The meanings of the decision to commit suicide as seen in Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho`s Veronika Decides to Die - USD Repository

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THE MEANINGS OF THE DECISION TO COMMIT SUICIDE AS

SEEN IN VERONIKA, THE MAIN CHARACTER OF PAULO

COELHO’S VERONIKA DECIDES TO DIE

ASARJANA PENDIDIKANTHESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Marianus Sadeg Jelau Student Number: 071214123

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

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This undergraduate thesis is dedicated to

My beloved father, Yohanes

The Late mother, Paula

My dearest brothers and sister: Yanuarius,

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vii ABSTRACT

Jelau, Marianus Sadeg. 2012. The Meanings of the Decision to Commit Suicide as Seen in Veronika, the Main Character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. Yogyakarta: English Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.

This study discusses Veronika Decides to Die, a literary work written by a Brazilian novelist, Paulo Coelho. Paulo Coelho’sVeronika Decides to Die tells about the life of the main character, Veronika, who decides to commit suicide by swallowing the sleeping pills. The objective of this study is to see the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. There are two problems to be answered in this study (1) “How is Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is described in the novel?” and (2) “What are the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide?”

This study applies library research method. The primary data of this study is the novel of Paulo Coelho, entitled Veronika Decides to Die. The secondary data are gained from various books and the Internet sources which are closely related to this study. The theories used in this study are the theory of character, methods of characterization, the theory of psychoanalytical psychology, and the theory of motivation. The approach that is used in this study is psychological approach.

There are two findings after analyzing the novel. The first is about Veronika’s characteristics. Veronika is a woman of twenty-four-year old who is beautiful, pretty, and attractive. Veronika is also described as a sympathetic, an organized and a curious woman who has critical and logical thought. Furthermore, Veronika is described as a person who lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem and self-actualization needs. The second is about the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. The literal meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide are that she is afraid of her future life; she is powerless in facing life, and she is afraid of her fate. The true meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide are that Veronika cannot control the id and Veronika lacks of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem-needs, and self-actualization needs.

Finally, future researchers are suggested to explore more about the factors that influence Veronika’s decision to commit suicide as seen in Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. Moreover, the writer suggests the English lecturers to use Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Dieas material to teach Prose II in English Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University.

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viii ABSTRAK

Jelau, Marianus Sadeg. 2012. The Meanings of the Decision to Commit Suicide as Seen in Veronika, the Main Character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Penelitian ini membahas novel Veronika Decides to Die, sebuah karya sastra yang ditulis oleh seorang novelis Brazil, Paulo Coelho. Novel Paulo Coelho Veronika Decides to Die menceritakan tentang kehidupan dari tokoh utama, Veronika, yang memutuskan untuk bunuh diri dengan menelan obat tidur. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melihat makna dari keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri. Terdapat dua rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini yang akan dijawab (1) “Bagaimana Veronika, tokoh utama dari novel Paulo Coelho Veronika Decides to Die dideskripsikan dalam novel ini?” dan (2) Apa makna dari keputusan Veronika untuk mati?”

Penelitian ini menerapkan metode studi pustaka. Data utama dari penelitian ini adalah novel Paulo Coelho yang berjudul Veronika Decides to Die. Data tambahan diperoleh dari berbagai buku dan sumber-sumber internet yang berkaitan erat dengan penelitian ini. Penelitian ini menggunakan teori-teori seperti teori karakter, metode karakterisasi, teori psikoanalisis psikologi, dan teori motivasi. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan psikologis.

Ada dua temuan setelah menganalisis novel ini. Pertama tentang karakteristik Veronika. Veronika adalah wanita muda berusia 24 tahun yang cantik, ayu, dan menarik. Veronika juga digambarkan sebagai orang yang simpatik, teratur, dan selalu ingin tahu yang berpikiran kritis dan logis. Selanjutnya, Veronika digambarkan sebagai orang yang kekurangan kebutuhan akan rasa cinta dan rasa memiliki, harga diri dan aktualisasi diri.Kedua tentang makna dari keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri. Makna harafiah dari keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri adalah bahwa dia takut akan kehidupan masa depannya, dia tak berdaya dalam menghadapi kehidupan, dan dia takut akan kematiannya. Makna sebenarnya dari keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri adalah bahwa Veronika tidak bisa mengendalikan id dan Veronika kekurangan kebutuhan akan rasa cinta dan rasa memiliki, kebutuhan akan harga diri, dan kebutuhan akan aktualisasi diri.

Akhirnya, para peneliti berikut disarankan untuk mengeksplorasi lebih lanjut tentang factor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan Veronika untuk bunuh diri seperti yang terlihat pada novel Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Dicides to Die. Selain itu, penulis menyarankan kepada para dosen Bahasa Inggris untuk menggunakan novel Paulo Coelho Veronika Decides to Die sebagai bahan untuk mengajar Prosa II di Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris Universitas Sanata Dharma.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Writing this thesis is a series of hard-work that is both energy and time

consuming. What it would be without the blessing from the Lord Jesus Christ.

Therefore, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to the Almighty God, Lord

Jesus Christ, for His wonderful love and guidance so that I could finish this thesis.

I would like to express my gratitude for my lovely parents, my father Yohanes

Jelau and the late mother Paula Di for their love and everything they have given. I

also thank my brothers Yani, Yeri, Ighy, Viano, my sisters Veronika, Margaretha,

Wati, and my lovely nephews Vicko, All and Paula for their love that motivate me to

live.

My deepest gratitude goes to my advisor, Drs. Antonius Herujiyanto, M.A. for

giving valuable corrections and advice on my thesis. I thank him for his patience and

understanding. I also would like to thank all lecturers of English Education Study

Program for teaching me for about four years. They all have inspired me to be all that

I can be.

I would like to give my deepest thank to Ka’e Frengky for his help in

grammar correction and all my best friends Lala, Seto, Rara, Asep, Popon, Asti,

Tommy, Wendy for being my best friend and give me spirit to study in PBI. I also

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Ejun, Asri for love, support and all the great things we have done together. Moreover,

I would like to thank Bu Dhani and Bu Tari for helping me during my study in PBI.

A special thank goes to Margaretha Rosita K. for his great love, patience, and

attention. She is my place to share joys and sorrows. I would like to say thank you for

accompanying me doing my thesis and helping me to solve my problems.

Last but not least, I would like to give my respect for those whom I cannot

mention individually, but surely this thesis could not be done without their support

and help. May God always bless us.

The Writer

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xii CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS

A. Characteristics of Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho’s

Veronika Decides to Die... 29

B. The meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide ... 40

1. The litteral meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide ... 41

2. The true meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide ... 47

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions... 62

B. Suggestions ... 67

1. Suggestion for Further Researchers... 67

2. Suggestion for English Teachers ... 68

3. The Implementation of Teaching Prose II ... 69

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LIST OF APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1: The summary of Veronika Decides to Die... 74

APPENDIX 2: Auto Biography of Paulo Coelho ... 76

APPENDIX 3: Syllabus of Prose II... 83

APPENDIX 4: Lesson Plan... 85

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1 CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents the introduction of this study; this chapter consists of

four sections. The first section is the background of study, which presents the reason

of choosing this topic. The second section is the problem formulation, which presents

the problems of this study in the form of two research questions. The third section is

the objectives of the study that contains the purpose of writing this thesis. The fourth

part is the definition of terms, which provides the explanation of the terms used in

this study.

1.1 Background of the Study

Literary works always bring their own effects to the readers which depend on

how the readers interpret the work. The readers’ knowledge, experiences, education,

concerns and interests affect the way in interpreting a literary work. It is possible that

one similar literature is considered either good or bad based on the readers’ point of

view.

According to Hudson (1958), literature conveys idea, truth, and even factual

event. Literature is considered as a reflection of reality. It is a vital record of what

people have seen, what they experienced of it, what they have thought and felt about

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all of us as the readers (para.10). Since literature is considered as a vital record of

what people have seen, experienced, thought and felt about reality or the truth of life,

people can investigate the truth of life behind the text and the aim of it.

Literature is also a product of society. It is developed along with the

development of the society in which it is produced. Wellek and Warren (1962)

support that “literature is an expression of society and is determined by or dependent

on its social setting, social change and development” (p. 96).

In making a good story, the society becomes an important background. The

society gives an important effect to the composition. As Langland (1984) in Society

and the Novel says that “the condition in the real world can be applied in the pattern

of art” (p.5). It means that the real condition or the society can be a good basis for the

writer to form a good literary work.

The real condition in our life can become an inspiration for the author to

produce a literary work. In the novel the author also uses the real condition as his or

her inspiration in producing a literary art. Hutchin (1986) in The New Encyclopedia

Britannica said that “novel is a literary work. It is a genre of fiction, fiction may be

define as the art craft of contriving, through the written words, representations of

human life that instruct or divert or both” (p. 276).

Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is one of the examples of literary works

which was written based on the reflections of the experience of the author’s life. In

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influences the main character’s paradigm of life. Through this novel, the readers

may learn about how to view life and face all the challenges and problems in life.

Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die is chose to analyze because it is an

interesting and very motivating novel. The story of this novel told about a young

woman of age 24 who could not explore her talents and potentialities. This

situation influenced her paradigm of life and led her to committed suicide. The

story had delivered a great message to the readers including the writer of this

study to explore all the talents and potentialities we have. The story of this novel

motivates the writer to explore all the talents and potentialities to reach a better

life. This novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die which is written based on the

personal experience of the author’s life also inspires the writer to struggle in

running the life and always view life positively. Another reason of choosing

Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die as the novel to be analyzed is to see the meaning

of one’s decision to commit suicide through the main character of Paulo Coelho’s

Veronika Decides to Die.

Furthermore, the writer provides the summary of Coelho’s Veronika Decides

to Die. The summary is provided to help the readers of this study understand the story

of the novel. The writer believes that if the readers of this study understand the story

of the novel, they can also understand the analyses of the novel which is written in

chapter 4 of this study.

Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Dietalked about the life of a young Slovenian

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1997. Veronika was the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

However, there were some other characters such as Veronika, Zedka, Mari, Eduard,

and Dr. Igor.

Paulo Coelho described Veronika as a 24-year-old woman who worked as a

librarian in Ljubljana, Slovenia, one of the republics created by the dissolution of

Yugoslavia. The author described Veronika as the main character who decided to

commit suicide by swallowing four packs of sleeping pills. There were two reasons

lay behind Veronika’s decision to die. First, she thought that her life was monotones.

The second reason was she felt powerless to fight against the wrong things that

happen in her society.

Furthermore, Paulo Coelho described Veronika as young and attractive

woman who had a perfect life because she had a loving family, friends, boyfriends,

and a job in a library. However, Veronika had never felt a true love. Actually,

Veronika’s parents loved her very much, but in the other side, that love had limited her

to actualize her dream to be a pianist. Veronika’ parents did not want Veronika to be a

pianist. Her parents asked her to study law and forget her dream to be a pianist. For the

sake of her parents’ dream, Veronika had to sacrifice her dream to be a pianist. As the

consequence, Veronika could not actualize herself because she did not want to hurt her

parents.

Veronika lived her life as her parents’ expectation. This situation

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perspective from others. Veronika felt that life was meaningless. Veronika’s

negative perspective about life led her to a decision to commit suicide.

On the morning of 11 November 1997, Veronika committed suicide by

swallowing four packs of sleeping pills, but her suicide attempt was failed.

Veronika’s failure in committing suicide led her to an asylum called Villete. In

Villete, Veronika’s new environment, Dr. Igor told her that she only had few days to

live because her heart had been damaged due to the overdose of sleeping pills.

Veronika started to feel afraid of her future life after knowing that she was

still alive. Veronika was also afraid of her fate after knowing that she only had few

days to live. Then, she started to think about another way to end her life. Veronika

asked Zedka to give her some more sleeping pills. However, Zedka could not give her

those pills.

Since she could not get some more sleeping pills, Veronika decided to live her

life as other lunatics in Villete. In Villete, she did everything she had never done

before such as playing a piano at night. In Villete, Veronika lived her life in a

different way from her previous life. Veronika built relations with the patients in

Villete such as, Zedka, Mari, and Eduard and experienced a new life.

During the time of waiting for her death, Veronika tried to express herself and

explored all her talents and potentialities. She played a piano at night. Veronika also

experienced some feelings such as love, hatred, and courage. Veronika fell in love

with Eduard, a schizophrenic man. She experienced a new life which was totally

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actualize herself without pretending to be someone else just to fulfill her mother dreams

and avoid from others’ judgments.

The writer would like to explore through the content of the story to find out

Veronika’s characteristics and the meaning of her decision to commit suicide. In this

study the writer will use some theories to support the analysis. Theories that will be

used in this study are theory of character, method of characterization, theory of

motivation, and theory of psychoanalytical psychology. Psychological approach is

applied to see the deeper meaning of the novel.

1.2 Objectives of the study

The objective of this study is to see the meanings of Veronika’s decision to

commit suicide as seen in Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. To find out the

meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide, the writer will focus on

analyzing the characteristics and the psychology of Veronika, the main character of

Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. The meanings of Veronika’s decision will

be revealed in chapter IV of this study.

1.3 Problem formulation

There are two problem formulations of this study as the main points that will

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problem formulation is linked to the second problem formulation. The meaning of

Veronika’s decision to commit suicide can be revealed after knowing Veronika’s

characteristics. The problems of this study can be formulated as follows:

1) How is Veronika, the main character of Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to

Die, described in the novel?

2) What are the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide?

1.4 Definition of terms

The following part is the meaning of certain words used in the study. There

are two terms to be explained in this part, they are suicide and true meaning. The

purpose of defining these two terms is to avoid misunderstanding in perceiving some

important terms in this research.

1.4.1 Suicide

The meaning of suicide in this study refers to the definition of suicide in

ADAM’s Illustrated Health Encyclopedia which was adapted from adam.about.com.

In ADAM’s Illustrated Health Encyclopedia, suicide is the act of deliberately taking

one's own life. Suicidal behavior is any deliberate action with potentially

life-threatening consequences, such as taking a drug overdose or deliberately crashing a

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disorder, schizophrenia, and alcohol dependence. People who attempt suicide are

often trying to get away from a life situation that seems impossible to deal with.

Many who make a suicide attempt are seeking relief from: bad thoughts or feelings,

feeling ashamed, guilty, or like a burden to others, feeling like a victim, and feelings

of rejection, loss, or loneliness.

1.4.2 True Meaning

The true meaning here is the extrinsic aspects of the literary works. The

definition of meaning in this study refers the definition of meaning explained by

Audi. According to Audi (1999),

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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL REVIEW

In this chapter, the writer will explore some theoretical reviews in order to support the analysis. This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section

provides a review on related theories. This section comprises the important concepts of characters and methods of characterization, theory of psychoanalytical psychology

and theory of motivation. These theories are used to help the writer in answering the problems in Coelho’s novel towards the reason of Veronoka as the main character who commits suicide. The second section is dealing with theoretical framework. In

this section the writer states the theories that are used to analyze Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. In this part, the theories and reviews will be synthesized to make

them operationally applicable to the problems. The third section deals with context of the novel. The historical approach when the novel was written by Paulo Coelho.

2.1 Review of Related Theories

In this part the writer will provide some theories related to the topic of this

study. They are theories of character, methods of characterization, theories of psychoanalytical psychology and the theory of motivation. Those theories will be

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2.1.1 Theory of Character

Character is one of the most important elements in the literary works.

According to Stanton (1965), “character is a person who does the action in a story” (p.17). Furthermore, Abrams (1981) explains that a character is “an individual who exists in a dramatic or narrative work and he/she has moral dispositional qualities that

can be seen from his/her dialogue and action; dialogue and action have important roles in understanding the characters” (p. 20).

Milligan (1983, p. 155) states that there are two kinds of character in the fictional story: major character and minor character. A major character is the most important character in a literary work. He/she plays a very important role because

everything he/she does becomes the content of the story. A major character becomes the centre of the story because he endures problems, conflict, happiness, sorrow, etc.

from his/her actions; through which the readers know the author’s message of the story. The minor characters are characters that play less important role than major character does. Their appearance supports the main character to develop the story so

that they appear only in a certain setting. They do not endure the problem of the story.

2.1.2 Methods of Characterization

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and Woods Jr. (1971, p. 20) in Reading and Writing about Novel define characterization as the process by which an author creates character, it is the device

that he/she makes the readers to believe a character in the particular type of person he/she is. An author does this way to make a stereotype of someone existing in a real world situation comes real during the reading.

According to Murphy (1972, p. 161 -173), there are nine methods in which the readers can understand the character. The first method is related to personal

description. Personal description related to the description about what the characters are like. It tells the readers the details of the characters’ appearance such as the face, skin complexion, eyes, hair, and the clothing.

The second method is about how a character is seen by the other characters. Instead of describing the character directly, the author can describe a character

through the eyes and opinions of other characters in the story. Through this way the readers are able to grasp a character’s personality and appearance which can also determine a character’s characteristics.

The third method is related to speech. Some information and clues about a character can also be revealed through the character’s speech. The readers will be

able to grasp the characteristics of a character through the way he/she speaks.

The fourth method is linked to the past life. Another way to describe a character is by giving some information about a character’s past life. A character’s past life will

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giving comments, using the character’s thoughts and speech in conversations, or by using other characters’ point of view and comments.

The fifth method is about the conversation of other characters. The characteristics of a character can be revealed through a conversation of other characters. The author can give the readers some clues about the characteristics of a

character in the story through the conversation of other characters.

The sixth method is related to the reaction. The author can also give

descriptions of a character’s personality by letting the readers know how the character reacts to various situations and events. Therefore, through his/her reaction, the readers can understand the mental and moral qualities of a character in the story.

The seventh method is linked to the direct comment of the author. The author can describe or comment on a character in the story directly. In this way, the readers

will understand easily the characteristics of a character in the story.

The eighth method is related to the thoughts. The author can give the readers direct knowledge of what a character in the story is thinking about. By knowing what

in the character’s mind, the readers will know his/her characteristic.

The last method is about mannerism. The author can describe a character’s

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2.1.3 Theory of Psychoanalytical Psychology

Hurlock (1974), in Personality Development, states that the individual aspect

of human life concerns with the physical changes and individual’s personality development. Individual’s personality development is usually influenced by two factors, which are individual’s early experience within his family and the important

events that happened outside the home or the social aspect (para.19-20). In 2000, Huffman, M. Vernoy and J. Vernoy define “personality as an individual’s unique and

relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions that defines you as a person: how you are different from other people” (p. 464).

Moreover, Worchel and Shebilske (1989) in their book Psychology;

Principles and applicationsexplain:

Personality as the unique set of behaviours (including thoughts and emotions) and enduring qualities that influence the way a person adjusts to his or her environment. Personality is seen as influencing, guiding, and motivating behaviour.” Personality is what someone really is toward his or her own life want to be. Personality is what makes people unique and causes them to act or see situations different from anyone else (p. 461).

Furthermore, Worchel and Shebilske (1989) describe Sigmund Freud’

Psychoanalytic theory; the structure of personality:

Freud believes that the individual’s personality is the scene of a never-ending battle: On one hand there are primitive and unacceptable drives striving for expression, while on the other hand there are forces trying to deny or disguise these impulses. Freud not only viewed the personality as a battlefield, but he also identified the participants in this battle: the id, the ego, and the superego (p. 471).

Sigmund Freud defines these three elements of personality. The first element

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third element is called the superego. These three elements of personality are working together to create complex human behaviors.

2.1.3.1 The Id

Id operates at the unconscious level of our personality. Each of us has a

savage quality at the root of our personality. According to Freud, people are born with two instinctual drives that serve as the basic motivation for all behavior. One

called eros and another one is called thanatos.

Eros is the drive for survival. Included in this drive are the needs to eat and drink, to be warm, and above all to engage in sexual activity. The energy force that

propels the person to satisfy these drives is called libido.

Thanatos, is a destructive drive. The aim is to destroy others, but there is also a self-destructive aspect to it. In fact, Freud took the grim position that “the aim of all

life is death.” This self-destructive impulse is seen not only in suicide, but also in the harmful excesses in which so many people engage, such as drinking alcohol,

smoking, and overacting. It is the unconscious desire for self-destruction. The id, like savage, wants to satisfy these primitive drives in the most direct and immediate way. It is not concerned with logic, reality, or manners. It functions on pleasure principle,

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2.1.3.2 The Ego

The ego is a person’s view of physical and social reality. It tries to satisfy the

id impulses by taking into account the possibilities of reward and punishment that exist in a situation. In other words, it works on the reality principle. Although each of us may have the primitive desires, it is clear that we could not function long in our

social world if we give free expression to the savage within ourselves. For example, suppose you are very thirsty and see a nice cold beer in a restaurant. Your Id impulses

would tell you to grab the beer and drink it. The Ego, however, would calculate the possible result of this action; the worst thing may happen. Thus, the Ego would direct you to order and pay for your own beer.

2.1.3.3 The Superego

We can view the Id as operating on the signal “I want it now.” The Ego answers this demand by saying “Let’s be realistic and get it in a way that won’t cause trouble.” These two forces, however, must also controlled by the Superego, which

says, ‘Think. Is it right to want it?” The Superego represents our conscience. It includes the moral values of right and wrong that are largely instilled in us by our

parents. The Superego makes us feel guilty when we have done the wrong thing. As you might imagine, people who are dominated by the Superego will be very uptight and self-conscience; they must constantly ask themselves, “Is it right to feel or act

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There are two parts of the superego. The first part is called the ego ideal. The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include

those, which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment. The second part is called the conscience. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as

bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse.

2.1.4 Theory of Motivation

The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated

by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. In psychology, there are many theories of needs that are

introduced. Each theory has its own consideration and understanding. The theory of needs applied in this thesis is The Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Harold Maslow.

Different from Freud’s psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes unconscious

and irrational forces as the controlling factors in behaviors, the theory introduced by Maslow is called as humanistic psychology. As the other psychologists, Maslow

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human being is said to have certain motives in doing some actions in order to fulfill their needs.

Frank. G. Goble (1971), in his book entitled The Third Force, the Psychology of Abraham Maslow, confirms Maslow’s theory that persons, whose basic needs are fulfilled, will have a healthier, happier, and more effective life. On the contrary, those

whose basic needs are not completely fulfilled show some psychological disorder symptoms (para.89).

Furthermore, Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) describe that Maslow believes that human beings are born with some innate needs. These needs are arranged in the order of their potency in a hierarchy of needs. The needs are: (1) Basic physiological needs,

(2) Safety needs, (3) Belongingness and Love needs, (4) Self-esteem needs, and (5) self-actualization needs or the needs of personal fulfillment. The lower the need is,

the stronger it is. The higher the need is, the weaker it is (369).

The first four layers in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are called as Deficiency Needs or D-Needs. Meanwhile the top is called as Growth Need, Being Values, or

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Figure 2.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

2.1.4.1 Physiological needs

Physiological needs are the basic, lowest and the strongest one in the hierarchy of needs. The needs are biological needs that cover the needs for food,

drink, oxygen, activity and sleep, sex, protection from extreme temperatures, and sensory stimulation. These needs must be fulfilled at some minimal level by each human in his life. If these needs are not satisfying yet, the person will be not

motivated by other higher needs. Hjelle and Ziegler in Personality Theories explain: For our chronically and extremely hungry man, Utopia can be defined simply as a place where there is plenty of food. He tends to think that, if only he is guaranteed food for the rest of his life, he will be perfectly happy and will never want anything more. Life itself tends to be defined as unimportant. Freedom, love, community feeling, respect, philosophy, may all be waved aside as fripperies that are useless, since they fail to fill the stomach. Such a man may fairly be said to live by bread alone (p. 372).

Physiological Needs Safety Needs

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Hence, it is obvious that the physiological needs control human’s thought and behaviors to gain satisfaction of these needs. Unless these basic needs are completely

fulfilled, human will not pursue other higher level needs.

2.1.4.2 Safety needs

After the physiological needs are fulfilled, human will start to pursue another need that is Safety or Security needs. The needs consist of the needs of certainty,

order, structure and predictability in one’s environment, and safety from war, crime, natural disasters, riots, and societal disorganizations.

As it is stated by Hjelle and Ziegler (1981), Maslow believes that the safety

needs are readily observed to infants and young children because of their helplessness and dependency on adults. Infants will be frightened when they are suddenly dropped or startled by loud noises and flashing lights. Since they realize that they are

powerless in such situations. These dangers can be neutralized when one has experience, knowledge, and education about them. When one knows some

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2.1.4.3 Belongingness and Love needs

Once the safety needs are fulfilled, the next needs will emerge in human

motivation. The needs are the Belongingness and Love needs. These needs are expected to be found both in one’s society and family. Different from the Freudian, Maslow asserts that the belongingness and love needs are not similar to the needs of

sex. He emphasizes that mature love involves giving and receiving. It requires more emotional fulfillment than sexual fulfillment. To fulfill these needs, one will try

various ways. They might join with certain groups which share them their interests, having lovers, having friends, and many others. Furthermore, Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) explain:

Rather he contended that mature love involves a healthy, loving relationship between two people that includes mutual respect, admiration, and trust. Maslow also stressed that a person’s needs for love involve both giving and receiving love. Being loved and accepted is instrumental to healthy feelings of worth. Not being loved generates futility, emptiness, and hostility (p. 372).

2.1.4.4 Self-esteem needs

Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) explain that when the belongingness and love needs

are fulfilled, one will pursue the next higher needs, self-esteem needs. Maslow divides these needs into two categories: self-respect and esteem from others. Self-esteem needs cover the desire for competence, confidence, personal strength,

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Meanwhile, one needs prestige, recognition, acceptance, attention, status, fame, reputation, and appreciation from others to satisfy the self-esteem needs. Goble

(1971) defines that someone whose self-esteem needs are satisfied will be more confident and productive. On the contrary, one’s lack of self-esteem needs will cause inferiority, powerlessness, despair, and even with frustration (para.76).

2.1.4.5 Self-actualization needs

According to Hjelle and Ziegler (1981), the last and highest needs in Maslow’s pyramid of needs are the Self-actualization needs. Maslow introduces self-actualization as one’s capability to be everything he/she wants and is capable of it.

These needs are the psychological needs which develop and exploit all of his/her capabilities, potentialities, and talents to be everything he/she wants. The development and exploitation of one’s capabilities, potentialities, and talents will

enable him/her to improve him/herself thoroughly and reach a healthy mental condition. These needs include the opportunity and freedom to make one’s dreams

and hopes come true (para.372).

Easily identifying actualization, there are some characteristics of self-actualized people as it is stated in Frank. G. Goble’s The Third Force, the Psychology

of Abraham Maslow. People whose self-actualization needs are satisfied will do everything as best as they can. They are able to view life wisely and purely. They

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emotional and more objective in undergoing life. These people will not let their hopes deceive them. They will still learn from others to improve themselves. Therefore, it

causes them be more precise in making judgment on others.

Based on Maslow’s statement in A Theory of Metamotivation: The Biological Rooting of the Value-Life, the self-actualized people are already satisfied in their love

needs. They have friends, feel loved and love worthy. Their self-esteem need is also fulfilled since they already respect themselves and have status in life. They do not

feel anxiety, inferiority, worthlessness, or isolation. Moreover, they love their job and do it as best as they could since they feel that it is right and suitable for them.

Maslow (1969) adds that the self-actualized people possess their spiritual life.

It is defining characteristics to create a full human nature. Having spiritual life means that they have already found the reason of their existence, their meaning of life. The

meaning of life is a part of real self that reveals the identity and full humanness of an individual (para. 47)

2.2 Theoretical Framework

The theories reviewed in the previous part are very important for the writer to get into the analysis part. In analyzing Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die, the

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Theory of character, method of characterization, and theory of motivation will be useful to determine the characteristics of the main character in the novel and help

the writer to answer the first problem formulation, in which the writer will give a clear description about Veronika’s characteristics in Paulo Coelho’s novel Veronika Decides to Die.

In order to answer the second problem formulation, the writer will use theory of psychoanalytical psychology and theory of motivation. These theories are used to

find out the meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide. Freud’s psychoanalytical psychology theory is applied to help the writer to explain about the first true meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide which is related to the the

analyses that Veronika cannot control the id. Furthermore, Maslow’s theory of Motivation is applied to explain the second true meanings of Veronika’s decision to

commit suicide which is related to the analyses that Veronika is lack of belongingness and love needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

2.3 Context of The Novel

Veronika Decides to Die is a novel written by Paulo Coelho. This novel

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New York. Paulo Coelho is a Brazilian author who likes to use his personal

experience as the inspiration in writing a literary works.

Veronika Decides to Die, is one of Coelho’s novels that is written based on

his personal experience when he was sent to a mental hospital by his parents for three times because he wanted to be a writer. Besides Veronika Decides to Die, Paulo Coelho also wrote some other famous novels such asThe Alchemist, The Pilgrimage,

Eleven Minutes, The Valkyries, By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept, the

Fifth Mountain, and Warrior of the Light: A Manual.

Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Dieis a novel which tells a story of a journey

of life of a young Slovenian woman called Veronika. Veronika is the main character of this novel. The author of this novel described that Veronika was 24-year-old when

she decided to commit suicide on November 11, 1997 by taking four packs of sleeping pills. The authors’ description about Veronika’s age above shows that Veronika, as the main character of the novel, lived in the situation of what it is

described as a civil war when the dissolution of Yugoslavia in the early-to-mid 1990’s. As the consequences of this civil war, thousands of people, soldiers and

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25 CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methods of the study to solve the problems

formulated in chapter I. This chapter consists of three main points to discuss. The first

point is about the object of this study, which provides the information related to the

novel. The second point is approach of the study, which presents the information

about the approach used in analyzing the novel. The last point is the method of the

study, which informs the steps in conducting this study.

3.1 Object of the Study

The object of the study is Paulo Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die. Paulo

Coelho is also the author of the best seller The Alchemist. This novel was translated

from Portuguese to English by Margaret Jull Costa and published in 1999 in the

United States of America by Harper Collins Publisher Inc. New York. This novel

consists of 29 sections and 210 pages long. This novel was firstly published in

Portuguese in 1999. Veronika Decides to Die is a novel written by a Brazilian

author named Paulo Coelho. Paulo Coelho who was born on August 20, 1946, in

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is an author who likes to use his personal experience in

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Veronika Decides to Die is one of his novels that he wrote based on her

personal experience when he was a young man and he was sent three times to a

mental hospital by his parents because he wanted to be a writer. Through the life

of the main character of the novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die, Paulo Coelho

reveals his personal experience. Paulo Coelho created a fictional character named

Veronika who decides to commit suicide and who feels powerless to change

anything.

There are five major characters of this novel who play great roles. Veronika is

the main character; she is the center of the story. The other characters are Zedka who

suffers from depression, Mari who suffers from panic attack and Eduard, a

schizophrenic man with whom Veronika is falling in love. The last character is

Dr.Igor, who believes that the cause of insanity is Vitriol, a poison which the body

produces and Veronika is becoming the object of his experiment.

The major character that will be analyzed in this study is Veronika, but the

writer also regards other characters. However, the discussion on Veronika’s

characteristics cannot be separated from the other characters since they are play role

in influencing Veronika’s personality.

3.2 Approach of the Study

This study uses a psychological approach as one of the Critical Approaches—

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Literature published in 1971. The Critical Approaches which are introduced by

Rohrberger and Woods, Jr are The Formalist Approach, the Biographical Approach,

the Sociocultural-Historical Approach, the Mythopoeic Approach, and the

Psychological Approach. According to Rohrberger and Woods, Jr a critical approach

to literature necessitates an understanding of its nature, function, and positive values.

Furthermore, Rohrberger and Woods, Jr. (1971) state that “one must know what

literature is, how to read it, and how to judge it” (p. 3). Moreover, Rohrberger and

Woods, Jr. believe that it is necessary to use the critical approaches, which consist of

five approaches, in order to understand a literary works.

In this study, the writer uses Freud’s psychoanalytic theory as the main

approach. Freud composed that humans have three elements of personality: the id, the

ego and the superego. Psychological approach is used to answer research questions

formulated in chapter I as the problem formulations. This approach can help the

writer to understand the main characters’ personality and the literal meaning of the

decision to commit suicide. The psychological approach is also useful for the writer

to find the extrinsic aspects of the novel or the true meaning. The psychological

approach helps the writer to interpret the psychological aspect of the main character

in the novel. The character is analyzed to draw the clear lines to the understanding of

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3.3 Method of the Study

The method used in the study was library research. There are two kinds of

sources were used; the primary and the secondary. The primary source was Paulo

Coelho’s novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die. The secondary sources were books

and articles on theories and approach used in the analysis.

The research was conducted in several steps. The first step was to select a

literary work that was going to be analysed. In this step the writer chose Paulo

Coelho’s Novel entitled Veronika Decides to Die. The second step was having a

thorough reading of the novel for several times, in order to have a better

understanding of the story and the subject that is going to be analyzed. It helped the

writer in marking the main points of the content which was used to find the

significant elements. The third step was deciding the topic to be discussed and

formulating the problems related to the topic. The fourth step was collecting the

secondary sources, theories and approach, related to the topic or problems that would

be analysed. The secondary data were from some books and online references. The

next step was applying the theories and approach to answer the problem formulation.

The approach and theories were used to help the writer in analyzing the novel based

on the two problem formulations. The last steps were drawing conclusion based on

the result of the analysis and giving some suggestions to the future researchers who

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29 CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS

In this chapter, the writer tries to answer the questions formulated in the

problem formulation. This chapter is divided in two parts. The first part deals with

how Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die,is described.

In this part the writer will describe Veronika’s characteristics. In the second part, the

writer will analyse the literal and true meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit

suicide as seen in Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

4.1 Characteristics of Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s “Veronika

Decides to Die”

Characters are the central point of the readers’ interest. Each character has a

different role in making the novel more interesting and dramatic. Coelho’s Veronika

Decides to Die involves some major characters such as Veronika, Mari, Zedka, Eduard, and Dr. Igor. Veronika is the main character who is the focus of the story and

the analysis of this study.

Murphy (1972) states nine methods of characterization that can be used to

understand a character deeply, they are personal description, characters as seen by

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the author, character’s reaction to various situations and events, thoughts, and

mannerism (para.160-173). In this analysis the writer will apply all those methods to

understand the characteristics of the main character in Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die.

Furthermore, the theory of motivation will also be used to understand the

personality of the main character. In this part, the main character will be analysed in

details. Quotations from the novel will be used to support the characterization. The

writer will only focus on describing the characteristic of Veronika, the main character

of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Die to help the readers understand Veronika’s characteristics.

4.1.1 Veronika is young, pretty and intelligent

There are some descriptions of Veronika, the main character, portrayed by the

author of this novel. Veronika, the main character of Coelho’s Veronika Decides to Diedescribed herself as a young, pretty and intelligent.

Since I only took sleeping pills, I’m not disfigured in any way: I’m still young, pretty, intelligent, I won’t have any difficulty getting boyfriends, I never did (p. 21).

Veronika’s description of herself is also supported by some remarks of the

other characters. Veronika is known as a beautiful young woman of age 24. A nurse

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pretty young girl, with her whole life ahead of her, should want to kill herself…” (p.

65).

Moreover, Mari, one of the lunatics in Villete described Veronika as a young,

pretty and healthy woman. How Mari described Veronika could be seen from her

conversation with Eduard when they were talking about Veronika.

…”And it’s because of the girl,” said Mari. “We’ve seen a lot of people die here, always when they least expected it, and usually after they’d entirely given up on life. But this is the first time we’ve seen it happening to a young, pretty, healthy person with so much to live for.” (p. 150).

Veronika was in the age of twenty four when she decided to commit suicide.

Veronika is considered as a mature individual who is able to make her own choices as

revealed through a conversation between Dr. Igor and Veronika’s mother when

Veronika’s mother came to see Veronika in Villete.

“…How old is she? “Twenty-four.”

“So she is a mature, experienced woman who knows what she wants and is perfectly capable of making her own choices…” (p. 78)

4.1.2 Veronika has an attractive appearance

Moreover, the author described Veronika as an attractive woman who could

attract others’ attention to her appearance. “When she entered a room everyone would

turn to look at her…” (p. 67). The description above shows that Veronika is a person

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A more details description was made by the lunatics in Villete when Veronika

was missing. The lunatics portrayed Veronika as a woman with green eyes and brown

hair.

That night, when they were all together for supper, the inmates noticed that four people were missing… Finally, the girl with green eyes and brown hair was missing.” (p. 195).

The descriptions of Veronika’s appearance above prove that Veronika is an

attractive and beautiful woman who can attract everyone’s attention.

4.1.3 Veronika is an Organized Person

Furthermore, beside her physical appearance, Veronika also has some other

personal characteristics that can be seen through the way she thought and interacted

with other people. The author described Veronika as an individual who had an

organized life. It can be seen in the beginning of the novel.

“She does her routines of cleaning her room, brushing her teeth and lying down before she took the pills. She chooses to do all of her routines rather than doing anything else she never does before. She likes to keep everything right in order (p. 1)”.

Veronika’s choice to live in a convent with strict rules shows that Veronika is

an organized person.

“She rented a room in the convent because the nuns required all the tenants to be back at a certain hour, and then they locked the door. Anyone still outside after that had to sleep on the street” (p. 44).

By living in a convent Veronika can maintain an organized life. The convent

with strict rules limits her interaction with other people and it plays an important role

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convent with the aim to have an organized life limits her to fulfill the needs of love

and belonging.

Another example that shows Veronika as an organized person can be seen

from Veronika’s monologue about her life.

I’ll try to read a book, turn on the TV to see the same old programs, set the alarm clock to wake up at exactly the same time I woke up the day before, and mechanically repeat my tasks at the library (p. 21).

Veronika’s characteristic as an organized person led her to follow the rules

applied by the society even though she was still questioning about the rules that limit

her to actualize herself. Moreover, it led her to be a well-prepared person. Veronika

always planned everything well, even for her suicide attempt. In the beginning of the

novel, the author described that Veronika prepared for her suicide attempt for nearly

six months before she actually did it (p. 3).

As an organized and well-prepared person, Veronika always thinks before act

and she plans everything carefully in order to make no mistakes. In her planning to

commit suicide, Veronika considered every possible action to commit suicide that

would upset everyone less. Veronika considered slashing her wrist, jumping off from

a tall building, shooting and hanging before finally she took the pills. Veronika

thought that taking the pills was the best option for everyone (p. 3). Veronika’s

consideration on how to commit suicide proves that she is an organized person, well

prepared, and well controlled.

Veronika’s characteristic as an organized person has kept her away from

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strict rules provided her a chance to organize her life and kept her away from

troubles. However, her characteristic as an organized person also led her to commit

suicide. Her way to get four packs of sleeping pills proves that her characteristic as an

organized person has helped her to commit suicide. In getting the sleeping pills,

Veronika planned to tell a lie to her friends. She complained to her friends that she

got a problem to sleep at night.

… In response to her complaints that she could no longer sleep at night, two friends of her managed to get hold of two packs each of a powerful drug, used by musicians at a local nightclub (p. 4).

4.1.4 Veronika is a critical, logical, and curious person.

Moreover, the author described Veronika as a, critical, logic and curious

person who always gave comments and questioned something. In a certain situation

Veronika questioned the God’s existence. “In her heart of hearts, though, there was

still a doubt: What if God did exist?” (p. 8). After arguing with herself, Veronika

decided to answer the question using her logic.

“If God exist, and I truly don’t believe he does, he will know that there are limits to human understanding. He was the one who created this confusion in which there is poverty, injustice, greed, and loneliness…if God exist, he will be generous with those creatures who chose to leave this earth early…” (p. 8). Using her logical thought Veronika concluded that if God did exist, He would

know that she would end her life and God would not be shocked with her actions (p.

8). Veronika preferred to use her logic to answer her problem, and sometimes her

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“You see how far we’ve come?” said Veronika to Mari. “Some madman decided it was possible to grow flowers in winter, and nowadays, throughout Europe, we have roses all year round. Do you think even a Sufi master, with all his knowledge, could do that?” (p. 100).

Veronika’s logic thought prevented her to trust or to follow anything useless

and beyond her logic. Veronika always used her logic to protect herself from being

influenced by other people or other conceptions.

Moreover, the author characterized Veronika as a curious person. Veronika

always tried to know something in detail; she did anything just to find out the detail

information of something that she really wanted to know clearly.

“Veronika noticed her reaction at once, which alerted her instincts. Had she been here longer than she had thought? Was she still in some danger? She began to pay attention to each gesture, each movement the two men made; she knew it was pointless asking questions; they would never tell her the truth, but if she was clever, she could find out what was going on (p. 26-27).

Veronika’s reaction to the situation when she had a conversation with the two

doctors shows that she was trying to know something in detail. During the

conversation with the two doctors, Veronika noticed a change in the young doctor’s

face and she became more aware of every gesture the two doctors made, and

immediately she knew that there was something wrong with her. It shows that she is

trying to watch for the details.

Veronika‘s ability to think logically and critically has helped her to organize

and plan something for her life. It enabled Veronika to live prepared and

well-ordered. However, in the other side, her logical and critical thought led her to commit

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can be seen from her reason of committing suicide. Veronika thought that she would

gain nothing by continuing to live and everything is wrong in this world (p. 7).

4.1.5 Veronika is a sympathetic person

Besides Veronika is a logical and critical person, she is a very sympathetic

person. During her life in Villete Veronika showed that she could be a very

sympathetic person. She showed her concern when Zedka was getting a treatment,

even though Zedka was a new person in Veronika’s life. Veronika screamed and

shouted uncontrollably when she saw Zedka’s treatment. Veronika knew that the

treatment hurt Zedka and so she did all she could to stop the treatment.

“Veronika started calling to Zedka, shouting, threatening that she would go to the police, the press, and the human rights organizations. “Calm down. You may be in a mental hospital, but you still have to abide by certain rules.” She saw that the man was utterly serious, and she was afraid. But since she had nothing to lose, she went on shouting.” (p. 49).

Veronika was shouted to get the attention from the nurse, to make the nurse

stop the treatment. Although that Veronika was threatened by the nurse and for a

while Veronika felt scare, but she still kept shouting because she knew that the nurse

would not harm her anyway, even if she would not lose anything since she is already

dying. Veronika’s effort to stop the treatment proves that Veronika is a sympathetic

person who cares about others’ suffering.

On another occasion, Veronika also gave her sympathy to Eduard. Veronika

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she saw Eduard having ECT treatment. Veronika was shouted to stop it even though

it was useless since Eduard had already been unconscious (p. 159).

Moreover, Veronika gave her attention to Mari.

“Veronika stopped playing for a moment and looked out at Mari in the garden. She was wearing only a light jacket against the cold night air. Did she want to die? (p. 113).

Veronika’s action to stop playing piano proves that she cared about Mari’s

condition.

All that Veronika did to Zedka, Mari and Eduard shows that she cares about

those people even though they are new people in her life. Even though that Veronika

gave only a little attention to Mari, it still proved that Veronika cared about her.

Veronika’s characteristic as a sympathetic person can also be seen in her second

reason of her decision to commit suicide.

The second reason was more philosophical: Veronika read newspapers, watch TV, and she was aware of what was going on in the world. Everything was wrong, and she had no way of putting things right-that gave her a sense of complete powerlessness. (p. 7)

The quotation above shows that Veronika was very concerned with the social

situation but she could not do anything to fix all the wrong things happened in her

society. Veronika’s characteristic as a sympathetic person had given her guilty feeling

because she had no power to express her sympathy by struggling against those wrong

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4.1.6 Veronika lacks of belongingness and love needs, the self-esteem needs and

the self-actualization needs

Maslow defines that to fulfill the belongingness and love needs one will try

various ways. They might join with certain groups which can share them their

interests, having lovers, having friends, and many others (as cited in Hjelle and

Ziegler, 1981, p. 372). Comparing to the definition above, it can be concluded that

Veronika was lack of belongingness and love needs since she had never joined a

certain group during her life. Veronika chose to live in a convent that limited her

interaction with others. Veronika had some friends and boyfriends, but she never had

a best friend and a true lover. Veronika had never felt the sense of belonging since

she never joined a certain group. Veronika built a relationship with some boyfriends,

it was based on sexual desire that gave her the feeling of emptiness.

I’ll make love with them in their houses or in the woods, I’ll feel a certain degree of pleasure, but the moment I reach orgasm, the feeling of emptiness will return (p. 21)

The citation above shows that Veronika made love with some boyfriends was

not because she loved them or she felt of being loved by those boyfriends. Veronika

was lack of belongingness and love needs since she had never felt true love.

Furthermore, Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) explain that according to Maslow, the

self-esteem needs cover self-respect and esteem from others (para.372). Based on that

explanation, the writer can conclude that Veronika’s suicide attempt is an action of

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decision to commit suicide proves that she cannot regard and respect herself.

Veronika’s desire to kill herself also proves that she lacks of the self-esteem needs.

“That’s why I was crying,” said Veronika, “When I took the pills, I wanted to kill someone I hated…” (p. 65).

The citation above shows that Veronika does not respect herself that is shown

by her desire to kill herself.

According to Goble (1971), self-esteem is closely related to self-actualization.

The self-actualization needs can be fulfilled if the self-esteem needs has already be

fulfilled. On the contrary, if the esteem needs is not fulfilled yet, so the

self-actualization needs will also not be fulfilled (para. 76).

According to Maslow, self-actualization needs are the psychological needs to

develop and exploit all of his capabilities, potentialities, and talents to be everything

he wants. Moreover, Maslow states that these needs include the opportunity and

freedom to make one’s dreams and hopes come true. (as cited in Hjelle and Ziegler,

1981, p. 372).

Veronika was lack of self-actualization needs since she did not improve her

talents and potentialities to actualize herself. In her childhood, Veronika realized that

being a pianist was her biggest dream. Veroika realized that she had the talents and

potentialities to be a great pianist as her teacher said in her first lesson.

Veronika had known since her childhood that her true vocation was to be a pianist. This was something she had felt ever since her first lesson, at twelve. Her teacher had recognized her talent too and had encouraged her to become a professional. (p. 94)

The citation above shows clearly that Veronika has a dream to be a pianist.

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dream. Veronika had to sacrifice her dream because she was afraid of hurting her

mother.

Her parents would still have loved her, but, afraid of hurting them, she had not dared to pay the piece of her dream. That dream as now buried in the depth of her memory, although sometimes it was awoken by a concert or a beautiful record she happened to hear. Whenever that happened, though, the feeling of frustration was so intense that she immediately sent it back to sleep again (p. 94).

Veronika’s decision to sacrifice her dream to be a pianist proves that she

cannot develop and exploit her talents and potentialities. Her parents’ expectations

and dreams had prevented Veronika to actualize herself. This situation led Veronika

to a feeling of frustration that influenced her behavior and her way of thinking about

life.

4.2 The meaning of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide

This part will discuss the meanings of Veronika’s decision to commit suicide.

In order to find the meaning of Veronika’s decision; the discussion will be divided

into two parts. The first part will be discussed the surface meaning of Veronika’s

decision to commit suicide. The second part will focus on discussing the deeper

Gambar

Figure 2.1 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Figure 2 1 Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs. View in document p.31

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