Cisco Press Internetworking Technologies Handbook 4th Edition pdf pdf

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Table of Content s • I ndex •

  No par t of t h is book m ay b e repr od uced or t r ansm it t ed in an y for m or b y any Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 m ean s, elect r onic or m ech anical, inclu ding ph ot ocopy in g or recor ding, or by an y inf orm at ion I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 st or age and r et r iev al syst em , w it hou t w r it t en p er m ission fr om t h e pu blish er , ex cept for t he Pages: 11 28 inclusion of b rief qu ot at ions in a r eview . shall h ave n eit h er liab ilit y n or r espon sib ilit y t o any person or ent it y w it h r espect t o any loss or d amag es arising fr om t h e inf orm at ion cont ained in t h is book or fr om t h e use of t he d iscs or I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat pr ogr am s t h at m ay accomp any it .

Warning and Disclaimer

  shall h ave n eit h er liab ilit y n or r espon sib ilit y t o any person or ent it y w it h r espect t o any loss or d amag es arising fr om t h e inf orm at ion cont ained in t h is book or fr om t h e use of t he d iscs or I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat pr ogr am s t h at m ay accomp any it . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Trademark Acknowledgments

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Icons Used in This Book

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Command Syntax Conventions

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Objectives

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Updates to the Fourth Edition

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Audience

  We an t icipat e t hat t he inf or mat ion in t his b ook w ill help y ou assess t heapp licabilit y of specif ic t ech nologies in you r net w or king env ir onm en t s and giv e y ou a basic Table of Content s • un derst an ding of t he m an y int ern et wor k ing t ech nologies. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Organization

  — Prov ides int r odu ct ory in for m at ion ab out t he basic concept s and t echnolog ies of n et w or k ing, in clu ding LAN and WAN t echnologies, Cisco P ar t I : I nt r oduct ion t o I nt e rne t w ork i ng Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ing t echnologies. Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom nov ice t o ex pert .

Acknowledgments and Contributors

  Du ring t h e past t hr ee year s at Cisco, h e has w or k ed closely w it h man y ser v ice pr ovider cust om er s t o pr ov ide net w or kin g op t imizat ion solut ions, t echnolog y and ser v ices deploy m en t ,Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .and im plement at ion of Cisco b est pr act ices net w or kin g t echn iq ues. Bef ore h is cur rent posit ion, h e w or ked for Cisco as a t echnical m ar ket ingCov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy engineer in t he I nt er net Techn olog ies d ivision, w h er e he focused on Cisco I OS sof t w ar esyst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hich t echnologies.

Third Edition Contributors

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

First Edition Contributors

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Chapter 1. Internetworking Basics Obj e ct i ve s

  Under st anding t h e concep t ual m odel h elp s you Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom un derst an d t h e comp lex p ieces t hat m ake up an in t er n et w or k .nov ice t o ex pert . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

What Is an Internetwork?

  Di ff e r en t N et w or k Tech nol ogie s Ca n Be Con ne ct ed t o Cr e at ePub lish er: Cisco Pressa n I n t e r ne t w or k Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 Pages: 11 28 The u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of essent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies. New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .

History of Internetworking

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Such en vir onm ent s wer e im plem ent ed by b ot h I BM's Sy st em s Net w or k Ar ch it ect ur e ( SNA) andReader s w ill obt ain a g reat er un der st an ding of LAN and WAN n et w or k ing, p ar t icu lar ly t h e Digit al' s net w or k ar ch it ect ur e.har dw ar e, pr ot ocols, and ser v ices inv olv ed .

Internetworking Challenges

  These at t acks w er e possible because a g r eat num b er of p r iv at e n et w or k s Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .cur r en t ly con nect ed w it h t he I nt er net wer e not pr oper ly secur ed. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Open System Interconnection Reference Model

  Lay er 2— Dat a linkNew chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPLay er 1— Phy sicalCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Characteristics of the OSI Layers

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allThe lower lay er s of t h e OSI m odel h andle d at a t r anspor t issues. Th e lowest lay er, t he p hy sical lay er , is closest t o t he p hy sical n et wor k m edium ( t he n et w or k cabling , for ex am ple) and is r esp onsible forReader s w ill obt ain a g reat er un der st an ding of LAN and WAN n et w or k ing, p ar t icu lar ly t h e act ually placing infor m at ion on t he m edium .har dw ar e, pr ot ocols, and ser v ices inv olv ed .

Protocols

  Rou t in g pr ot ocols ar e n et wor k lay er pr ot ocols t hat ar e I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat r espon sib le for ex ch angin g in for m at ion b et w een rou t er s so t hat t he r out er s can select t he p rop er enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ingpat h f or net w or k t r aff ic. This conceptCom plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, of bu ild in g upon t he lay er s already in ex ist ence is t h e fou ndat ion of t he OSI m odel.and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

OSI Model and Communication Between Systems

Interaction Between OSI Model Layers

  I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat On e OSI lay er com m un icat es w it h anot h er lay er t o m ak e use of t h e ser v ices pr ov ided by t he enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ingsecond lay er . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allI n t his cont ex t , t he ser v ice u ser is t he OSI lay er t hat r eq uest s ser v ices f rom an ad jacent OSI net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.lay er .

OSI Model Layers and Information Exchange

  I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat Headers, t r ailers, an d d at a ar e r elat ive concept s, d ep en ding on t he lay er t hat analy zes t he enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork inginf orm at ion un it . Figur e 1- 6 sh ows how t h e header and d at a f rom one lay er are en cap su lat ed int o t he h ead er of Reader s w ill obt ain a g reat er un der st an ding of LAN and WAN n et w or k ing, p ar t icu lar ly t h e t he next low est lay er .har dw ar e, pr ot ocols, and ser v ices inv olv ed .

Information Exchange Process

  I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat The d at a link lay er in Syst em B t hen r eads t he cont r ol inf or mat ion cont ain ed in t he h ead er enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ingpr epended by t h e dat a link lay er in Sy st em A. Aft er t h e applicat ion lay er per for m s t hese act ions, t he dat a isand speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all passed t o t he r ecip ien t soft war e ap plicat ion in Syst em B, in exact ly t h e for m in w hich it w asnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.t r ansm it t ed b y t he ap plicat ion in Syst em A.

OSI Model Physical Layer t o en su re con cept comp r eh en sion and r et en t ion, and ad dit ional r esou r ces f or fu rt her st udy

  Phy sical lay er sp ecif icat ions define char act erist ics such as volt ag e lev els, t im ing of pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icientv olt age chang es, p hy sical d at a r at es, m axim um t ran smission d ist an ces, and ph ysical connect or s. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 Pages: 11 28 The u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of essent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies.

OSI Model Data Link Layer

  Er ror not ificat ion alert s upp er - lay er pr ot ocols t hat a t r ansm ission er r or has occur r ed, and t h e seq uencin g of dat a I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat fr am es r eor der s f ram es t hat ar e t r ansm it t ed ou t of sequence. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y,The I n st it u t e of Elect rical an d Elect r onics En gineer s ( I EEE) has sub divid ed t he dat a lin k layer int o and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allt w o su blayer s: Log ical Link Cont r ol ( LLC) and Media Access Cont r ol ( MAC) .

Figu r e 1 - 8 . The Da t a Lin k La ye r Cont ai ns Tw o Subl ay er s t o en su re con cept comp r eh en sion and r et en t ion, and ad dit ional r esou r ces f or fu rt her st udy

  Cov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hichpr of essionals oper at e. Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient Table of Content s • I ndex •I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc.

OSI Model Network Layer

  Som e net w or k layer im plem en t at ions, such as t he I nt er net Prot ocol ( I P) , define net w ork ad dr esses in aAut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .w ay t hat r out e select ion can b e det erm ined syst em at ically by com par ing t h e sou r ce n et wor k add ress w it h t he d est inat ion net w or k add ress and app lying t h e su bnet m ask . Because t his lay er I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat defin es t he logical net w or k lay out , r out er s can use t his lay er t o d et er m ine how t o f or war d enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ingpack et s.

OSI Model Transport Layer net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise

  Reader s w ill obt ain a g reat er un der st an ding of LAN and WAN n et w or k ing, p ar t icu lar ly t h eThe t ran sp ort lay er accept s d at a f rom t he session layer an d segm ent s t h e dat a for t ran sp ort har dw ar e, pr ot ocols, and ser v ices inv olv ed . Cov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacyFlow cont r ol m anag es d at a t r an sm ission bet w een dev ices so t hat t he t r ansm it t ing dev ice d oes syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hich not sen d m or e dat a t h an t h e r eceiving d ev ice can pr ocess.

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. OSI Model Presentation Layer

  Com m on dat a repr esen t at ion f or mat s, or t he u se of st an dar d im ag e, sou nd, an d video for m at s,The u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of enable t h e int er ch ange of ap plicat ion d at a bet w een d if fer ent t yp es of com pu t er sy st ems.essent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies. I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat Am ong t he w ell- kn ow n g r aphic im age f or mat s are Gr aphics I nt er ch ange For m at ( GI F) , Join t enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ingPhot og r aphic Exp er t s Grou p ( JPEG) , an d Tagged I m ag e File For m at ( TI FF) .

OSI Model Application Layer

  Reader s w ill obt ain a g reat er un der st an ding of LAN and WAN n et w or k ing, p ar t icu lar ly t h eThe ap plicat ion lay er is t he OSI layer closest t o t h e en d user , w hich m ean s t hat bot h t h e OSI har dw ar e, pr ot ocols, and ser v ices inv olv ed . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Information Formats

  The t er m s used t o r efer t o t hese in for m at ion for m at s ar e not used consist en t ly in t heint er net w ork ing ind ust r y but somet im es ar e used int er chang eab ly . Comm on inf orm at ion f orm at s I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion A f r ame is an in for m at ion u nit wh ose sou rce an d d est inat ion ar e dat a link lay er en t it ies.

Figu r e 1 - 9 . Da t a f r om Upp er - La ye r En t it ie s M ak e s Up t he D at a Lin k La ye r Fr am e

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age A pack et is an inf or m at ion u nit w h ose sour ce and d est inat ion ar e net w or k layer ent it ies. TheAut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .header an d t r ailer cont ain con t r ol inf orm at ion int ended for t he n et w or k lay er en t it y in t he dest inat ion sy st em.

Figu r e 1 - 1 0 . Th r ee Ba si c Com pon en t s M a k e Up a N et w or k Lay er Packe t

  Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient A m essage is an inf or m at ion u nit w h ose sour ce and d est inat ion ent it ies ex ist ab ove t he net w or k lay er ( oft en at t h e applicat ion lay er ) . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

ISO Hierarchy of Networks

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Network Services

  Con nect ion - orient ed ser v ices m ust negot iat e a con nect ion , t r ansfer d at a, and t ear dow n t h e Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .connect ion, w h er eas a conn ect ionless t r ansfer can sim ply send t he d at a w it h out t he add ed ov er head of creat ing and t ear ing dow n a conn ect ion. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Internetw ork Addressing

  I n t ern et w or k ad dr esses id en t ify d ev ices separ at ely or as m emb er s of a gr oup. Addr essing sch em es v ar y dependin g on t h e pr ot ocol fam ily and t h e OSI lay er .

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. Data Link Layer Addresses

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP [ View full size im age] Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

He x ade ci m al Di gi t s

Mapping Addresses

  Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient Becau se in t ern et w or k s gener ally use net w ork addr esses t o rou t e t r aff ic ar ound t h e net w ork , t her e is a need t o map n et w or k add r esses t o MAC add resses. I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat The Hello p rot ocol is a net w or k layer p rot ocol t hat en ables net w ork devices t o ident if y one enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork inganot h er and indicat e t h at t h ey ar e st ill f unct ional.

Hierarchical Versus Flat Address Space

  Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icientI nt er net w ork addr ess sp ace t yp ically t ak es one of t w o for m s: hier archical ad dr ess space or f lat Figu r e 1 - 1 7 . New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .

Address Assignments indu st ry . Lear n how t o incor por at e int er net w or kin g t echn olog ies in t o a LAN/ WAN env ir onm ent

  St at ic add resses ar e and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allassig ned b y a n et w or k ad min ist r at or accor ding t o a pr econ ceiv ed int er net w or k addr essing p lan .net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Flow Control Basics

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Cov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hichpr of essionals oper at e.

Error-Checking Basics

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Multiplexing Basics

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ing t echnologies.

Figu r e 1 - 1 9 . M u lt ipl e De vi ces Ca n Be M ul t ip le xe d i nt o a Sin gle Ph ysica l

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all Cha nn elnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Standards Organizations

  Som e of t he b est - k now n st and ard s or ganizat ions t hat con t r ib ut e t o int er net w ork ing st and ard s include t hese: I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 Pages: 11 28 Ele ct roni c I nd ust ri es A ssocia t ion ( EI A) — I AB is a g rou p of in t er net w or k r esear ch er s w h o discuss issu es p er t in en t t o t he I nt er net and set I n t ern et policies t h r ough decisions and t ask for ces. Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom nov ice t o ex pert .

Chapter 2. Introduction to LAN Protocols Obj e ct i ve s

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

What Is a LAN?

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

LAN Protocols and the OSI Reference Model

  When t he send in g person is finished, he r eleases t he t r ansm it b ut t on and t h e fr equency isCom plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, av ailab le t o ot h er s.and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Becau se most dat a con nect ion s ar eCov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy asym m et r ic ( w it h m or e dat a t r av eling in one dir ect ion t h an t he ot her ) , t h e gain is not as gr eatsyst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hich as m any claim .

LAN Transmission Methods

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

LAN Topologies

  A r in g t op ology is a LAN arch it ect ur e t h at consist s of a ser ies of d ev ices conn ect ed t o on e anot h er Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom by u nidir ect ion al t r ansm ission lin ks t o for m a single closed loop. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Figu r e 2 - 5 . A Logical Tr ee Topol ogy Ca n Con t a in M u lt i pl e Node s

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP A t r ee t opology is a LAN arch it ect ur e t h at is ident ical t o t h e bus t opology , except t hat br anchesCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age w it h mu lt iple nod es ar e p ossible in t his case. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

LAN Devices

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Chapter 3. Introduction to WAN Technologies

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

What Is a WAN?

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Point-to-Point Links

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Circuit Switching

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Packet Switching

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

WAN Dialup Services

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

WAN Devices

  WAN sw it ches, access ser v ers, m odem s, CSU/ DSUs, and I SD N t er min al adap t er s ar e d iscussed in t he f ollowin gsect ions. Ot her dev ices f ound in WAN env iron m en t s t hat ar e used in WAN im plem en t at ions Table of Content s • include rou t er s, ATM swit ches, and m ult iplex er s.

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. WAN Switch

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Modem

  A M od em Con ne ct i on Th r oug h a W A N Ha nd le s An al og a ndI n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ing Di gi t al Sign a ls t echnologies. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

CSU/DSU

  Cov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hichA chann el ser vice unit / digit al ser vice unit ( CSU/ DSU) is a digit al- in t er f ace d ev ice used t o connect pr of essionals oper at e. The CSU/ DSU also pr ovides sign al t im in g for com m unicat ion pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icientbet w een t h ese dev ices.

ISDN Terminal Adapter

  The Ter m i na l Ad apt er Con ne ct s t he I SD N Ter m i na l A da pt e r t o Ot he r I nt er f a ce s New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Chapter 4. Introduction to Cisco IOS Software

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

System Architecture

  Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Alt hou gh CPU and m emor y ar e r equir ed com pon en t s t o ru n I OS, a r out er m ust also hav e v arious Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .int er faces t o allow p ack et f or w ard in g. Th e console por t can be conn ect ed t o a com p ut er' s serial conn ect ion t o gain t er m inaland speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all access t o t he r out er .

Exa m pl e 4 - 1 . Cisco 3 6 4 0 Rout e r Console O u t pu t a t St ar t up

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Cisco IOS CLI

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom nov ice t o ex pert .

Exa m pl e 4 - 2 . Usi ng Con t e xt -Sen si t i ve H el p

  Aft er con figur ing t h e r out er nam e an d set t ing t he en able and enable secr etNew chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP passw ord s, you can ex am ine t h e r unn in g con figur at ion :Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Cov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy show i p r out e Display s t he cur r ent act iv e I P r out in g t able syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hich pr of essionals oper at e.

Debugging and Logging

  Cisco I OS sof t w are allow s f or det ailed d eb ugg in g for all p r ot ocols an d pr ocesses r un ning in t he syst em f or t r oubleshoot ing pu rp oses. Mor e inf or m at ion on debu ggin g can be ob t ained in t heCisco I OS D eb ug Com m and Refer en ce, av ailable on w w w .cisco.

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. CAUTI ON

  Al er t ( se ve ri t y 1 ) — I m m ediat e act ion is need edNew chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP Crit ical ( se ve ri t y 2 ) — Cr it ical con dit ionCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Err or ( se v er it y 3 ) — Er ror con dit ion Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, D e bugg ing ( se ve ri t y 7 ) — Debugg ing m essage and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Exa m pl e 4 - 3 . log gin g Com m an d

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, informational Informational messages (severity=6) and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Reloading and Upgrading

  A sy st em rest ar t on Cisco r out er s is called a r eload. I f t he rou t er need s t o be r eload ed f or any r eason, t he re l oa d com m and needs t o be ent er ed f rom pr ivileged mod e, as show n in Ex am ple 4- 4 .

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. Exa m pl e 4 - 4 . Sy st em Re load O pt i ons

  Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age The con figur at ion r eg ist er is u sed t o sp ecify t he r out er 's b eh avior d ur ing t he r eloading pr ocess. The conf igur at ion r eg ist er can be I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat m odified in conf igur at ion m ode u sing t h e confi g- re gist e r com m and.

CAUTI ON net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise

  Cov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacyBy def ault , t h e r out er fir st t r ies t o b oot f r om t he fir st im age in t he on boar d sy st em Flash, if syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hichav ailab le, an d t hen it t r ies t he PCMCI A Flash car ds. To u pgr ad e t he Cisco I OS sof t w ar e v er sion r un ning on a r out er , y ou m ust f ir st det er m ine t h e r ight imag e t o upg rad e t o u sin g t h e up gr ade plan ners available on w w w .cisco.

CAUTI ON

  Ensur e t h at y ou hav e t he cor r ect soft w ar e im age and m eet t he RAM an dFlash m emor y r equir ement s t o r un an d st or e t h e imag e befor e inst alling. Th er e ar e m any way s t o do t his, asCon cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom dem onst r at ed in Ex am ple 4- 5 .nov ice t o ex pert .

Exa m pl e 4 - 5 . Opt ion s for Copy in g an I OS I m a ge in t o Fla sh M em or y

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, ftp: Copy from ftp: file system and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

What Are Bridges and Switches?

  Super ior t hr oug hpu t per for m ance, high er por t d en sit y , low er per - por t cost , and g reat er f lex ibilit y hav e cont r ibut ed t oThe u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of t he em er gence of sw it ches as r eplacem ent t ech nology f or br idg es an d as com p lem ent s t o r out ingessent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies.t echnology . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Link Layer Device Overview

  The br id ge or sw it ch Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age w ill act as a fir ew all for som e pot en t ially d amag ing net w ork er r or s and w ill accom m odat ecom mu nicat ion b et w een a lar ger num b er of d ev ices t han w ould be supp or t ed on any sing le LAN Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .connect ed t o t he br id ge. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y,Br idges gener ally hav e only a few por t s for LAN connect ivit y , w h er eas swit ches g en er ally hav e and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all net w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Types of Bridges

  New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAPCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Rem ot e br idg in g pr esent s sever al u nique in t er n et w or k in g ch alleng es, on e of w hich is t h e Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .dif fer en ce b et ween LAN an d W AN speed s. I f a LAN dev ice capab le of a 3 - Mbps t r ansmission r at eand speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all w ant s t o com mu nicat e w it h a dev ice on a rem ot e LAN, t he local b ridg e m ust r egulat e t he 3 - Mbpsnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.dat a st r eam so t hat it does n ot ov erw h elm t he 64 - kb ps serial lin k.

Types of Switches

  M ul t i- LA N Ne t w or k s Ca n Use a n ATM - Ba se d B ack b on e W he n Sw i t ch in g Cel lsI n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ing t echnologies. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

LAN Switch

  Figur e 5- 4illust rat es a sim p le net w ork in w hich a LAN sw it ch int er con nect s a 1 0- Mb ps and a 100 - Mbp s Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ing t echnologies.

Segm e nt s

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Chapter 6. Routing Basics Obj e ct i ve s

  Sub sequ en t chapt er s in Par t VI I , " Rout ing Pr ot ocols, " addr ess sp ecific r out in g pr ot ocols in m or e det ail, w hileThe u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of t he net w ork pr ot ocols t hat use rou t ing pr ot ocols ar e discu ssed in Par t VI , " Net w or k Pr ot ocols. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

What Is Routing?

  Th is I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion dist inct ion pr ovid es r ou t in g and br idging w it h dif ferent inf orm at ion t o use in t he pr ocess of By m ovin g in for m at ion f r om sour ce t o d est inat ion, so t he t w o f unct ions accom plish t h eir t ask s in Cisco Systems, Inc.dif fer en t w ay s. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Routing Components

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. Path Determination

  De st in at i on/ N ex t Hop Associ at ion s De t e r m i ne t he D at a' s New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP O pt i m al Pa t h Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Switching

  Hav ing acquir ed a r out er' s add ress by som e m eans, t he sou rce h ost sen ds a packet addr essed sp ecifically t o a r out er' s I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion ph ysical ( Media Access Cont r ol [ MAC] - lay er ) addr ess, t h is t im e w it h t h e pr ot ocol ( n et w or k lay er ) By add ress of t he dest in at ion h ost . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Routing Algorithms

  Fir st , t he par t icular goals of t he algor it hm design er aff ect t he op er at ion of t he r esu lt ing rou t ing pr ot ocol. Secon d, v ar ious t y pes of r out ing algor it hm s ex ist , and each algor it hm has a diff er ent imp act on net w or k and r out er r esou rces.

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. Design Goals

  The b est rou t ing algor it hm s ar e oft en t h ose t hat hav e w it hst ood t he t est of t ime and t hat hav e pr ov en st able u nder a var iet y of net w or kReader s w ill obt ain a g reat er un der st an ding of LAN and WAN n et w or k ing, p ar t icu lar ly t h e condit ions.har dw ar e, pr ot ocols, and ser v ices inv olv ed . New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP Rou t ing algor it hm s should also be f lex ible, w hich means t hat t hey should qu ick ly and accu rat elyCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age adap t t o a v ar iet y of net w ork cir cu m st an ces.

Algorithm Types

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allRou t ing algor it hm s can b e classified by t y pe. Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease Host - int ellig en t v ersus rou t er - int elligent pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient St at ic r out ing algor it h m s ar e h ard ly algor it hm s at all, but ar e t able m app in gs est ablished b y t he net w or k adm inist r at or befor e t he beginn ing of rou t ing.

Single-Path Versus Multipath

  The u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of essent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies. The adv ant ages of m ult ipat h algor it hm s ar e obv ious: Th ey can pr ov ide sub st an t ially bet t er Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom t hr ou ghpu t an d reliabilit y.

Flat Versus Hierarchical

  Pack et s fr om n onback bone rou t er s t rav el t o I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat t he backb one r out er s, w here t hey ar e sent t h rou gh t he b ack bon e unt il t hey r each t he general enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ingar ea of t he d est inat ion . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, Rou t ing sy st ems oft en desig nat e logical g rou ps of nod es, called d omain s, aut onom ous sy st ems, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allor ar eas.

Intradomain Versus Interdomain

  I ndex •I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion Som e r out ing algor it hm s w or k only w it h in d omains; ot her s w ork w it h in an d bet w een dom ains. I t st an ds t o reason, t heref ore, t h at an opt im al in t rad om ain - r out ing algor it hm w ou ld n ot n ecessar ily be an opt im al int er dom ain- r out in g Pub lish er: Cisco Press algor it hm .

Link-State Versus Distance Vector

  I n link - st at e algor it hm s, each r out er b uilds a pict ur e ofThe u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of t he en t ire n et wor k in it s r out in g t ab les. D ist an ce v ect or algor it hm s ( also k now n as Bellm an - For dessent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies.algor it hm s) call f or each r out er t o sen d all or som e p ort ion of it s r out in g t able, but only t o it s neighb or s.

Routing Metrics

  Alt h ough ban dw idt h is a r at ing of t he max im um at t ain able t hr ou ghpu t on a lin k, rou t es t hr oug h link s w it h gr eat er band w id t h doThe u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of not necessar ily p rov ide b et t er rou t es t han r out es t hr ou gh slow er link s. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Network Protocols

  Net w or k I ndex • pr ot ocols occu r at t he up per f iv e lay er s of t h e OSI r efer en ce mod el: t he n et wor k lay er, t he I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion t r anspor t lay er , t he session layer , t h e pr esent at ion lay er , an d t he app licat ion layer . Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Chapter 7. Network Management Basics Obj e ct i ve Table of Content s • Becom e f am iliar w it h t he basic fun ct ion s of a n et wor k m anag em ent syst em . I ndex • I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 Pages: 11 28 The u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of essent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies. Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom nov ice t o ex pert . New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat

Introduction

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

What Is Network Management?

  I not her cases, n et wor k m an agement inv olves a dist rib ut ed d at abase, aut op ollin g of n et w or k dev ices, and hig h- end w ork st at ions g en er at ing r eal- t ime g r aphical v iew s of n et w or k t op ology I ndex • chang es and t r aff ic. I n gener al, net w or k m anagem en t is a ser v ice t h at em ploy s a v ar iet y of I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion t ools, app licat ions, an d d ev ices t o assist hum an net w or k m anager s in mon it orin g an d By m aint aining n et w or k s.

A Historical Perspective

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

ISO Network Management Model

  Fin ally , ap pr opr iat e per for m ance t hr esholds ar e d et er m in ed f or each im por t ant var iable so t hat ex ceedin g t h ese t h r esholds in dicat es a net w or k pr oblem w or t hy ofat t ent ion . Per f orm ance m anag em ent also per mit s pr oact iv e m et hods: For New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP exam ple, n et w or k sim ulat ion can be u sed t o pr oject how net w or k gr ow t h w ill affect p er f orm an cem et rics.

Configuration Management

  Mast er t he t er m s, con cep t s, t echn ologies, an d devices used in t oday ' s net w ork ingThe g oal of conf igur at ion m an agem ent is t o m onit or n et wor k an d sy st em con figu rat ion indu st ry . Tools and gu id elines f or opt im izing syst em per for m ance w ill incr ease TCP/ I P sof t w ar e, Ver sion 2 .0 pr odu ct iv it y an d im pr ov e eff iciency, help ing t he r eader m ake mor e in t elligent , cost - eff icient SNMP sof t w ar e, Ver sion 3 .1 Con figu rat ion m anag em ent su bsyst em s st ore t his inf or mat ion in a d at abase for easy access.

Accounting Management

  I ndex •I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion The g oal of accou nt ing m an agem ent is t o m easu re net w ork u t ilizat ion p aram et ers so t hat By Cisco Systems, Inc.indiv idual or gr oup u ses on t he net w ork can be r egu lat ed app rop riat ely . Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 As w it h per for m ance m anagem en t , t h e fir st st ep t owar d app rop riat e accoun t ing m anagem en t is t o measur e ut ilizat ion of all im por t ant net w ork resour ces.

Fault Management

  Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f romThe g oal of fau lt m anagem en t is t o det ect , log, n ot ify u ser s of , and ( t o t he ex t en t p ossible) nov ice t o ex pert .aut om at ically fix n et w or k pr ob lem s t o keep t he net w or k r unn ing ef fect ively . I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat enables net w or kin g p r ofessionals t o un derst and an d im plem en t cont em por ar y int er net w ork ing t echnologies.

Security Management indu st ry . Lear n how t o incor por at e int er net w or kin g t echn olog ies in t o a LAN/ WAN env ir onm ent

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Chapter 8. Ethernet Technologies Obj e ct i ve s Table of Content s • Under st and t he r equir ed an d opt ional MAC f r ame for m at s, t heir pu rp oses, and t h eir I ndex • com pat ibilit y r eq uir em ent s. I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. List t he v ar iou s Et h er net phy sical lay er s, sign alin g pr ocedu res, and link m edia r eq uir em ent s/ lim it at ion s. Pub lish er: Cisco Press Descr ibe t he t r ade- off s associat ed w it h im plem en t ing or up gr ading Et h er n et Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 LANs—choosing dat a rat es, op er at ional mod es, an d net w ork equ ipm en t . I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 Pages: 11 28 The u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of essent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies. Con cise ov er v iew s of t echn olog ies essen t ial t o n et wor k ing pr ofession als at all lev els, f rom nov ice t o ex pert . New chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP Cov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et . I n t ern et w or k in g Tech nologies Hand book , Four t h Ed it ion , is a com pr ehensive refer ence t hat

Background

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Ethernet—A Brief History

  Since t h en , Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 a n um ber of supp lem ent s t o t he st an dar d hav e been d ef ined t o t ak e adv ant ag e of im pr ovem en t s I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 in t he t echnolog ies an d t o supp ort add it ion al net w or k m edia and h ig her dat a r at e capabilit ies, Pages: 11 28 plus sev er al new opt ional net w or k access con t r ol feat u res. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Ethernet Network Elements

  The net w ork nodes f all int o t w o m aj or classes: Table of Content s •D a t a t er m ina l e qui pm en t ( D TE) I ndex — Devices t hat are eit h er t he sour ce or t he dest in at ion •I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion of dat a fr am es. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Ethernet Network Topologies and Structures

  I n divid ual segm en t s could be int er connect ed w it h r ep eat er s, asNew chapt er s include cov erag e of im por t ant t opics like VoI P and EAP long as m ult iple p at hs d id n ot ex ist bet w een any t wo st at ions on t he net w ork and t he n um ber of DTEs did not ex ceed 10 24. Th e t ot al p at h dist ance bet w een t h e most - d ist an t p air of st at ion s w asCov erag e of cut t ing edge t echn ologies lik e opt ical n et wor k ing and st or age also not allow ed t o ex ceed a m ax imu m pr escr ibed value.

Figu r e 8 - 2 . Exa m ple Coax ia l Bus Topol ogy

  The MAC- client sublay er m ay be on e of t he f ollow ing :Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o all Log ical Link Cont r ol ( LLC) , if t h e un it is a D TE. The onlyr eq uir em ent for b asic com m un icat ion ( comm u nicat ion t h at d oes n ot r equir e op t ion al pr ot ocol Aut h ored by Cisco Sy st ems, w or ldw ide leader in net w or king f or t he I n t er n et .ext ensions) bet w een t w o n et w or k n odes is t hat bot h MACs mu st supp or t t h e sam e t ran sm ission r at e.

The Ethernet MAC Sublayer

Pub lish er: Cisco Press Pub Dat e: Sep tem ber 1 1, 2 003 The MAC sub layer h as t w o p rim ar y r espon sib ilit ies:Dat a encapsulat ion, includ ing fr am e assem bly bef ore t ran sm ission , and f ram e par sing/ er r or det ect ion du rin g an d aft er r ecept ionMedia access con t rol, in clu ding init iat ion of fr am e t r ansm ission an d recover y fr om t r ansm ission failur e I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc.

The Basic Ethernet Frame Format

  Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise. Com plet e w it h new an d u pdat ed chapt er s on secur it y , st or age, opt ical net w or k in g, scalabilit y, and speed, t h is book is a com plet e an d u p- t o- d at e r ef er ence t o t he t op ics t hat are essen t ial t o allnet w or kin g p rof essionals, r egar dless of ex pert ise.

Frame Transmission

  Reader s w ill obt ain a g reat er un der st an ding of LAN and WAN n et w or k ing, p ar t icu lar ly t h eWhenev er an en d st at ion MAC r eceives a t ran sm it - f r ame requ est wit h t h e accom pan yin g ad dr ess har dw ar e, pr ot ocols, and ser v ices inv olv ed . Cov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hichThe p r eam ble an d st ar t - of - fr am e delim it er ar e inser t ed in t he PRE and SOF f ields.pr of essionals oper at e.

I nt e rn et w or k ing Te chnologie s H a ndbook , Four th Edit ion By Cisco Systems, Inc. Half-Duplex Transmission—The CSMA/CD Access Method

  This t im e, t he developers elect ed t o m ain t ain I SBN: 1- 58 705 -1 19 -2 app rox im at ely t he sam e m axim um collision dom ain diam et er s as 1 00- Mbps net w ork s an d t o Pages: 11 28 incr ease t h e appar ent m in imu m fr am e size by ad ding a var iable- len gt h nond at a ex t ension f ield t o fr am es t hat are sh ort er t h an t he m inim um leng t h ( t he ext en sion field is rem ov ed du rin g f r amer ecept ion) . Figur e 8- 7 sh ows t he MAC f ram e f or mat w it h t he g ig abit ex t ension f ield, and Table 8 - 1 sh ows t he ef fect of t h e t r ade- off b et w een t h e t r ansm ission dat a rat e and t he m inim um f r am e size f orThe u pdat ed edit ion of t he b est - selling all- in- one net w ork ing r ef erence p rov ides cover age of 10 - Mbp s, 100 - Mbps, an d 100 0- Mbp s Et h er net .essent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies.

Tab le 8 -1 . Li m it s f or Ha lf -D up le x Ope r a t ion

  The t r an sm it t ing MAC fills each in t er f ram e int er v alessent ial an d cu t t ing- edg e t ech nologies.w it h ex t ension b it s, as show n in Figur e 8- 8 , so t hat ot her st at ions on t he net w ork will see t hat t he net w ork is busy and w ill not at t em pt t r ansmission u nt il af t er t he b ur st is com plet e. I f t he bur st lim it is r each ed af t er a f r ame t ran sm ission hasCov erag e is also ext end ed n ot only t o new n et wor k ing concep t s, but also t o old er , legacy begu n, t r ansm ission is allowed t o con t inue u nt il t h at ent ir e f ram e h as been sent .syst em s, pr ovid in g a m or e r ealist ic pict ur e of t he real- w or ld n et w or k ing en vir onm ent s in w hich pr of essionals oper at e.

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