SUFFIX NOMINALIZATION OF NON-ACTUAL DERIVED NOUNS IN DEBATING SPEECHES OF EDS SANATA DHARMA

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI SUFFIX NOMINALIZATION OF NON-ACTUAL DERIVED NOUNS IN DEBATING SPEECHES OF EDS SANATA DHARMA AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By SEKARTIYASA KUSUMASTUTI Student Number: 104214021 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI For those who dare to dream big and overcome their fear and hesitation vii

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I admit that this work is still far from perfection. However, it was born from my curiosity as an English speaker, a debater, and a student of English Letters Department. Therefore, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Allah SWT for giving me such curiosity and wonderful experiences during my college life, thus I could come up with this topic and gave my best effort to accomplish this study. My humblest gratitude goes to Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum. for being my thesis advisor who has patiently guided me in writing this thesis, dedicated her time to improve my analysis, and motivated me to accomplish this work on time. I also would like to thank my co-advisor, Dr. Fr. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A., for his time and constructive criticisms so I can improve my grammar and diction and make this work even better. It is nearly impossible to finish this work without my family. I would like to thank my caring mom, Sulistyo Indrani, my wise dad, Trie Marhaen Suhardono, and my lovely sister, Atyaka Laksmitarukmi for becoming my motivation. I hope that this work can make them proud in return to their support that is beyond compare. Lastly, my gratitude goes to my dearest friends in EDS Sanata Dharma, especially for Didy, Vania, Nino, Caca, Tjia, Vaniarosa, Kezia, Tyas, Laura, Windri, and Chua who have shared their loves and spirits so I could have a great time in EDS Sanata Dharma while finishing my work. Hopefully, what we have built together in this community can sustain and always make it rise and accelerate. Sekartiyasa Kusumastuti viii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE .............................................................................................................. ii APPROVAL PAGE .................................................................................................. iii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ............................................................................................. iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ......................................................................... v LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ....... vi DEDICATION PAGE .............................................................................................. vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................... viii TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................... ix LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................... xi ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. xii ABSTRAK ................................................................................................................. xiii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .......................................................................... A. Background of the Study ........................................................................ B. Problem Formulation .............................................................................. C. Objectives of the Study .......................................................................... D. Definition of Terms ................................................................................ 1 1 3 4 4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW ON LITERATURE ...................................................... A. Review on Related Studies ..................................................................... 1. The Study of the Suffix {-ion} ........................................................ 2. The Study of the Suffix {-ment} .................................................... 3. The Study of the Suffix {-ity} ......................................................... 4. The Study of the Suffix {-cy} ......................................................... B. Review on Related Theories .................................................................. 1. Theory of Derivation ....................................................................... 2. Theory of Word Formation ............................................................. 3. Theory of Morpheme ...................................................................... 4. Theory of Affixation ....................................................................... 5. Theory of Allomorphy .................................................................... 6. Theory of Root, Stem, and Base ..................................................... 7. Theory of Lexical Category ............................................................ 8. Theory of Derivational Suffix ........................................................ 9. Theory of Hierarchical Structure of Words .................................... 10. Theory of Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi .......................... 11. Theory of Lexical Gaps ................................................................... C. Theoretical Framework .......................................................................... 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 16 18 20 21 24 25 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ...................................................................... A. Object of the Study ................................................................................. B. Approach of the Study............................................................................. C. Method of the Study ............................................................................... 27 27 28 30 ix

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 1. 2. Data Collection ................................................................................ 30 Data Analysis .................................................................................. 31 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ........................... 34 A. Suffixes of Non-Actual Derived Nouns ................................................. 36 B. Non-Actual Noun Derivations Based on the Function of Suffixes ........ 43 1. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ion} ............................................ 44 2. Nominalization with the Suffix {-y} ................................................ 46 3. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ity} ............................................. 47 4. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ness} .......................................... 49 5. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ment} ......................................... 50 6. Nominalization of Nouns ................................................................ 50 C. Non-Actual Noun Derivations Based on the Phonological Constraint of Suffixes .................................................................................................. 53 1. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ion} ............................................ 54 a. Allomorph {-ion} ....................................................................... 54 b. Allomorph {-ation} .................................................................... 57 c. Allomorph {-action} .................................................................. 59 2. Nominalization with the Suffix {-y} ................................................ 60 3. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ity} ............................................. 64 4. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ness} .......................................... 68 5. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ment} ......................................... 68 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION .............................................................................. BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................... APPENDICES ........................................................................................................ Appendix 1: Data Sources ............................................................................ Appendix 2: Noun-Actual Nouns and the Function of Suffixes .................. Appendix 3: Phonetic Transcriptions of Non-Actual Derived Nouns Bases Appendix 4: Occurrence of Lexical Category ............................................. x 73 76 78 78 80 81 82

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Distribution of Allomorphs of the Suffix {-ion} ....................................... 7 Table 2. Adjective Endings of the Suffix {-ity} ......................................................... 9 Table 3. Lexical Categories ...................................................................................... 17 Table 4. Derivational Suffixes ................................................................................. 20 Table 5. Derivational Order Notations ..................................................................... 21 Table 6. Conversion in Nomina Actionis ................................................................. 23 Table 7. Data Analysis - Table of Suffixes Distribution .......................................... 32 Table 8. Data Analysis - Table of Possible Derivation ........................................... 32 Table 9. Data Analysis - Table of Impossible Derivation ...................................... 32 Table 10. Data Findings ............................................................................................ 34 Table 11. Suffixes Distribution ................................................................................ 39 Table 12. Distribution of Suffixes and Lexical Categories ...................................... 40 Table 13 Possible Derivation ........................................................................... 44, 54 Table 14 Impossible Derivation ........................................................................ 44, 54 Table 15. Collective Names ..................................................................................... 51 Table 16. Nominalization of Nouns ......................................................................... 51 Table 17. Bases of the Suffix {-cy} with the Ending -ent ........................................ 56 Table 18. Base Endings of the Allomorph [-ation] .................................................. 58 Table 19. Nomina Actionis with the Suffix {-y} .................................................... 61 Table 20. Base Endings of the Suffix {-ity} ............................................................ 65 Table 21. Residual Types of Bases with the Suffix {-ity} ....................................... 67 Table 22. Bases with the Initial Sounds en-, em-, and be- ....................................... 69 Table 23. Possible and Impossible Derived Nouns .................................................. 74 xi

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT KUSUMASTUTI, SEKARTIYASA. Suffix Nominalization of Non-Actual Derived Nouns in Debating Speeches of EDS Sanata Dharma. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. English affixation is the most productive word formation and useful for expressing meanings compactly and quickly. This word formation is very common to be used by the debaters in delivering their speeches because they are required to be effective speakers and fast thinkers. As a result, there are many non-actual words produced by those debaters. Those words are derived from suffixations in Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi categories. This study analyzes the formation of those non-actual derived nouns. Some of those non-actual nouns are possible words, while some others are impossible words. The suffixes which are used to derive those nouns are analyzed based on three questions that are formulated in the problem formulation of this study, which are: (1) What are suffixes used to derive non-actual nouns found in debating speeches of EDS Sanata Dharma members of 2013/2014? (2) How are those nouns formed based on the function of the suffixes? (3) How are those nouns formed based on the phonological constraint of the suffixes? The objects of this study are the debating speeches of EDS Sanata Dharma members of academic year 2013/2014. There are nine speeches with twenty-four nonactual derived nouns. Those words are collected as the data of the study. In order to reach the analysis, the non-actual words in the data collection are compared with the actual words taken from Turnbull’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (eighth edition, 2010) which are derived from the same suffix. Further, the formations of those words are analyzed based on the suffixes. Finally, the result of the study shows that ten out of twenty-four nouns are the possible words, which are *investation, *satisfication, *communicacy, *eruptcy, *interacy, *populacy, *importaness, *heterogeneousity, *prosperousity, and *practitionality. The other fourteen nouns, which are *automatication, *benefition, *perspection, *potention, *tendention, *transparantion, *consequency, *existency, *tolerancy, *guideness, *harmness, *prisonment, *provement, and *harmonity, are impossible words. There are three major reasons of the debaters in making the nonactual words. Firstly, some suffixes are more familiar and productive in English word formation. Secondly, complex suffixations create confusion in indentifying the lexical category of the actual bases. Thirdly, there are some actual bases which have similar final segments with the non-actual words. These three reasons contribute in the misidentification of actual bases, thus non-actual words are created. xii

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK KUSUMASTUTI, SEKARTIYASA. Suffix Nominalization of Non-Actual Derived Nouns in Debating Speeches of EDS Sanata Dharma. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Afiksasi dalam Bahasa Inggris merupakan pembentukkan kata yang paling produktif dan berguna dalam menyampaikan maksud secara padat dan cepat. Pembentukan kata ini sangat umum digunakan oleh pembicara debat dalam menyampaikan pidato karena mereka dituntut untuk dapat menjadi pembicara yang efektif dan mampu berpikir cepat. Oleh karena itu, terdapat banyak kata tidak baku yang dibuat oleh para pembicara dalam pidato debat. Kata-kata tersebut diturunkan dari penambahan sufiks dalam kategori Nomina Actionis dan Nomina Essendi. Penelitian ini menganalisis pembentukan kata benda yang tidak baku tersebut. Beberapa kata benda tersebut adalah kata yang mungkin terbentuk, sementara yang lain tidak mungkin terbentuk. Sufiks-sufiks yang membentuk kata benda tidak baku tersebut dianalisis berdasarkan tiga pertanyaan yang diformulasikan dalam rumusan masalah di penelitian ini, yaitu: (1) Sufiks apa saja yang digunakan untuk menurunkan kata benda tidak baku dalam pidato debat anggota EDS Sanata Dharma 2013/2014? (2) Bagaimana kata benda tidak baku tersebut dibentuk berdasarkan fungsi sufiks? (3) Bagaimana kata benda tidak baku tersebut dibentuk berdasarkan batasan fonologi dari sufiks? Objek penelitian ini adalah pidato debat anggota EDS Sanata Dharma tahun ajaran 2013/2014. Terdapat sembilan pidato dengan dua puluh empat kata benda turunan yang tidak baku. Kata-kata tersebut diambil sebagai data dalam penelitian ini. Untuk mencapai analisis, kata benda yang tidak baku dalam koleksi data dikomparasikan dengan kata baku yang diturunkan dari sufiks yang sama. Kata baku ini diperoleh dari Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (edisi kedelapan, 2010) karya Turnbull. Kemudian, pembentukkan kata-kata tersebut dianalisis berdasarkan sufiksnya. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa dari dua puluh empat kata benda turunan tidak baku, sepuluh di antaranya adalah kata yang mungkin terbentuk. Katakata tersebut ialah *investation, *satisfication, *communicacy, *eruptcy, *interacy, *populacy, *importaness, *heterogeneousity, *prosperousity, dan *practitionality. Sementara itu, empat belas kata tidak baku lainnya adalah kata yang tidak mungkin terbentuk, yakni *automatication, *benefition, *perspection, *potention, *tendention, *transparantion, *consequency, *existency, *tolerancy, *guideness, *harmness, *prisonment, *provement, dan *harmonity. Terdapat tiga alasan utama yang menyebabkan para pembicara membuat kata-kata tidak baku tersebut. Pertama, beberapa sufiks lebih familiar dan produktif dalam pembentukan kata. Kedua, penambahan sufiks yang kompleks mengakibatkan kebingungan dalam mengidentifikasi kelas kata. Ketiga, terdapat beberapa kata baku yang memiliki bunyi akhir yang serupa dengan kata tidak baku. Tiga alasan tersebut mengakibatkan kesalahan dalam mengidentifikasi kata dasar sehingga kata tidak baku terbentuk. xiii

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Debating activity has become a trend in Indonesian academic society as a way to enhance critical thinking and deliver it through speeches. Debates in Indonesia adopt the parliamentary systems in the United Kingdom, Australia, and Japan, respectively are known as British, Australasian, and Asian Parliamentary System. These three systems provide slightly different challenges for debaters in terms of the case building time, the duration to deliver the speech, and the chance to throw Point of Information (POI). Firstly, to prepare the content of the speech, the debaters only have fifteen minutes case building time for British Parliamentary System and thirty minutes for Australasian and Asian Parliamentary System. Secondly, the duration to deliver the speech in British and Asian Parliamentary System is seven minutes and twenty seconds while in Australasian Parliamentary System is eight minutes and twenty seconds. Thirdly, debaters are allowed to throw POI while the opponent team is delivering the speech in British and Asian Parliamentary System in only fifteen seconds (Muhammadin, Sekarsari, Pido, Puteri, Fadillah, Denistia, Wicaksono, and Hanif, 2012: 2-5). In general, those rules share the same requirements for debaters to be fast thinkers and able to produce words which are effective and can represent the meaning that they want to deliver in the limited time. There are many ways to produce words in English which are further called word formations. Word formations cover compounding, conversion, clipping, 1

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 blending, back formation, acronym, onomatopoeia, coinage, and affixation (O‟Grady, Dobrovolsky, and Katamba, 1997: 151-156). From all of those word formations, “affixation is the most frequent process to form words” (Bauer, 1988: 19). Considering the necessity of debaters in producing words during their speech, affixation is the easiest way to produce words especially in a verbal communication which requires a quick word formation. Affixations only require the attachment of affixes to certain bases in order to create words with different or similar lexical categories. For instance, adjectives with the ending -ous usually can be added by the suffix {-ity} in order to create nouns as in curious  curiosity and monstrous  monstrosity. However, this formation does not work in the adjective prosperous. It is because of the Word Formation Rules (WFR) that limits the attachment of every affix to certain base. Therefore, the word *prosperousity is problematic based on Word Formation Rules and does not exist in English lexicon. In practice, the similar case of *prosperousity is commonly found in debating speeches. Debaters tend to attach certain affix to the base without considering the constraint of the affixation and/or simply correspond the use of certain affix with the other bases which, in fact, does not work in the same way. This phenomenon produces many words which cannot be found in English dictionaries, namely nonactual words. Some of them are possible words but some others are impossible words. Possible words are the words which have followed the rule of word formation but cannot be found in English lexicon, while impossible words are the words which do not even follow the rule of word formation.

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 This phenomenon becomes the concern of the current researcher to analyze the affixation in debating speeches of English Debate Society Sanata Dharma University (EDS Sanata Dharma). As an emerging debating community in Indonesia, EDS Sanata Dharma members conduct weekly regular trainings and intensive trainings in preparing their participation in many competitions. In their trainings, the members deliver speeches that contain many non-actual words. Those words are useful to analyze this phenomenon. In order to provide a specific but deep analysis instead of broad but superficial, the current researcher limits the study on the affixation in the final base functioning as the noun formation, which is further named as suffix nominalization. This research provides a descriptive qualitative analysis which is hopefully useful for the development of linguistic research in the adolescence. B. Problem Formulation As a guidance to develop the understanding and to limit the scope of the study, the current researcher formulates three questions as the problem formulation, which as follows: 1. What are suffixes used to derive non-actual nouns found in debating speeches of EDS Sanata Dharma members of 2013/2014? 2. How are those nouns formed based on the function of the suffixes? 3. How are those nouns formed based on the phonological constraint of the suffixes?

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 C. Objectives of the Study Based on the problem formulation, the current researcher wants to achieve three objectives at the end of this study. First of all, this study is aimed to identify the suffixes and bases which are used to derive the non-actual nouns found in debating speeches of EDS Sanata Dharma members of 2013/2014 that have been collected during the practices. Further, the current researcher can see the distribution of suffixes and the lexical category of bases in those non-actual derived nouns. This distribution is helpful to analyze the problem formulation number two and three. The second aim is to find out the formation of those non-actual nouns based on the function of each suffix. By analyzing the function of suffixes and the lexical category of bases, the current researcher can explain the suffix nominalization of those non-actual derived nouns, whether the suffixes are utilized to be attached to the appropriate bases. The final aim is to trace down the formation of those words based on the phonological constraint. By analyzing the phonological environment of the base on each data and compare it with the phonological constraint of each suffix, the current researcher can elaborate the suffix nominalization of those non-actual nouns in the phonological perspective. Further, the current researcher is able to make the conclusion of the suffix nominalization in deriving the non-actual nouns, whether those nouns are possible or impossible words.

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 D. Definition of Terms In order to avoid misunderstanding of terminologies, the current researcher provides these following definitions of terms that frequently appear in the research. The term „suffix nominalization‟ consists of two key issues which are „nominalization‟ and „suffix‟. Nominalization is deriving noun for conveying the nomina concept (Szymanek, 1989: 135). “A suffix is an affix which follows its base” (Brown, 2004: 121). Therefore, suffix nominalization is the derivation of nouns using the attachment of suffix. The term „non-actual derived nouns‟ consists of three key issues which are „nouns‟, „derived words‟ and „non-actual words‟. According to Hornby‟s Oxford Adcanced Learner’s Dicitionary (fifth edition, 1995), nouns are “words used to name or identity any of class of things, people places or ideas, or a particular one of these”. Derived words are “the form that results from the addition of a derivational morpheme” (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyam, 2011: 88). Non-actual words are the opposite of actual words or existing words; words that exist in the lexicon (Fromkin, et al., 2011: 99). It means that non-actual words are the non-existing words. From these definitions, it can be concluded that non-actual derived nouns are non-existing nouns which are formed by the addition of derivational morpheme.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter functions to give the current researcher a deeper understanding about the field and elements that are used in this study. This chapter is divided into three parts which are the review of related studies, the review of related theories, and the theoretical framework. In the review of related studies, the current researcher reviews on some studies with the relevant topic or methodology of research which have been conducted beforehand by some previous researchers. In the review of related theories, the current researcher reviews on some theories which are relevant to the topic of this study. Those theories are used and applied to provide the analysis of this study. In the theoretical framework, the current researcher shows the significance of information and theories and how they are related to each other and helpful in answering the problem formulation. A. Review of Related Studies This part covers several studies that have been done previously by some researchers. The studies are about the suffixes {-ion}, {-ment}, {-ity}, and {-cy}, which are related to the study of the current researcher. In this part, the current researcher briefly explains the analysis of the previous researchers and gives some reviews on the discussion. Some of the studies are compelling enough to support the current researcher‟s study but some of them still remain some questions that are criticized in the discussion. 6

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 1. 7 The Study of the Suffix {-ion} The study of suffix {-ion} is previously conducted by Bibit Nur Handono (2007). His study is about the allomorphs of suffix {-ion} and their distribution based on the stems. He observes the derived words with suffix {-ion} in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary (1995 edition) and Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2001 edition). The result of his problem analysis is summed up in this following table. Allomorph [-ion] [-ation] Final Sound of the Base fricative /s/ /z/ liquid Allomorph Final Sound of the Base [-ition] fricative /z/ /ʃ/ /l/ liquid /r/ stop consonant /t/ stop consonant /d/ /t/ nasal consonant /m/ /n/ fricative /s/ fricative /z/ /s/ liquid /l/ liquid /l/ /r/ diphthong /aɪ/ stop consonant /p/ /t/ fricative /ʃ/ stop consonant /t/ diphthong /aɪ/ stop consonant /d/ /t/ diphthong /aɪ/ [-iation] [-cation] /k/ /d/ [-tion] [-ution] nasal consonant /m/ /n/ fricative /s/ stop consonant /b/ /t/ fricative /v/ /ʃ/ [-action] [-sion] Table 1. Distribution of Allomorphs of the Suffix {-ion} (Handono, 2007: 25-52)

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 Although his study has scrutinized the allomorphs of the suffix {-ion} and explained in what endings of the stems those allomorphs can be attached to, he does not analyze further the stem‟s phonological environment in which certain allomorphs can be exclusively attached to. For instance, he claims that the six allomorphs [-ion], [-ation], [-tion], [-action], [-ition], [-sion] can be attached to the stem with final ending stop consonant /t/. However, he never specifically explains in what condition a stem can obtain the allomorph [-ation] instead of [-tion] or the others. Therefore, his analysis still leaves a question, whether or not those allomorphs are in complementary distribution. 2. The Study of the Suffix {-ment} The discussion of suffix {-ment} has been elaborated in the undergraduate thesis of R.S. Kristian Guntur Prasetya (2012). Prasetya discusses the possible stems of the suffix {-ment}. It turns out that the suffix {-ment} can only be attached to verbs. It means that the solely function of the suffix {-ment} is as deverbal nominalizer or to derive nouns from verbs. Etymologically, the stems originate from Latin, French, Old English, and Greek. Most of the verb stems are transitive, while intransitive verbs are only limited in four words (Prasetya, 2007: 43-35). The suffix {-ment} is applicable for the verb stems which have the final sound palatal strident such as /ʃ/ in accomplish  accomplishment and /dʒ/ in mismanage  mismanagement (Prasetya, 2012: 74). Further, he also finds out that there is no morphophonemic process that influences the attachment of the suffix {-ment} (Prasetya, 2012: 76).

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 In his research, Prasetya (2012) does not only analyze the attachment of the suffix {-ment} but also compares two suffixes which are {-age} and {-ment}. He uses some indicators to compare these two suffixes. Firstly, he compares the possible lexical categories of the possible bases and finds out the functions of the suffixes. Secondly, he traces down the etymology of possible stems. Thirdly, he analyzes the possible endings that can obtain the attachment of these suffixes. Lastly, he provides the analysis on the morphophonemic process. These four indicators are proven useful to compare and clearly distinguish the differences and similarities of two suffixes. 3. The Study of the Suffix {-ity} Dewi Yuliani (2005) elaborates three analyses in the suffix {-ity}. Firstly, she mentions the types of adjectives that obtain the suffix {-ity} attachment. Secondly, she analyzes the nominalization of the suffix {-ity}. The nominalization can be done through three ways which are simple affixation, insertion, and replacement. Thirdly, she finds out that the morphophonemic process occurs in two ways which are stress shifts and sound changes (Yuliani, 2005: 37-54). To sum up her findings, the current researcher displays the table below. Ending Example Ending Example -able, ible absorbable  absorbability, accessible  accessibility -ile, -ive agile  agility, active  activity -al abnormal  abnormality -ous, -osity ambiguous  ambiguity -nal eternal  eternality -n, -l, -e, -t certain  certainty -ar, -or familiar  familiarity -ic authentic  authenticity alveolar, dental, labiodental avid  avidity, chaste  chastity, grave  gravity Table 2. Adjective Endings of the Suffix {-ity} (Yuliani, 2005: 30-36)

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 Reviewing her study, Yuliani does not differentiate the bases which are inherently adjectives and the bases which become adjectives through suffixations. The adjectives agile, certain, and curious, for example, are simple words. They inherently possess the lexical category which is compatible with the suffix {-ity}. In those bases, the influential environment of the suffix {-ity} nominalization is the ending. In another case, the adjectives active and accessible are complex words. They obtain -ive and -ible endings through suffixation, then become adjectives. It means, the bases with attached suffixes should also be considered in analyzing the process of {-ity} nominalization. Without clearly distinguishing those cases, her analysis still remains a question, whether the suffix {-ity} can be further attached to the derived adjective advantageous to form advantageousity or not. 4. The Study of the Suffix {-cy} Puspita Maharani (2012: 31-42) explores the possible bases of the suffix {-cy}. She finds out that the suffix {-cy} can be attached to adjective, noun, and verb bases. Firstly, the adjective bases etymologically are derived from Latin, Spanish, and IndoEuropean languages. Most of these adjectives end with the segments -ate, -ant, and also -ent. Some others end with -c, -me, -pt and -t. Secondly, the noun bases are derived from Latin, Greek, Indo-European, Middle English, and Celtic. Most of the noun bases also end with -ate and -ant/-ent but there are some noun bases which end with -ain, -ct, -t, -l, and -p. Thirdly, the verb bases are solely derived from Latin. The derived verbs with this suffix are only found in three entries, conserve  conservancy, conspire  conspiracy, and tend  tendency.

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 Reviewing her study, Maharani gives the elaboration of not only the lexical categories of the bases which can obtain the suffix {-cy} attachment but also the final segments of the bases. Further, she traces down the origin of the bases and finds out that there are some special cases in the possible bases. In dealing with the special cases, she compares them with their counterparts. This comparison is effective to give a clear understanding of the special cases and the other actual bases. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Derivation The discussion of morphology is divided into two subfields, inflection and derivation. Szymanek (1989: 20) defines inflection as a morphological subfield which concerns on the production of words-forms in relation with a given lexeme. Inflection is related to morpo-syntactic categories, such as number, person, gender, aspect, tense, voice, and mood. The example of inflection is the use of the ending -s/-es to identify singular or plural nouns. On the other hand, derivation concerns on the method of forming new lexemes from the already existing ones. The term „derivation‟ or lexical derivation is equivalent with the term „word formation‟ (Szymanek, 1989: 20). Derivation allows new words enter English lexicon. Its existence enriches the vocabulary since it is very productive and can be found in daily communication like in magazine, social network, email, and debating speeches. The benefit of derivation in the daily usage of English is explained, as follows.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 Derivation is also extremely useful for expressing phrases more compactly. It is much more efficient, for instance, to refer to someone working in the field of science, politics, or banking as a scientist, politician, or banker than to have to repeatedly use more cumbersome phrases such as: someone who works in the fields of…”. Derivation is a kind of shorthand system that allows us to economize – by packing more information into shorter utterance (Fasold and Connor-linton, 2006: 74). 2. Theory of Word Formation Words can be produced through word formations. There are at least ten types of word formations which add the inventory of lexical items. They are back-formation, compounding, word coining, deriving words from names, blending, clipping, acronyms, abbreviation, borrowing, and derivation process. Fromkin et al., (2011: 100-101) defines that back-formation is the creation of a new word by removing an affix from an old word, for example peddle from peddler. Compounding is when two or more words may be joined to form new words such as Facebook, YouTube, power nap, and carjack. Further, Fromkin et al. (2011: 501-505) explains the definitions of the other word formations. Word coinage is coining words from brands, such as Kleenex, Kodak, and Jell-O. Deriving words from names occurs in sandwich which is the name of the fourth Earl of Sandwich. This type of formation is also called eponym. Blending is combining two words to be one word but some syllables are deleted like in information and commercial to be infomercial. Clipping is the process of shortening words, such as fax for faximile and telly for television in British word. Acronyms are words derived from the initials of several words as in radar from radio detecting and ranging. Abbreviation is shortening words by only taking the initial alphabet of words, such as UCLA from University of California, Los Angeles and

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 PDA from Personal Digital Assistant. Borrowing occurs when one language adds a new word or morpheme from another language to its own dictionary, for example ensemble which is borrowed from French. This kind of words is called loan words. The last but not least, words can be produced through a derivation process which requires affixations, such as restoration from restore and the affix {-ation}. The linguistic rules for the formation of words are also known as morphological rules which are also known as Word Formation Rules (WFR). Fromkin et al. (2011: 88) explain that by using morphological rules people can add the suffix {-cation} to *uglify and formed a noun, *uglification, as in glorification, simplification, falsification, and purification. The rules that are used are Adj + {-ify}  V which implies the meaning „to make Adjective‟ and V + {-cation}  N which means „the process in making Adjective‟. 3. Theory of Morpheme A morpheme is “the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning or function” (O‟Grady et al., 1997: 112). A morpheme is the item in internal structure of word which constitutes the word. O‟ Grady et al. (1997: 113) elaborates that there are two types of morphemes, free morphemes and bound morphemes. Free morphemes can stand by itself as words, such as love, make, smart, and to. Bound morphemes, such as -s, -er, -ive, -ate, re-, -ly, and -ness, cannot stand by itself as words thus they should be attached to other free morphemes. The words which consist of one free morpheme are called simple words while words which consist of more than one morpheme are called complex words (O‟Grady

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 et al., 1997: 113). A word can be constituted from one or more free morphemes, for instance sunglass. This word is constituted from a free morpheme sun and glass. A word can also be constituted from one or more free morphemes and one or more bound morphemes. The first example is sunglasses which is constituted from free morphemes sun and glass, and one bound morpheme -(e)s. The second example is antidisestablishmentarianism which is constituted from one free morpheme establish and also five bound morphemes: anti-, dis-, -ment, -(ari)an, and -ism. 4. Theory of Affixation “Affixation is a process of adding suffix to a base to form a new word” (Bauer, 1988: 18). Affixation is one of word formations which requires the process of attaching an affix to a free morpheme in order to create a meaningful word. Bauer explains that “based on the distribution, there are three kinds of affixes: prefixes, suffixes, and infixes” (Bauer, 1988: 19). Prefixes are affixes which are put before the bases such as {en-} in en + danger to become endanger. Suffixes are affixes put after the bases such as {-ive} in educate + ive to become educative. Infixes are affixes put either between or inside the bases such as {-o-} in speed + o + meter to become speedometer. Therefore, there are three types of affixations: prefixation, infixation, and suffixation. As addition, the words which are created through derivational affixations are called derived words. In creating complex words, affixation does not occur once. Complex words can obtain prefixation and suffixation in the same time, such as reoccupation, which is derived from the base occupy + prefix {re-} + suffix {-ation}. Interestingly,

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 affixation is strongly related to morphological rules. Every affix has its own rules to derive words. A random attachment, such as un + develop + ly + ness, results in an impossible word *undevelopliness. Hence, it is possible for a certain word to have both a prefix and a suffix in its formation as long as it still follows the morphological rules and results in a meaningful derived word. 5. Theory of Allomorphy An allomorph is “a variant of a morpheme which occurs in a certain definable environment” (Gleason, 1961: 61). It means that the occurrence of an allomorph is predictable. Examples of allomorphs are the article a and an as the identifiers of singularity in English. English speakers can determine when to use a and an like in a dog, a girl, a house and an umbrella, an orange, an apple. The definable environment of allomorph does not depend on the spelling but on the pronunciation of words. O‟Grady et al. (2010: 118) add “which is why we say an M.A. degree and a U.S. Dollar”. Allomorphs also impact suffixation. Some suffixes have their allomorphs. For instance, the variant [-ation], [tion], [-ion], [-ition], and [-ution] are the allomorphs of the suffix {-ation} (Szymanek, 1989: 140). These allomorphs can be attached to the words with certain phonological environments. For example, the allomorph [-cation] is attached to words ended by sound /aɪ/ such as glorify /ˈglɔːrɪfaɪ/ then becomes glorification.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6. 16 Theory of Root, Stem, and Base A root is a free morpheme without any attachment of neither free nor bound morpheme. “Root constitutes the core of the word and carries major component of its meaning” (O‟Grady et al., 2010: 119). When a root morpheme is combined with an affix, it forms a stem. A stem is “the base to which one or more affixes are attached to create a more complex form that may be another stem or a word” (Fromkin, 2011: 594). In the other words, a stem is a word that can be combined with other bound morphemes to create another word. It can consist of either only a free morpheme or a free morpheme that has been attached to bound morpheme(s). The definition of a stem is not that different from the definition of a base. A base is “the form to which an affix is added” (O‟Grady et al., 2010: 119). Though these two definitions seem similar, O‟Grady et al. (2010: 131) specifically mention that stem is used to refer the base in which inflectional affix is added. Szymanek has the similar perspective that “the term base is chiefly used in derivational morphology to denote lexeme (or, sometimes, a morpheme) from which another, complex lexeme is formed” (Szymanek, 1989: 21). In order to make it clearer, this present study uses the term „base‟ in explaining the nominalization process in accordance with the focus of the discussion which is about derivational morphology. 7. Theory of Lexical Category English acknowledges many lexical categories. Five of them are most-likely familiar: noun, verb, preposition, adjective, and adverb. These categories are traditionally referred to parts of speech (Fromkin, 2011: 128).

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Lexical Category 17 Example Noun (N) puppy, boy, soup, happiness, fork, kiss, pillow, cake, cupboard Verb (V) find, run, sleep, throw, realize, see, try, want, believe Preposition (P) up, down, across, into, from, by, with Adjective (Adj) red, big, candid, hopeless, fair, idiotic, lucky Adverb (Adv) again, carefully, luckily, never, very, fairly Table 3. Lexical Categories (Fromkin et al., 2011: 128) From those lexical categories, verbs, adjectives, and nouns are the major categories which are associated with particular kinds of meanings. Verbs usually refer to actions, events, and states, such as kick, marry, and love. Adjectives refer to qualities or properties, such as lucky and old (Fromkin et al., 2011: 129). Nouns are associated with general entities, particular individual (proper nouns), places, or other things that people give names to (Fromkin et al, 2011: 129). Quirk, Greenbaum, Leech, and Svartvik distinguish noun into two types, concrete and abstract, which are defined as “concrete nouns are broadly tangible while abstract nouns are broadly immaterial” (Quirk et al., 1980: 60). Based on the definition, the examples of concrete noun are book, teacher, Maguwoharjo Stadium, Jane Austen, and Pepsi, while the examples of abstract noun are revitalization, deconstruction, honor, and conformity. Every free morpheme (root) has its lexical category, but bound morpheme (affix) has not. As O‟Grady et al. explain, “roots typically belong to a lexical category, such as noun (N), verb (V), adjective (A), or preposition (P). Unlike roots, affixes do not belong to lexical category and are always bound morphemes”

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 (O‟Grady et al., 2010: 119). Interestingly, when a word is created through derivational suffixation, its lexical category can change based on the lexical function of the suffix. For instance, the verb create becomes the adjective creative when it obtains suffix {-ive} which functions to derive adjectives from verbs. Further, this derived adjective becomes a noun creativity when it obtains suffix {-ity} which functions to derive nouns from verbs. 8. Theory of Derivational Suffix Fromkin et al., (2011: 90) elaborate four characteristics of derivational suffixes. Firstly, derivational suffixes add the meaning of the base. Secondly, the words which are derived from suffixation may have the different lexical category from its original words. For example, when the suffix {-able} is attached to the noun desire, it becomes the derived adjective desirable. Thirdly, a new derived word which enters the dictionary may block other complex derivations. For example, when grammar + {-ian} has entered the English lexicon, it is not necessary to have grammar +{-er} or grammar + {-ist} although sometimes these formations coexist. Fourthly, some derivational suffixes may trigger subtle changes in pronunciation. For instance, the pronunciation of specific in specificity is no longer pronounced with /k/ as an impact of suffix {-ity} attachment because there is a truncation which makes /k/ deleted (/k/  ø). However, some suffixes, such as {-er}, {-less}, and {-ness}, do not impact the pronunciation of derived words.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 “Derivation is often subject to special constraints and restrictions” (O‟Grady et al., 2010: 126). The constraint and restriction lie on two considerations which are the word origin and phonological environment. O‟Grady et al. explains that, firstly, some of morphemes came from other languages, such as Greek, Latin, and French. This origin impacts to the morphological rules that are applied in suffixation. For example, suffix {-ant} can be attached to Latin origin bases, such as assist to be assistant. However, it cannot be attached to English native origin bases such as help  *helpant and fight  *fightant. Secondly, some derivational suffixes can be attached only to the bases which have particular phonological property. The example is suffix {-en} which can derive whiten, soften, madden, quicken, and liven because the bases of those words are monosyllabic and obstruent (a stop, fricative, or africative). However, this suffix is not applicable in *abstracten, *bluen, *angryen, *slowen, and *greenen because these bases are not monosyllabic and obstruent. According to Fasold et al., (2006: 76) some derivational suffixes are very productive. It means that they can be attached to certain kind of base almost without exception. For instance, suffix {-able} is freely attached to transitive verbs (washable, faxable, analyzable). On the other hand, some suffixes are not productive. They only occur in small number of words, such as {-dom} in kingdom and boredom and {-th} in truth and width. Other than suffixes that have already mentioned above, there are some other derivational suffixes which are listed in the following table.

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Suffix Lexical Category 20 Example -able VN bearable, washable -al VN approval, rebuttal -ant VN applicant, inhabitant -ate AV activate, validate -en AV redden, shorten -er VA singer, gambler -ful NA plentiful, beautiful -ian NN magician, musician -ify N/A  V purify, beautify -ion VN detection, discussion -ist N/A  N artist, activist -ity AN sensitivity, portability -ive VA oppressive, instructive -ize NV vaporize, magnetize -ment VN management, settlement -ness AN happiness, fullness -y NA watery, snowy Table 4. Derivational Suffixes (Fasold et al., 2006: 76) 9. Theory of Hierarchical Structure of Words As mentioned above that derivational suffixes are not always applicable in all bases, they are generally following particular order to form complex words. In order to see the order of a word derivation, Fasold et al (2006) formally analyze the derivational order by using three methods as shown in the example below.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI a. 21 Tree diagram N V V AffixV de- A AffixV AffixN -ifyy -er humid b. [[deV[[humidA]ifyV]]erN] c. deV-humidA-ifyV-erN 2 ROOT 1 3 Table 5. Derivational Order Notation (Fasold et al,. 2006: 75) From the notations above, it is clear that the word dehumidifier undergoes three layers of affixation. Firstly, the root humid obtains suffix {-ify} to be a verb humidify. Secondly, prefix {de-} is added to derive dehumidify. This addition does not change the lexical category. Lastly, suffix {-er} is attached to the base dehumidify, and then it finally becomes the noun dehumidifier. 10. Theory of Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi Deriving words through suffixation, as Noam Chomsky named, is also known as nominalization. There are at least six categories of nominalization which are Nomina Actionis, Nomina Essendi, Subject Nominalizations consisting of agentive

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 nominalization and instrumental nominalization, and Object Nominalizations consisting of patientive nominalization and objective/resultative nominalization, Collective Names, and Female Names (Szymanek, 1989: 6-8). Above all, the most productive ones are Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi. Nomina Actionis functions to convey the nominal concept „act(ion)/process of V-ing or “abstract deverbal action nouns” (Szymanek, 1989: 135). Suffixes in Nomina Actionis category are {-ation}, {-ment}, {-al}, {-age}, {-ure}, {-y}, and also {-ance/-ence}. The suffix {-ation} has some allomorphs, which variants are [-ation], [-ion], [-tion], [-ition}, [-ution], [-cation], and [-ication]. The allomorph [-ence] is the variant of the suffix {-ance}. The attachment of these allomorphs is complementary distribution, which means they never occur in the same environment. Some nouns are also derived from conversion (Ø). In Nomina Actionis derivations, conversion occurs in three groups, which are zero derivation, stress shift, and no stress shift. Szymanek (1989: 138) explains the distribution of these three types of conversion. Zero derivation occurs when the form of verbs and nouns are the same. Zero derivation words are usually monosyllabic. Stress shift occurs when the form of verbs and nouns are the same but the display of stresses and vowels are different. This group consists of polysyllabic words. No stress shift occurs in polysyllabic words which are also homologic stress. The examples of these three groups of conversion are displayed in the following table.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Zero Derivation V N Stress Shift 23 No Stress Shift V N V N to drive drive contrast còntrast attàck attàck to go go decrease dècrease attèmpt attèmpt to fall fall insùlt ìnsult defèat defèat to jump jump permìt pèrmit declìne declìne to knock knock survèy sùrvey suppòrt suppòrt to launch launch transpòrt trànsport visìt visìt Table 6. Conversion in Nomina Actionis (Szymanek, 1989: 138-139) Nomina Essendi “denotes a class of abstract deadjectival nominalizations meaning, roughly, „quality/state of being A‟” (Szymanek, 1989: 154). Suffixes in Nomina Essendi category are {-ness}, {-ity}, {-(anc)y/-(enc)y}, {-(ac)y}, {-(it)ude}, and {-ism}. Some Nomina Essendi suffixes also have their allomorphs. The allomorph [-(enc)y] is the variant of {-(anc)y}, while the suffix {-ity} has the allomorph [-ty] and [-y]. Although the distinction between Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi suffixes is clear, some noun pairs do not belong to the categories as explained above. This case happens in a noun pair precise - precision. As it is mentioned, suffix {-ion} functions to derive nouns from verbs. In fact, English acknowledges precision as a noun of Latinate base precise which is an adjective (Szymanek, 1989: 169-170). It means, suffix {-ion} in this case does not function as Nomina Actionis. This occurrence is considered as an exception. In the application of morphological rules, exceptions can occur in some cases.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 11. Theory of Lexical Gaps English speakers are gifted inherently with a linguistic competence in handling the lexical stock which is called creativity. This creativity comprises the word formation competence of English speakers, thus ones are capable of producing a virtually unlimited number of derived words (Szymanek, 1989: 23). Thousands of words have been understood and used by most of English speakers. Those words are already listed in English dictionaries, namely actual words. However, some words which are created by English speakers are not listed in dictionaries. Aronoff claims that “the speaker always has the capacity to make up new words, which can then add to his repertoire” (Aronoff, 1985: 19). Referring to this phenomenon, Fromkin et al. introduce the term „lexical gaps‟ or „accidental gaps in lexicon‟. “Accidental gaps are well-formed but non-existing words” (Fromkin et al., 2011: 99). It means that some words which are derived through permissible Word Formation Rules but not listed in dictionaries are called lexical gaps. Lexical gaps are also called „possible words‟ because these words are actually possible to be added in dictionaries, for instance *happify, *refution, and *fearity. Those examples are existing words; they are formed based on the acceptable rules but do not enter the lexicon. Otherwise, the non-existing words are called „impossible words‟. Fromkin et al. (2011: 99) defines that impossible words are the lexical gaps which result into the combinations of morphemes that never come to use, for instance *developify, *socialition, and *introducity.

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 C. Theoretical Framework In this study, the current researcher wants to answer three questions in the problem formulation. In order to do so, there are four related studies and eleven theories provided as the supporting materials in conducting this study. The related studies that have been reviewed are about the study of the suffix {-ion}, the study of the suffix {-ment}, the study of the suffix {-ity}, the study of the suffix {-cy}. The reviewed theories are the theory of derivation, theory of word formation, theory of morpheme, theory of affixation, theory of allomorphy, theory of root, stem, and base, theory of lexical category, theory of derivational suffix, theory of hierarchical structure of words, theory of Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi, and theory of lexical gaps. In collecting the data, the current researcher uses six theories that have been reviewed. The theory of derivation, word formation, morpheme, and affixation assist the researcher to identify which words that are created through derivation and obtains suffixation. The theory of lexical category is useful to identify which of those derived words are nouns. Further, the theory of lexical gap assists the researcher to differentiate the actual and non-actual derived nouns which exist in the data collection. On the other words, these theories contribute in giving the understanding about non-actual derived nouns. The current researcher uses the theory of root, stem, and base, lexical category, and hierarchical structure of words in answering the question number one. The question number one requires the current researcher to chop off the suffix(es) that are attached to those nouns. Therefore, it is very important to indentify the root, base,

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 suffix(es) of each finding, the lexical category of each root, and write them down in formal notation as in the hierarchical structure of words theory. In general, the contribution of these three theories is to separate the suffixes from the bases, thus they can be further analyzed. Thirdly, the theory of derivational suffix, Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi, allomorphy, lexical gaps, and the study of suffixes {-ion}, {-ment}, {-ity}, and {-cy} are useful to answer the question number two and three. In analyzing the formation of the findings, the current researcher needs to review the characteristic of derivational suffixes, the function and phonological constraint of Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi suffixes, and also the distribution of allomorphs. Some parts of these three discussions have been previously discussed in the four related studies. Therefore, the contribution of the related studies is giving the references and examples to support the current researcher‟s analysis. In the end, the current researcher is able to categorize whether the findings are possible or impossible words based on theory of lexical gaps.

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY In this chapter, the current researcher embodies procedures as a platform to accomplish this study in a systematic way. This chapter is divided into three specific parts which are the object of the study, the approach of the study, and the method of the study. In the object of the study, the current researcher describes what kind of data that are expected to be analyzed and explains the source of data. In the approach of the study, the current researcher elaborates the approach that is used in analyzing the data and the reason in using the approach. In the method of the study, the current researcher specifies the process of collecting the data and explains the steps of analysis to answer the problem formulation. A. Object of the Study The objects of the study are words which are taken from debating speeches of English Debate Society Sanata Dharma University (EDS Sanata Dharma) members of 2013/2014. In order to be specific, the words which are expected to be analyzed should fulfill three criteria. Firstly, the words are formed through suffixation process, which are later called derived words. Secondly, the derived words should be in the lexical category noun. Lastly, the derived nouns are non-actual words; they are not listed in reliable English dictionaries. 27

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 The sources of the object of study are debating speeches which are delivered by debaters of EDS Sanata Dharma during the practice in the even semesters of 2013 and 2014. The debaters are students of English Letters Department, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University in second, fourth, sixth, and eighth semester. In the other words, they are non-native English learners which have some linguistic competences. As supporting material to differentiate the actual and non-actual words, a dictionary is used. Turnbull’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (eighth edition, 2010) is chosen because this dictionary is considered as a reliable source and often used as the reference in many academic researches. This dictionary contains more than seven thousand and five hundreds words which are familiar to be used by English speakers. In addition, the eighth edition is the most current edition when this research is conducted. B. Approach of the Study In line with the title, this study requires an approach regarding the study of morphemes and affixations because these studies explain the structure of words analysis. Not to mention, these studies can justify or refute the formations of word structures that are derived. To be consistent, the current researcher uses a morphological approach in this study. This approach is used based on the scope of the study of morphology itself which concerns on word formations. Referring to the problem formulation that is analyzed in this study, a morphological approach is the most suitable approach that can deliver this process to the analysis.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 “Linguists use the term morphology to refer to the part of the grammar that is concerned worth words and word formation. The study of morphology offers important insight into how language works, revealing the need for different category of words, the presence of word-internal structure, and the existence of operation that create and modify words in various ways” (O’ Grady et al., 2010: 116). Analyzing word derivations, the study of morphology is always connected with morphophonemic process or morphophonology which is the pronunciation’s sensitivity to morphological factors, including word’s internal structure (O’Grady et al., 2010: 143). Therefore, the understanding on phonology is also required in this study as the supporting field to complete morphological approach. Phonology is “the component of grammar that determines the selection of speech sounds and that governs both the sound patterns and the systematic phonetic variation found in language” (O’Grady et al, 2010: 59). In morphological analysis, Aronoff and Fudeman (2010: 12-13) introduce two complementary approaches which are analytic and synthetic approach. The analytic approach is used when linguists deal with unfamiliar words. This approach is done by breaking words down to see the inside elements of the words. The synthetic approach is used when linguists want to reconstruct the elements of the words. This approach is associated with theory of construction. “Speakers apply morphological analysis when they read or hear a complex word they have never encountered before. In order to understand it, they pull it apart and ask themselves whether they recognize any of the pieces. Speakers use synthesis whenever they create new form pre-existing pieces” (Aronoff, et al., 2010: 13). These two approaches are used complementarily in this study in order to reach a holistic analysis that can describe the formation of non-actual words. Non-actual words are unfamiliar for the current researcher because those words are not

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 commonly used. In this extend, the analytic approach in applied. In the method of the study, this approach is applied when words in the data collection are broken down into pieces of morphemes in order to see the root, base, and the suffix in each word. After the words are broken down, the formation of those words is analyzed. This analysis requires the existing theories as the references. In this extent, the synthetic approach is applied. In practicality, this approach is applied when the theories of suffixes’ functions and phonological constraints are used to analyze the construction of the non-actual words. C. Method of the Study In this part, the current researcher explains the steps in achieving the analysis of the problem formulation. Since the steps cover the explanation of process in collecting and analyzing the data, this part is divided into two subparts which are the data collection and data analysis. 1. Data Collection The data collection was done with population study. All data findings were used for the analysis. In its application, the current researcher organized several steps to collect the data. Firstly, the current researcher managed to record the speeches then transcribed it into written texts. Secondly, the written texts were examined to find suffixed nouns. All suffixed nouns were listed. Thirdly, the current researcher consulted Turnbull’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (eighth edition, 2010) to categorize which nouns were actual words and which nouns were not. Finally, the non-actual suffixed nouns were listed as the data in this study.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. 31 Data Analysis After collecting the data, a procedure to reach data analysis was arranged. In order to answer the first problem, the current researcher chopped off the data into morphemes. Adapting the formal notation of the derivational order by Fasold et al. (2006: 74), the current researcher used these following notations to show the suffixation processes in creating those nouns. 1. institutionalization instituteN-ionN-alA-izeV-ationN ROOT 1 2 3 4 2. ratification ratifyV-cationN ROOT 1 The current researcher chose those notations because they conveyed significant information that were useful in answering second and third problem. These notations clearly showed the root, the attached suffix(es), and the sequences of suffix attachments. Those notations were also easier to read compared to the other two notations that also were also introduced by Fasold et al., especially in displaying many suffixations. After the data had been chopped off into morphemes, the current researcher classified the data based on the suffixes and whether the words obtained one or more suffix(es). In order to be clear, the words which obtained one suffix were classified in simple suffixations and those which obtained more than one suffixes were classified in complex suffixations. This classification was necessary to clearly show the distribution of the suffixes that were used to create non-actual nouns. The following table was used to display the classification.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Suffix No. 32 Suffixation Data -ion -y -ment -ity -ness Simple Complex Table 7. Data Analysis - Table of Suffixes Distribution In order to answer the second problem, the current researcher put the data with the same suffix or the same case in one sub-parts. Hence, there were sub-parts which explained the formation of the data based on the suffixes. The method to analyze the formation of non-actual nouns was by comparing them with the actual nouns. This method was in line with Botha and Halle’s theory which suggested that in dealing with phenomenon of affixation and in order to analyze morphemes into possible words. “There must be the list of actual words which exist in dictionaries as the sort of filter on the output of morphology” (Aronoff, 1985: 18). The actual nouns were taken from Turnbull’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (eighth edition, 2010). The samples in related studies were also used as the supplementary examples of word formations. The number of the actual words used in every case depended on the availability of words with the relevant formation. As the quantitative summary of the problem number two, the current researchers displayed the number of the possible and impossible derivation. Therefore, these following tables were used. No. Suffix Occurrence % TOTAL Table 8. Data Analysis Table of Possible Derivation No. Suffix Occurrence TOTAL Table 9. Data Analysis Table of Impossible Derivation %

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 In answering the third problem, the current researcher consulted the existing theories on phonological constraints of the related suffixes and compared it with the attachment of those suffixes in the data collection. Since the discussion in problem three was about the morphophonology, the current researcher provided the phonetic transcriptions of the samples. However, not all examples were equipped with the phonetic transcriptions. The current researcher provided them only when they could support the elaboration of analysis. The example of phonetic transcription of the samples is as seen below. 1. institutionalization institutionalize /ˌɪnstɪˈtuːʃənəlaɪz/ 2. ratification ratify /ˈrætɪfaɪ/ In the end, the current researcher could summarize whether the data were possible or impossible words. After the summary of possible and impossible derivations had been collected from the analysis of problem two and three, the current researcher combined the result to determine the possible and impossible words. The possible words should fulfill two requirements of suffix attachments, which are the function of the suffix and the phonological condition of the base. Otherwise, the data were considered to be impossible words.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter provides the analysis of the problem formulation after the data have been collected. To begin with, the current researcher has examined fourteen debating transcripts which were transferred from the debating speeches recordings of EDS Sanata Dharma members of 2013 and collected twenty four non-actual derived nouns from those transcripts. The list of data is displayed below. No. Data Finding Actual Word No. Data Finding Actual Word 1. *automatication automation 13. *interacy interaction 2. *benefition benefit, benefaction 14. *investation investment 3. *communicacy communication 15. *perspection perspective 4. *consequency consequence 16. *populacy population 5. *eruptcy eruption 17. *practitionality practice 6. *existency existence 18. *prisonment prison, imprisonment 7. *guideness guidance 19. *prosperousity prosperity 8. *harmness harm 20. *provement proof 9. *harmonity harmony 21. *satisfication satisfaction 10. *heterogeneousity heterogeneity 22. *tendention tendency 11. *importaness importance 23. *tolerancy tolerance, toleration 12. *potention potency 24. *transparention transparency Table 10. Data Findings 34

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 In the data collection, non-actual derived nouns with Subject Nominalization, such as {-er/-or}, {-ant/ent}, and {-ee}; Object Nominalization, such as {-ee}; Collective Names, such as {-(e)ry}, {-dom}, and {-age}; and Female Names {-ess}, do not appear. All of the non-actual nouns are derived from Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi suffixes. However, in the data collection, there is no non-actual noun which is derived from Nomina Actionis suffixes {-al}, {-age}, {-ure}, and Nomina Essendi suffixes {-ism} and {-it(ude)}. The current researcher also finds some nouns which are quite doubtful to be categorized as actual or non-actual words, such as pureness and determent. Those words cannot be found in Oxford dictionaries, both printed and electronic media. However, they can be found in Merriam Webster dictionaries and are not considered to be foreign words in Microsoft Word‟s word detector. The current researcher, then, considers the possibility of American and British English vocabularies that are different in acknowledging words. It is true that the main source of categorizing actual and non-actual words is Turnbull‟s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (eighth edition, 2010). In order to avoid the controversy in the data‟s validity, the current researcher does not include those nouns in the data collection. On the other words, all of the collected data are non-actual in both American and British English dictionaries. In general, this chapter is divided into three sub-chapters based to the three questions on problem formulation. The first sub-chapter introduces the suffixes which are used to derive the non-actual nouns. This part shows the distribution of suffixes in deriving those non-actual nouns in relation with the productivity of those suffixes in

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 creating actual nouns. The second sub-chapter discusses the formation of those nonactual derived nouns based on the suffixes‟ function. This part analyzes whether the suffixes have been utilized based on their lexical functions or not. The third subchapter elaborates the formation of the non-actual derived nouns in the phonological point of view to see whether the application of the suffixes has considered the phonological environment of the bases. A. Suffixes of Non-Actual Derived Nouns In order to know the suffixes which are used in deriving the non-actual nouns, those words are chopped off into roots, bases, and stems through the formal notation (Fasold et al, 2006: 74), as shown below. 1. *automatication automateV-icA-ationN ROOT 1 2 7. *guideness guideV-nessN ROOT 1 2. *benefition benefitN-ionN ROOT 1 8. *harmness harmN-nessN ROOT 1 3. *communicacy communicateV-yN ROOT 1 9. *harmonity harmonyN-ityN ROOT 1 4. *consequency consequentA-yN ROOT 1 consequentA-(enc)yN ROOT 1 10. *heterogeneousity heterogeneousA-ityV ROOT 2 5. *eruptcy eruptV-yN ROOT 1 11. *importaness importantA-nessN ROOT 1 6. *existency existV-entA-yN ROOT 1 12. *interacy interactV-yN ROOT 1 existV-(enc)yN ROOT 1

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13. *investation investV-ationN ROOT 1 19. *prosperousity prosperN-ousA-ityV ROOT 1 2 14. *perspection *perspectX-ionN ROOT 1 20. *provement proveV-mentN ROOT 1 15. *populacy populateV-yN ROOT 1 21. *satisfication satisfyV-cationN ROOT 1 16. *potention *potentA-ionN ROOT 1 22. *tendention *tendentX-ionN ROOT 1 17. *practionality practiceN-ionN-alA-ityV ROOT 1 2 3 23. *tolerancy tolerantA-yN ROOT 1 18. *prisonment prisonN-mentN ROOT 1 24. *transparention transparentA-ionN ROOT 1 37 tolerantA-(anc)yN ROOT 1 In the data above, there are two types of suffixation: simple and complex suffixation. In a simple suffixation, which only involves one suffix in forming the noun, the base is also the root of the word. As an example, in *potention, potent is both the root and base, while {-ion} is the suffix. In a complex suffixation, which involves more than one suffix, the base is the root itself, the root plus suffix (1), the root plus suffix (2), and so on. As an example, the root of the non-actual noun *practionality is practice, while the bases are practice, *practition, and *practitional. Since all of the data are basically non-actual words, some of the bases and the attached suffixes are not easily identified. Some non-actual nouns have the actual bases, such as *benefition, *eruptcy, and *harmness. The bases of those non-actual nouns can clearly be seen, which are the noun benefit, the verb erupt, and the

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 adjective harm. The attached suffixes of those bases are {-ion}, {-y}, and {-ness}, respectively. It is easier to identify those bases and the attached suffixes because the bases are actual words. Meanwhile, some non-actual nouns are derived from nonactual bases, such as *tendention. The actual base of *tendention is the verb tend. However, English does not acknowledge the suffix or allomorph {-ention}. As a solution, the final syllable of the noun is considered to be the suffix. By reducing the final syllable, the base of the noun is found. For instance, the noun *tendention is chopped off into *tendent + {-ion} because the final syllable of *tendention is -ion which is similar with the existing suffix, {-ion}. One of the non-actual nouns in the data has two bases possibility. This noun is *existency. The base of *existency can be the adjective existent which obtains the suffix {-y} or the verb exist which obtains the suffix {-(enc)y}. The slightly similar problem can be found in the non-actual noun *consequency and *tolerancy. There are two possible formations of those nouns. The suffix that is attached to them are the suffix {-y} or the suffix {-(enc)y}. Since there is no way to assure which formation is used to form those words, these two possibilities are used for analysis materials. To avoid confusion in the consistency of the data number, these two possibilities are explained as one part of discussion in the later sub-chapters. The first suffixation possibility is taken into the primary data because the precedents show many occurrences of the suffix {-y} but do not show the occurrence of the suffix {-(enc)y}. As mentioned above that not all of nouns are derived from the actual bases, some bases are found with unidentified lexical categories. This case happens in *perspection and *tendention. Considering the final syllables of those non-actual

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 nous as suffixes, the bases are *perspect and *tendent while the suffix is {-ion}. These two bases do not have any lexical category since they are not actual bases. As the summary of all findings, this following table shows the distribution of all suffixes found in the data collection. Data Suffix Suffixation -ion √ -y - -ment - -ity - -ness - Simple - Complex √ *benefition √ - - - - √ - *communicacy - √ - - - √ - *consequency - √ - - - √ - *eruptcy - √ - - - √ - *existency - √ - - - √ √ *guideness - - - - √ √ - *harmness - - - - √ √ - *harmonity - - - √ - √ - *heterogeneousity - - - √ - √ - *importaness - - - - √ √ - *interacy - √ - - - √ - *investation √ - - - - √ - *perspection √ - - - - √ - *populacy - √ - - - √ - *potention √ - - - - √ - *practitionality - - - √ - - √ *prisonment - - √ - - √ - *prosperousity - - - √ - - √ *provement - - √ - - √ - *satisfication √ - - - - √ - *tendention √ - - - - √ - *tolerancy - √ - - - √ - *transparention √ Tabel 11. Suffixes Distribution √ - *automatication

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 The next analysis discusses the distribution of the bases‟ lexical categories and suffixes which are used to form the non-actual nouns. This analysis is expected to see the trigger of the debaters‟ creativity to produce those nouns. To begin with, most of the nouns are derived from adjectives with 10 occurrences out of 24 data (41.7%), verbs with 8 occurrences (33.3%), and nouns with 4 occurrences (16.7%), and the least is unidentified lexical category with 2 occurrences (8.3%). This following table shows the distribution in number of occurrence and its percentage. No. Suffix Base {-ion} Occurrence Percentage Verb 2 8.27% Adjective 3 12.5% Noun 1 4.18% Unidentified 2 8.27% Verbs 4 16.7% Adjective 3 12.5% Adjective 3 12.5% Noun 1 4.18% Verb 1 4.18% Adjective 1 4.18% Noun 1 4.18% Verb 1 4.18% Noun 1 4.18% Sub-Total 1. 33.22 % {-y} 2. 29.2% {-ity} 3. 4. 5. 16.68% {-ness} 12.54% {-ment} 8.36% TOTAL 24 100% Table 12. Distribution of Suffixes and Lexical Categories

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 From the data above, the suffix {-ion} is the most productive one. This is related to the productivity of the suffix {-ion} in deriving actual words. Aronoff (1985) claims that {-ion} is a very widespread and productive suffix. He mentions that Walker (1936) lists about 2,000 words ending in the suffix {-ion}. This number comprises a total of approximately 4% words listed in the dictionary (Aronoff, 1985: 99). In comparison with the other Nomina Actionis suffixes in the table of distribution, which are {-y} and {-ment}, the suffix {-ion} is the most productive suffix in Nomina Actionis category. “The suffix {-ation} (which is called {-ion} in this present study) is the most productive of all the formal exponents of the category Nomina Actionis of English” (Szymanek, 1989: 40). In addition, the productivity of the suffix {-ion} in deriving non-actual nouns is in line with the productivity of this suffix in deriving actual words. Most of nouns are derived from this suffix. It creates the familiarity and finally becomes the consideration of the debaters to derive nouns with this suffix. The second most productive suffix based on the distribution table is the suffix {-y}. Szymanek claims that this suffix is marginal in deriving nouns. It only occurs in limited nominalizations (Szymanek, 1989: 152). In fact, it becomes fairly productive in deriving the non-actual nouns. In the data, there are 7 occurrences which cover 29.2% of the whole data. Its productivity in deriving actual words cannot be the main reason of these occurrences since this suffix is limitedly found in nominalization. Considering another factor other than its productivity, it is undeniable that as non-native speakers, the debaters have first language competence which is Indonesian. In this case, this first language competence becomes the reference to

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 derive the nouns. In Indonesian, nouns with ending -i are very familiar, for example eksistensi, erupsi, interaksi, komunikasi, konsekuensi, populasi, and toleransi. The ending -i in Indonesian is similarly pronounced /ɪ/ as -y in *existency, *eruptcy, *interacy, *communicacy, *consequency, *populacy, and *tolerancy. Not to mention, some actual nouns with -y ending in English are also actual nouns with -i ending in Indonesian, for instance *conspiracy - konspirasi, *potency - potensi, and *tendency tendensi. Those endings are pronounced exactly the same. In conclusion, the productivity of the suffix {-y} in deriving the non-actual nouns is influenced by Indonesian as the first language of the debaters. The last three suffixes are {-ity}, {-ness}, and {-ment} with one occurrence margin per each respectively. The suffixes {-ity} and {-ness} are more productive compared to the other Nomina Essendi suffixes such as {-it(ude)} and {-ism}. Szymanek (1989) claims on the suffix {-ity} that “the suffix -ity is the principal Latinate element used in English to derive Nomina Essendi” and the suffix {-ness} that “the productivity of the suffix {-ness} is much higher than that of any of its cofunctional formatives” (Szymanek, 1989: 156-157). The suffix {-ment}, on the other hand, is a Nomina Actionis suffix which is mildly productive especially in Modern English as Szymanek quotes from Bauer that “this formative is no longer productive” (Szymanek, 1989: 144). This claim is also proven through the suffix distribution that puts the suffix {-ment} as the least occurred suffix with only 2 occurrences. In comparison with the suffixes {-ion} and {-y}, it is true that this suffix is less productive. However, in comparison with the other Nomina Actionis suffixes, such as the suffixes {-al}, {-age}, and {-ure}, the

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 suffix {-ment} is more productive. “The number of abstract deverbal nominalizations terminating in -ment is relatively large” (Szymanek, 1989: 144-145). In conclusion, the suffixes {-ity}, {-ness}, and {-ment} are relatively productive suffixes. This productivity causes the familiarity in using those suffixes to derive nouns instead of the other suffixes. B. Non-Actual Noun Derivations Based on the Function of Suffixes In the synthetic study, the previous researchers have identified and categorized the word class membership and the base form membership of words. In the word class membership, the discussion is about affixes deriving words into lexical categories: verbs, adjectives, nouns, adverbs. In the base form membership, the discussion is about deverbal, denominal, and deadjectival formations (Szymanek, 1989: 108). Those studies have established the function of derivational affixes which becomes the rule to govern affixation. In relation with the non-actual derived nouns, this present study constructs the relation between the established theories and the findings. Some findings have appropriate relation with the rule-govern of derivation; some others have at least minimal consideration in applying the rule. As a result, there are possible and impossible derivations found in the data. This table below is provided to show the number of findings that fulfill the function of suffixes, namely Possible Derivation, and findings that do not fulfill the function of suffixes, namely Impossible Derivation. The table gives information of the suffixes which are productive in creating possible and impossible derivations.

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 No. Suffix Occurrence % No. Suffix Occurrence % 1. {-ion} 2 8.3% 1. {-ion} 6 25% 2. {-y} 4 16.8% 2. {-y} 3 12.5% 3. {-ity} 3 12.5% 3. {-ity} 1 4.2% 4. {-ness} 1 4.2% 4. {-ness} 2 8.3% 5. {-ment} 1 4.2% 5. {-ment} 1 4.2% 11 46% 13 54% TOTAL Table 13a. Possible Derivation 1. TOTAL Table 14a. Impossible Derivation Nominalization with the Suffix {-ion} As elaborated on the theoretical review in Chapter II, the suffix {-ion} is included in Nomina Actionis or abstract deverbal action nouns. Its function is to derive nouns from verb bases. However, there are three words in the data with the suffix {-ion} which are derived from adjective bases. These words are *potention  potent, *transparention  transparent, and *automatication  automatic. These bases are basically actual words; therefore the problem of the noun derivation of these words lies on the misidentification of the potential bases in which the suffix {-ion} can be attached to. In order to create the actual nouns, the adjectives potent and transparent are supposed to obtain the Nomina Essendi suffix {-(enc)y}. Therefore, the noun derivations should be potent  potency and transparent  transparency. The adjective automatic, however, should not obtain any Nomina Essendi suffix to create the actual noun. The formation of *automatication is automate  automatic 

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 *automatication. In order to create the actual noun, the word formation should be automate  automation. Comparing those two formations, the suffix {-ion} should be attached to the verb automate, not to the adjective automatic. One of the data is constituted of an unidentified lexical category and the Nomina Actionis suffix {-ion}. The data is *tendent  *tendention. The base *tendent is seemingly expected to be an adjective, considering the similar ending of the other adjectives, such as potent and transparent. Based on this consideration, the base *tendent obtains the suffix {-ion} in order to be a noun. The problem in deriving this noun is in the misidentification of the actual base. Instead of attaching the nonactual base *tendent with the suffix {-ion}, the actual noun should be formed by attaching the suffix {-cy} to the actual base tend. In addition, Maharani (2012) in her study of the suffix {-cy} elaborates that this suffix may be perceived in different way when it is attached to Latinate words, such as conspire  conspiracy and conserve  conservancy (Maharani, 2012: 43). Accordingly, the actual formation is tend  tendency. Some non-actual nouns in the data are derived from verb bases. Those nouns are *investation, *satisfication, and *perspection. In the non-actual derived nouns *investation and *satisfication, the bases are actual verbs. Therefore, the derivation of invest  *investation and satisfy  *satisfication are acceptable based on the function of the suffix {-ion}. On the other hand, the derivation of *perspect  *perspection cannot be done since the base *perspect is a non-actual word. The word *perspection is meant to be actual noun perspective. This word is an actual noun which is a simple word; it consists of only a single morpheme.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2. 46 Nominalization with the Suffix {-y} There are seven non-actual nouns with the suffix {-y} in the findings. Four of them are derived from verb bases, which are *communicacy, *eruptcy, *interacy, and *populacy. According to Szymanek‟s explanation in Chapter II, the suffix {-y} is a part of Nomina Actionis which functions to derive nouns from verb bases. Based on this function, the nominalization of communicate  *communicacy, erupt  *eruptcy, interact  *interacy, and populate  *populacy can be done. The other nouns with the suffix {-y} are derived from adjective bases: *consequency, *existency, and *tolerancy. Referring to the function, the formation of consequent  *consequency, existent  *existency, and tolerant  *tolerancy cannot be done. However, in Nomina Essendi, there are also the suffixes {-(anc)y}/ {-(enc)y} and {-(ac)y}. These Nomina Essendi suffixes can appear in their allomorph form, [-y]. As a result, the application of these suffixes is mixed up. Maharani (2012) in her study of the suffix {-cy} also finds that the suffix {-cy} can derive adjectives. The examples of the derivations are clement  clemency, decent  decency, and potent  potency (Maharani, 2012: 35). These examples are basically in line with Szymanek‟s explanation of the Nomina Essendi suffix {-(enc)y} (Szymanek, 1989: 163). On the other words, the suffixes {-(anc)y}/{-(enc)y} and also {-(ac)y} are the other appearances of the suffix {-cy}. Therefore, it is difficult to differentiate which suffix {-y} is attached to the base, whether it is a Nomina Actionis suffix or an allomorph of a Nomina Essendi suffix. Further, the suffix {-cy} can derive nouns from adjective, noun, and verb bases (Maharani, 2012: 31-42). Meaning to say, there is a big possibility of the suffix {-y} to occur in many bases.

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 Consequently, it triggers the misidentification of possible bases that can obtain the suffix {-y}. In addition, the actual nouns of *consequency, *existency, and *tolerancy are consequence, existence, and tolerance/toleration respectively. As mentioned in the previous sub-chapter, the finding *consequency and *tolerancy are possible to be derived from the adjective bases consequent and tolerant plus the suffixes {-(enc)y}/{-(anc)y}. The function of the suffixes {-(enc)y}/ {-(anc)y} is denoting a class of abstract deadjectival nominalizations (Szymanek, 1989: 154). On the other words, it derives nouns from adjective bases. Analyzing this particular possibility, the nominalization of consequent  *consequency and tolerant  *tolerancy can be done. However, the same formation cannot be applied in the non-actual word *existency. It is already mentioned above that *existency is also possible to be derived from the verb base exist plus the suffix {-(enc)y}. In fact, the base exist is a verb. It supposed to obtain a Nomina Actionis suffix. It this case, the actual word of *existency is existence, as a result of nominalization of the verb exist plus the Nomina Actionis suffix {-ence}. 3. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ity} There are three findings that show the suffix {-ity} attachment in creating non- actual words. These findings are *heterogeneousity, *prosperousity, and *practitionality. They are all derived from the adjective bases. Referring to the suffix {-ity}‟s functions as Nomina Essendi, the formation of heterogenous  *heterogeneousity and prosperous  prosperousity can be done because these formations derive nouns from adjective bases.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 Nevertheless, the formation of the actual word of *prosperousity, which is prosperity, does not fulfill the function of the attached suffix {-ity}. The formation of prosper  prosperity derives a verb base to a noun. This derivation, indeed, does not in line with the function of the Nomina Essendi suffix {-ity}. Therefore, the actual word prosperity is not a derived noun. In contrast, the formation of *practitional  practitionality are impossible. There are two reasons on this case. Firstly, although this formation has fulfilled the function of the suffix {-ity}, the base *practitional is not an actual adjective. A nonactual base cannot form an actual word. Secondly, the complex suffixation in this word is not applied appropriately. The non-actual noun *practitionality is derived from several nominalizations. This non-actual noun is derived from practice  *practition  *practitional  *practitionality. The root practice is an actual noun. It does not require further nominalization to be a noun. In fact, the suffix {-ion}, {-al}, and {-ity} are attached to this root to derive its noun, adjective, and noun again respectively. It means that there are two unnecessary nominalizations in the nonactual noun *pracitionality. The first nominalization is the suffix {-ion} attachment to derive noun. This formation, indeed, does not fulfill the function of the suffix {-ion} as a Nomina Actionis suffix. The second one is the attachment of the suffix {-al} to derive the adjective. This second attachment actually fulfills the function of the suffix {-al}, but the base *practition cannot obtain any suffix since it is not an actual base. Upon these two reasons, the nominalization of *practitionality cannot be done because it does not fulfill the function of attached suffixes and the root practice is already a noun.

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4. 49 Nominalization with the Suffix {-ness} There are three non-actual nouns derived from the suffix {-ness} found in the data collection. Those nouns are *guideness, *importaness, and *harmness. This part discusses only two of them, which are *guideness and *importaness because the other one is more related to the discussion in the next part. The non-actual noun *guideness is derived from the verb base guide. The function of the suffix {-ness} is to derive nouns from adjective bases (Szymanek, 1989: 155). Referring to this function, the formation of guide  *guideness cannot be done. The actual word of *guideness is guidance, which is derived from the verb base guide and obtain the Nomina Actionis suffix {-ance}. On the contrary, the base of the non-actual noun *importaness is an adjective *important. The function of the suffix {-ness} has been fulfilled by deriving important  *importaness. Nevertheless, the suffix {-ance} does not derive an adjective to noun but from a verb to noun (Szymanek, 1989: 149). Instead of deriving important  importance, suffix {-ance} is possible to derive import  importance. In fact, based on Turnbull‟s dictionary, the word importance is not the derivation of import. Instead, importance is the derivation of important. The similar derivation is also found in Turnbull‟s dictionary, which is significant  significance. Upon this phenomenon, there are two scenarios that can explain the derivation of important  importance; either the function of the suffix {-ance/-ence} is not merely as abstract deverbal action noun or there is a morphophonemic process that explains the deletion of segment -y as a result of the suffix {-ancy/-ency} attachment.

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5. 50 Nominalization with the Suffix {-ment} In the findings, there is a noun derivation from the base prove  *provement, which involves the suffix {-ment} attachment. The base prove is a verb, which means, in order to be a noun, it should obtain a Nomina Actionis suffix. Meanwhile, the suffix {-ment} is Nomina Actionis (Szymanek, 1989: 135). Prasetya (2012), in his comparative study of the suffixes {-age} and {-ment}, finds that from ninety-five words which obtain the attachment of the suffix {-ment} found in Merriam-Webster Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, one-hundred percent of them are derived from verb bases (Prasetya, 2012: 43). Based on these two previous studies, the derivation of the verb base prove to the noun *provement can be done. 6. Nominalization of Nouns As mentioned in the previous chapters, the term „nominalization‟ refers to the process of making nouns through derivation. Nominalization can be done by deriving verb, adjective or even noun bases. It is important to note that the correct suffixes are required to derive the words with expected lexical categories. In some derivational cases, nominalization in which the lexical category does not change actually happens. Szymanek (1989) calls it „double motivation‟, which happens when a noun is derived from a noun to paraphrase its act/behavior (Szymanek, 1989: 153). Szymanek explains further that double motivation happens in the case of abstract nominalization which is related to the relative agentive in -er, for instance forger  forgery, and robber  robbery, and in abstract nominalization which has actional meaning, such as adulterer  adultery, and thief  thievery.

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 There are some suffixes which function to derive nouns from noun bases. This kind of derivational suffix is categorized in Collective Names. Szymanek defines Collective Names in the following quotation. ““Collectivity” is an instance of a derivational category which has a clear analog in the system of inflection: number. Yet, despite their apparently secondary status, collective names may be found in a variety of languages. English is no exception here, although the category as a unit is not particularly productive on the level of derivational morphology” (Szymanek, 1989: 206). There are three suffixes which are categorized in Collective Names. Those suffixes are {-ery}, {-dom}, and {-age}. The examples of derived nouns which are derived from these three suffixes are displayed in the table below. Suffix {-ery} Suffix {-dom} Suffix {-age} crock crockery beggar beggardom baron baronage citizen citizenry fan fandom client clientage jewel jewelry pauper pauperdom flower flowerage machine machinery scholar scholardom leaf leafage peasant peasantry teacher teacherdom pupil pupilage Tabel 15. Collective Names (Szymanek, 1989: 207-208). The similar case is also found in nominalization of some non-actual nouns in the data collection. Some suffixes are utilized to derive noun from noun bases. Unexpectedly, the suffixes which are used to derive those nouns are categorized neither as the double motivation suffixes nor Collective Names. The findings can be seen, as follows.

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Data Suffix Base Function *benefition {-ion} VN benefit N *prisonment {-ment} VN prison N *harmness {-ness} AN harm N *harmonity 52 AN harmony {-ity} Table 16. Nominalization of Nouns N The table above displays the non-actual derived nouns with the suffixes {-ion}, {-ment}, {-ness} and {-ity} attachment. Those suffixes are Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi suffixes which are used to derive non-actual nouns from noun bases. Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi are the results of nominalization of verb and adjective. Meaning to say, it is impossible to derive nouns from bases with lexical category other than verbs and adjectives with Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi suffixes. The findings above, indeed, do not fulfill the function of Nomina Actionis and Nomina Essendi suffixes, so they cannot be derived. Nevertheless, the actual words of those findings are already in the bases themselves. For the non-actual noun *benefition and *prisonment, they have two actual nouns. Firstly, the actual nouns of *benefition are benefit and benefaction. The actual word benefit is a simple word; it does not undergo any derivational process. The actual word benefaction is a complex word. It derived from the noun benefit plus the suffix {-ion}. Secondly, there are two actual nouns of *prisonment, which are prison and imprisonment. The actual word prison is a simple word, while the actual word imprisonment is a complex word. The derivation of imprisonment is: imV-prisonN-mentN 1 ROOT 2

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 The root prison is a noun which obtains the prefix {im-}. This prefixation changes the lexical category of prison to be the verb imprison. Further, imprison becomes the verb base of the suffix {-ment} attachment and results in imprisonment. Since in this derivation the suffix {-ion} is attached to a verb, it creates an actual noun. C. Non-Actual Noun Derivations Based on the Phonological Constraint of Suffixes Approaching the study of derivational category requires researchers to identify the differences and similarities of each suffix. One fundamental perspective that is taken into consideration is the characteristic of consonants or consonant clusters of the bases (Szymanek, 1989: 107). Therefore, most of the studies in derivational morphology always identify suffixation based on the endings of the bases. Further, some researchers do not only rely on the final consonants or clusters. Instead, they analyze the endings and syllables of the bases which can receive certain suffix. This sub-chapter discusses the application of suffixation based on the phonological perspective. In analyzing the non-actual derived nouns, this sub-chapter elaborates the existing theory and how the theory is applied in the findings. Most of findings have applied the suffixes attachment in the appropriate phonological environments; only few of them do not consider the phonological environments. As a result, the numbers of possible and impossible derivations based on phonological perspective are withdrawn from the data. Therefore, these tables below are provided to show the number of findings that follow the phonological constraint of suffixes, namely Possible Derivation. Otherwise, it is included in Impossible Derivation.

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 No. Suffix Occurrence % No. Suffix Occurrence % 1. {-ion} 8 33.2% 1. {-ion} 0 0% 2. {-y} 7 29.2% 2. {-y} 0 0% 3. {-ity} 3 12.5% 3. {-ity} 1 4.2% 4. {-ness} 3 12.5% 4. {-ness} 0 0% 5. {-ment} 1 4.2% 5. {-ment} 1 4.2% 22 91.6% 2 8.4% TOTAL Table 13b. Possible Derivation 1. TOTAL Table 14b. Impossible Derivation Nominalization with the Suffix {-ion} The suffix {-ion}, as the most productive suffix, has at least nine different appearances in the dictionary. Each of the variant appears in certain environment depending on the phonological condition of the bases. Hence, there are many phonological segments that support the appearance of this suffix. Based on the findings, there are three allomorphs that are used to derive the non-actual nouns. These allomorphs are [-ion], [-ation], and [-cation]. a. Allomorph [-ion] In the data collection, there are five bases of non-actual derived nouns which end with stop consonant /t/. Three of them end with syllable -ent. Those nouns are listed below. 1. *benefition benefit /benɪfɪt/ 2. *perspection *perspect /pə‟spekt/ 3. *potention potent /‟pəʊtnt/

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4. *tendention *tendent /‟tendənt/ 5, *transparention transparent /trans‟pærənt/ 55 According to Handono, the suffix {-ion} appears as its allomorph [-ion] in bases with ending fricative /s/ and /z/, liquid /l/, and stop consonant /t/ (Handono, 2007: 28). Stop consonant /t/, especially, appears in the suffix {-ion} derivation, such as in: delete /dɪ’li:t/  deletion, erudite /‟erudaɪt/  erudition, and federate /‟fedəreɪt/  federation. Further, Szymanek states that the allomorph [-ion] appears after coronal consonantal, including liquid and nasal environment (Szymanek, 1989: 143), such as in: connect /kə‟nekt/  connection, object /əb‟dʒekt/  objection, invent /ɪn’vent/  invention prevent /prɪ’vent/  prevention, liquid rebel /‟rebl/  rebellion, and nasal commune /kəmju:n/  communion. coronal consonantal Based on these theories, the derivations of findings listed in the above are generally possible to be done since all of bases end with the consonant /t/. It explains the reason of the existence of non-actual noun *benefition. It is because of its /t/ ending is often followed by {-ion} in some actual bases. There is another word ends with /t/ which can be followed by this allomorph. The word is exhibit /ɪg’zɪbɪt/

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 exhibition /ɪg’zɪbɪtʃn/. The base benefit can actually obtain the suffix {-ion} but in its allomorph [-action]. This derivation is an exception since there is no word with /t/ ending derived from the suffix {-ion} which results in the allomorph [-action] other than benefit. In addition, the actual derivation of benefit is benefaction. Examining the endings of words in which the allomorph [-ion] can be attached to, the appearance of the non-actual bases *perspect and *tendent is answered. Firstly, the non-actual base *perspect has the final syllable -ect as in the actual bases connect and object. As in /kə‟nekʃn/ and /əb‟dʒekʃn/, the word /pə‟spekʃn/ is possible. Secondly, the non-actual base *tendent has similar ending -ent as in invent and prevent. So that, the formation of /‟tendənʃn/ is possible as in /ɪn’venʃn/ and /prɪ’venʃn/. The similar ending also contributes in misidentification of the bases‟ lexical category. The adjectives potent and transparent are considered to be the verbs in accordance with their ending -ent. In fact, the ending -ent mostly appears in adjectives. In their nominalizations, those adjectives are derived from suffix {-cy}. Etymologically, those adjectives are from Latin and Indo European. This following table lists the adjective bases and the origins taken from Turnbull‟s dictionary. Latin Origin No. Base Latin Origin Nouns No. Base Nouns 1. belligerent belligerency 4. complacent complacency 2. coherent coherency 5. consistent consistency 3. competent competency 6. constituent constituency

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Latin Origin 57 Latin Origin 7. contingent contingency 16. insurgent insurgency 8. deficient deficiency 17. proficient proficiency 9. delinquent delinquency 18. sufficient sufficiency 10. dependent dependency 19. transparent transparency 11. efficient efficiency 12. excellent excellency Indo European Origin 13. expedient expediency 20. clement clemency 14. frequent frequency 21. decent decency 15. incumbent incumbency 22. potent potency Tabel 17. Bases of the Suffix {-cy} with the Ending -ent b. Allomorph [-ation] There are two non-actual words with the allomorph [-ation] found in the data collection. Those nouns are *automatication, and *investation. Each of them has different phonological condition. The ending of the base of *automatication is -ic, while *investation is -est. The bases and endings can be seen in the following list. 1. *automatication automatic /,ɔ:təmæ‟tɪk / 2. *investation invest /ɪn’vest/ Based on the theory of the suffix {-ation}, the allomorph [-ation] is the unrestricted variant. “There are no conditions on its attachment, except that it is not affixed in cases where the conditions of attachment of the other variants are met” (Aronoff, 1985: 100). It means that the distribution of the allomorph [-ation] is very

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 widespread and the possible bases‟ endings are various. It is proven through Handono‟s (2007) analysis on the suffix {-ion} and its allomorphs that there are ten base endings that are followed by this allomorph. Those endings are categorized in nasal consonants, fricatives, liquids, and stop consonants as seen in this table. No. Final Sound Example /m/ confirm  confirmation 2. /n/ examine  examination 3. /z/ fertilize  fertilization 4. /s/ tax  taxation 5. /l/ consider  consideration 6. /r/ install  installation 7. /p/ usurp  usurpation 8. /t/ ferment  fermentation 9. /k/ embark  embarkation 10. /d/ degrade  degradation 1. nasal consonant fricative liquid stop consonant Table 8. Base Endings of the Allomorph [-ation] (Handono, 2007: 29-37) Based on the Handono‟s findings above, the non-actual noun *automatication and *investation are possible to be derived from the allomorph [-ation]. The stop consonant /k/ is found in the final sound of automatic and /t/ is also found in invest in which these two sounds can be followed by the allomorph [-ation]. These two findings have particular endings -ic and -est. The ending -ic particularly appears in derived adjectives. As mentioned in previous sub-chapters, the base automatic obtains the ending -ic through derivation. The problem is there is no word with the

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 ending -ic that can be followed by the allomorph [-ation]. Some nouns such as amplification and implication, at glance, seemingly obtain the allomorph [-ation] and are derived from *amplific + [-ation] and *implic + [-ation]. In fact, those nouns‟ actual bases are amplify and imply which obtain the allomorph [-ication] (Aronoff, 1985: 101). Different from the ending -ic, the ending -est in the base invest is not obtained through derivation. This ending is very rarely found in the possible bases that can obtain the allomorph [-ation]. There are only two bases with -est ending which are found, which are the verbs infest and manifest. The nominalizations of these words are infest  infestation and manifest  manifestation. The existence of the word infestation in the lexicon may confuse the speakers to differentiate infest and invest. Their only difference is on the pronunciation of voiceless /f/ in /ɪn’fest/ and voiced /v/ in /ɪn’vest/ Hence, the base invest is formed into *investation instead of invest  investment. c. Allomorph [-cation] The allomorph {-cation} only appears once in the data which is *satisfication. This non-actual noun is derived from the base satisfy, pronounced /‟sætɪsfaɪ/. According to Handono (2007), there are two conditions which can obtain the allomorph [-cation]. The first condition is the diphthong /aɪ/ like in: beautify /’bju:tɪfaɪ/  beautification, identify /‟aɪ’dentɪfaɪ/  identification, and ratify /’rætɪtaɪ/  ratification.

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 The second one is consonant /ʃ/ as in publish  publication (Handono: 2007: 46-47). The diphthong /aɪ/ appears as the final sound in the base of *satisfication. On the other words the derivation from satisfy to *satisfication has fulfilled the phonological condition of the allomorph [-cation]. Interestingly, *satisfication is not an actual word. The dictionary acknowledges the word satisfaction, instead. This case is explained by Handono (2007) that there are two exceptions of words with the ending /aɪ/. These words are liquefy and satisfy. They both are derived as: liquefy /‟lɪkwɪfaɪ/  liquefaction, and satisfy /‟sætɪsfaɪ/  satisfaction (Handono: 2007: 47-48). In addition, there are only three words which respond the attachment of the suffix {-ion} into the allomorph [-action]. These words are the noun benefit (as explained in sub-part ‘Allomorph [-ion]’), the verbs liquefy, and satisfy. These three words can be categorized as an exception since the same cases do not happen in their counterparts. 2. Nominalization with Suffix {-y} There are seven findings that show the occurrence of the suffix {-y}. All of them have the final consonant /t/. Two of them end with the ending -ate, the other two have the ending -ent, and the other three have endings -ant, -act, and -rupt. 1. *communicacy communicate /kə‟mju:nɪkeɪt/ 2. *populacy populate /ˈpɑːpjəleɪt/

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5. *tolerancy tolerant /ˈtɑːlɚrənt/ 4. *consequency consequent /ˈkɑːntsɪkwənt/ 3. *existency existent /ɪg‟zɪstənt/ 6. *eruptcy erupt /ɪ‟rʌpt/ 7. *interacy interact /ˌɪnt ɚˈækt/ 61 As discussed in the previous sub-chapter, there is a difference in acknowledging derivation ends with -y. Some previous researchers consider it as the suffix {-y} and some others consider it as the suffix {-cy}. This present study uses the theories of both suffixes to explain all possible attachments. Therefore, there are two layers of discussion in this part. Firstly, this study discusses the attachment of the suffix {-y} according to the theory of Nomina Actionis by Szymanek (1989). Secondly, this study discussed the attachment of the suffix {-cy} according to the study of the suffix {-cy} by Maharani (2012). Based on Szymanek‟s theory, the derived nouns which obtain the suffix {-y} in dictionary is very limited in number. “There exist less than a dozen Nomina Actionis forms apparently derived by means of the suffix -y” (Szymanek, 1989: 152). Those Nomina Actionis derivations are listed below. No. Base 1. deliver 2. discover /dɪlɪvə(r)/ 3. enter 4. flatter Noun No. Base /‟ɪndʒə(r)/ Noun delivery 5. injure discovery 6. inquire /ɪn’kwaɪə(r)/ inquiry /‟entə(r)/ entry* 7. entreat /ɪn’tri:t/ /‟flætə(r)/ flattery /dɪlɪvə(r)/ injury entreaty *([ə]  ø Table 19. Nomina Actionis with the Suffix {-y} (Szymanek, 1989: 152)

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 Analyzing the ending of those nouns, the suffix {-y} is attachable in words which mostly have /ə(r)/ final sound. As Szymanek states, “the occurrence of /-r/ verb-finally is not quite a coincidence, though: the suffix -y which can be isolated in the above forms is in fact cognate to a much more productive formative, -(e)ry” (Szymanek, 1989: 152). Nevertheless, the word entry does not have the -(e)ry ending because of morphophonemic process which is called truncation ([ə]  ø). Interestingly, there is only one particular base which has a different ending. This base is entreat which has /t/ final sound. In findings, all of the non-actual nouns are derived from bases with /t/ final sound. However, it is too soon to conclude that /t/ final sound is eligible to be followed by the suffix {-y} because this attachment only happens in one example. Therefore, Maharani‟s study on the suffix {-cy} and its allomorphs is used to scrutinize further whether derivations of the findings are possible. Maharani (2012) explains that there are three major endings that are followed by the suffix {-cy} and its allomorphs. Those endings are -ate, -ant, and -ent (Maharani, 2012: 57). In the findings, the ending -ate is found in the base of communicate and populate, the ending -ant is possessed by the base tolerant, and the ending -ent is also found in the bases consequent and existent. It means, in phonological perspective, the formations of communicate  *communicacy, populate  *populacy, *consequent  consequency, *existent  *existency, and tolerant  *tolerancy are possible to be done.

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 In Maharani‟s analysis, she also finds out that there are thirteen different minor endings which are followed by suffix {-cy}, which are: -et secret /ˈsiːkrət/  secrecy, -ain captain /ˈkæptɪn/  captaincy, -rupt bankrupt /ˈbæŋkrʌpt/  bankruptcy, -alse false /fɑːls/  fallacy, -tic lunatic /ˈluːnətɪk/  lunacy, -at diplomat /ˈdɪpləmæt/  diplomacy, -ect effect /ɪˈfekt/  efficacy, -ot idiot /ˈɪdiət/  idiocy, -ope pope /poʊp/  papacy, -ire conspire /kənˈspaɪr/  conspiracy, -eme supreme /suːˈpriːm/  supremacy, -erve conserve /kənˈsɜːv/  conservancy, and -end tend /tend/  tendency (Maharani, 2012: 67). As seen above, the ending -upt exists as one of the minor endings of the bases which can be followed by the suffix {-cy}. This particular ending explains the existence of the base erupt in the finding *eruptcy. Since there is an actual derivation bankrupt  bankruptcy, the non-actual derivation of erupt  *eruptcy is possible. The last but not least, the non-actual noun *interacy from the base interact is also possible to derive. Although there is no possible base with the ending -act that can be followed by the suffix {-cy}, -ct can be considered to be the ending like in the actual base effect. In some suffixes of endings, the vowel difference of a and e is

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 always seen as an allomorph, as in -ance/-ence, -ancy/-ency, and -ant/-ent. The actual base which has the similar final base to interact is effect. The result of the derivation of effect is efficacy. It undergoes two morphophonemic processes which are the ending -ect deletion and the vowel -a- addition. Following these morphophonemic processes, the possible derivation of the base interact is *interacy. This derivation similarly undergoes the deletion of the ending -act and the addition of the vowel -a-. 3. Nominalization with the Suffix {-ity} The findings which obtain attachment of the suffix {-ity} can be seen below. 1. 2. 3. 4. *harmonity harmony /ˈhɑːrməni/ *heterogeneousity heterogeneous /ˌhetəroʊˈdʒiːniəs/ *prosperousity prosperous /ˈprɑːspɚrəs/ *practitionality *practitional /prækˈtɪʃnal/ In order to discuss the formations of these words, the theory of the suffix {-ity} is elaborated. Szymanek (1989) claims that bases which can obtain the suffix {-ity} are quite predictable. He explains that at least there are seven phonological conditions that are attachable to this suffix. Those phonological conditions are endings -able/ible, -al, -ar, -ic, -ve, -ile, and -ous as listed in the following. No. Ending Example collective  collectivity creative  creativity -al informal  informality -ar popular  popularity 1. -able/-ible 2. 3.

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI No. Ending 65 Example 4. -ic authentic  authenticity 5. -ive active  activity 6. -ile hostile  hostility 7. -ous generous  generousity Table 20. Base Endings of the Suffix {-ity} (Szymanek, 1989: 161) The table above answers the existence of *heterogeneousity, *prosperousity, and *practitionality. The bases heterogeneous and prosperous have the ending -ous, thus the suffix {-ity} is attached. The ending -al in practitional is also included in the seven common endings of the bases with the suffix {-ity}. Therefore, based on the endings of these three non-actual nouns, these derivations are possible. Examining the common endings of the possible bases of the suffix {-ity}, it is true that the ending -ous is on the list. In fact, the noun *heterogeneousity is not an actual word. The actual word of *heterogeneousity is heterogeneity. This derivation undergoes internal modifications which are the deletion of ending -ous and the addition of the segment -ity. As a result of suffix {-ity} attachment, -ous  ø (Szymanek 1989: 161), as in: ambiguous /æmˈbɪgjuəs/  ambiguity /ˌæmbɪˈgjuːəti/, mendacious /menˈdeɪʃəs/  mendacity /menˈdæəti/, and  simultaneity /ˌsaɪməlˈteɪniti/. simultaneous /ˌsaɪməlˈteɪniəs/ In addition, the current research which is conducted by Yuliani (2005) shows that the deletion in the suffix {-ity} attachment also happens in segment -i- like in:

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI casual /ˈkæʒ.ju.əl/  casualty /ˈkæʒjuəlti/, loyal /ˈlɔɪ.əl/  loyalty /ˈlɔɪəlti/, and  sovereignty /ˈsɑːvrənti/. sovereign /ˈsɑːv.rən/ 66 The analysis of the ending -ous goes differently with the non-actual word *prosperousity which is derived from the base prosperous. In the previous subchapter, the complex suffixation of prosperousity has been discussed. It is derived from prosper  prosperous  *prosperousity. From this derivation, it is clear that the ending -ous is a suffix. In this point, the derivation seems correct and the noun can be the actual words. In fact, because the -ous in prosperous is a suffix, the noun *prosperousity cannot be actual. The bases with -ous ending can be followed by the suffix {-ity} when it is not a suffix, for instance, curious  curiosity, generous  generosity, and monstrous  monstrosity. The ending -ous in those example are the basic forms of the roots; they are not the results of suffixation. Therefore, the actual noun of *prosperousity is prosperity. Discussing the non-actual word *practitionality, its actual noun is practice. This word actually has two lexical categories, which are verb and noun. It is already discussed in Chapter II that there is an English word formation, namely zero derivation. Zero derivation is when the verb and noun forms of certain lexeme are the same. In the word practice, not only its verb and noun form but also the pronunciations of these two lexical categories are exactly the same. They both are pronounced /ˈpræktɪs/ without any shift on the stress. In American English, the verb form of practice is spelled practise.

(79) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 67 Different from the other non-actual nouns with the suffix {-ity}, the derivation of harmony  *harmonity cannot be considered to be a possible derivation. The ending of harmony is the final syllable -ni or the final sound /i/ which do not exist on the list of common phonological conditions of the suffix {-ity} bases. Other than these seven phonological conditions, there are some residual types of the bases found in Turnbull‟s dictionary that can obtain this suffix. Those residual bases are categorized into alveolar (/t/, /d/, /n/, /s/, and /r/), velar /k/, and labiodentals /v/, as displayed in the following table. However, neither syllable -ni nor sound /i/ as in harmony are found. All of the residual bases have a consonant ending, while /i/ is a vowel. Therefore, the formation of harmony  *harmonity is impossible. Noun Noun absurdity Base frigid Noun frigidity Base modern modernity acerbic acerbity gelid gelidity obese obesity adverse adversity grave gravity odd oddity antique antiquity human humanity opportune opportunity avid avidity humid humidity pure purity benign benignity immense immensity scare scarcity chaste chastity immune immunity sincere sincerity complex complexity inane inanity solid solidity dense density insane insanity stupid stupidity diverse diversity insipid insipidity uniform uniformity divine divinity intense intensity valid validity extreme extremity lax laxity virgin virginity feminine femininity masculine masculinity fluid fluidity mature maturity Base absurd Table 21. Residual Types of Bases with the Suffix{-ity}

(80) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4. 68 Nominalization with the Suffix {-ness} According to Szymanek (1989), the suffix {-ness} can be found in bases with any phonological environment without a significant phonological constraint. All words derived from the suffix {-ness} do not undergo morphophonemic process. Because of its flexibility in the attachment, the suffix {-ness} often appears as the counterparts of other suffixes, which are {-ity}, {-acy}, and {-ancy/-ency}. As quoted below: “The combination of -ness with base-forms of all these diverse types is greatly facilitated by the fact that this suffix is phonologically neutral, i.e. it induces no segmental modification in the stem and does not trigger stress-shift. As a result, all Xness derivations are completely transparent and recoverable” (Szymanek, 1989: 156-157). Based on the explanation above, the suffix {-ness} is base-friendly. Since this suffix is attachable in any phonological condition, all derivations of this suffix in the data of non-actual nouns are also possible. Those nouns are displayed in the following list. 5. 1. *harmness harm /hɑːrm/ 2. *guideness guide /gaɪd/ 3. *importaness important /ɪmˈpɔːrtənt/ Nominalization with the Suffix {-ment} In the data collection, two non-actual nouns derived from the suffix {-ment} are found. Those non-actual nouns are *prisonment and *provement. Those words are derived from actual bases prison and prove.

(81) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 69 Discussing the phonological constraint of the suffix {-ment}, the distribution of the suffix {-ment} is complementary with the suffix {-ion}. There are three phonological conditions that cannot be fulfilled by the suffix {-ion} then end up with the suffix {-ment}. Firstly, the base with initial segments en-/em- and be- obtain suffix {-ment}, as in the examples below. Initial Sound en- Initial Sound em- Initial Sound be- embark embarkment endorse endorsement bedazzle bedazzlement embezzle embezzlement employ employment beseech beseechment employ employment enlarge enlargement besiege besiegement Table 22. Bases with the Initial Sounds en-, em-, and be- (Szymanek, 1989: 149) The second phonological condition is the ending -ish. The suffix {-ment} can be attached to the words abolish, establish, and impoverish and respectively form abolishment, establishment, and impoverishment. The third phonological condition is the ending -(g)de. The examples of bases with this ending are acknowledge, encourage, and manage. These examples obtain the suffix {-ment} and become acknowledgement, encouragement, and management (Szymanek, 1989: 146). Nevertheless, there are many actual words derived from the suffix {-ment} yet do not follow those three phonological conditions of the suffix {-ment}. Firstly, the derivation of betray, instead of *betrayment, is betrayal. In fact, the word betray has initial segment be-. The same case also happens in bestow  bestowal, although bestowment is also acknowledged as the actual word. Secondly, the suffix {-ment} are found in many bases with endings other than three conditions above, such as:

(82) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI develop /dɪ’veləp/  enlargement, entertain /,entə‟teɪn/  entertainment, govern /‟gʌvn  endorsement, refresh /rɪ‟freʃ/  refreshment, and retire / rɪ’taɪə(r)/  retirement. 70 As seen in the examples above, there are many exceptions in the bases of suffix {-ment}. Furthermore, the distribution of the suffix {-ment} attachment is quite widespread. The suffix {-ion} and its allomorphs have the phonological conditions that are relatively definable. On the other hand, the suffix {-ment} as its rival formative takes the rest of bases which fail to obtain the suffix {-ion}. The phonological condition which defines the complementary distribution of the suffixes {-ment} and {-ion} is also explained by Aronoff as in this quotation below. “Verbs with the prefixes eN- and be- take #ment; verbs ending in oral or nasal stop take +Ation; verbs ending in a v or z, preceded by an optional liquid, nasal, or peripheral stop, preceded by a lax vowel, take +Ation (starve, sense, fix); verbs ending in a liquid preceded by vowel take +Ation (console, explore). All others take #ment” (Aronoff, 1985: 60). Analyzing the noun-actual nouns which are derived from the suffix {-ment} in the findings, they do not have the three phonological characteristics as elaborated above. Because of many exceptions that occur in the actual bases, it is important to also see the final sounds of the actual bases. As seen in the following data, the final sounds of two non-actual nouns‟ bases are /n/ and /v/. 1. *prisonment prison /ˈprɪzn/ 2. *provement prove /pruːv/

(83) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 71 Firstly, the final sound /n/ is found in entertain  entertainment, assign  assignment, and govern  government. The reason of deriving *prisonment from the base prison is because of the base prison also has the final sound /n/. As discussed in the previous sub-chapter, the actual noun of *prisonment is prison or imprisonment. The derivation of imprison  imprisonment results in an actual word. It gives a further reason to derives prison to *prisonment. Secondly, the final sound /v/ is found only in one actual base improve to derive improvement. In the previous sub-chapter, the contribution of the prefix {im-} in changing the lexical category has been discussed. This prefix changes the lexical category noun to be verb as in prison  imprison. However, improve is not the derivation of prove. Those words are two different verbs which have different ways to derive their nouns. The verb improve derives its noun from suffixation, while prove derives its noun from internal modification, as explained in this quotation. “The term internal modification (apophony) denotes a morphological, i.e. mening-bearing, process which typically consists in replacing, within a word, a particular phonological segment with another one. Formally speaking, the change may involve two vowels of two consonants. In functional terms, this kind of modification may result in a variety of inflectional or derivational opposition, e.g. singular/plural, present/past, verb/noun” (Szymanek, 1989: 76). As quoted above, internal modification replaces vowel(s) or consonant(s) within a word. It happens in the actual derivation of prove /pru:v/ which results in proof /pruːf/. There is a replacement of the consonant /v/ to /f/. Internal modification can also result in a derivational opposition. The pair of prove opposition of verb and noun. proof is a derivational

(84) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 72 In addition, two different conclusions can be derived from nominalization with the suffix {-ment} based on the phonological condition of bases that can obtain this suffix. Firstly, the derivation of prison  *prisonment is possible because there are some actual bases obtaining the attachment of the suffix {-ment} which end with the final sound /n/ as in the base prison. Secondly, the derivation of prove  *provement is not possible because the actual derivation of prove is not through suffixation, but internal modification.

(85) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 73 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION There are twenty-four non-actual nouns found in debating speeches of EDS Sanata Dharma members of 2013/2014. In their formations, five suffixes are used. These suffixes are Nomina Actionis suffixes {-ion}, {-y}, {-ment}, and Nomina Essendi suffixes {-ity} and {-ness}. The suffix {-ion} is the most productive one, followed by the suffix {-y}, {-ity}, {-ness}, and {-ment} respectively. The productivity of suffix {-ion} in forming non-actual nouns is because of its familiarity in deriving nouns. The suffix {-y} is relatively productive because there is the influence of Indonesian as the debaters’ first language. Meanwhile, the productivity of the suffixes {-ity}, {-ness}, and {-ment} is because those suffixes are more productive than the other suffixes in their categories. Based on the function of each suffix, eight derivations are possible, while the other sixteen derivations are impossible. Those impossible derivations happen because some bases are the results of complex suffixations which are not actual words. It causes these non-actual bases’ lexical categories seem eligible to obtain certain suffix. Based on the phonological constraint of each suffix, twenty-two derivations are possible, while the other two are impossible. These impossible derivations are caused by the existence of some actual bases which have similar endings with the non-actual words. It misleads the debaters to combine these non-actual bases with suffixes that are used in actual bases with similar endings. 73

(86) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 74 Summarizing these two indicators, the conclusion of non-actual nouns is displayed in the following table. No. Data Suffix Suffix Phonological Possible/ Function Constraint Impossible P I P I Noun 1. *automatication -ion - √ √ - impossible 2. *benefition -ion - √ √ - impossible 3. *investation -ion √ - √ - possible 4. *perspection -ion - √ √ - impossible 5. *potention -ion - √ √ - impossible 6. *satisfication -ion √ - √ - possible 7. *tendention -ion - √ √ - impossible 8. *transparention -ion - √ √ - impossible 9. *communicacy -y √ - √ - possible 10. *consequency -y - √ √ - impossible 11. *eruptcy -y √ - √ - possible 12. *existency -y - √ √ - impossible 13. *interacy -y √ - √ - possible 14. *populacy -y √ - √ - possible 15. *tolerancy -y - √ √ - impossible 16. *guideness -ness - √ √ - impossible 17. *harmness -ness - √ √ - impossible 18. *importaness -ness √ - √ - possible 19. *prisonment -ment - √ √ - impossible 20. *provement -ment √ - - √ impossible 21. *harmonity -ity - √ - √ impossible 22. *heterogenousity -ity √ - √ - possible 23. *practitionality -ity √ - √ - possible 24. *prosperousity -ity √ - √ - possible Table 23. Possible and Impossible Derived Nouns

(87) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 75 Based on the function and phonological constraint of the suffixes, there are ten possible derived nouns found in the data. Those possible derived nouns are *investation, *satisfication, *communicacy, *eruptcy, *interacy, *populacy, *importaness, *heterogeneousity, *prosperousity, and *practitionality. Those nouns obtain {-ion}, {-y}, {-ness}, and {-ity} suffixation. The other fourteen nouns, which are *automatication, *benefition, *perspection, *potention, *tendention, *transparantion, *consequency, *existency, *tolerancy, *guideness, *harmness, *proisonment, *provement, and *harmonity, are impossible derived nouns. None of the nominalization with suffix {-ment} results in a possible word. Finally, there are many factors that can trigger the creativity of debaters in producing non-actual words. The familiarity of the suffix, the linguistic competence of the debaters, and also the reference of the other words determine the creation of words that can be produced by the debaters. The current researcher realizes that there are also many exceptions in the word formation rules that may create the confusion in producing words. Therefore, debaters should not be bothered by the actual or nonactual words in delivering their speeches as long as the words can still convey the meaning that the debaters want to deliver and be understood by the adjudicators. In advanced level, debaters should consider the words that they produce in order to be good speakers.

(88) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY Aronoff, Mark. Word Formation in Generative Grammar. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1985. Aronoff, Mark and Kirsten Fudeman. What is Morphology?, Second Edition. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011. Bauer, Laurie. Introducing Linguistic Morphology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd, 1988. Brown, Keith. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Second Edition. Ann Arbor: Elsevier Pergamon, 2004. Fasold, Ralph and Jeff Connor-linton. An Introduction to Language and Linguistics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to Language. Boston: Thomson, 2011. Gleason, H. A. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961. Handono, Bibit Nur. “A Synchronic Study on the Form of English Suffix –ion.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2007. Turnbull, Joanna. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (eighth edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Maharani, Puspita. “A Study of the Meaning and Allomorphs of the English Suffix {cy}.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2012. Muhammadin, Fajri Matahati, Vitri Sekarsari, Mohammad Fikri Pido, Keinesasih Hapsari Puteri, Rangga Dian Fadillah, Karlina Denistia, Muhammad Rifky Wicaksono, and Ibrahim Hanif. Handbook of Parliamentary Debating, Second Edition. n.p. n.d. (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Handbook_for_Parliame ntary_Debating_(Second_Edition)_by_Jogja_Debating_Forum.pdf). September 15, 2012. O’Grady, William, Michael Dobrovolsky, and Francis Katamba. Contemporary Linguistics An Introduction. Boston: Bedford/St.Martin’s, 1997. O’Grady, William, John Archibald, Mark Aronoff, and Janie Rees-Miller. Contemporary Linguistics An Introduction. Boston: Bedford/St.Martin’s, 2010. 76

(89) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 77 Prasetya, R.S. Kristian Guntur. "A Morphological Study of the Nominalization Using the Suffix {-age} and {-ment}." Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2012. Szymanek, Bogdan. Introduction to Morphological Analysis. Warsawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1989. Quirk, Randolph, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, and Jan Svartvik. A University Grammar of English. London: Longman, 1980. Yuliani, Dewi. "A Morphological Analysis on English Nominalization Using Suffix ity." Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2005.

(90) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDICES Appendix 1: Data Sources Motion This house would ban zoos. Year 2013 Speaker Participant A Data Finding harmness guideness Participant B harmness satisfication tendention This house condemns clinics that claim to cure 2013 Participant C homosexuality. importaness consequency communicacy Participant D interacy harmonity This house believes that Participant E responsible LGBT advocacy provement tolerancy 2013 should condemn the hook-up Participant B culture. This house regrets individualism perspection as a dominant conception of potention 2013 morality in contemporary liberal discourse. 78 Participant C 78

(91) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI automatication This house believes that CEOs Participant E transparantion of major news company should 2013 investation be democratically elected in Participant F open public elections. existency heterogeneousity As developed countries, this prisonment house would give financial aid to developing countries which Participant G accept the prisoners transfer from developed countries. This house would not allow for people to sign up for a one-way prosperousity 2013 Participant H mission Mars One Programme. existency This house believes that the death of printed media is bad for 2014 Participant C benefition eruptcy journalism. Participant I This house would take away healthcare subsidy for those who do not undergo healthy lifestyle. practitionality populacy 2014 Participant J 79

(92) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 80 Appendix 2: Noun-Actual Nouns and the Function of Suffixes No. Data Suffix Function Base 1. *automatication -ion VN automatic A 2. *benefition -ion VN benefit N 3. *investation -ion VN invest V 4. *satisfication -ion VN satisfy V 5. *perspection -ion VN *perspect X 6. *potention -ion VN potent A 7. *tendention -ion VN *tendent X 8. *transparention -ion VN transparent A 9. *communicacy -y VN communicate V -y VN AV consequent A -(enc)y -y VN erupt V -y VN existent A -ency AN exist V 10. 11. *consequency *eruptcy 12. *existency 13. *interacy -y VN interact V 14. *populacy -y VN populate V -y VN AV tolerant A -(anc)y 15. *tolerancy 16. *guideness -ness AN guide V 17. *harmness -ness AN harm N 18. *importaness -ness AN important A 19. *prisonment -ment VN prison N 20. *provement -ment VN prove V 21. *harmonity -ity AN harmony N 22. *heterogenousity -ity AN heterogeneous A 23. *practitionality -ity AN *practitional A 24. *prosperousity -ity AN prosperous A

(93) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Appendix 3: Phonetic Transcriptions of the Non-Actual Derived Nouns Bases 1. *automatication automatic /,ɔ:təmæ’tɪk / 2. *benefition benefit /benɪfɪt/ 3. *communicacy communicate /kə’mju:nɪkeɪt/ 4. *consequency consequent /ˈkɑːntsɪkwənt/ 5. *eruptcy erupt /ɪ’rʌpt/ 6. *existency existent /ɪg’zɪstənt/ 7. *guideness guide /gaɪd/ 8. *harmness harm /hɑːrm/ 9. *harmonity harmony /ˈhɑːrməni/ 10. *heterogenousity heterogeneous /ˌhetəroʊˈdʒiːniəs/ 11. *importaness important /ɪmˈpɔːrtənt/ 12. *interacy interact /ˌɪnt ɚˈækt/ 13. *investation invest /ɪn’vest/ 14. *populacy populate /ˈpɑːpjəleɪt/ 15. *perspection *perspect /pə’spekt/ 16. *practitionality *practitional /prækˈtɪʃnal/ 17. *prisonment prison /ˈprɪzn/ 18. *prosperousity prosperous /ˈprɑːspɚrəs/ 19. *provement prove /pruːv/ 20. *potention potent /’pəʊtnt/ 21. *satisfication satisfy /’sætɪsfaɪ/ 22. *tolerancy tolerant /ˈtɑːlɚrənt/ 23. *tendention *tendent /’tendənt/ 24. *transparention transparent /trans’pærənt/ 81

(94) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Appendix 4: Occurrence of Lexical Category No. Lexical Category Occurrence Percentage 1. Adjective 10 41.7% 2. Verb 8 33.3% 3. Noun 4 16.7% 4. Unidentified 2 8.3% TOTAL 24 100% 82

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