembered that she was now in a mental hospital, and that the mad were obliged to be coherent;...( p. 27). The situation when Veronika realized that she lives in an environment where she has an opportunity to act freely leads her to do another suicide attempt. Veronika realizes that she will not be criticized if she commits suicide because she knows that no one will judge whether her behavior is appropriate or inappropriate. Living in an environment without values systems makes Veronika’s ego and superego cannot play role to control Veronika’s id.

  The ego that works based on the reality principles by taking into account the possibilities of reward and punishment cannot work to control Veronika’s behavior because in Villete the insane people cannot be punished. Further, the superego that works based on moral values of right and wrong that can make us feel guilty when we have done the wrong things also cannot influence Veronika’s behavior because in Villete all the insane people including Veronika have freedom to act and to break the rules and values systems without guilty feeling.

  The situation in Villete gives a chance to the id to control veronika’s behaviors. The ego and the superego cannot control the id because Veronika lives in a reality that has no values systems. The id which operates at the unconcious level influences Veronika to commit suicide again. Veronika’s motivation to destroy herself is appeared again. The “thanatos” influences Veronika to commit suicide again.

  “She had to get out of there and get some more pills. if she couldn’t, and the only solution was to jump from a high buliding in Ljubljana, that’s what she’d do. She had tried to save her parents any unnecessary suffering, but now she had no option.” (p. 30) The citation above shows that Veronika has a great desire to die. Veronika plans to get out of Villete in order to get some more pills which will be used to commit suicide. Veronika’s desire to die proves that the “thanatos” has controlled Veronika’s personality. The “thanatos” influnces Veronika’s personality more than the ego and the superego. The examples of how the id, especially “thanatos” plays a big role to Veronika’s behavior can be seen from her plan to jump from a high building in Ljubljana if she does not get the pills. At the time she plans to jump from the high building, her ego and superego try to control her desire to desroy herself by reminding her about her parents’ unnecessary suffering, but it does not give a big effect to stop Veronika’s desire to die. Veronika ignores her ego and superego that remind her about her parents’ suffering by thinking that she had no option. Veronika does not feel quilty of suffering her parents’ feeling.

  Veronika’s efforts to get pills from Zedka also shows that Veronika’s desire to destroy herself is very strong.

  If you, or someone else, could get me some more pills, i’m sure my heart wouldn’t survive this time. You must understand how awful it is to have to wait for death; you must help me.” (p. 36). The citation above shows that Veronika really wants to destroy herself. Veronika is affraid and feels awful to wait for her death. Veronika’s efforts to get pills from Zedka shows that she wants to run from the awful feeling and the only way to avoid her from that awful feeling is commiting suicide. Commiting suicide means that Veronika is controlled by the “thanatos”, a destructive drive. Moreover, Veronika’s effort to get the pills shows that she tries to fulfil the id needs immediatelly. The id need here is the desire to avoid from the awful feeling; the direct way to fulfil that need immediately is by swallowing more pills. Veronika thinks that by swallowing more pills her heart would’t survive and she will free from the awful feeling.

  At the time she plans to get more pills to end her life, Veronika does not consider about any bad impacts that can come to her environment and other lunatics in Villete. The only thing she wants is being free from the awful feeling. The goal of her plan to commit suicide again is for her own pleasure. It shows that Veronika’s ego and superego do not play a big role to influence Veronika’s behavior. The id, which functions on pleasure principles dominates Veronika’s personality and influences Veronika’s behavior more than the ego and the superego.

  Another example that show how the id plays a big role to Veronika’s personality can be seen from Veronika’s efforts to masturbate herself in front of a schizophrenic named Eduard.

  Veronika and Eduard were both standing up, face to face, she naked, he fully clothed. Veronika slid her own hand down to her genitals and started to masturbate;( p. 133).

  The citation above shows that Veronika’s behavior is influenced by the id, especialy the “eros”, the drive for survival. Veronika is trying to fulfil her sexual need. Veronika’s behavior of masturbating herself in front of Eduard shows that she is trying to fulfil the id needs who works based on the pleasure feeling immediatelly.

  She ignores the ego and the superego. Veronika does not feel ashamed that she masturbates herself in front of a man. It shows that the ego and the superego do not play any roles to form Veronika’s personality. The id is very dominant in Veronika’s personality that affects her behaviors. Another example that shows how the ego and the superego cannot control Veronika’s behavior can be seen from Veronika’s feeling that she feel no shame and fear when she realized that Mari was there. It shows that the ego and the superego cannot play role to influence Veronika’s behavior by giving her a feeling of fear and guilty.

  Mari was there. Veronika didn’t know when she had come in or what she had heard or seen, but even so she felt no shame or fear.( p. 135)

  

4.2.2.2 Veronika lacks of the belongingness and love needs, the self-esteem needs

and the self-actualization needs

  In this part the writer will describe how the unfulfilled needs influence Veronika’s motivation to commit suicide. Maslow’s Theory of Motivation is used to describe how the unfulfilled needs influence Veronika’s motivation to commit suicide.

  According to Maslow, there are general types of needs that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. The needs are: psychological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs or the needs of personal fulfillment needs. Furthermore, Maslow Maslow states that satisfy these needs is healthy, while preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly (as cited in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1981, p. 369).

4.2.2.2.1 Veronika lacks of the belongingness and love needs

  The social needs can be defined as the belongingness and love needs. These needs can be gained in family and or society. In her family, her parents love her very much, but that love also prevents Veronika to actualize her dream to be pianist. It means that her parents’ love is not a true love. How Veronika does not feel the true love from her parents can be seen from her statement that she hates her mother, the person she loves most in the world.

  Then she started to feel hatred to the person she loved most in the world: her mother. A wonderful wife who worked all day and washed the dishes at night, sacrificing her own life so that her daughter would have a good education, know how to play the piano and the violin, dress like a princess, have the latest sneakers and jeans, while she mended the same old dress she had worn for years (p. 68). At the age of eighteen, Veronika started to live on her own. Veronika chose to live in a convent with strict rules to limit her interaction with others. Veronika’s decision to live in a convent shows that Veronika was trying to exclude herself and to avoid deep or further relationships with any friend or boyfriend. Furthermore, even though Veronika has some friends and boyfriends, she never has a best friend and a true lover. Veronika has never felt the sense of belonging. It can be seen from her short relationship with some boyfriends that based on the sexual desire. The relationship with some boyfriends that is based on sexual desire does not give Veronika the sense of belonging, but the feeling of emptiness.

  I’ll make love with them in their houses or in the woods, I’ll feel a certain degree of pleasure, but the moment I reach orgasm, the feeling of emptiness will return (p. 21) Veronika has never found the meaning of true love yet even though she has sex with some boyfriends. Veronika’s relationship that is based on the sexual desire proves that she has never experience a true love.

4.2.2.2.2 Veronika lacks of the self-esteem needs.

  Maslow defines that the self-esteem needs cover self-respect and esteem from others. Moreover, Maslow states that self-esteem needs cover the desire for competence, confidence, personal strength, adequacy, achievement, independence, and freedom. Furthermore, Maslow also explains that one needs prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, status, fame, reputation, and appreciation from others to satisfy the self-esteem needs. (as cited in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1981, p. 372).

  Based on the Maslow’s theory of the self-esteem needs above, the writer can conclude that Veronika’s suicide attempt is an action of self disrespect. By attempting suicide, Veronika does not respect herself. She even hates herself and wants to kill everything irritating inside her. It emphasize that Veronika has no personal strength and enough confidence. Veronika has no desire to compete since she only chooses to work in the library and does not try to achieve the higher position.

  When she decided to get a job, she rejected a tempting offer from a company that had just been set up in her recently created country in favor of a job at the public library, where you didn’t earn much money, but where you were secure (p. 44). Veronika’s decision to work in a library that does not offer her much money but secure feeling proves that Veronika does not have personal strength to get out from her desire to feel secure. Veronika has no personal strength since she is not able to face life that sometimes can give her unsecure feeling, but it can offer her much money. Veronika prefers to work in the library; she does not try to better her life and get higher achievement.

  Maslow states that one’s lack of self-esteem needs will result with inferiority, powerlessness, despair, and even with frustration (as cited in Goble, 1971, p. 76).

  Veronika’s failure to fulfill the self-esteem needs gives her a feeling of inferiority, powerlessness, despair and frustration that later those feelings lead her to commit suicide. As Coelho states that Veronika decides to commit suicide because the feeling of life is a monotones routine and the feeling of powerlessness in facing the world that seems completely wrong.

  Veronika read newspapers, watch TV, and she was aware of what was going on in the world. Everything was wrong, and she had no way of putting things right-that gave her a sense of complete powerlessness. (p. 7) The citation above shows that Veronika does not have personal strength and competence to face life that leads her to the feeling of despair and powerlessness of facing life. Meanwhile, Veronika’s decision to commit suicide also proves that she cannot respect herself. It means that Veronika lacks of self-esteem needs

4.2.2.2.3 Veronika lacks of the self-actualization needs.

  Maslow defines self-actualization as one’s capability to be everything he wants and is capable of it. According to Maslow, these needs are the psychological needs to develop and exploit all of his capabilities, potentialities, and talents to be everything he wants. Further, Maslow explains that the development and exploitation of one’s capabilities, potentialities, and talents will enable him to improve himself thoroughly and reach a healthy mental condition. Moreover, Maslow states that these needs include the opportunity and freedom to make one’s dreams and hopes come true (as cited in Hjelle and Ziegler, 1981, p. 372).

  If it is compared to the Maslow’s explanation above about the self- actualization needs, so it can be said that during her life in the society, Veronika has not once actualized herself. Veronika prevents herself to be what she wants to be because she is afraid of other’s judgment and opinion. In her childhood, Veronika realizes that being a pianist is her biggest dream. Veroika realizes that she has the talents and potentialities to be a great pianist as her teacher said in her first lesson.

  Veronika had known since her childhood that her true vocation was to be a pianist. This was something she had felt ever since her first lesson, at twelve. Her teacher had recognized her talent too and had encouraged her to become a professional. (p. 94) The citation above shows clearly that Veronika’s dream is to be a pianist. However, she cannot actualize her dream to be a pianist just to fulfill others’ dream. Veronika has to sacrifice her dream because she is afraid to hurt her mother. Veronika’s dream to be a professional pianist must be buried deeply just to make her parents happy and proud of her. Then it can be concluded that her parents’ dream and expectation prevents Veronika to develop the talents and potentialities she possess.

  Therefore, Veronika cannot actualize her dream to be a pianist. Veronika is failed to fulfill the self-actualization needs because she is afraid of others’ judgment and opinion. This situation leads Veronika to the feeling of frustration.

  Her parents would still have loved her, but, afraid of hurting them, she had not dared to pay the piece of her dream. That dream as now buried in the depth of her memory, although sometimes it was awoken by a concert or a beautiful record she happened to hear. Whenever that happened, though, the feeling of frustration was so intense that she immediately sent it back to sleep again (p. 94). Veronika sacrifices her dream just for the sake of other’s expectations and dreams. Veronika is not capable to fulfill her need. The quotation above emphasizes that Veronika is not satisfied with her decision to sacrifice her dream. The feeling of frustration proves that she is not satisfied with her decision to sacrifice her dream to be a pianist. Moreover, the citation above shows that her parents’ expectations and dreams is the factor that makes Veronika cannot fulfill the self-actualization needs.

  The environment of her family, her parents’ expectation and dreams makes Veronika cannot actualize herself.

  In her family, as her first environment, Veronika is taught to be an obedient child that must obey the parents to make them happy and proud of her, even though, she has to sacrifice the self-actualization needs. Veronika’s desire to make her parents happy can be seen through the way she ignores her dream to be a pianist. Finally, Veronika has to give up to what she has dreamed just for the sake of her parents’ love, her dream to be a pianist must be buried deeply, Veronika does not want to disappoint her parents even though she has to sacrifice her own dream.

  That love asking for nothing for return had managed to fill her with guilty, with a desire to fulfill another’s expectations, even if that meant giving up everything she had dreamed of for herself…( p. 69).

  Veronika’s failure to fulfill the social needs (the love and belonging needs), the self-esteem needs, and the self-actualization needs leads her to commit suicide.

  Those unfulfilled needs influence her way of thinking about life. Veronika thinks that life is full of repression, disappointment and unfulfilled dreams. Therefore, Veronika views life from a different and negative perspective. Veronika thinks that life is not meaningful and beautiful, but life is a boring routine that will end in vain and powerlessness.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter is divided into two parts; they are conclusions and suggestions. The first part presents the conclusions of the whole analyses of the problem

  formulation. The second part presents the suggestions which consist of two parts; the suggestion for future research and the suggestion for English teaching and learning processes.

5.1 Conclusions

  This study presents an analysis on the meaning of the decision to commit suicide as seen in Veronika as the main character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika

  

Decides to Die. There are two research questions used in this study to help the writer

  to find the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. The first question is “How is Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die, described in the novel?” and the second question is “What are the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide?” Since this study provides two problem formulations, then there are two conclusions to be drawn in this chapter. The first conclusion is the description of the main character, and the second conclusion is the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide.

  There are some descriptions about Veronika’s characteristics as portrayed in Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. Veronika described herself as a young, pretty and intelligent. Veronika’s description on herself is also supported by some remarks of the other characters such as the nurse in Villete, Mari, Veronika’s mother, and other lunatics in Villete. The nurse in Villete described Veronika as a young and pretty woman. Mari, one of the lunatics in Villete also described Veronika as a young, pretty and healthy woman. Moreover, the lunatics in Villete portrayed Veronika as a woman with green eyes and brown hair. Veronika’s mother also described Veronika as a young lady of twenty-four-year old. Veronika was also described by the author as an attractive woman who is could attract others’ attention to her appearance.

  Furthermore, beside her physical appearance, Veronika also has some other personal characteristics that can be seen through the way she thought and interacted with other people. The author described Veronika as an organized person, critical, logical, and curious person, sympathetic person, and a person who lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem and self-actualization needs.

  Veronika’s decision to live in a convent with strict rules proves that she is an organized person. By living in a convent with strict rules, Veronika could maintain an organized life and her relationship with others even though that it limited her to fulfill the needs of love and belongingness. Another example that shows Veronika is an organized person can be seen from her routine activities. Veronika’s preparation before committing suicide also proves that she is an organized person.

  Besides as an organized person, Veronika was also described as a critical, logical, and curious person. It can be seen from the way how Veronika questioned and concluded about the God existence. Veronika characteristic as a critical, logical, and curious person can be seen from Veronika’s reaction to the Sufi master’s instruction in Villete. Moreover, Veronika’s reaction to the situation when she had a conversation with the two doctors shows that she is a critical, logical, and curious person who always tried to know something in details.

  Moreover, the author described Veronika as a sympathetic person. Veronika’s characteristic as a sympathetic person can be seen through the way she gave her attention to Zedka, Eduard, and Mari. Veronika’s characteristic as a sympathetic person can also be seen from her second reason of her decision to commit suicide.

  Veronika’s second reason to commit suicide shows that she is very concerned with the social situation.

  Furthermore, Veronika was also described as a person who lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Veronika’s characteristic as a person who lacks of belongingness and love needs can be seen from Veronika’s decision to live in convent with strict rules. The convent’ rules have limited her to interact with others. It also limits her opportunity to join in a certain group where she can gain a best friend and a true lover.

  Veronika’s characteristic as a person who lacks of self-esteem needs can be seen from her suicide attempt. Veronika’s suicide attempt is an action of self as a person who lacks of self-actualization needs can be seen through the way how Veronika sacrificed her dream. Veronika cannot actualize herself by improving all the talents and potentialities she has.

  The description of Veronika’s characteristics above helps the writer to find the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. In finding the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide, the analysis is divided into two parts. The first part is about the literal meaning and the second part is about the true meaning.

  There are three literal meaning provides in this study. First is Veronika is afraid of her future life. Veronika views her life in a different perspective from others.

  Veronika cannot positively view her life as the meaningful, precious, and beautiful one. In spite of thinking life as a meaningful one, she thinks that life is a boring routine that will end in a vain and powerlessness. Veronika’s perspective of life which is really different from other people makes her afraid of her future life.

  Veronika starts to think of any bad things coming to her future life. Veronika views her future life will be full of suffering and it makes her very convinced to commit suicide. Veronika’s fear of her future life becomes one reason of her suicide attempt.

  The second is Veronika is powerless to face the life. Veronika thinks that everything is wrong in the world and she can do nothing for the world. Veronika’s perception that she can do nothing for the world gives her a sense of complete powerlessness. Then, it leads Veronika to the question about her existence that may mean nothing to the world where she finds many wrong things and injustices happen is nothing more she can do to the world. Veronika experiences a feeling of meaningless. Furthermore, she thinks that there is not any reason to stay any longer in this world if she cannot change what should be changed. Veronika’s feeling of mean nothing to the world proves that Veronika feels a sense of complete powerlessness. It becomes the second reason of her decision to commit suicide.

  The third literal meaning is Veronika is afraid of her fate. Veronika’s failure of her suicide attempt leads Veronika to experience a situation of waiting for death.

  Veronika is informed by the doctor that she only has view days to live. It leads Veronika to feel afraid of death. Then, Veronika starts finding ways to get some more pills. Veronika’s fear of death convinces her to end her life soon. Veronika decides to end her life again. Veronika asks Zedka who suffers of depression to help her in getting the pills.

  Besides the literal meanings above, the writer also provides the analysis on the true meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. There are two true meaning present in this study. The first meaning is Veronika cannot control the Id. Veronika’s decision to commit suicide and her suicide attempt proves that she cannot keep the balance of the id, the ego, and the super ego. Veronika’s suicide attempt proves that unconsciously she tries to fulfill the needs of “thanatos”, a destructive drive in order to find the pleasure feeling by committing suicide.

  The second meaning is Veronika lacks of belongingness and love needs, self- esteem-needs, and self-actualization needs. The fact that Veronika has never felt a Veronika has family, friends and boyfriends. Moreover, Veronika lacks of self- esteem needs since she decides to commit suicide that means she disrespect to herself. Furthermore, Veronika’s decision to sacrifice her dream to be a pianist proves that she cannot actualize herself. Veronika lacks of self-actualization needs since she cannot improve all talents and potentialities she has.

5.2 Suggestions

5.2.1 Suggestion for Future Researchers

  The writer realizes that this study still needs further improvement. Therefore, the writer has a suggestion about the aspects that can be explored more in this literary work. Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die, mostly talk about Veronika as a young Slovenian lady of twenty-four- year old who decides to commit suicide. In this study the writer only focus on analyzing the meaning of Veronika’s decision to die.

  Therefore, for the future researchers, the writer suggests to explore more on how Veronika’s environments influence her decision to commit suicide as seen in Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

  Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is an interesting novel about a journey of life of a young Veronika, a twenty-four-year old woman. Veronika is the main character of this novel who decides to die. Veronika’s decision to commit suicide is influenced by her environments where she lives. How Veronika’s environments influence her decision to commit suicide can be explored through Veronika’s experience and characteristics. Therefore the writer would like to suggest to the future researchers to find out how Veronika’s environments influence Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. Hopefully, the suggestion is useful for those who are interested in analysing Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

5.2.2 Suggestion for English Teachers

  Literature is all written works; this study uses a novel Veronika Decides to

  

Die by Paulo Coelho as the object. According to Collie (1987) “a literally work can

  be transcend both time and culture to speak directly to a reader in another country or different period of history” (p. 3). It means that literary work will not be expired; it can go through the time and space.

  Furthermore, according to Hişmanoğlu (2005), “literature plays an important role in teaching four basic language skills like reading, writing, listening, and speaking. However, they should be taught in integrated way”. According to Collie and Slater (1990), there are four main reasons, which lead a language teacher to use literature in the classroom. These are valuable authentic materials, cultural enrichment, language enrichment and personal involvement (para.3). Moreover, Hişmanoğlu (2005) states that, “the use of a novel is a beneficial technique for mastering not only linguistic system but also life in relation to the target language”; (p. 63). According to Obediat (1997),

  Literature helps students acquire a native-like competence in English, express their ideas in good English, learn the features of modern English, learn how the English linguistic system is used for communication, see how idiomatic expressions are used, speak clearly, precisely, and concisely, and become more proficient in English, as well as become creative, critical, and analytical learners (p. 32) The definition above shows that the literary works play an important role in improving the learners’ English competence. Therefore, the writer suggests the novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die by Paulo Coelho as the material for teaching and learning Prose II. It is a pleasurable novel about life that can motivate the students to appreciate life and attract the students’ attention. Hopefully, by using this novel, the students can be more enthusiastic to learn English.

5.2.3 The Implementation of Teaching Prose II

  It will take 2 x 50 minutes for one meeting. The following are the steps to carry out teaching Prose II using Veronika Decides to Die novel: a. Lecturer explains today’s topic/material.

  b. Lecturer distribute the handouts about character.

  c. Lecturer explains the material about character.

  d. The first group presentation.

  e. Questions and answers session.

  f. The second group presentation.

  g. Questions and answers session. h. Lecturer close the presentation session and conclude it i. Lecturer asks the students to write what they have learned today and asks them to submit it j. Lecturer concludes today’s material and activities

  The detail of these activities can be seen in the appendices; syllabus, lesson plan, and material. This material is applied for PBI students who are in semester V.

  

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  Ed.). London: McGraw-Hill, Inc., Obeidat, M. (1997). Language vs. literature in English departments in the Arab world. English Teaching Forum. Vol.35, No.1.p. 30. Retrieved January 22,

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  Smith, J. (1983). Abnormal behaviors outlined reference. Washington D. C: University Press of America. Stanton, R. (1965). An Introduction to Fiction. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. Pg.16-17. Wellek, R., & Austin, W. (1962). The theory of literature. New York: Harcourt, Brace & world, Inc. Worchel, S., & Shebilske, W. (1989). Psychology: Principles and applications.

  United States of America: Prentice-Hall, Inc. ______ (n.d.). Adam’s illustrated health encyclopedia Retrieved July 20, 2012, from: http://adam.about.net/encyclopedia/infectiousdiseases/Suicide-and-suicidal behavior.htm APPENDICES

  Appendix 1

THE SUMMARY OF VERONIKA DECIDES TO DIE

  Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is a novel that tells the readers about a

  called

  journey of life of a young Slovenian woman Veronika. There are five major characters of this novel: Veronika, Zedka, Mari, Eduard, and Dr. Igor. The main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is Veronika.

  Paulo Coelho described Veronika as a 24-year-old woman who worked as a

  one of the republics created by the dissolution of

  librarian in Ljubljana, Slovenia,

  

Yugoslavia . The author described Veronika as the main character who decided to

  commit suicide by swallowing four packs of sleeping pills. There were two reasons lay behind Veronika’s decision to die. First, she thought that her life was monotones. The second reason was she felt powerless to fight against the wrong things that happen in her society.

  Furthermore, Paulo Coelho described Veronika as a young and attractive woman who had a perfect life because she had a loving family, friends, boyfriends, and a job in a library. However, Veronika had never felt a true love. Actually, Veronika’s parents loved her very much, but in the other side, that love had limited her to actualize her dream to be a pianist. Veronika’ parents did not want Veronika to be a pianist. Her parents asked her to study law and forget her dream to be a pianist. For the sake of her parents’ dream, Veronika had to sacrifice her dream to be a pianist. As the consequence, Veronika could not actualize herself because she did not want to hurt her parents.

  Veronika lived her life as her parents’ expectation. This situation influenced Veronika’s way of thinking about life. She viewed life in a different perspective from others. Veronika felt that life was meaningless. Veronika’s negative perspective about life led her to a decision to commit suicide.

  On the morning of 11 November 1997, Veronika committed suicide by swallowing four packs of sleeping pills, but her suicide attempt was failed. Veronika’s failure in committing suicide led her to an asylum called Villete. In Villete, Veronika’s new environment, Dr. Igor told her that she only had few days to live because her heart had been damaged due to the overdose of sleeping pills.

  Veronika started to feel afraid of her future life after knowing that she was still alive. Veronika was also afraid of her fate after knowing that she only had few days to live. Then, she started to think about another way to end her life. Veronika asked Zedka to give her some more sleeping pills. However, Zedka could not give her those pills.

  Since she could not get some more sleeping pills, Veronika decided to live her life as other lunatics in Villete. In Villete, she did everything she had never done before such as playing a piano at night. In Villete, Veronika lived her life in a different way from her previous life. Veronika built relations with the patients in Villete such as, Zedka, Mari, and Eduard and experienced a new life.

  During the time of waiting for her death, Veronika tried to express herself and explored all her talents and potentialities. She played a piano at night. Veronika experienced some feelings such as love, hatred, and courage. Veronika fell in love with Eduard, a schizophrenic man. She experienced a new life which was totally different from her previous life. Veronika lived in a new situation where she could actualize herself without pretending to be someone else just to fulfill her mother dreams and avoid from others’ judgments.

  Appendix 2

AUTO BIOGRAPHY OF PAULO COELHO

  

Photo: © Xavier Gonzales

  Paulo Coelho was born on August 20, 1946, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He attended a Jesuit school. As a teenager, Coelho wanted to become a writer. Upon telling his mother this, she responded with "My dear, your father is an engineer. He's a logical, reasonable man with a very clear vision of the world. Do you actually know what it means to be a writer?" After researching, Coelho concluded that a writer "always wears glasses and never combs his hair" and has a "duty and an obligation never to be understood by his own generation," amongst other things. At 16, Coelho's introversion and opposition to following a traditional path led to his parents committing him to a mental institution from which he escaped three times before being released at the age of 20. Coelho later remarked that "It wasn't that they wanted to hurt me, but they didn't know what to do... They did not do that to destroy me; they did that to save me."

  At his parents' wishes, Coelho enrolled in law school and abandoned his dream of becoming a writer. One year later, he dropped out and lived life as a hippie, traveling through South America, North Africa, Mexico, and Europe and started drugs in the 1960s. Upon his return to Brazil, Coelho worked as a songwriter, composing lyrics for Elis Regina, Rita Lee, and Brazilian icon Raul Seixas. Composing with Raul led to Paulo being associated with Satanism and occultism, due to the content of some songs. In 1974, Coelho was arrested for "subversive" activities by the ruling military government, who had taken power ten years earlier and viewed his lyrics as left-wing and dangerous. Coelho also worked as an actor, journalist, and theatre director before pursuing his writing career.

  In 1986, Coelho walked the 500-plus mile Road of Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain, a turning point in his life. On the path, Coelho had a spiritual awakening, which he described autobiographically in The Pilgrimage. In an interview, Coelho stated "[In 1986], I was very happy in the things I was doing. I was doing something that gave me food and water – to use the metaphor in "The Alchemist", I was working, I had a person whom I loved, I had money, but I was not fulfilling my dream. My dream was, and still is, to be a writer." Coelho would leave his lucrative career as a songwriter and pursue writing full-time.

  In 1982 Coelho published his first book, Hell Archives, which failed to make any significant impact. In 1986 he contributed to the Practical Manual of Vampirism, although he later tried to take it off the shelves since he considered it “of bad quality." After making the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in 1986, Coelho wrote The Pilgrimage. The following year, Coelho wrote The Alchemist and published it copies and decided not to reprint. He subsequently found a bigger publishing house, and with the publication of his next book Brida, The Alchemist became a Brazilian bestseller. The Alchemist has gone on to sell more than 65 million copies, becoming one of the best-selling books in history, and has been translated into more than 70 languages, the 71st being Maltese, winning the Guinness World Record for most translated book by a living author.

  "The Alchemist," easily known as his most successful story, is a story about a young shepherd who follows his spiritual journey to the Egyptian pyramids in search of a treasure. Since the publication of The Alchemist, Coelho has generally written one novel every two years including By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept, The Fifth Mountain, Veronika Decides to Die, The Devil and Miss Prym, Eleven Minutes, Like the Flowing River, The Valkyries and The Witch of Portobello. This dates back to The Pilgrimage: While trying to overcome his procrastination of launching his writing career, Coelho said, "If I see a white feather today, that is a sign that God is giving me that I have to write a new book." Coelho found a white feather in the window of a shop, and began writing that day.

  In total, Coelho has published 30 books. Three of them – The Pilgrimage,The Valkyries and "Aleph" – are autobiographical, while the majority of the rest are fictional, although rooted in his life experiences. Others, like Maktub and The Manual of the Warrior of Light, are collections of essays, newspaper columns, or selected teachings. In total, Coelho has sold more than 100 million books in over 150 countries worldwide, and his works have been translated into 71 languages. He is the all-time bestselling Portuguese language author.

  Coelho's fans call his books inspiring and life-changing. His critics dismiss his writing as New Age drivel, promoting a vague spirituality devoid of rigor. A confident writer who rejects the self-help label - "I am not a self-help writer; I am a self-problem writer" - Coelho dismisses his naysayers' critiques. "When I write a book I write a book for myself; the reaction is up to the reader," he says. "It's not my business whether people like or dislike it." Coelho has been married to his wife, the artist Christina Oiticica, since 1980. Together the couple spends half the year in Rio de Janeiro and the other half in a country house in the Pyrenees Mountains of France.

  In 1996, Coelho founded the Paulo Coelho Institute, which provides support to children and the elderly. He continues to write, following his own version of The Alchemist's "Language of the World." [Jorge Luis] Borges said there are only four stories to tell: a love story between two people, a love story between three people, the struggle for power and the voyage," Coelho has said. "All of us writers rewrite these same stories ad infinitum."

  Bibliography Year Portuguese Title English Title

  1974 O Manifesto de Krig-há The Manifest of Krig-há 1974 Teatro da Educação Theater For Education 1982 Arquivos do Inferno Hell Archives 1986 O Manual Prático do Vampirismo Practical Manual of Vampirism 1988 O Diário de Um Mago The Pilgrimage 1988 O Alquimista The Alchemist

  1990 Brida Brida 1991 O Dom Supremo The Greatest Gift 1992 As Valkírias The Valkyries 1994 Maktub Maktub 1994 Na margem do rio Piedra eu sentei e chorei By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept 1996 O Monte Cinco The Fifth Mountain 1997 Letras do amor de um profeta Love Letters from a Prophet 1997 Manual do guerreiro da luz The Manual of the Warrior of

  Light 1998 Veronika decide morrer Veronika Decides to Die 1998 Palavras essenciais Essential Words 2000 O Demônio e a srta Prym The Devil and Miss Prym 2001 Histórias para pais, filhos e netos Fathers, Sons and Grandsons 2003 Onze Minutos Eleven Minutes 2004 E no sétimo dia And on the Seventh Day

  (collection of the novels By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept, Veronika Decides to Die and The Devil and Miss Prym)

  2004 O Gênio e as Rosas The Genie and the Roses 2004 Viagens Journeys 2005 O Zahir The Zahir 2005 Caminhos Recolhidos Revived Paths 2006 Ser como um rio que flui Like the Flowing River 2006 A bruxa de Portobello The Witch of Portobello 2007 Vida: Citações selecionadas Life: Selected Quotations 2008 O Vencedor está Só The Winner Stands Alone 2010 O Aleph Aleph

  Prizes and awards

  o

  Order of Honour of Ukraine (Ukraine 2004),

  o

  Order of St. Sophia for contribution to revival of science and culture (Ukraine

  2004), o

  Nielsen Gold Book Award for The Alchemist (UK 2004), o

  Ex Libris Award for Eleven Minutes (Serbia 2004),

  o

  o

  Guerrero de la Luz (México 2001),

  o

  Tau Latin Special Acknowledment (Latin America 2001),

  o

  Crystal Mirror Award (Poland 2000),

  o

  Chevalier de l'Ordre National de la Légion d'Honneur (France 1999),

  Crystal Award"World Economic Forum (1999),

  o

  o

  Golden Medal of Galicia (Spain 1999),

  o

  Libro de platina 300 mil ejemplares vendidos en la Argentina de "El Alquimista”

  (Argentina 1999), o

  Libro de oro 100 mil ejemplares vendidos en la Argentina de "Verónica decide

  morrer” (Argentina 1999), o

  Libro de oro 100 mil ejemplares vendidos en la Argentina del "Guerrero da luz”

  XXIII Premio Internazionale Fregene (Italy 2001),

  Bambi 2001 Award (Germany 2001), Ville de Tarbes (France 2001),

  o

  Planetary Conciousness Literature Prize (France 2002),

  Golden Bestseller Prize from the largest circulation daily "Vecernje Novosti"

  (Serbia 2004), o

  Literary Latino for Eleven Minutes - The best book 2004 E.U.A. 2004,

  o

  Medalha de Oficial das Artes e Letras – (medal) France 2003,

  o

  Ville D’Orthez – Pyrénées Atlantique (France 2002),

  o

  o

  o

  Best Fiction Corine International Award 2002 for The Alchemist (Germany

  2002), o

  Club of Budapest Planetary Arts Award 2002 as a recognition of his literary

  work (Germany 2002), o

  Miembro de Honor (Bolívia 2002),

  o

  Diploma Membro da Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazil 2002),

  o

  Membro titular Pen Club Brasil (Brazil 2001),

  (Argentina 1999), o

  (Brazil 1995,1996) Adapted from:

  o

  o

  Protector de Honor (Spain 1997),

  o

  Golden Book (Yugoslavia '95, '96, '97, '98, '99, 2000 and 2004),

  o

  Super Grinzane Cavour Book Award (Italy 1996),

  Flaiano International Award (Italy 1996),

  o

  o

  Knight of Arts and Letters (France 1996),

  o

  Prêmio ABERP formador de opinião (Brazil 1996),

  o

  Grand Prix Litteraire Elle (France 1995), Guinness Book – O livro dos recordes

  Participação na 43ª feira de livros de Porto Alegre (Brazil 1997),

  Diploma Ordem Fraternal do Cruzeiro do Sul (Brazil 1998),

  o

  Comendador da Ordem do Rio Branco (Brazil 1998),

  Finalist for the "International IMPAC Literary Award" (Ireland, 2000 and

  1997), o

  Comendador de Ordem do Rio Branco (Brazil 1998),

  o

  Contribuition to the 17th Istanbul book (Turkey 1998),

  o

  o

  o

  Flutuat Nec Mergitur (France 1998),

  o

  Human Rights (Brazil 1998),

  o

  La medaille de la Ville de Paris (France 1998),

  o

  Fiera del libro per i ragazzi (Bologna 1998),

  • Paulocoelhofanclub.com. Retrieved May 29, 2012, from: http://paulocoelhofanclub.com/eng/pc_premios.htm

  Appendix 3

SYLLABUS OF PROSE II

ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

PROSE II (KPE 347)

  

2CR/2CHMKK.SEM V

  Prose II is designed to help students understand the elements of prose fiction as well as to encourage them enjoy reading World novels. At the end of this course, students are able to analyse the intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of novels, which include plot, character, setting, point of view, atmosphere, symbol, and theme.

  A. COMPETENCE STANDARD

  On completing this course the students are able to appreciate original novels and put forward their own opinions concerning the context of them.

  B. TOPICS:

  Novel analysis on Plot and Conflict; Character and Characterization; Point of View; Setting, Symbol, Atmosphere; Humour; Theme, etc.

  C. LEARNING STRATEGIES

  Class/small group discussions, group presentations, questions and answers, and individual assignments

  D. EVALUATION

  Presentation : 20% Mid-term test : 25% Assignments : 20% Final Project : 35%

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