PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE RESISTANCE OF WOMEN TOWARDS SEXUAL TERRORISM AS SEEN IN EVE ENSLER’S THE VAGINA MONOLOGUES AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By LAURENCYA HELLENE LARASATI RURUK Student Number: 07 4214 055 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI THE RESISTANCE OF WOMEN TOWARDS SEXUAL TERRORISM AS SEEN IN EVE ENSLER’S THE VAGINA MONOLOGUES AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By LAURENCYA HELLENE LARASATI RURUK Student Number: 07 4214 055 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at my university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis. Yogyakarta, August 15, 2014 Laurencya Hellene Larasati Ruruk iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Laurencya Hellene Larasati Ruruk : 07 4214 055 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: THE RESISTANCE OF WOMEN TOWARDS SEXUAL TERRORISM AS SEEN IN EVE ENSLER’S THE VAGINA MONOLOGUES beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media yang lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 15 Agustus 2014 Yang menyatakan, Laurencya Hellene Larasati Ruruk v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI .Every Cloud Has a Silver Lining. “Everything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms—to choose one’s attitude in any given set of circumstances, to choose one’s own way.” ― Viktor E. Frankl “You may encounter many defeats, but you must not be defeated. In fact, it may be necessary to encounter the defeats, so you can know who you are, what you can rise from, how you can still come out of it.” ― Maya Angelou “Whenever we think we know the future, even for a second, it changes...Assuming the worst that can happen or we step forward into the unknown and assume it will be brilliant.” ― Grey’s Anatomy “Without great solitude no serious work is possible.” ― Pablo Picasso vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI FOR MY MOST PRECIOUS ONES IN THE WORLD MY FAMILY, WHOM I EXTREMELY ADORE FROM THE BOTTOMMOST OF MY BEATING HEART vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I would like to thank Him who makes all of the impossible possible. Without His blessing and guidance, I might not have the strength and faith to carry on whenever I encounter tough situations along the way. Secondly, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my thesis advisor, Ni Luh Putu Rosiandani, S.S., M.Hum. for the never-ending lesson and support. I probably fail to continue and finish this thesis if not because of her encouragement. Moreover, my deep gratitude also goes to Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum. as my thesis co-advisor for the corrections and suggestions to improve this thesis, and also as the former head of English Letters Department for allowing me to be back and to continue my study. In addition, I would like to thank Dewi Widyastuti, S.Pd., M.Hum. for the critique and advice to make this thesis even better. I would also like to thank all of the Fathers whom I met inside and outside classes, lecturers and staff of Sanata Dharma University, especially English Letters Department, all whom I met along the way. I will forever be in debt for the second chance that was given to me, all the help, support, attention, valuable experiences, and the welcoming smile that I get every time I am in the campus. I would like to dedicate this thesis to my biggest love in the world, my family, my parents who shower me with lots of love and support in their own unique and comical ways, my little big sister who annoys me every time she ruins my ‘me time’, and my big little brother who scolds me whenever he knows that I am being lazy. Thank you for being with me through thick and thin. Last but not least, I would like to thank all of my friends. Naming them one by one would be unfair for those whom I might forget to mention, therefore, I thank all of these precious people whom I met along the way and stays around no matter how terrible my personality and behavior is. I hope this friendship lasts forever, and I wish you tremendous happiness and success in your life. Laurencya Hellene Larasati Ruruk viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………… APPROVAL PAGE……………………………………………………...... ACCEPTANCE PAGE…………………………………………………… STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY........................................................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI……………... MOTTO PAGE……………………………………………………............. DEDICATION PAGE…………………………………………….............. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………. TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………. ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………… ABSTRAK…………………………………………………………………... i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix xi xii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION………..................................................... A. Background of the Study……………………………………... B. Problem Formulation………………………………………….. C. Objectives of the Study.............................................................. D. Definition of Terms………………………………………….... 1 1 4 5 5 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW.................................................. 6 A. Review of Related Studies……………………………………... 6 B. Review of Related Theories…………………………………….. 8 1. Theory of Monologue………………………………………. 8 2. Theory of Sexual Terrorism………………………………… 10 3. Theory of Resistance in Relation to Radical Feminism........ 16 C. Theoretical Framework…………………………………………. 24 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY…………………………………......... A. Object of the Study………………………………………….... B. Approach of the Study………………………………………... C. Method of the Study…………………………………….......... 25 25 26 27 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS......................................................................... A. The Sexual Terrorism as Seen through the Experiences of Women in The Vagina Monologues…………………………... 1. Inside the Family and Within Marriage…………………… a. “Hair”………………………………………………….. b. “I was Twelve. My Mother Slapped Me.”…………….. c. “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could”……………... d. “The Memory of Her Face (Part I)”................................. e. “Crooked Braid”……………………………………….. 2. Outside the Family and Marriage…………………………... a. “The Flood”……………………………………………. 28 ix 28 29 29 30 32 34 36 37 37

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI b. “The Vagina Workshop”……………………………….. c. “Because He Liked to Look at It”…………………….. d. “My Angry Vagina”…………………………………… e. “The Memory of Her Face (PartII)”…………………… f. “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried” 3. Within the Situation of War……………………………….. a. “My Vagina was My Village”…………………………. b. “Under the Burqa”…………………………………….. c. “Say It”………………………………………………… B. The Resistance of the Women towards the Sexual Terrorism………………………………………………. 1. Physical and Verbal Resistance…………………………… a. “Hair”………………………………………………….. b. “My Angry Vagina”…………………………………… c. “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could”…………….. d. “I was There in the Room”……………………………. e. “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried” f. “Crooked Braid”………………………………………. g. “Say It”………………………………………………… 2. Mental or Inner Resistance………………………………… a. “The Flood”……………………………………………. b. “My Vagina was My Village”…………………………. c. “Under the Burqa”……………………………………... 39 40 41 42 43 45 45 47 48 51 52 52 54 56 57 58 60 61 62 62 63 65 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION……………………………………………. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................... 69 APPENDIX………………………………………………………………….. 71 x

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT LAURENCYA HELLENE LARASATI RURUK. The Resistance of Women towards Sexual Terrorism as Seen in Eve Ensler’s The Vagina Monologues. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. In this present time, most women believe that what happened in the past, remains in the past, however, some literary works prove that, until this present time, women are still oppressed and considered as the inferior class to men. One of the literary works containing the evidence is The Vagina Monologues by Eve Ensler. The monologues inside it share the experiences of various women who have been physically, mentally, and sexually terrorized. From those experiences of the women in the monologues, this thesis tries to identify the sexual terrorism that is experienced by each woman in each monologue, and at the same time, tries to examine the resistance of the women towards the sexual terrorism. There are two problems formulation which are discussed in this thesis. The first one is how sexual terrorism is described through the experiences of the women in The Vagina Monologues, and the second is how those women resist the sexual terrorism that they experience. Feminism approach is used in this thesis in order to see the accurate analysis of the condition of the woman in each monologue. In addition, the writer uses the theory of monologue, the theory of sexual terrorism, and the theory of resistance in relation to radical feminism to support the argument in the analysis. In writing the analysis, the writer uses the method of library research. The primary source of this thesis is The Vagina Monologues, and other sources are taken from printed and electronic books, and also the previous undergraduate theses and article discussing the similar topic to this thesis. In summary, from the analysis it can be concluded that obviously or vaguely, physically or mentally, men use sexual terrorism as a tool to control women’s autonomy over their own body, sexuality, and reproduction. It occurs to any woman in any situation, and the examples from the monologues are wife beating within marriage, sexual harassment by lovers or strangers, rape and sexual torture at war, sexual abuse of children, transgender bullying, and many other vicious treatments toward women. Sexual terrorism is there to keep women in the subordinate position. It is established in order to snatch the freedom from the women. The awareness of the women towards the sexual terrorism triggers their resistance towards it. Each woman experiences different situation of sexual terrorism, therefore their ways of resisting the terror are also varied. Some of the women are unable to physically resist the sexual terror that happens to them, however, some of them can resist and free themselves from the vicious treatments that they experienced. xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK LAURENCYA HELLENE LARASATI RURUK. The Resistance of Women towards Sexual Terrorism as Seen in Eve Ensler’s The Vagina Monologues. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Di masa sekarang ini, sebagian besar wanita meyakini bahwa situasi telah berubah, akan tetapi, beberapa karya sastra membuktikan bahwa sampai dengan saat ini, wanita masih tertindas dan dianggap sebagai kelas yang lebih rendah dari pria. Salah satu karya sastra yang berisi bukti tersebut adalah The Vagina Monologues oleh Eve Ensler. Monolog-monolog di dalamnya membagikan pengalaman dari berbagai macam wanita yang diteror secara fisik, mental, dan seksual. Dari pengalaman para wanita di dalam tiap monolog, skripsi ini mencoba mengenali terorisme seksual yang dialami oleh tiap wanita tersebut di tiap monolog, dan di saat bersamaan, mencoba membahas tentangan para wanita terhadap terorisme seksual tersebut. Terdapat dua permasalahan yang dibahas di dalam skripsi ini. Yang pertama adalah bagaimana terorisme seksual dideskripsikan melalui pengalaman para wanita dalam The Vagina Monologues, dan yang kedua, bagaimana para wanita itu menentang terorisme seksual yang mereka alami. Pendekatan feminisme digunakan di dalam skripsi ini untuk melihat analisis akurat terhadap kondisi wanita di tiap monolog. Sebagai tambahan, penulis menggunakan teori monolog, teori terorisme seksual, dan teori resistansi dalam kaitannya dengan feminisme radikal untuk mendukung penjelasan di dalam analisis. Dalam menulis analisis, penulis menggunakan metode studi pustaka. Sumber utama dari skripsi ini adalah The Vagina Monologues, dan sumbersumber lain diambil dari buku cetak dan elektronik, dan juga skripsi-skripsi terdahulu dan artikel yang membahas topik yang serupa dengan skripsi ini. Ringkasnya, dari analisis dapat disimpulkan bahwa secara jelas atau samar, secara fisik ataupun mental, para pria menggunakan terorisme seksual sebagai alat untuk mengontrol otonomi para wanita atas tubuh, seksualitas, dan reproduksi mereka. Ini terjadi pada wanita mana pun, pada situasi apa pun, seperti contoh-contoh dari monolog yang ada, penganiayaan terhadap istri di dalam pernikahan, pelecehan seksual oleh kekasih maupun orang tak dikenal, pemerkosaan dan penyiksaan seksual di masa perang, kekerasan seksual pada anak, penindasan kaum transeksual, dan masih banyak perlakuan keji lainnya terhadap wanita. Terorisme seksual ada untuk menjaga posisi wanita sebagai yang lebih rendah, ini dikembangkan untuk merebut kebebasan dari para wanita. Kesadaran para wanita akan terorisme seksual memicu tentangan mereka terhadapnya. Tiap wanita mengalami situasi terorisme seksual yang berbeda, maka cara mereka menghadapi teror pun beragam. Beberapa dari wanita itu tidak dapat secara fisik melawan terror seksual yang menimpa mereka, akan tetapi, beberapa dari mereka dapat menentang dan membebaskan diri dari perlakuan keji yang mereka alami. xi i

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Terrorism, when we see or hear the word “terrorism”, we will be directed to incidents such as the suicide bomb tragedies, bank robberies, airplanes hijacks, ethnic wars, racial massacres, and many other horrible incidents. However, according to Carole J. Sheffield, there is a different kind of terrorism, the kind that is more familiar and seems natural to all societies, it is sexual terrorism. The targets of sexual terrorism are women of all age, race, and class. Sexual terrorism is the common characteristic of rape, wife battery, incest, pornography, harassment, and all forms of sexual violence (1984: 3). Growing up in an era that looks like it has already given a better condition for women, makes most of the people forget about the horrible cases that women can or still encounter in everyday life. Consciously or unconsciously, women are still considered to be in a state of being weak targets. Women are still feeling insecure, afraid, and threatened within the society, within marriage, and even within family. For some people, the opinion that women are still considered weak might be seen as a pessimistic idea, however some facts, whether from the news or literary works, prove that women are still vulnerable and are still being the target of violence and terror. Women are still being the victims of sexual terrorism. 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 As stated by Gloria Steinem: These last three decades of feminism were also marked by a deep anger as the truth of violence against the female body was revealed, whether it took the form of rape, childhood sexual abuse, anti-lesbian violence, physical abuse of women, sexual harassment, terrorism against reproductive freedom, or the international crime of female genital mutilation (2008: xxxiii). As also shared by Carole J. Sheffield through her article, men use violence as the tool to control women, “Violence and its corollary, fear, serve to terrorize females and to maintain the patriarchal definition of woman’s place” (1984: 3). The intention is to make women frightened, and therefore it is easier to dominate them physically and psychologically. She also said that, “Violence and the threat of violence against females represent the need of patriarchy to deny that a woman’s body is her own property and that no one should have access to it without her consent” (1984:3). The other evidences of sexual terrorism are presented by Deborah L. Madsen through her examples of misogynistic practices in several literary works such as, Possessing the Secret of Joy, a novel by Alice Walker, which exposes the reality of sexual mutilation and the imprisonment of women in their bodies, and Maxine Hong Kingston’s description of Chinese foot-binding in China Men. Earlier corsetry in Western society represents the same kind of women violation in which women are physically tortured, unable to move freely and to breathe easily, in order to be called a beauty. The threat of being rape and violently assaulted keeps women confined in terms of where they can go and when, because women as victims can be accused to be in a wrong situation. “Intimidation,

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 terrorism, fear – these strategies keep women in a subordinate position where they are dominated by men” (2000: 153). Sexual terrorism against women is also the primary concern of the radical feminist movement. As stated in Feminist Theory and Literary Practice, “The use of sexual violence by men as a strategy for sustaining patriarchal control of women rose to prominence as a major feminist issue in the 1970s” (2000: 12). Another statement is taken from ‘The New York Radical Feminist Manifesto’: Radical feminism recognizes the oppression of women as a fundamental political oppression wherein women are categorized as an inferior class based on their sex. It is the aim of radical feminism to organize politically to destroy this sex-class system. As radical feminists we recognize that we are engaged in a power struggle with men, and that the agent of our oppression is man in so far as he identifies with and carries out the supremacy privileges of the male role (quoted by Madsen, 2000: 153). From her statement, it can be seen that actually the issue on sexual terrorism is still becoming a concern among radical feminists because women are still treated as the subordinate of men, based on their sexuality. Women are still terrorized based on their sex, and women will always struggle within the oppression as long as men still have the control over them. Therefore, radical feminism aims to destroy the superiority of men and to end the oppression of women by men as the resistance towards the sexual terrorism. Eve Ensler also stated her deep concern towards the violence against women. She is well-known as the founder of V-Day, which is a movement to stop violence against women. In the book, Ensler provides the monologues that are based on her interviews with various women around the world. The monologues are talking about the sexual violence experienced by those interviewed women.

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 Those experiences in the monologues lead the writer to see different kinds of sexual terrorism experienced by each interviewed woman. Each experience and each thought of the women will also be used to show the resistance of those women towards the sexual terrorism. However, not all monologues show a clear evidence of sexual terrorism and the resistance towards it. There are also some of the monologues that vaguely show the evidence of sexual terrorism and the resistance. The women have different experience and resistance because they come from different places, races, cultures, societies, and religions. In this study, the writer chooses The Vagina Monologues as the object of the study because this study aims to reveal the resistance of the women that have experienced sexual terrorism, and Eve Ensler provides the evidences needed by the writer to conduct this study. This study tries to see beyond the experiences and the responses of those women to reveal the fact that actually women are still experiencing sexual terrorism and they resist it. By trying to see the resistance of those women, this study also aims to show the strength of women and by that they may no longer be claimed as targets. As also stated in the book, “Ending violence against women means opening to the great power of women, the mystery of women, the heart of women, the wild, unending sexuality and creativity of women – and not being afraid” (2008: xxiii). B. Problem Formulation From the above background of the study, the writer then formulates two problems that need to be analyzed:

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 1. How is the sexual terrorism described through the experiences of the women in The Vagina Monologues? 2. How do the women resist the sexual terrorism in The Vagina Monologues? C. Objectives of the Study This study consists of two objectives. The first one is to identify the sexual terrorism through the experiences of the women, and the second is to examine how the women resist the sexual terrorism that they experienced. D. Definition of Terms In order to avoid misinterpretation of some terms used, the writer provides the definition of the terms in its relation to the topic discussed. 1. Sexual Terrorism : it is a system that functions to maintain male supremacy through actual and implied violence (Sheffield, 1984: 3). 2. Resistance : an act done by someone subordinate, that in response to power, do challenge power, and contain at least a possibility, that power gets undermined by the act (Vinthagen, 2007: 7). The fundamental and possible normative value of resistance is its creation or expansion of space for making choices… (2007: 21). 3. Radical Feminism feminism argues : aims to destroy the sex-class system…Radical that women’s oppression comes from women’s categorization as an inferior class to the class ‘men’ on the basis of their gender (Humm, 1995: 231).

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies The objectives of this study are to see the sexual terrorism through the experiences of the women and to identify how those women resist the sexual terrorism that they experienced in The Vagina Monologues. In order to compare and to support the arguments stated in this study, the writer provides the following three related studies. Several researchers have used The Vagina Monologues, radical feminism and women resistance as their object of study in their articles and undergraduate theses. In this part, the writer provides an undergraduate thesis that was written on the topic of resistance and an undergraduate thesis that was written on the topic of radical feminism, the first undergraduate thesis was written by Henrica Angelia Indriawati Sumarno entitled “Resistance against Black Women’s Oppression Seen through the Main Character in April Sinclair’s Coffee Will Make You Black”, the second undergraduate thesis was written by Raynesta Mikaela Indri Malo entitled “Radical Feminism as seen through the Female Characters in Harumi Setouchi’s Beauty In Disarray”. Moreover, the writer also provides an article discussing about The Vagina Monologues by Alyssa Reiser entitled “Our Vaginas, Not Ourselves: A Critical Analysis of the Vagina Monologues”. Henrica Angelia Indriawati Sumarno’s undergraduate thesis focused on how Stevie as a black woman and also as the main character in Coffee Will Make 6

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 You Black resists the oppression against her. Stevie resists the oppression through her thought and action. When she reaches her consciousness of being oppressed, she assures herself to have self-respect. According to Sumarno, in the end Stevie changed her appearance into natural African-American look and speaks up her voice about freedom through her poem entitled “What Good” (2011: ix). Raynesta Mikaela Indri Malo’s undergraduate thesis focused on how the two female characters in the Harumi Satouchi’s Beauty In Disarray, Noe Ito and Raicho Hiratsuka, portray the spirit of radical feminism in the situation where women are in the subordinate position under patriarchal system. According to Malo, Japan was known to hold the patriarchal system that subordinate women and restrict them from getting the same opportunities with men in various aspects of life. The situation then provokes the two female characters to fight against that system with their own way (2008: x). Alyssa Reiser’s article focused on the issues of domestic violence and rape culture, her own experience as a woman as well as the experiences of her femaleidentified friends and family, feminist theory, and a limited but representative amount of critical scholarship as a lens through which to observe and to state the effectiveness of The Vagina Monologues as emancipatory feminist theater. Specifically, she is concerned about the ahistorical ‘culture of vaginas’ that the play’s author, Eve Ensler, speaks to and about, and its universalizing effect on abstracted womanhood (2010: 1).

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 From the three related studies, the writer positioned this study as the complement of the three previous studies. Basically, this study is the combination of the main issues that were discussed in the three previous studies. However, there are also differences in the terms and theories that are used in this study. This study also provides a different perspective of the resistance of women against patriarchal system in The Vagina Monologues. Instead of discussing the patriarchal system in general, the writer tries to reveal the product of the system, which is sexual terrorism. B. Review of Related Theories Theories that are used in this study are the theory of monologue, the theory of sexual terrorism and the theory of resistance in relation radical feminism. These theories will be used to analyze the problems in this study. 1. Theory of Monologue In order to identify the resistance of the women in The Vagina Monologues, the writer needs to analyze the women’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. Therefore, this theory is provided in order to help the writer analyzes the women through the way they share their experience in the monologue. According to Stefanie Lethbridge and Jarmila Mildorf, characters in drama typically talk to one another, and the entire plot is usually carried by and conveyed through their verbal interactions (2004: 122). Still according to Lethbridge and Mildorf, language in drama can be presented either as monologue or dialogue, “Monologue means that only one character speaks while dialogue always requires

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 two or more participants” (2004: 122). Further, they explained that, “A special form of monologue, where no other person is present on stage beside the speaker, is called soliloquy” (2004: 122). A soliloquy is usually used in order to present a character in a more detailed ways and also on a more personal level. Therefore, in a soliloquy, the characters are able to show what is on their mind, to explain their feelings, and motives, and to convey their thoughts (2004: 122). Another explanation from J. A. Cuddon about soliloquy: A soliloquy is a speech, often of some length, in which a character, alone on the stage, expresses his thoughts and feelings. The soliloquy is an accepted dramatic convention (q.v.) of great importance and the various uses it has been put to show the strengths and advantages of such a convention. Its advantages are inestimable because it enables a dramatist to convey direct to an audience important information about a particular character: his state of mind and heart, his most intimate thoughts and feelings, his motives and intentions (1998: 838). Monologues and soliloquies have one thing in common, each of them involves a single speaker. The difference between them is not about the speaker, it is more about the audience or characters who listen to the speech. A monologue is a speech given by a single person to an audience…A monologue might be delivered to an audience within a play…or it might be delivered directly to the audience sitting in the theater and watching the play. But a soliloquy…is a speech that one gives to oneself. In a play, a character delivering a soliloquy talks to herself — thinking out loud, as it were — so that the audience better understands what is happening to the character internally (http://www.cliffsnotes.com, 2014). From the explanation above, it can be seen that through monologues, the women’s characteristics, thoughts, and feelings can be identified through their speech. This theory will be used to identify the characteristics as well as the context of the woman in each monologue.

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 2. Theory of Sexual Terrorism a. Components of Sexual Terrorism According to Carole J. Sheffield, sexual terrorism is a system by which men frighten women, and by frightening, men control and dominate women. It can be identified through rape, wife battery, incest, pornography, harassment, and all forms of sexual violence (1984: 3). Still according to Sheffield, there are five components of sexual terrorism: ideology, propaganda, indiscriminate and amoral violence, voluntary compliance, and society’s perception of the terrorist and the terrorized (1984: 5). First, ideology, it is a united set of beliefs about the world that explains the way things are and provides a vision of how they should be (1984: 5). Sheffield argues that patriarchy is the ideological foundation of sexism in almost all societies. The focus of patriarchal ideology is the superiority of men and the inferiority of women, which at the same time provides the justification for sexual terrorism (1984: 5). The central idea of patriarchy is masculinity, which must include the tendency of doing violence and all characteristics necessary for survival, such as aggression, control, emotional reserve, rationality, and sexual potency (1984: 5). Mark Feigen Fasteau, in The Male Machine argues that men have some kind of belief that they have some kind of capacity for violence in each of them. This capacity for violence represents the primal untamed base of masculinity (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 5). Second, propaganda, it is the systematic distribution of information for the purpose of promoting a particular ideology (1984: 5). Sheffield argues that

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 propaganda is therefore biased or even false information because its purpose is to present one point of view and to discredit the opposing points of view. The propaganda of sexual terrorism can be found in all expressions of the popular culture such as films, television, music, literature, advertising, pornography, and also in the ideas of patriarchy conveyed in science, medicine, and psychology (1984: 5). Third, indiscriminate and amoral violence, they are the heart of sexual terrorism. According to Sheffield, every woman at any age, at any time and in any place is a potential target of violence (1984: 5-6). Susan Brownmiller argues that rape is a “…conscious process of intimidation by which all men keep all women in a state of fear” (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 6). Furthermore, Sheffield states that amorality pervades sexual violence, that eventually causes child molesters, incestuous fathers, wife beaters, and rapists often do not understand that they have done anything wrong. Moreover, their views are usually approved by police officers, lawyers, and judges, so that crimes of sexual violence are rarely punished (1984: 6). Sheffield states that violence must be used to maintain terrorism, however, continuous violence can be costly and overwhelming. Therefore, in order to make sure the continuance of sexual terrorism, the forth component that is voluntary compliance, is used as a strategy (1984: 6). Still according to Sheffield, sexual terrorism is maintained by a system of sex-role socialization that in effect instructs men to be terrorists in the name of masculinity and women to be victims in the name of femininity (1984: 6).

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 The last component is society’s perception of the terrorist and the terrorized. So far, this final component is what differs sexual from political terrorism. According to Sheffield, in political terrorism, society may condemn or condone the terrorist depending on their political views, however, they still sympathize with the victim. On the other hand, in sexual terrorism, society blames the victim and excuses the offender. The offender is believed to be either ‘sick’, and therefore in need of consideration from the society, or is acting out normal male desires (1984: 6). b. Types of Sexual Terrorism i. Rape According to Diana E. H. Russell, the generally accepted definition of rape is “sexual intercourse with a female, not the wife of the perpetrator, without the consent of the female” (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 6). In addition, Sheffield states that passive resistance or submission, even in a situation that is considered lifethreatening, is not considered as clear evidence that the rape was against one’s will (1984: 7). ii. Wife Assault According to Sheffield, for many centuries, it has been assumed that a husband has the right over his wife. Therefore, he is believed to have the right to punish or discipline his wife even with physical force. Moreover, Sheffield states that there is even a popular expression originated from English common law called the “rule of thumb” which has the meaning of permission for a husband to

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 physically punish his wife with a whip or a stick but the size cannot be bigger than his thumb (1984: 7). iii. Sexual Abuse of Children According to Sheffield, defining sexual abuse of children is very difficult because the law is complex and often contradictory. In general, sexual abuse of children includes: statutory rape, molestation, carnal knowledge, indecent liberties, impairing the morals of a minor, child abuse, child neglect, and incest (1984: 7). iv. Sexual Harassment Sheffield states that many of the studies on sexual harassment focus on the sexual intimidation on the job and at school (1984: 8). According to Lin Farley in Sexual Shakedown: The Sexual Harassment of Women on the Job, it can take form in any or the entire following situation: staring at, commenting upon, or touching a woman’s body, requests for acceptance in sexual behavior, repeated unwanted invites for dates, demands for sexual intercourse, and rape (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 8). c. Characteristics of Sexual Terrorism i. Violence against Females Cuts across Socioeconomic Lines One of the most common false beliefs is that sexual terrorism happens only within the poor, uneducated, non-white communities. In reality, sexual terrorism occurs within all kinds of society, because there are no typical criteria of an abusive man. They are from all ages, races, and religions; they

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 come from all communities with any range of income levels and education levels; they are married, single, separated, and divorced (Sheffield, 1984: 8-9). ii. Crimes of Sexual Violence Are the Least Likely to Be Reported According to FBI, rape is the most often committed and, at the same time, also seriously underreported crime. From the reported cases, FBI estimates that forcible rape occurs every six minutes; if added with the calculation of the underreported cases, it might be estimated to occur every two minutes (1984: 9). Other cases that are extremely under reported are child sexual abuse and incest. For the case of child sexual abuse, Vincent De Francis argues that there is a wide gap between the reported incidence and the actual number of incidence, “the reported incidence represents the top edge of the moon as it rises over the mountain” (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 10), means the reported incidence is just a small revealed part of the whole incidence. iii. Crimes of Violence against Females Have the Lowest Conviction Rates According to Sheffield, the main reason for underreported sexual assaults is that because women are afraid. Women are made believe that male’s sexual behavior is their responsibility. Therefore, they believe that they should stay silent and passive about their victimization, because even though they report the sexual assaults done to them, no one will believe them, and as the result, the offender will not be punished for what he has done to them either (1984: 11).

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 iv. Blaming the Victim of Sexual Violence is Pervasive In a male-dominated society, people tend to blame the victim and excuse the offender. Sheffield argues that men create a myth that victims of sexual violence are actually the suspects themselves. They believe that every women has a hidden desire to be victimized, therefore when they are involved in an incidence of sexual terrorism, they either actually willing to participate on the victimization or they lied about it. This myth was created by men in order to avoid punishment for their act of sexual terrorism (1984: 13). We can see that based on the myth, the victim becomes the offender and the offender becomes the victim. The victim causes the victimization by seducing or anticipating the incidence, while men as the offender was seduced and because of that they could not help themselves and follow their natural biological desire. The point is that society believes women must have done something wrong that trigger sexual terrorism to happen (1984: 14). v. Sexual Violence is Not Taken Seriously Another myth about the sexual terrorism in society is that, “When the existence of sexual violence can no longer be denied, a common response is to joke about it in order to belittle it” (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 15). This myth, according to Sheffield, also makes sexual terrorism to be seen as less important and less serious matter (1984: 15). vi. Sexual Violence is Not about Sex According to A. Nicholas Groth in his study, Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender: “careful clinical study of offenders reveals that

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 rape is in fact serving primarily nonsexual needs. It is the sexual expression of power and anger” (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 16). This indicates that actually men do not rape for sexual pleasure, instead, they rape to show their power and dominance over women. Del Martin founds that wife beating is actually the example of power abuse. Battering husbands use violence as the proof of superiority. Moreover, Martin characterized the battering husband as: He is probably angry with himself and frustrated by his life. He may put up a good front in public, but in the privacy and intimacy of his home he may not be able to hide, either from himself or his wife, his feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem. The man who is losing his grip on his job or his prospects may feel compelled to prove that he is at least the master of his home. Beating his wife is one way for him to appear a winner (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 17). The same reason for sexual harassment is also not about sex, it is about power. Lin Farley argues: …sexual harassment of women at work arose from men’s need to maintain control of women’s labor. Sexual harassment serves to keep women (individually and collectively) economically inferior and ensures the system of male dominance (quoted by Sheffield, 1984: 17). 3. Theory of Resistance in Relation to Radical Feminism Stellan Vinthagen in his research stated that, “any activity of the subordinated which, in the view of power holders, causes a problem or is a threat to power, could count as resistance” (2007: 5). Still according to Vinthagen, “…resistance is the kind of actions which dissolve, undermine, question or challenge such subordination – and ultimately, produce non-subordinate relations” (2007: 6).

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 According to James Scott, there are two main forms of resistance, they are public and disguised resistance. As mentioned by Vinthagen in his research, “he divides resistance into two forms (public and disguised) which corresponds to three forms of domination (material, status, and ideological), resulting in six types of resistance” (2007: 8). Resistance exist in the public form as public declared resistance (open revolts, petitions, demonstrations, land invasions, etc) against material domination; assertion of worth or desecration of status symbols against status domination; or, counter ideologies against ideological domination. And, resistance exists in the disguised form (low profile, undisclosed or “infra-politics”) as everyday resistance (e.g. poaching, squatting, desertion, evasion, foot-dragging) or direct resistance by disguised resisters against material domination; hidden transcripts of anger or disguised discourses of dignity against status dominator; or dissident subcultures (e.g. millennial religion, myths of social banditry, class heroes) against ideological domination (Vinthagen, 2007:8). Moreover, Vinthagen also shares seven basic forms of nonviolent resistance, they are: discursive resistance (example: fact findings), competition (example: building new society and social system instead of which is being resisted), non-cooperation (example: boycotts), selective cooperation (example: helping the opponent with relief work during a sudden natural catastrophe), withdrawal (example: escape to other areas), hindrance (example: interventions), and humoristic undermining (example: self-irony) (2007: 12). As concluded by Vinthagen: Resistance is not necessarily directing people, telling them what to do but enable them to make their own choices…Thus, resistance doesn’t annihilate the social bonds of society, it simply, construct new ones while deconstructing others – and, in the best of cases – opens the space for a freer choice (2007: 21).

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 Related to resistance as the opening space for freer choices and the production of non-subordinate relations, according to Rosemarie Tong, in the scope of radical feminism theory, there are two basic perspectives on how women can resist the sexual terrorism, they are radical-libertarian feminism perspective and radical-cultural feminism perspective, accordingly these two perspectives provide two different options as how women can choose from between those two, the best way for them to resist the sexual terrorism, “depending on their camp, these feminists voiced very different views about how to fight sexism” (2009: 49). Tong explained further that: Radical-libertarian feminists claimed that an exclusively feminine gender identity is likely to limit women’s development as full human persons. Thus, they encouraged women to become androgynous persons, that is, persons who embody both (good) masculine and (good) feminine characteristics or, more controversially, any potpourri of masculine and feminine characteristics, good or bad, that strikes their fancy (2009: 50). In addition to Tong’s explanation, one of the first radical-libertarian feminists, Joreen Freeman stated that: …a “Bitch” does not want to limit herself to being a sweet girl with little in the way of power. Instead, she wants to embrace as part of her gender identity those masculine characteristics that permit her to lead life on her own terms (quoted by Tong, 2009: 50). From the above explanation, it can be seen that according to radicallibertarian feminists, women have to free themselves from the restrictions of female biology. For a woman to be biologically female does not make her obligated to show or possess only feminine characteristics. Women can be masculine and feminine at the same time. They have the right to choose their own

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 gender roles and characteristics at their own will. By doing so, women can acquire their freedom and become independent. On the contrary, radical-cultural feminists encourage women with an advice to emphasize women’s “femaleness”. As explained by Alice Echols: …radical-cultural feminist expressed the view that it is better for women to be strictly female/feminine. Women, they said, should not try to be like men. On the contrary, they should try to be more like women, emphasizing the values and virtues culturally associated with women…and deemphasizing the values and virtues culturally associated with men…Moreover, and in the ideal, women should appreciate that, despite cultural variations among themselves, all women share one and the same female nature, and the less influence men have on this nature, the better (quoted by Tong, 2009: 50-51). It can be seen that radical-cultural feminists have the opposite perspective about how women free themselves from male domination. According to this group, the fewer women are influenced by masculinity the better, and women should be fully feminine and should not try to be like men. This way, women can gain their freedom because they do not have any influence from men and so the women become more independent. The other opposite ideas between radical-libertarian feminists and radicalcultural feminists are on their different views about the issue of gender, sexuality, and reproduction. a. Views on Gender Kate Millett, as one of the noticed radical-libertarian feminists, insisted that the roots of women’s oppression are buried deep in patriarchy’s gender system. Male control of the public and private worlds maintains the situation of patriarchy, therefore, male control must be eliminated in order to liberate women.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 In order to eliminate male control, men and women have to eliminate gender— specifically, sexual status, role, and temperament—as it has been constructed under patriarchy (quoted by Tong, 2009: 52). Still according to Millet, patriarchy is about intimidation: Patriarchal ideology exaggerates biological differences between men and women, making certain that men always have the dominant, or masculine, roles and women always have the subordinate, or feminine, ones…Men do this through institutions such as the academy, the church, and the family, each of which justifies and reinforces women’s subordination to men, resulting in most women’s internalization of a sense of inferiority to men. Should a woman refuse to accept patriarchal ideology by casting off her femininity—that is, her submissiveness/subordination—men will use coercion to accomplish what conditioning has failed to achieve. (2009: 52) Millett also observes in contemporary feminism a strong effort to destroy the gender system which is the basic source of women’s oppression, and to create a new society in which men and women are equals at every level of existence (2009: 54). Moreover, Shulamith Firestone, another radical-libertarian feminist, claimed the material basis for the sexual or political ideology of female submission and male domination was rooted in the reproductive roles of men and women (quoted by Tong, 2009: 54). Firestone argues that when both men and women are freed from their gender roles, they can display the masculine and feminine identities as they choose, therefore women would no longer have to be obedient, passive, and vulnerable, and instead, “men and women would be encouraged to mix and match feminine and masculine traits and behaviors in whatever combination they wished” (2009: 55).

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 On the other hand, radical-cultural feminist through Marilyn French argues that, “men’s oppression of women leads logically to other systems of human domination. If it is possible to justify men’s domination of women, it is possible to justify all forms of domination” (quoted by Tong, 2009: 56). Out of men’s desire to control the woman/nature dyad was born patriarchy, a hierarchical system that values having power over as many people as possible. Originally developed to ensure the human community’s survival, the desire for power over others rapidly became, under patriarchy, a value cultivated simply for the experience of being the person in charge, the lawgiver, the boss, number one in the pecking order. (2009: 57) In addition, Mary Daly argues that the construction of truly androgynous person could not begin unless women realize their values and by realizing, refusing to be the other, and becoming selves with needs, wants, and interests of their own (quoted by Tong, 2009: 60). Daly emphasized in Gyn/Ecology that women cannot even survive as long as they remain in patriarchy. Therefore, women should reject the femininity, whether it is considered good or bad, because it is constructed by patriarchy in order to subordinate women. “Stripped of their femininity, women would be revealed in their original (prepatriarchal) female power and beauty” (quoted by Tong, 2009: 61). b. Views on Sexuality According to Rosemarie Tong, radical-libertarian feminists challenges theories of sexuality that separates what is considered to be the good, normal, appropriate, and healthy sexual practices from what seems to be the bad, abnormal, inappropriate, and unhealthy sexual practices. These feminists urged

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 women to explore the different kinds of sex, and not to give limit to such a range of sexual experiences (2009: 66). According to Gayle Rubin as the part of radical-libertarian feminists, “all sex was good; no judgments should be made about the rightness or wrongness of any form of sex” (quoted by Tong, 2009: 67). …society remains uncomfortable with any form of sex that is not between married, heterosexual couples intent on procreating children. It repressesindeed punishes-to a greater or lesser extent unmarried heterosexuals who engage in casual sex for pleasure, bisexuals, homosexuals, lesbians, transsexuals, transvestites, fetishists, sadomasochists, sex workers, and “those whose eroticism crosses transgenerational boundaries.” (2009: 66). As the opposite and rejection to Rubin’s opinion, the radical-cultural feminists state that, “the only kind of sex that is unambiguously good for women is monogamous lesbianism” (2009: 67). They argue that women must understand that patriarchal heterosexuality is a tradition focused on undermining women’s emotional energies and keeping women constantly dissatisfied with themselves. According to radical-cultural feminists, patriarchal heterosexuality is beyond repair that it must be destroyed so that women can fully live: Only women can give each other a new sense of self…This consciousness is the revolutionary force from which all else will follow…For this we must be available and supportive to one another…Our energies must flow toward our sisters, not backwards towards our oppressors. As long as women’s liberation tries to free women without facing the basic heterosexual structure that binds us in one-to-one relationships with our oppressors, tremendous energies will continue to flow into trying to straighten up each particular relationship with a man, how to get better sex, how to turn his head around—into trying to make the “new man” out of him, in the delusion that this will allow us to be the “new woman.” (quoted by Tong, 2009: 67) From the explanation above, it can be seen that radical-libertarian feminists try to open the opportunities for women to be limitless in their sexual

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 exploration, and that for them all kinds of sex is good; whereas radical-cultural feminists see that the best way women could be free from the subordination is through the embrace of monogamous lesbianism. c. Views on Reproduction Radical-libertarian feminists see natural reproduction as part of the oppression of the women. On the opposite, radical-cultural feminists believe that natural reproduction is part of women’s liberation. Whereas radical-libertarian feminists believe women should substitute artificial for natural modes of reproduction, radical-cultural feminists believe it is in women’s best interests to procreate naturally. As we shall see, radical-libertarian feminists are convinced the less women are involved in reproduction, the more time and energy women will have to engage in society’s productive processes. In contrast, radical-cultural feminists are convinced the ultimate source of women’s power rests in their power to gestate new life. To take this power from a woman is to take away her trump card and to leave her with an empty hand, entirely vulnerable to men’s power. (2009: 74) In addition, Adrienne Rich suggests two ways for women to free themselves from patriarchal terror and oppression: first is through the awakening of personal consciousness in order to see the depths of patriarchal oppression and to realize the violence and destruction upon women…; second is by separating from men, this way women can be independent from patriarchal domination and eventually develop a woman-identified sexuality (quoted by Madsen, 2000: 178). According to Elizabeth Ann Bartlett, “speaking out against domination and degradation is fundamental act of resistance” (2004:71). Moreover, Bartlett states how feminists have argued that claiming women’s voice is important in developing women’s consciousness, and at the same time, it is a symbol of independence because women share their own experience (2004: 71).

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 C. Theoretical Framework There are three related theories that will be used in the analysis. Theory of monologue is provided in order to analyze the characters in The Vagina Monologues. This theory supports the other two theories by providing the data on the women’s experience on sexual terrorism and their resistance towards it that can be analyzed through the women’s thoughts, feelings, and actions. Theory of sexual terrorism is used to analyze the acts of sexual terrorism experienced by women in The Vagina Monologues. This theory is used to identify each kind of sexual terrorism experienced by each woman in each monologue. Theory of resistance in relation to radical feminism is provided in order to see the resistance of those women towards the sexual terrorism in the context of radical feminism theory. In summary, these theories are used to answer the formulated problems. Moreover, these theories are necessary because they are related to one another. Theory of monologue is used to identify the contexts of the women in each monologue through their thoughts, feelings, motives, actions, and ideas. From the thoughts, feelings, and actions, theory of resistance examines the way women resist the sexual terrorism as the form of patriarchal domination and oppression toward women in the context of radical feminism theory, and then, theory of sexual terrorism helps the writer reveals and identifies the acts of sexual terrorism that are experienced by the women in each monologue. At the end, they will also help the writer to draw conclusion based on the analysis that is done with the guidance of these theories.

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of this study is The Vagina Monologues, which was written by Eve Ensler in 1994 and published in the United States by Villard Books in 1998. Eve Ensler is a Tony Award winning playwright, performer, and activist whose works for the stage include Floating Rhoda and the Glue Man, Lemonade, Necessary Targets, and The Good Body. Moreover, she also writes the political memoir Insecure at Last (2008: 173). The Vagina Monologues has been translated into over 48 languages, and performed in over 140 countries. It is a narrative based on more than two hundred interviews done by Ensler involving a wide variety of women about their experiences of surviving sexual violence. This award winning masterpiece gives voice to real women’s deepest fantasies and fears, guaranteeing that no one who reads it will ever look at a woman’s body, or think of sex, in quite the same way again (http://www.eveensler.org, 2012). The play, The Vagina Monologues, was first performed in 1996 by Eve Ensler herself, and received an instant acclaim and many praises, including the Obie Award. Since then, The Vagina Monologues has been performed in cities all across America and at hundreds of college campuses. It has also inspired the forming of a popular movement called V-Day which has the aim to stop violence against women (2008: 173). 25

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 B. Approach of the Study Feminism approach was chosen as the way to analyze the object of this study. The writer sees the connection between the experiences of the women in The Vagina Monologues with the idea of radical feminism which is a part of feminism theory. According to Rosemarie Tong, radical feminists introduced the practice of consciousness-raising, “Women came together in small groups and shared their personal experiences as women with each other. They discovered that their individual experiences were not unique to them but widely shared by many women” (2009: 48). The similar situation is depicted in The Vagina Monologue where the experiences of several women were gathered through the interviews done by Eve Ensler. From the interviews, Ensler shows the reality of women around the world that actually share the same experience, which is the experience of sexual terrorism. According to Andrea Dworkin, there are three fundamental terms of radical feminism: first, in patriarchal society, women are the oppressed class and men are the oppressor class; second, that rule is maintained through physical violence and psychological aggression against women; third, gender oppression is systematic under patriarchy, it is a system that operates through ‘persons, institutions, and values’. Moreover she stated that “the role of radical feminism is to offer an accurate analysis of the condition of these women and all women” (2000: 162-163).

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 C. Method of the Study In writing the analysis, the writer used the method of library research. The primary source of this study was The Vagina Monologues, which was written by Eve Ensler. The book contains several monologues about women’s experiences of sexual terrorism. Other sources were taken from printed and electronic books, and also the previous undergraduate theses and article discussing the similar topic to this study. In order to answer the problems formulated, the writer consulted several books on theories and studies related to the topic on sexual terrorism, resistance, and also radical feminism. This was done in order to see the sexual terrorism in The Vagina Monologues and also to see the resistance of women from radical feminism point of view. The writer collected the data by first, fully reading and analyzing the book The Vagina Monologues; then, after all the data had been collected, they were analyzed using the feminism approach and also the related theories to see the sexual terrorism and also the women’s resistance towards the sexual terrorism experienced by them. The analysis, therefore, should answer all the problems formulated in chapter one. After the research problems were analyzed and answered by using the feminism approach and also after the writer consulted the related theories, then in the final part, the writer drew a conclusion. The conclusion covered and summarized all the aspects of the analysis and at the same time emphasized the points that were discussed in the analysis.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the analysis is divided into two parts. The first part reveals the sexual terrorism through the experiences of the women, and the second part identifies the women’s resistance towards the sexual terrorism that they experienced in The Vagina Monologues. A. The Sexual Terrorism as Seen through the Experiences of Women in The Vagina Monologues Sexual terrorism, either physically or psychologically, is used to maintain the subordination of women by men. It appears normal within the society because women as victims are often blamed as the cause of the terror happened to them. Sexual terrorism can happen to any women within any social status. It happens in the form of rape, sexual harassment, wife assault, child abuse, and all forms of sexual violence. The following monologues are provided in order to show that sexual terrorism can occur inside and outside the family; it can happen to single women, married women, and even transgender women; it can happen to richeducated women, and poor-uneducated women; it can happen to women of all ages, races, and religions; and it happens as a tactic of war. Each woman in each monologue comes from various backgrounds, and depending on their backgrounds, each of them experiences different kind of sexual terrorism. 28

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 1. Inside the Family and Within Marriage The women in these following monologues experience the sexual terrorism as a daughter in a family, or as a wife within marriage. The monologues included in this part are: “Hair”, “I was Twelve. My Mother Slapped Me.”, “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could”, “The Memory of Her Face (Part I)”, and “Crooked Braid”. a. “ H ai r ” This monologue shows the experience of a wife that is forced to shave her vagina hair by her own husband. In his opinion, vagina hair is awful, “My first and only husband hated hair. He said it was cluttered and dirty. He made me shave my vagina” (2008: 9). Shaving her vagina hair is necessary in order to please the husband sexually. However, for the wife to shave her vagina hair is actually torturing. It makes her feel uncomfortable and even causes a physical pain for her during sexual intercourse with the husband. When he made love to me, my vagina felt the way a beard must feel. It felt good to rub it, and painful. Like scratching a mosquito bite. It felt like it was on fire. There were screaming red bumps…I felt little when my hair was gone down there, and I couldn’t help talking in a baby voice, and the skin got irritated and even calamine lotion wouldn’t help it…when my husband was pressing against me, I could feel his spiky sharpness sticking into me, my naked puffy vagina. There was no protection. There was no fluff (2008: 9-11). At top of that, in order to stop her husband from having affairs, both of them agree to go to a marital therapy. When doing the session, the husband stated that his wife is the reason why he has an affair, “…he said he screwed around because I wouldn’t please him sexually” (2008: 10). Hearing the statement, the therapist, who is a woman, seems to also blame the wife about the condition. She

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 supports the husband who is clearly torturing his wife. She even suggests the wife to follow her husband’s order and to shave her vagina hair in order to sexually please her husband, “She asked me why I didn’t want to please my husband…She told me marriage was a compromise…when we got home, he got to shave my vagina” (2008: 10). From the evidences found in this monologue, the writer sees that the wife experiences sexual terrorism within the marriage. The husband is physically and mentally torturing his wife. He tries to take control over his wife’s body, and even her most intimate part, her vagina. It is true that the husband does not use physical force against his wife, however, by having affairs and by blaming her for that, the husband tries to mentally force his wife to do something harmful to herself and to make her feels guilty for not obeying his order, therefore, it can be seen that the husband tries to maintain the subordination of his wife by forcing her to obey him. b. “I was Twelve. My Mother Slapped Me.” This monologue consists of several experiences of various girls about their first menstruation. Some of them got positive feedbacks, while on the other hand, some of them got negative reactions from their family. Menstruation is known as the mark of a girl’s changing phase from a girl to a young adult woman. Many myths surround the menstruation phase, and parents usually becoming more concern with their daughter when she finally comes to the menstruation phase. Common reactions to be expected from the parents will be like some of the experiences in the monologue. Parents are expected to be supportive and caring,

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 especially the mothers because she has had her menstruation experience, so it is part of her role to teach her daughter about menstruation. Although the other family members can also help, the mother’s role is important in order to encourage her daughter to be positive about her first experience on menstruation. …Eighth grade. My mother said, “Oh that’s nice.”… …Seventh grade; my mother sort of noticed my underwear. Then she gave me plastic diapers… …My mom was very warm – “Let’s get you a pad.”… …She showed me how to put in a tampon. Only got in halfway… …Wore wads of cotton. Told my mother. She gave me Elizabeth Taylor pa pe r dol l s … …My mom was glad for me… …My mother made me hot water and wine, and I fell asleep… …“Dear Miss Carling, Please excuse my daughter from basketball. She has just matured.”… (2008: 36-40). However, there are also cases that parents are afraid and worried, even uncomfortable with the menstruation phase of their daughter. The negative reactions inevitably appear, and the victims of the reactions are the daughters. As children, daughters are still considered innocent and dependent, thus, they need guidance from their parents. Negative and vague comments and reactions make the daughters feel confused about their condition, it might even terrify them. They need support and knowledge from the family members, especially parents about their condition that they have not understood yet. …Second grade, seven years old, my brother was talking about periods. I didn’t like the way he was laughing… …My mother gave me codeine. We had bunk beds. I went down and lay there. My mother was so uncomfortable… …My friend Marcia, they celebrated when she got hers. They had dinner for her… …Fifteen years old. My mother said, “Mazeltov.” She slapped me in the face. Didn’t know if it was a good thing or a bad thing… …I was twelve. My mother slapped me and brought me a red cotton shirt. My father went out for a bottle of sangria… (2008: 35-40).

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 From the above quotation, it can be seen that according to those experiences, the daughters become confused of their conditions. Their thoughts tell about the uncertainty whether menstruation is good or bad for them. However, it can also be assumed that the nervousness of the parents might be caused by the fear of danger that might happen to their daughters. For the reason that, a girl who has had menstruation means that, at that point, she is capable of being pregnant. And, unfortunately, this capability can also be used as part of the subordination of women by men, because men cannot give birth to a baby, they depend on women to have a child. In order for men to keep being superior to women and at the same time having children from them, men try to control women through intimidation. This might be one of the reasons why the parents are mentally terrorized by the condition and then react in such a negative way, and their fear resulting as a terror to their children because of the confusion of their menstruating condition. c. “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could” This monologue is about the experience of a girl throughout her stages of life. This monologue consists of her experiences from when she was five years old, until when she was sixteen years old. At the early stages of her life, she always encountered with unfortunate things related to her vagina. …Memory: December 1965; Five Years Old My mama tells me in a scary, loud, life-threatening voice to stop scratching my coochi snorcher. I become terrified that I’ve scratched it off down there. I do not touch myself again… (2008: 77). Young girls are usually taught by their mother not to recklessly touch their vagina. Although they do not understand why they should not do that, they will

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 obey the order because they are afraid of their parents, in this case mother. Here, it can be seen that the girl is traumatized by her mother’s extreme reaction. This memory can be seen as the beginning of the terror that she experiences related to her vagina. …Memory: Seven Years Old Edgar Montane, who is ten, gets angry at me and punches me with all his might between my legs. It feels like he breaks my entire self. I limp home. I can’t pee. My mama…she yells at me and says never to let anyone touch me down there again… (2008: 78). Here again the mother shows a negative reaction related to what happened to the girl’s vagina. The mother is being ignorant that she does not want to clarify the reason behind the cause of her limping. Here, the mother can be seen as the representation of society. Society blames women for causing sexual terrorism, therefore what happens to women is their own fault. …Memory: Nine Years Old I play on the bed, bouncing and falling, and impale my coochi snorcher on the bedpost…I get taken to the hospital and they sew it up down there from where it’s been torn apart… (2008: 78). This memory does not involve anyone else but the girl, however, this unfortunate experience still mentally affects her view towards her vagina. This accident adds to the lists of why her vagina is a bad-luck zone for her. …Memory: Ten Years Old I’m playing alone in the basement and I’m trying on my new white cotton bra and panties that my father’s girlfriend gave me. Suddenly my father’s best friend, this big man Alfred, comes up from behind and pulls my new underpants down and sticks his big hard penis into my coochi snorcher… (2008: 79). This memory can be said as the peak incident that influences how she thinks about her vagina. This incident of her being rapped is the one that

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 traumatized her most, assuring her thoughts that her vagina causes many negative experiences in her life. …Memory: Thirteen Years Old My coochi snorcher is a very bad place, a place of pain, nastiness, punching, invasion, and blood. It’s a site for mishaps. It’s a bad-luck zone… (2008: 79). It shows that at the age of thirteen years old, she finally feels certain that her vagina is a bad thing, a bad area between her legs. She is being traumatized by the experiences of sexual terror in the past. She thinks that her vagina only brings suffer and pain towards her life. This way, her thoughts indicate that she believes her vagina is the cause of the sexual terror to happen to her. This is what the patriarchal society wants, for her to believe that she, as a female being, is the one who cause the sexual terror to happen to her, and to believe that no bad things can happen if she does not have a vagina. d. “The Memory of Her Face (Part I)” This monologue is about two stories of women assault happen in two different places. The first part and the second part will be discussed separately in this analysis because these two stories happen within a different situation. The first part happens in Islamabad, within the marriage life. Whereas the second part of the monologue happens in Juárez within a broader scope, it is about a girl who was being kidnapped and tortured, who returns in such a heartbreaking condition. The second part will be discussed under the section about sexual terrorism that happens outside family and marriage life.

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 This experience in Islamabad shows how a husband feels like he has the right to torture his own wife even when she has done nothing wrong, that even if there is anyone knows about the torture, they could not and would not do anything to save the wife. They all knew something terrible was going to happen each time he came home…They heard her screams, they heard her beg, they didn’t, wouldn’t intervene. She was his unwritten law…Don’t ask what she had done, it was just her face that pissed him off. Just her needy face waiting for more… (2008: 129-130). This story clearly shows that the husband is intentionally assaulting and torturing his wife. He might have been angry of his own incapability of providing a living for his family, so that he unleash his anger to his wife by brutally torturing her. The scale of violence performed by the husband is increasing towards the end of the monologue. …He grabbed the closest thing, he grabbed a pot, he smashed her head, he smashed her right eye hard…he beat her with his fists, he broke her nose…The last time he had enough of her, he planned it out. He got the acid in advance, he poured it in a jar. She said she needed money for food for them…Her face is gone, totally melted off. Just eyes that’s all you see… (2008: 129-131). In the end, as the final punishment, the husband intentionally prepares the acid which he knows can be harmful to his wife, and ruins his wife’s face on purpose by throwing the acid to her face. She becomes the victim of the husband’s disgrace of himself. Because he might not be able to be a dominant man outside of the family, and he might have failed to be a dependable breadwinner for his family, he feels the urge to gain confidence by dominating, at least, his wife. This way, he can prove that he is still in charge of the family, and that he still has

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 power over his family. The whole situation shows how the woman is tortured as part of the act of terrorism only to be kept inferior and dominated by the husband. e. “Crooked Braid” This monologue shares the experience of a woman who becomes a victim of her husband’s abusive behavior. As the time goes by, the abusive behavior of the husband gets worst. …I looked up and he slapped me, my husband. Not a blast that knocks your eyes blue. That came later. It was a smack, a hard domestic smack… …He was smiling. He slapped me again… …He kicked me under the table… …he grabbed my hair and pulled me down to the curb… …He buried me in snow. He pounded me in the gutter…My hair felt like it was bleeding… …I woke up in the hospital after five brain surgeries. My hair was gone…I had to relearn to talk and move my arms…It took me four months to remember how to cook breakfast… …Eighteen years he beat me…Then he’d go forgetting that the bruises on my face were his handprints…I was just a piece of meat to him, a hole… …He elbowed me, jerked me, pulled me up…He picked me up like I was a rag…My husband beat the shit out of me. He wrapped my long black hair around his hand, jerked my head… (2008: 150-156). However, there is an indication from her statements that in fact, he was not an abusive husband at the beginning of their marriage life, “He was the nicest person. He had long black hair. When we made love it got loose, before…In the morning when he was so nice again, I would braid his long hair” (2008: 150-153). It might be some unstated reasons or something that makes him frustrated and release it on her. From the ending part of the monologue, it can be seen that the husband is actually desperate. He admits that he is wrong and that he is weak, “Now he calls me the middle, of night, weeping. He didn’t mean to beat

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 his wife…He’s suicidal…They took our land. They took our ways. They took our men…” (2008: 157). He is oppressed by some power above him, and it makes him hopeless. He batters her in order to feel strong again and appear a winner. 2. Outside the Family and Marriage The women in these following monologues experience sexual terrorism from their surroundings that are not a part of their family and are not in an intimate relationship, in this case marriage, with them. The monologues included in this part are: “The Flood”, “The Vagina Workshop”, “Because He Liked to Look at It”, “My Angry Vagina”, “The Memory of Her Face (Part II)”, and “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried”. a. “The Flood” This monologue shows the experience of an old lady who had experienced sexual terrorism in her young age. She was sexually harassed by the boy named Andy Leftkov. According to her, he is a tall-good-looking boy who is desired by many girls, and he is rich. …Andy was very good-looking. He was a catch. That’s what we called it in my day. We were in his car, a new white Chevy BelAir…I was looking at my big kneecaps when he just kissed me in this surprisingly “Take me by control like they do in the movies” kind of way. And I got excited, so excited, and well, there was a flood down there. I couldn’t control it. It was like this force of passion, this river of life just flooded out of me, right through my panties, right onto the car seat of his new white Chevy BelAir…Andy said, that it smelled like sour milk and it was staining his car seat… (2008: 27).

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 Knowing that, the boy thought it was dirty and smelly, so he labeled her “a stinky weird girl” (2008: 27). After the incident, she becomes afraid of opening herself to other men again. …Andy drove me home and he never, never said another word and when I got out and closed his car door, I closed the whole store. Locked it…I dated some after that, but the idea of flooding made me too nervous. I never even got close again… (2008: 28). This shows that actually she was verbally and sexually harassed in the past and that incident makes her ashamed of herself. The situation with Andy Leftkov shows that the kiss, even without her consent, excites her and makes her react sexually, therefore, it cannot be fully said as harassing. However, the situation after the kiss, when he humiliates her by calling her stinky and weird just because her body shows the natural reaction, indicates that Leftkov was sexually harassing her through verbal expressions. This verbal harassment can be said to be successfully belittled her. …Down there? I haven’t been down there since 1953…No, no, it’s a cellar down there. It’s very damp, clammy. You don’t want to go down there…You’d get sick. Suffocating. Very nauseating. The smell of the clamminess and the mildew and everything…Smells unbearable. Gets in your clothes…No. Never mind. I can’t talk to you about this…I can’t do this, talk about down there. You just know it’s there… (2008: 25-26). From the evidences found in the monologue, Andy Leftkov can be said as one of many examples that men always try to control and dominate women physically and sexually. Men think that they do not need any permission from the women to do something to them, and that they have rights to verbally harassing women in order to belittle them when they do not get what they expected to get. Andy Leftkov had sexually terrorized her through verbally insulting her sexual

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 condition, and that traumatized her for life. She feels insecure all the time, and she feels disgusted about herself, especially her vagina. b. “The Vagina Workshop” This monologue shows the experience of a woman who joins a vagina workshop. This woman is the exact example of the women who have never seen their own vagina, and only fantasized about it. She admits that the experience in the vagina workshop was her first time seeing and understanding her vagina. All this time, she lives in the fantasy and rumors about vagina. …In the workshop we were asked to look at our vaginas with hand mirrors…I must tell you that up until this point everything I knew about vagina was based on hearsay or invention. I had never really seen the thing. It had never occurred to me to look at it…It seemed so reductive and awkward to look at it… (2008: 45). Because she only hears about vagina and anything connected with vagina through rumors, when asked about orgasms, she was reluctant to admit that she has had, though accidental, orgasms. …although I had had orgasms, I did not know how to make on happen. I had never tried to make one happen. I thought it was mystical, magical thing. I didn’t want to interfere. It felt wrong, getting involved – contrived, manipulative… (2008: 47). When the vagina workshop’s participants were asked to locate their clitoris, she once again reluctant to do it and even cried. …I don’t know why, but I started crying…Maybe it was knowing that I had to give up the fantasy, the enormous life-consuming fantasy, that someone or something was going to do this for me – the fantasy that someone was coming to lead my life, to choose direction, to give me orgasms. I was used to living off the record, in a magical, superstitious way… (2008: 48).

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 From the above quotation it can be seen that she has been terrorized by her own fear and anxiety. However, these fear and anxiety are not coming from herself. It is built and influenced by the society, so that a woman like her believes that she needs men to depend on. The social condition makes her live in a fantasy that someone will help her and satisfy her, but not herself. Society teaches her to be dependent and afraid, making her believes that talking about her sexual parts is wrong and inappropriate. She believes that she is not capable and she is not allowed to control her own body for herself by herself. This makes her vulnerable to be in a subordinate position of men. c. “Because He Liked to Look at It” This monologue shows the experience of a woman who hates her vagina. There is no particular reason, she just hates the way it looks. …I thought it was incredibly ugly. I was one of those women who had looked at it and, from that moment on, wished I hadn’t. It made me sick. I pitied anyone who had to go down there…I began to pretend there was something else between my legs…I got so accustomed to this that I lost all memory of having a vagina… (2008: 54). And one day, she believes that a guy, whom she went to bed with, named Bob, changed her hatred towards her own vagina. According to her, Bob is just an ordinary man that she accidentally met, however he entirely changes her view towards her vagina, “Bob was the most ordinary man I ever met…I would have missed him altogether if he hadn’t picked up my change that I dropped on the deli floor…I went to bed with him. That’s when the miracle occurred.” (2008: 54-55). …I watched him looking at me, and he was so genuinely excited, so peaceful and euphoric, I began to get wet and turned on. I began to see

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 myself the way he saw me. I began to feel beautiful and delicious – like a great painting or a waterfall. Bob wasn’t afraid. He wasn’t grossed out. I began to swell, began to feel proud. Began to love my vagina…(2008: 57). This monologue shows a positive experience of a woman who finally realizes her values as woman through loving her vagina as part of herself. However, this monologue also shows that actually women are indeed vulnerable, and they still need the opinion of men in order to value themselves sexually. It can be seen that in order to realize her values, she has to see herself through the way Bob sees her, the way Bob admires and values her. This fact proves that women are dependent to men, and that men is still dominating and controlling the way women see, feel, and value themselves. d. “My Angry Vagina” The woman in this monologue shares her thoughts about the unfair things that she feels as a woman. It represents the condition of women even in this modern time. From her statements, it can be seen that women always made to believe things connected to their vagina. Many opinions and rumors are spread in order to shape women’s thinking about themselves in a certain way, a way that the society wants them to be, to see, and to feel. …An army of people out there thinking up ways to torture my poor-ass, gentle, loving vagina….Spending their days constructing psycho products and nasty ideas to undermine my pussy… …All this shit they’re constantly trying to shove up us, clean us up–stuff us up, make it go away…Like tampons…As soon as my vagina sees it, it goes into shock… …he tells you it smells like rose petals…That’s what they’re doing–trying to clean it up, make it smell like bathroom spray or a garden…

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 …Then there’s those exams…the scary paper dress that scratches your tits and crunches when you lie down so you feel like a wad of paper someone threw away…the mean cold duck lips they shove inside you… …more tortures: dry wad of fucking cotton, cold duck lips, and thong underwear. That’s the worst. Thong underwear… …Hate to see a woman having pleasure, particularly sexual pleasure… …My vagina helped release a giant baby. It thought it would be doing more of that. It’s not… (2008: 69-73). From the quotation above, it can be seen how she feels toward the torturing things invented to control and suffer women. At the same time, she reveals the doer that is always trying to torture and control her as a woman is in fact men. She said, “he tells you it smells like rose petals”, in order to show how men manipulate women to be what they want. Another statement, “Hate to see a woman having pleasure, particularly sexual pleasure”, obviously shows how women are made so as to not having their own pleasure. Women are constantly put under the control and manipulation of men and secretly tortured through modern inventions, such as clinical examination, tampons and thong underwear, so that women will not realize that they are still being the victim of the sexual terror by men within patriarchal society. e. “The Memory of Her Face (Part II)” In this part, the experience of a witness seeing what happens in Juárez shows how women mean nothing in the eye of the sexual terrorist that they are regarded as an easy target to be kidnapped, tortured, ruined, and murdered. …There is one girl missing for ten months. She was seventeen when they took her away… …It must have lasted until morning. Whatever they did to her, it went on and on. You can tell from the others, who showed up without hands or ni ppl e s …

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 …When she finally reappeared, she was bone…she came back as bone…When they raised the plastic cloth that concealed the bone outline of her head in the morgue, I tried to turn away… (2008: 132-134). This girl is not the only one who becomes the victim of the crime, she is among hundreds of other girls who have the same fate. It is stated in the monologue that she is just a low-paid worker, and the other girls might have the same job as her. This monologue also shows that this incident is actually repeated frequently. …She worked in the maquiladora. She stamped thousands of coupons of products she would never afford. Four dollars a day they paid her and bused her to the desert to sleep in freezing shit…She and the others, all beautiful, all beginning, all coupons, all faces, all gone. 300 faces gone…gone now bone… (2008: 132-133). The evidence clearly shows that in Juárez, girls are easily targeted and kidnapped and tortured until they die in such an upsetting condition, “She and the others, all beautiful, all beginning, all coupons, all faces, all gone…gone now bone” (2008: 133). It is not stated clearly whether there is a particular reason or whether the girls do something wrong or not, however, it can be seen that the terrorists intentionally and repeatedly torture and kill them. This might indicate that the girls are treated as weak targets. f. “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried” This monologue shares the experience of a transwoman. She was born as a baby boy, however, she believes that she has always been a girl, “I always knew I was a girl” (2008: 142). Being a woman for her is something that she was always longed for, it was her purpose of life.

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 Her process of becoming a woman was tough. She was bullied when she was young, because people cannot accept her condition at that time. …They beat me for it. They beat me for crying. They pummeled me for wanting to touch, to pet, to hug, to help, to hold their hands…For carrying purses to kindergarten, they kicked the shit out of me every day on my way to school. In the park, they smashed my Magic Marker painted nails. They punched my lipsticked mouth. They beat the girl out of my boy… (2008: 143). Although the earlier process was tough, and the journey of becoming a woman was long, in the end she succeeded on becoming a woman. …People are so much nicer to me now. I can wake up in the morning, put my hair in a ponytail. A wrong was righted. I am right with God…I live now in the female zone… (2008: 147). However, the terrors that she gets from the people around her do not stop. Even after she became a woman, she is still terrorized. This time, the terrors took form in an indirect assault to make her suffer and to make her realize that whatever she did, she will never be fully accepted. …But you know how people feel about immigrants. They don’t like it when you come from someplace else. They don’t like it when you mix. They killed my boyfriend. They beat him insanely as he slept, with a baseball bat. They beat this girl out of his head. They didn’t want him dating a foreigner…They didn’t want him falling in love with ambiguity… (2008: 147-148). Seeing her experience, it is obvious that even as a woman, she will never be fully accepted by the society. The objection of her existence is shown through the terrors towards her. Moreover, the hatred towards her feminine side shows that in the society, masculinity is absolute that for men, to have feminine sides is disgraceful and deserve to be severely punished. It also seems like even killing is permitted in order to oppose her existence.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 3. Within the Situation of War The women in these following monologues experience sexual terrorism in a situation of war. The monologues included in this part are: “My Vagina was My Village”, “Under the Burqa”, and “Say It”. a. “My Vagina was My Village” This monologue shows the experience of a woman who was raped at war. Here, she shares her thoughts about her vagina before and after she was raped. Her thoughts clearly show the terrible effect of rape as one of the sexual terrorism’s main types. Before she is raped at war, she describes her vagina as something which is beautiful and cheerful. She identifies her vagina with the feelings of excitement, happiness, richness, and hopefulness: …My vagina was green, water soft pink fields, cow mooing sun resting sweet boyfriend touching lightly with soft piece of blond straw… …My vagina was chatty, can’t wait, so much, so much saying, words talking, can’t quit trying, can’t quit saying, oh yes, oh yes… …My vagina singing all girl songs, all goat bells ringing songs, all wild autumn field songs, vagina songs, vagina home songs… …My vagina swimming river water, clean spilling water over sun-baked stones over stone clit, clit stones over and over… …My vagina. A live wet water village. My vagina my hometown… (2008: 61-62) And it changes drastically after she is being sexually tortured and raped by the soldiers. She describes her vagina as something which is ruined beyond repair and all the good feelings about it has gone. She even states that she is no longer in connection with her vagina. It is now identified as someplace that is extremely dirty, rotten, and poisonous. Unlike the vagina that she used to know and feel, now it has lost its hope and happiness:

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 …There is something between my legs. I do not know what it is. I do not know where it is. I do not touch. Not now. Not anymore. Not since… …Not since I dream there’s a dead animal sewn in down there with thick black fishing line. And the bad dead animal smell cannot be removed. And its throat is slit and it bleeds through all my summer dresses… …Not since the soldiers put a long thick rifle inside me. So cold, the steel rod canceling my heart… …Six of them, monstrous doctors with black masks shoving bottles up me too. There were sticks, and the end of a broom… …Not since I heard the skin tear and made lemon screeching sounds, not since a piece of my vagina came off in my hand, a part of the lip, now one side of the lip is completely gone… …Not since they took turns for seven days smelling like feces and smoked meat, they left their dirty sperm inside me. I became a river of poison and pus and all the crops died, and the fish… (2008: 61-63) From her description about her vagina before and after the rape, it can be clearly seen that she was drastically changed her thoughts about her vagina. Something valuable for her and about her was brutally robbed by the soldiers and even the doctors. It can be seen that her experience was extremely intense and horrifying. Even after the war ended, she could not overcome her terrified self and the trauma caused by the rape, “My vagina a live wet water village. They invaded it. Butchered it and burned it down. I do not touch now. Do not visit. I live someplace else now. I don’t know where that is” (2008: 63). The experience of being rape at war is forever terrorized her. This monologue is obviously one of the examples of the horrible acts of sexual terrorism towards women. They robbed her self-worth and self-confidence that she had before she was brutally raped and tortured.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 b. “Under the Burqa” Before the beginning of this monologue, there is a statement saying, “The piece is about a time and place where women had no choice” (2008: 135). It is shown through this woman’s experience told in this monologue. Since the beginning of her life, it seems like she does not have a choice whether to wear or not to wear the burqa. The only marriage she has ever committed was also an arranged marriage, “the only man you ever loved, even though it was an arranged marriage” (2008: 136). She cannot even choose to live or die. All choices have been robbed from her. She is forced to live inside the ‘cage’ that is the burqa. Wearing a burqa is usually connected to religious reasons, however, in this monologue, it becomes a way to dominate women. Women are treated as animals and put inside a ‘cage’. …imagine a huge dark piece of cloth hung over your entire body like you were a shameful statue; imagine there’s only a drop of light enough to know there is still daylight for others; imagine it’s hot, very hot; imagine you are being encased in cloth, drowning in fabric, in darkness…because no one can see your face, so you do not exist… …imagine muttering as a way of talking…and you did not cry because it got too hot and wet in there… …the only sounds you heard were the muffled sounds of the azun or the cries of other women flogged inside their cloth… …imagine you could no longer distinguish between living and dying, so you stopped trying to kill yourself because it would be redundant… …your roof was the cloth… and this tomb was getting smaller and smellier every day… …imagine suffocating while you were still breathing; imagine muttering and screaming inside a cage, and no one is hearing… (2008:135-139). From the above quotation, it can be clearly seen that she extremely suffers under the burqa. Wearing a burqa, for her is like being inside a cage, “imagine muttering and screaming inside a cage” (2008: 138-139). She is restricted and

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 tortured, her freedom is entirely raided from her, “imagine you are begging in this bedspread reaching out your hand inside the cloth which must remained covered, unpolished, unseen, or they might smash it or cut it off” (2008: 136). In some situations, she even stated that she feels like an animal, “imagine no peripheral vision, so like a wounded animal, you could not defend yourself or even duck from the sideward blows” (2008: 138), this indicates that she is treated not like a normal human being. This monologue obviously shares the experience of a woman who is severely terrorized for life, “imagine you could no longer distinguish between living and dying, so you stopped trying to kill yourself because it would be redundant” (2008: 138). Moreover, in the monologue, women are stated as the ones to be flogged and tortured, “imagine being flogged…the cries of other women flogged” (2008: 137-138), whereas men are the ones beating and torturing them, “bearded men…checking your socks and beating you” (2008: 137). At top of that, the reason why the women are tortured is unknown. It might be because women are considered as easy targets for the men. Moreover, the women are trapped inside their burqa, so they are vulnerable and it is easier for the men to attack them. c. “Say It” This monologue is another evidence of the use of sexual terrorism at war, in this case, rape. It is the compilation of the experiences of the Comfort Women. The Comfort Women refer to young women and girls who were abducted and

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 forced into sexual slavery to service the Japanese military from 1932 to 1945 (2008: 176). From this monologue, it can be seen how the Comfort Women was living in such a horrible terror at that time. What we saw: A girl drinking chemicals in the bathroom A girl killed by a bomb A girl beaten with a rifle over and over A girl running headfirst into a wall A girl’s malnourished body dumped in the river To drown… (2008: 161-162) They were barely fed, and even if they were fed, it was basically just rice. This also tells us that they were extremely malnourished at that time. What we were fed: Rice M i s o s oup Rice M i s o s oup Turnip pickle Rice rice rice… (2008: 162-163) Even so, they were still forced to do sexual intercourse with tons of Japanese soldiers. They were brutally tortured and treated as a thing to satisfy the sexual needs of the Japanese soldiers. What we were forced to do: Wear one-piece dresses with A button that opened easily Fifty Japanese soldiers a day Sometimes there would be a ship of them Strange barbaric things Do it even when we bleed Do it young before we started bleeding There were so many Some wouldn’t take off their clothes Just took out their penis So many men I couldn’t walk

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 I couldn’t stretch my legs I couldn’t bend I couldn’t… (2008: 160-161) What they did to us over and over: Cursed Spanked Twisted Tore bloody inside out Sterilized Drugged Slapped Punched… (2008: 161) Not only they were tortured, but they also have to obey the order from the soldiers. They were restricted to do things for themselves. They were not allowed to take care of themselves and they were left with nothing. It is obvious that the women have lost the control over their own body, even until their most intimate part. What we weren’t allowed to do: Wash ourselves Move around Go to the doctor Use a condom Run away Keep my baby Ask him to stop… (2008: 162). What we became: R ui ne d Tools Infertile Holes B l oody Meat Exiled Silenced Alone… (2008: 163). What we were left with: Nothing A shocked father who never recovered And died

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 No wages Scars Hatred of Men No children No house A space where a uterus once was Booze Smoking Guilt Shame… (2008: 163-164) All of the suffering that the Comfort Women experienced was not part of the promise that was told to them in the beginning. They were brutally tortured, raped, and murdered as merely holes to satisfy men’s sexual needs during war. They became the slaves of men’s sexual needs and at the same time used to show the domination and the power of men. B. The Resistance of the Women towards the Sexual Terrorism In this part, the writer provides the analysis of the resistance of the women towards the sexual terrorism that they experience. Each monologue shows different types and ways of the women’s resistance. It can be identified through the women’s thoughts and actions. Some obviously show their resistance, however, there are also some that vaguely show their resistance. Some women cannot resist the sexual terrorism, some women can only mentally and passively resist the sexual terrorism, and some other women resist the sexual terrorism through verbal refusal and even physical action. This part is divided based on the way those women show their resistance, moreover there is a similarity between them that is mostly, the women show the disguised and non-violent resistance such as; evasion, hidden transcripts of anger, non-cooperation and withdrawal.

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 1. Physical and Verbal Resistance This part shows the resistance of women based on the way they show their resistance, in this case through physical and verbal resistance. The monologues included in this part are: “Hair”, “My Angry Vagina”, “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could”, “I was There in the Room”, “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried”, “Crooked Braid”, and “Say It”. a. “ H ai r ” From the previous part, it can be seen that the woman in this monologue experiences sexual terrorism within marriage life. She is physically and emotionally tortured by her husband. She is forced to please him sexually by shaving her vagina hair. Even the marital therapist, who is coincidentally also a woman, does not care about her misery as a tortured wife, and even agreeing upon the accusation of the husband that the wife refuses to please him sexually. As the conclusion of the problem, the wife has to obey the order of her husband and shave her vagina. The wife seems to obey her husband and agreeing upon shaving her vagina, however, it can be seen that she actually resists the terror from her husband. She refuses to shave her vagina hair after knowing that it causes so much discomfort to herself. When he made love to me, my vagina felt the way a beard must feel. It felt good to rub it, and painful. Like scratching a mosquito bite. It felt like it was on fire. There were screaming red bumps. I refused to shave it again (2008: 9-10). Because she refuses to shave her vagina hair again, the husband starts having affairs. He says that it is because she would not please him sexually, she

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 would not shave her vagina. Knowing this, she does not stay silent and does not agree with her husband, she explains the reason for her refusing to shave her vagina, and also questions the argument of her therapist. She asked me why I didn’t want to please my husband. I told her I thought it was weird. I felt little when my hair was gone down there, and I couldn’t help talking in a baby voice, and the skin got irritated and even calamine lotion wouldn’t help it. She told me marriage was a compromise. I asked her if shaving my vagina would stop him from screwing around. I asked her if she’d had many cases like this before. She said that questions diluted the process. I needed to jump in. She was sure it was a good beginning (2008: 10). After the therapy session, she was shaved by her husband in order to please him and to stop him from having affairs. And once again, she felt the extreme discomfort from doing sexual intercourse with her husband. He clipped it a few times, and there was a little blood in the bathtub. He didn’t even notice it, ‘cause he was so happy shaving me. Then, later, when my husband was pressing against me, I could feel his spiky sharpness sticking into me, my naked puffy vagina. There was no protection. There was no fluff (2008: 10-11). That situation triggers her realization that vagina hair is there for a reason, which is to protect the vagina, to protect her most intimate part from harm. All these time, she does not realize that her husband only uses her as a sexual object. The fact that he is still having affairs even though she shaves her vagina, shows that he never really sees her as a wife that must be loved, respected and cherished, she was just a hole to satisfy his sexual needs. I realized then that hair is there for a reason – it’s the leaf around the flower, the lawn around the house. You have to love hair in order to love the vagina. You can’t pick the parts you want. And besides, my husband never stopped screwing around (2008: 11).

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 Her refusal, her questions and realization reveal that at the end of the day she is aware of the sexual terror that she experiences and she actually resists it. She shows it clearly by refusing to obey her husband’s order to shave her vagina. She also shows it by questioning the connection between shaving the vagina and her husband having affairs. She also realizes her own value and that hair is important and is there to protect the vagina. Her decision to take control over her own body and sexuality shows her resistance towards sexual terrorism. b. “My Angry Vagina” In the previous part, it has been discussed that the woman in this monologue shares her thoughts about the unfair situation around women and women’s sexuality. She was actually angry. She is angry because she is aware of the manipulation of men. She is angry because she demands justice for her and other women. Here, she clearly shows her resistance towards the sexual terror by men. She is against the opinion of men and the way they secretly try to control and manipulate women. You need to work with the vagina, introduce it to things, prepare the way. That’s what foreplay’s all about. You got to convince my vagina, seduce my vagina, engage my vagina’s trust. You can’t do that with a dry wad of fucking cotton. Stop shoving things up me. Stop shoving and stop cleaning it up. My vagina doesn’t need to be cleaned up. It smells good already. Not like rose petals. Don’t try to decorate…it’s supposed to smell like pussy…I don’t want my pussy to smell like rain. All cleaned up like washing a fish after you cook it… (2008: 70-71) In the above quotation, the women clearly aware of what is good for her vagina and what her vagina should be. Patriarchal society keeps shaping women to be what is perfect in their perspective, that is submissive, obedient, and other

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 feminine traits that attached to women; however, women as represented by the woman in this monologue, are aware that their vagina is perfect already. Moreover, modern technology, especially those which are related to women, are created as if to make women feel more uncomfortable. Then there’s those exams…There got to be a better way to do those exams…My vagina’s angry about those visits. It gets defended weeks in advance. It shuts down, won’t “relax.”…My vagina’s not stupid. Relax so you can shove those cold duck lips inside it? I don’t think so…Vagina is supposed to be loose and wide, not held together. That’s why girdles are so bad. We need to move and spread and talk and talk. Vaginas need comfort. Make something like that, something to give them pleasure (2008: 71-72). She hopes for a better condition for her and other women. She is one of the women who are aware of women’s right, that women are not just for having babies, but women also deserve to be sexually pleased. Why can’t they find some nice, delicious purple velvet and wrap it around me, lay me down on some feathery cotton spread, put on some nice, friendly pink or blue gloves, and rest my feet in some fur-covered stirrups? Warm up the duck lips. Work with my vagina…My vagina helped release a giant baby. It thought it would be doing more of that. It’s not…It wants kindness. It wants change. It wants silence and freedom and gentle kisses and warm liquids and deep touch…It wants to stop being angry. It wants to come. It wants to want…it wants everything (2008: 71-73). From her arguments, it can be seen that she rejects the awful treatment from the patriarchal society; such as the invention of tampons which in her opinion is not comfortable for women, and the way women is made insecure about themselves that they think they need to be ‘decorated’ in order to be seen perfect or to be smelled good. This anger and rejection show her resistant towards the manipulation, torture and control of men.

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 c. “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could” This monologue shows the horrible experiences of a girl in her early stages of life. The experience then influences her to think of her vagina as a bad thing or a bad area between her legs. However, that does not mean that she does not try to resist the sexual terror done to her. Though it can be said that it is not enough, but as a ten years old girl, she shows resistance toward Alfred who was raping her, “I try to fight him off, but he already gets it in” (2008: 79). Moreover, as she was turning into a sixteen years old girl, she finally met a twenty four years old woman in her neighborhood. This woman later teaches her to appreciate herself and influence her to value her vagina. She even got to learn to sexually please herself. This way, the woman influences the girl to be sexually independent and to be more grateful of who she is and what she has on herself. The woman triggers her to be aware of her values. ...she gently and slowly lays me out on the bed. And just our bodies rubbing makes me come. Then she does everything to me and my coochi snorcher that I always thought was nasty before… Afterward the gorgeous lady teaches me everything about my coochi snorcher. She makes me play with myself in front of her and she teaches me all different ways to give myself pleasure. She’s very thorough. She tells me to always know how to give myself pleasure so I’ll never need to rely on a man… I realized later she was my surprising, unexpected, politically incorrect salvation. She transformed my sorry-ass coochi snorcher and raised it up into a kind of heaven (2008: 81-82). From the above quotation, the girl indicates that the woman was actually her way to recover from the trauma of her experiences in the past. This way, it can be seen that women need other women to understand themselves. They can learn from each other, and they can help each other. This also becomes a part of the

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 resistance of women in order to be independent from men, to be separated from men and to engage the sexual relation with other women or with themselves without the interference from men. This monologue shows that the women’s miseries came from the interaction with men, and women’s revolution came from their interaction with themselves and other women. The girl realizes that with the help from the woman, she gained back her confidence of herself and her vagina. d. “I was There in the Room” This monologue is different from the other monologues. In this monologue, there is no experience of sexual terrorism. However, some statements in this monologue suggest the resistance of women through showing the strength and the capability of a woman and her vagina in the process of giving birth. I was there in the room when the contractions made her crawl on all fours…I was there when her vagina changed from a shy sexual hole, to an archaeological tunnel, a sacred vessel, a Venetian canal, a deep well with a tiny stuck child inside, waiting to be rescued. I saw the colors of her vagina. They changed. Saw the bruised broken blue, the blistering tomato red, the gray pink, the dark; saw the blood like perspiration along the edges…saw through the hole, the baby’s head scratches of black hair, saw it just there behind the bone…We forget the vagina, all of us. What else would explain our lack of awe, our lack of wonder…I was there later when I just turned and faced her vagina. I stood and let myself see her all spread, completely exposed, mutilated, swollen, and torn, bleeding all over the doctor’s hands…I stood, and as I stared, her vagina suddenly became a wide red pulsing heart (2008: 122-124). From the above quotation, it can be seen how the laboring woman and her vagina was in so much pain and struggle. All of that happened in order to give birth to a new life, her baby. She was able to overcome a great deal of pain and

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 suffering, and then eventually heals herself. At the end of the monologue, the speaker relates the vagina to a heart. The heart is capable of sacrifice. So is the vagina. The heart is able to forgive and repair. It can change its shape to let us in. It can expand to let us out. So can the vagina. It can ache for us and stretch for us, die for us, and bleed and bleed us into this difficult, wondrous world. So can the vagina. I was there in the room. I remember (2008: 124-125). This monologue is related to the power of women, the power of the vagina. The great capability of women and their vaginas can be manipulated, and used by the patriarchal society in order to control women. By forgetting their strength, women are made vulnerable and dependent. The vital source of women’s power is in their reproduction capability. This is the only power that women possess that men do not and men try to control this power in order to keep women in the subordinate position. Thus, if this power is taken from a woman, it is like her trump card, her vital chance to be liberated from men, is taken away from her and it can leave her vulnerable to men’s power. This experience shows that the woman embraces her capability and she shows women’s strength through the process of giving birth, this strength help women achieve their liberation. e. “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried” In the previous part, the experience of the transwoman in this monologue clearly shows the sexual terrorism done to her and the people close to her. It happened just because the society cannot accept the fact that she chooses to be a woman rather than stays as a man, the gender that according to her was assigned

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 to her. However, no matter what the people done to them, no matter how people brutally bullied her, she proved herself to be able to defend her point and live her decision. I saw her vagina. I wanted one…I ached to belong. I ached to smell like my mother…I ached to be pretty…I ached to be completed…They assigned me a sex…I was forced to carry around. I always knew I was a girl…I ran away from home, from school, from boot camp…Got my first hormone shot, got permission to be myself…I would count the male particles as they died…The feminine is in your face…And my vagina is so much friendlier. I cherish it. It brings me joy…It’s like when you’re trying to sleep and there is a loud car alarm; when I got my vagina, it was like someone finally turned it off. I live now in the female zone (2008: 141147). In the end, even after she lives as a woman, people seem so hard to understand her and accept her. So much hatred and rejection of her existence lead them to kill her boyfriend. His mistake was because he loves her, he falls in love with what people call as ambiguity. At this point, by brutally torturing her feeling, people try to convince her that she does not belong and that she has chosen to live in a wrong decision. They beat this girl out of his head. They didn’t want him dating a foreigner. Even though she was pretty, and she listened and was kind. They didn’t want him falling in love with ambiguity. They were that terrified of love (2008: 147-148). However, no matter what happened to her and the people she loves, she always believes in herself and she chooses to live on and stick to her decision to live as a woman. She respects herself and fully embraces her femininity. This indicates that she is brave and tough, and she can defend her point. Even though people attacked her, she resists the pain from the terror by choosing, surviving, and controlling her own chosen path that is a path of being a truly woman.

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 f. “Crooked Braid” In this monologue, the struggle of a woman as a wife of an abusive husband is clearly presented. Though the reason of his changing behavior is not clearly stated, however, the last part of the monologue indicates that the reason of his changing behavior is because of frustration and anger toward the people who oppress them. He seems like he was unable to do anything about the oppression, and seems like he could not fight the oppressor, therefore, his wife was made to be his only outlet of anger. Now he calls me in the middle of night, weeping. He didn’t mean to beat his wife. He didn’t mean to batter her. He’s suicidal. He knows what his mother went through. But he can’t stop…They took our land. They took our ways. They took our men (2008: 157). It can be clearly seen that the wife is actually a lot tougher than him. She was awfully beaten and abused, and was made sex object, but she is not weakened, she resists the terror from her husband, she defends herself. One time she even fights back and runs away from him. I would take time like I cared so much, and I would do it perfectly crooked…All macho in the road, but his braid would be so crooked and look so stupid and wrong. This shouldn’t have made me that happy…Heard that he was out with a woman…He came home much later and his hair was braided up all right and tight. He passed out from drinking. Then I got up with scissors as he snored and slowly walked to him and just cut the braid off, completely off, and put it in his hand so that when he woke up he screamed…and he jumped up, but I had tied his shoes together so he couldn’t run…I didn’t want to have sex with him…I tried to pretend I was asleep…I remember thinking just get it over with…I got sore. I said “It didn’t feel good.” (2008: 153-156) From the above quotation, it can be clearly seen that the wife resists the abuse of her husband, not only verbally but also physically. She fights back through verbal refusal and also physical retaliation. She dares to run away from

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 him so that he can no longer abuse her and dominate her. This monologue also shows the strength of women and even reveals the hopelessness of men when faced with oppression. g. “Say It” This monologue shows the horrible experience of sexual terrorism of the Comfort Women. The way they were treated like animals, the way they were tortured, and the way they were used up until nothing left of them. This part will try to reveal the thoughts of the Comfort Women and what they want now after the war had long been ended. This part will try to identify whether they resist the sexual terrorism done to them or they are actually just accept their condition at that time. What we are: 74 79 84 93 B l i nd Slow Ready outside the Japanese Embassy every Wednesday No longer afraid… (2008: 164-165). What we want: Now soon Before we’re gone and our stories leave this world, Leave our heads Japanese government Say it Please We are sorry, Comfort Women Say it to me We are sorry to me We are sorry to me To me… Say it.

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 Say sorry Say we are sorry Say me See me Say it Sorry (2008: 165-166). It can be seen that even though they could not resist the awful treatment they experienced in the past, now they expect the Japanese government to state their apology of what they have done to them in the past. This proves that eventually, the Comfort Women gather their anger from what they experienced, and turn it into courage and then demand the terrorists to take responsibility for what they have done. The Japanese soldiers have brutally ruined the lives of many women during the war, and now those women are no longer afraid, and they demand to be liberated from their past by asking them to sincerely apologize. 2. Mental or Inner Resistance This part shows the resistance of women based on the way they show their resistance, in this case through mental or inner resistance. The monologues included in this part are: “The Flood”, “My Vagina was My Village”, and “Under the Burqa”. a. “The Flood” In the previous part, it shows that the old lady in this monologue reveals her past experience that resulted in her ignorance towards her own vagina. Her experience of being sexually and verbally harassed by the boy named Andy Leftkov traumatized her.

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 However, there are some of her statements that indicate her resistance towards the harassment. First of all, by trying to be open to other woman and share her bitter experience show that she is actually aware of her situation. Though it cannot completely erase her trauma of sexual harassment, it definitely helps her feel better. You happy? You made me talk – you got it out of me. You got an old lady to talk about her down-there. You feel better now? [Turns away; turns back.] You know, actually, you’re the first person I ever talked to about this, and I feel a little better (2008: 30). Another statement that indicates her resistance is when she was in the process of being harassed by Andy Leftkov. In that situation, though she seems like frustrated and ashamed, but she actually defended herself. It wasn’t pee and it was smelly – well, frankly, I didn’t really smell anything at all, but he said, Andy said, that it smelled like sour milk and it was staining his car seat. I was “a stinky weird girl,” he said. I wanted to explain that his kiss had caught me off guard, that I wasn’t normally like this (2008: 27). It is certain that she does not agree with Andy Leftkov. She debates his argument, though she does not say it verbally to him. Therefore, this might be seen as her mental or inner resistance. She is aware that she does not do anything wrong, that it is merely natural reaction, however, she cannot debate him outspokenly, so she debates him inside her thoughts. b. “My Vagina was My Village” In the previous part of the analysis, it has already been discussed that the woman in this monologue was raped at war. In the monologue, she shares her thoughts about her vagina before and after she was raped.

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 Before she was raped at war, she describes her vagina in a more positive tone. It shows that she was proud of her sexuality, “My vagina. A live wet water village. My vagina my hometown” (2008: 62). However, all the positive side that she shows at the beginning is gradually disappear toward the end of the monologue. This can be seen as the loss of her pride of her sexuality. Reaching the final part of the monologue, it shows that she actually resists the sexual terrorism by withdrawing from the memories and by evading her connection with her sexuality. She could not verbally or physically resist the sexual terrorism, however, she mentally resist the bitter experience by saving herself out of that situation. My vagina a live wet water village. They invaded it. Butchered it and burned it down. I do not touch now. Do not visit. I live someplace else now. I don’t know where that is. (2008: 63). The experience of being rape at war is forever terrorized her, however, she manage to resist it by not engaging with her sexuality. This might not be seen as a clear resistance, and could be seen as devastation, however by withdrawing from the activity and from the connection with her sexuality, she survives the downfall of her life after the rape. This monologue is obviously one of the examples of the horrible acts of sexual terrorism towards women. They robbed her self-worth and self-confidence that she had before she was brutally raped. The resistance is seen from how she handles the situation after the bitter experience of sexual terror.

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 65 c. “Under the Burqa” This monologue reveals the experience of a woman who lives with no freedom of choice. She lives her life as she is told to live. She does not have any choice nor any control over her own body. Surprisingly, she is proven to be sensible and tough. She resists the abuse and terror from the men, and she even tried to protect her husband, “because they came and shot him with the gun…and you tried to defend him and they trampled you, four men on your back” (2008: 136). From under her “prison”, she was still paying attention and even criticized things silently. She represents her inner thoughts through this monologue. This is what she thought about her experience of facing the terror. She describes how vulnerable and defenseless she was, however, at the same time she shows that she survived the torture and she wanted to show that men are the source of her painful experience. i am caught there i am lost there inside the cloth which is your head inside the dark we share imagine you can see me i was beautiful once big dark eyes you would know me (2008: 139). In the above quotation of the last part of the monologue, she indicates that if she was given a choice, she might have a different life and experience. It indicates how she sees and values herself even though she cannot change her condition. It contains her hope toward herself and hope for other women.

(79) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Based on the analysis discussed in the previous chapter, the writer draws conclusions of this study. In the analysis of the first problem formulation, the writer finds that sexual terrorism happens within several situations. First, it occurs within family and marriage life; second, it occurs in a broader scope, that is within the society (outside the family and marriage life); and third, it happens at war. Within the family and marriage life, the women who become the victims are the wives and children. The terrorist is usually their own husband, father, brother or the other family relatives, and rarely strangers. These women are easily terrorized because they depend on their husband and father, and the men think that their wife and children belong to them, so these men have power over them. The types of sexual terrorism that occurs within family and marriage life are mostly wife assault and child neglect. Outside the family and marriage life, sexual terrorism occurs to any woman in any situation and usually performed by strangers or lovers. The victims range from the low-class women to the rich-educated women. Therefore, any woman has the possibility to encounter sexual terrorism. The reasons are varied, and although they are not clearly stated in the monologue, it can be concluded that the sexual terrorism is about power over women. The types of sexual terrorism that occurs outside the family and marriage life are mostly sexual harassment. 66

(80) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 67 Sexual terrorism can be obviously seen through the experiences of the women at war. The victims can be said to be taken from poor families, lower class women, basically women who are undoubtedly inferior to the terrorist. The types of sexual terrorism that occurs at war are rape and sexual torture. The reason is usually related to the soldiers’ sexual needs during war. The second analysis discusses about the way those terrorized women resist the sexual terrorism. This part is divided into two sections, physical and verbal resistance; and mental or inner resistance. From the analysis, it can be concluded that some women cannot directly resist the sexual terrorism, some women can only mentally and passively resist the sexual terrorism, and some women resists sexual terrorism through verbal refusal and even physical action. However, it is also clear that from the evidences in the monologues, basically, all women are against sexual terrorism and by sharing their experience of sexual terrorism they actually shows a sign of resistance. For the case of mental or inner resistance which does not include obvious or strong physical or even verbal reaction toward sexual terrorism, the resistance can be seen from how they oppose all the statements from the men inside their minds. Some of the women choose to separate themselves from men, some choose to mentally criticize the terror from men, and there are also women who avoid engaging with their sexuality after they are sexually terrorized. It can be concluded that, in this present time, women are still experiencing sexual terrorism. The reason behind the sexual terror is varied depending on the terrorists. It can happen within the family, within marriage, it can be done by a

(81) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 68 total stranger, it can be done by lovers, and it can happen to young-adult women and to old women. It can happen to any kind of women in any situation, and in any socio-economic line. The similarities between these women in The Vagina Monologues are that they experiences sexual terrorism, though varied; and that these women show resistance towards the sexual terrorism by sharing and giving voice about their experience on sexual terrorism. It can be concluded from this analysis that basically, all women is eventually aware of their own oppression that is depicted through sexual terrorism; and that those women fights against it through resistance, and the form of the resistance is also varied depending on the form of sexual terrorism they experience and also based on the context of their situation. In the end, what these women try to achieve is actually their independence and freedom over their own body and sexuality.

(82) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Bartlett, Elizabeth Ann. Rebellious Feminism: Camus’s Ethic of Rebellion and Feminist Thought. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. Cuddon, J. A. The Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. ed. C. E. Preston. London: Penguin Books Ltd, 1998. Ensler, Eve. The Vagina Monologues Tenth Anniversary Edition. New York: Villard Books, 2008. “Eve Ensler” 2012. (28 June 2014). Humm, Maggie. The Dictionary of Feminist Theory. Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1995. Lethbridge, Stefanie and Jarmila Mildorf. "Basics for English Studies." 2004. (28 June 2014). Madsen, Debora L. Feminist Theory and Literary Practice. London: Pluto Press, 2000. Malo, Raynesta Mikaela Indri. “Radical Feminism as seen through the Female Characters in Harumi Setouchi’s Beauty In Disarray.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2008. Reiser, Alyssa. “Our Vaginas, Not Ourselves: A Critical Analysis of the Vagina Monologues.” 2010. (13 May 2014). Sheffield, Carole J. “Sexual Terrorism” in Women: A Feminist Perspective Third Edition. ed. Jo Freeman. Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1984. Sumarno, Henrica Angelia Indriawati. “Resistance against Black Women’s Oppression Seen through the Main Character in April Sinclair’s Coffee Will Make You Black.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2011. Tong, Rosemarie. Feminist Thought: A More Comprehensive Introduction. Boulder: Westview Press, 2009. 69

(83) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 70 Vinthagen, Stellan. “Understanding ‘Resistance’: Exploring Definitions, Perspectives, Form, and Implications.” Gothenburg University, 2007. (21 May 2014). “What's the difference between a soliloquy and a monologue?” Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2014. (25 August 2014).

(84) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Summary of the Eve Ensler’s The Vagina Monologues The Vagina Monologues is based on the interviews with a group of over two hundred varied women about their vaginas. The monologues talk about the stories of those women on facing the sexual violence that they experienced. Several monologues are included in the book, however, not all monologues are included in this thesis. There are fourteen monologues included in this thesis that will be explained further below, they are “Hair”, “I was Twelve. My Mother Slapped Me.”, “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could”, “The Memory of Her Face”, “Crooked Braid”, “The Flood”, “The Vagina Workshop”, “Because He Liked to Look at It”, “My Angry Vagina”, “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried”, “My Vagina was My Village”, “Under the Burqa”, “Say It”, and “I was There in the Room”. “Hair” is about a wife who is made to shave her vagina hair. Her husband hates hair and a naked vagina excites him, however, the wife is tortured because of the unpleasant feelings she gets after shaving her vagina. Then she refuses to shave it again. The husband then having affair and blames his wife for doing that. The wife then agrees to shave her vagina again in order to save their marriage. In the end, she realizes that vagina hair is there for a reason, and moreover, the husband does not stop having affair. “I was Twelve. My Mother Slapped Me.” is about the situation of several girls facing her menstruation for the first time. Some of them are treated 71

(85) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 72 positively, and some of them are treated negatively by their family members. This monologue shows the girls’ thoughts of menstruation and how they think of themselves and their vaginas after they experience their menstruation. “The Little Coochi Snorcher that Could” is about a girl who has a terrible past related to her vagina, and that makes her hates her vagina. However, one day, when she reaches the age of 16, she meets a 24 years old woman, she is her neighbor that later helps her see the value of herself again, and she finally makes peace with herself and her vagina. “The Memory of Her Face”, this monologue consists of two different stories about a wife in Islamabad, and a girl in Juárez. The wife in Islamabad is a victim of her husband’s abusive behavior, and the girl in Juárez is the victim of some predators. “Crooked Braid”, this monologue is based on the interviews with the Native women on the Pine Ridge Reservation. The woman in the story is a wife that has a son. She is a victim of abusive behavior of her husband in the monologue, it is implied that the husband abuses her wife because he is also the victim of some kind of pressure. “The Flood” is about and old lady who was harassed at a young age and since then traumatized by the incident. At near the end of the monologue, it is revealed that the cause of her ‘flood’ is because she has cancer. In the end, she feels better after talking to someone that listens and cares about her story. “The Vagina Workshop”, this monologue is about a woman who joins a vagina workshop. As the name shows, the activities in all sessions in the vagina

(86) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 73 workshop are related to the vagina. Each session triggers her to feel the connection with her vagina again. “Because He Liked to Look at It” is about a woman who hates her vagina. There reason why she hates her vagina is because she thinks that her vagina is incredibly ugly and she wished she had not looked at it. One day she met an ordinary man named Bob. It turns out that Bob loves vaginas. Later, the woman finally changes her thought about her vagina because Bob helps her realizes the true value of her vagina. “My Angry Vagina” is about a woman who talks about things that provoke women to be angry at the disturbing or uncomfortable facilities that they get in the society. The cause is varied, from unpleasant treatments toward women, annoying things invented for women and their intimate part, unfair judgments and demands of how women’s vagina should be, and many more. “They Beat the Girl Out of My Boy…or so They Tried.”, this monologue shares a story of the struggle of a transwoman. It tells how she was bullied at young age for being a feminine boy, and how she finally decides to be a woman by undergoing a surgery to get herself a vagina and change herself completely. It also shows the reaction of the people around her and how they treat her. “My Vagina was My Village”, this monologue is especially dedicated to the women of Bosnia who were raped as a systematic tactic of war. It tells about a girl who becomes a victim of a war. She is raped repeatedly by the soldiers and even doctors. This monologue shows her thoughts of her vagina before and after she becomes the victim of rape.

(87) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 74 “Under the Burqa”, this monologue is almost like retelling what was shared by Zoya, an Afghan girl who grew up in a Muslim culture, from a different perspective. It shows the terror and horror of living under the Taliban for women, and at the same time shows the thoughts of those tortured women. “Say It”, this monologue lets the readers know the fact about Comfort Women. Everything that the women went through and what they become in the present time are shared thoroughly. From this monologue, it can be seen how these innocent women fell into the trap and tortured during war as sex slaves. “I was There in the Room”, this monologue is based on the personal experience of the author, Eve Ensler, when she witnesses the birth of her granddaughter. It tells about how a woman sees the process of giving birth. Each process, what happens before, during, and after the baby is born, is thoroughly described. Moreover, the woman who witnesses all of the process then states her feelings and thoughts about vagina after she sees the birth process.

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