MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES {–ER} AND {-IST} IN AGENTIVE NOUNS

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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES {–ER} AND {-IST} IN AGENTIVE NOUNS AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By FRANSISKA RIZKINAULI Student Number: 144214087 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES {–ER} AND {-IST} IN AGENTIVE NOUNS AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By FRANSISKA RIZKINAULI Student Number: 144214087 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019 i

(3) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

(4) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

(5) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis. Yogyakarta, December 12, 2018 Fransiska Rizkinauli iv

(6) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiwa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Fransiska Rizkinauli : 144214087 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF THE DERIVATIONAL SUFFIXES {–ER} AND {-IST} IN AGENTIVE NOUNS beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan, dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 12 Desember 2018 Yang menyatakan, Fransiska Rizkinauli v

(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Hail Mary, full of grace The Lord is with thee Blessed are thou amongst women And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death, Amen. vi

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI This page is dedicated to My beloved parents Apul Tamba and Hotdi Henrika Naibaho vii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all, I would like to express my gratefulness to Jesus Christ, Mother Mary, Saint Joseph, and Saint Claudius as my saviors of my life who always love and blessing me. I am grateful because of Their help, mercy and blessing, I could finish my undergraduate thesis. I also would like to express my deepest gratitude to my beloved family, namely Apul Tamba, Hotdi Henrika Naibaho, Michael Kevin Tamba, and Alfred Hisar Tamba. I can be the best of me because I always get the best support, advice, and love from my best family. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my thesis advisor Dr. Fr. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A. for patiently understanding, guiding, and helping me from the beginning until I finished my undergraduate thesis. I also would like to thank my co-advisor and my academic advisor, Ms. Wedhowerti, M.Hum. who has read and given me suggestions and detail corrections for my thesis. My gratitude is also due to all of the lectures and staffs in English Letters Department for helping and supporting me in every condition. I give my deepest thanks to my beloved best friends namely, Koido, Windy, Novi, Trisna, Kak Chitra, Daite, Daniel, Rani, members of KitKat, members of Cacing Naga OTW SS and all of my friends and every one I cannot mention one by one for the support and love in every situation and during the processing of finishing my undergraduate thesis.. The last I thank everyone who never stops sending me prayers during the process of finishing my undergraduate thesis. Fransiska Rizkinauli viii

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................. APPROVAL PAGE ....................................................................................... ACCEPTANCE PAGE .................................................................................. STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ............................................................. LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH....................................................................... DEDICATION PAGE .................................................................................... MOTTO PAGE .............................................................................................. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................... LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................... ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................ ii iii iv v CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ................................................................. A. Background of the Study...................................................................... B. Problem Formulation ........................................................................... C. Objectives of the Study ........................................................................ D. Definition of Terms .............................................................................. 1 1 4 4 5 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ............................................. A. Review of Related Studies ................................................................... B. Review of Related Theories ................................................................. 1. Theory of Morphology ................................................................... a. Morpheme ................................................................................ b. Derivational Morpheme ........................................................... c. Affixation ................................................................................. i. Suffix ............................................................................... ii. Prefix ............................................................................... iii. Infix ................................................................................. d. The Derivational Affixes.......................................................... i. Suffix -er ......................................................................... ii. Suffix -ist......................................................................... C. Theoretical Framework ........................................................................ 7 7 10 10 11 12 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 vi vii viii ix x xiv xv xvi CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ............................................................. 17 A. Object of the Study............................................................................... 17 B. Approach of the Study ......................................................................... 17 ix

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI C. Method of the Study ............................................................................. 18 1. Data Collection............................................................................... 18 2. Data Analysis ................................................................................. 19 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS (RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS) ............... A. The Bases Receiving the Suffixes {-er} and {-ist} .............................. 1. Lexical Category of the Bases........................................................ a. Bases Attached to the Suffix {-er} ........................................... i. Verb Base ............................................................................ ii. Noun Base............................................................................ iii. Adjective Base ..................................................................... b. Bases Attached to the Suffix {-ist} .......................................... i. Noun Base............................................................................ ii. Adjective Base ..................................................................... iii. Verb Base ............................................................................ B. The Distributions of the Agentive Suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. .............. 1. The Application of the Suffix {-er} ............................................... 2. The Application of the Suffix {-ist} .............................................. 21 22 22 25 26 28 30 31 33 35 36 37 40 43 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ..................................................................... 47 REFERENCES ............................................................................................... APPENDICES ................................................................................................ Appendix 1 .................................................................................................. Appendix 2 .................................................................................................. Appendix 3 .................................................................................................. Appendix 4 .................................................................................................. Appendix 5 .................................................................................................. Appendix 6 .................................................................................................. x 50 51 51 53 54 54 56 56

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF TABLES No Table 1. Table 1. The Bases of the Suffix {-er} 2. Table 2. The Bases of the Suffix {-ist} 3. Table 3. Number of Parts of Speech of Words with the Suffix {-er} 4. Table 4. Noun Bases with the Suffix {-er} 5. Table 5. Adjective Bases of the Suffix {-er} 6. Table 6. Number of Parts of Speech Words with in the Suffix {-ist} 7. Table 7. Noun Bases of the Suffix {-ist} 8. Table 8. Abstract Nouns and Concrete Nouns attached with the suffix {-ist} 9. Table 9. Adjective Bases on the Suffix {-ist} 10. Table 10. Adjective Bases Derived from Latin 11. Table 11. Percentages of the Suffix {-er} 12. Table 12. Percentages of the Suffix {-ist} 13. Table 13. The Application of the Agentive Suffix {-er} 14. Table 14. The Application of the Agentive Suffix {-ist} xi Page 23 24 26 28 30 32 33 34 35 36 38 38 41 44

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT RIZKINAULI, FRANSISKA. (2018). Morphological Processes of the Derivational Suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in Agentive Nouns. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Language has the most important role in people’s daily life. As time goes by language has been developing to complete human needs. Affixation is one of the examples of language’s development. Affixation is one of language developments that is always used by people in their daily life. There are many new words created by using affixation. Affixation is divided into three parts, which are prefix, infix, and suffix. In this study the researcher focuses on the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive noun. These suffixes are analyzed because in daily life they are often used by people to perform agentive noun. To obtain a deeper analysis, the researcher has two problem formulations, (1) Based on the lexical category, what bases receive the suffixes nominalizer suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive noun? (2) Based on meaning and etymology, what is the distribution of the agentive suffixes {-er} and {-ist}? The data of this study are taken from Hornby’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2015). The agentive noun that contains the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are the data of this study. The researcher took two hundred and forty five words with the suffix {-er} and one hundred and forty words with the suffix {-ist}. The researcher took the words by reading the whole dictionary and took every word that is included into agentive noun. Finally, the researcher found that the suffix {-er} is mostly attached to verb base, and the verbs are transitive verbs. Etymologically, most of suffix {-er} is derived from Old English, and the verbs are monosyllabic. The suffix {-ist} is mostly attached to noun base. The suffix {-ist} is derived from Latin and French. The words that can receive the suffix {-er} are related to professions, habit, and trade. Mostly, the base of the suffix {-ist} is a product and affixation result which refers to a person who studies or an expert of the base. The words that can be attached to the suffix {-ist} are related to natural science and medical science, instrument of music, ideology, religion, adherents of a particular theory, idea and emotion. xii

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK RIZKINAULI, FRANSISKA. (2018). Morphological Processes of the Derivational Suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in Agentive Nouns. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma Bahasa memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan sehari-hari manusia. Seiring berjalannya waktu, bahasa selalu berkembang untuk melengkapi kebutuhan manusia. Proses imbuhan adalah salah satu contoh dari perkembangan bahasa. Proses imbuhan adalah salah satu perkembangan bahasa yang selalu digunakan manusia dalam kehidupan sehari-harinya. Ada banyak kata-kata baru yang dibentuk dengan menambahkan proses imbuhan. Proses imbuhan itu sendiri dibagi menjadi tiga bagian yaitu, awalan, sisipan, dan akhiran. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis fokus kepada akhiran {-er} dan {-ist} yang terdapat dalam kata benda orang. Akhiran ini dianalisis karena didalam kehidupan sehari-hari akhiran tersebut sering digunakan untuk memggambarkan profesi seseorang. Ada dua pokok bahan permasalahan yang telah dirumuskan untuk melakukan penelitian yang lebih dalam: (1) Berdasarkan kategori leksikal, basis apa saja yang bisa menerima akhiran {-er} dan {-ist} pada kata benda orang? (2) Berdasarkan arti dan etimologi, apa saja distribusi kata benda orang pada akhiran {-er} dan {-ist}? Data dalam penelitian ini diambil dari Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2015) yang disusun oleh Hornby. Kata-kata benda orang yang mengandung akhiran {-er} dan {-ist} merupakan data dalam penelitian ini. Penulis mengambil dua ratus empat puluh lima kata dengan akhiran {-er} dan seratus empat puluh kata dengan akhiran {-ist}. Penulis mengambil kata-kata tersebut dengan membaca keseluruhan kamus dan mengambil setiap kata yang merupakan kata benda orang. Pada akhirnya, penulis menemukan bahwa akhiran {-er} lebih sering disisipkan kedalam kata kerja yang tergolong ke dalam kata kerja transitif. Secara etimologis, akhir {-er} berasal dari Old English dan monosilabik. Pada umumnya, akhiran {-ist} disisipkan kedalam kata benda. Akhiran {-ist} berasal dari bahasa Latin dan bahasa Prancis. Kata-kata yang dapat menerima akhiran {-er} adalah kata-kata yang berhubungan dengan suatu pekerjaan dan kebiasaan. Pada umumnya, kata dasar pada akhiran {-ist} adalah sebuah produk dan hasil dari proses imbuhan yang mengacu kepada seseorang yang mendalami ilmu atau ahli dalam bidangnya. Kata-kata yang dapat disisipkan oleh akhiran {-ist} adalah katakata yang berhubungan dengal ilmu pengetahuan alam, ilmu kesehatan, alat musik, transportasi, ideologi, agama, penganut sebuah teori, ide dan juga perasaan. xiii

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study The use of language cannot be separated from people’s activities. In daily life, people always need language to perform their activities and communicate with each other. When people know and understand the language, people can speak and communicate with others who know language. Communication delivers messages or ideas to others. Therefore, people understand the language they use. Language and people have a connection to convey the purpose of communication. In order to make a good conversation, people have known the words of the language that they use. According to Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2014), words are important part of linguistic knowledge and a constitute component of our mental grammar (p. 33). On the other hand, without knowing a language and having several words, we would be unable to convey our idea through the language and the communication will not happen. There are many studies which discuss about language. Morphology is one of linguistics study which study about language and word formation. Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2014) argue that morphology is the study of the internal structure of words, and of the rules by which words are formed (p. 37). Therefore, people have knowledge of knowing the use of word structure and the meaning of the word in their language. 1

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 The most important component of word structure is morpheme. Morpheme itself is the smallest unit of language that carries information about the meaning and function of the word. According to Szymanek (1988), the definition of morpheme is the smallest unit of language that carries information about the meaning (p.14). Every morpheme has different forms and from the different forms can created many new meaning from the basic word. O’Grady (1980) states that a morpheme that can stand by its-self is called free morpheme and the morpheme that must be added to another element is called bound morpheme (p. 56). Based on the examples small, carry, inform, mean are termed free morphemes, and {– est}, {-ation}, {-ing} are called affixes that instances of bound morpheme. Affixation is the most common process that is used by people every day and it is used because most of the new words created by using affix. The result from the process of affixation is noun derived from verb, adjective derived from adverb, and adjective derived into noun. Affixation is bound morpheme which divided into three part, prefix, infix and suffix. There are many affixes that applied in English Language. In prefix there are {anti-},{de-}, {dis-}, {ex-}, {in}, {mis-}, {un-},{re-}. In suffix there are {–able}, {-ion}, {-er}, {-ing}, {-ive}, {ed}, {-al}, {-ment}, {-ful}, {-ic}, {-ness}, {-less}, {-ous}, {-ity}, {-ly}, {-en}, {ate}, {-ize}, etc Adding an affix can created a new meaning and it can be derivational affixes and inflectional affixes. The transformation of affixes brings out the characteristic of words. According to Szymanek (1989) “the field of morphology is conventionally divided into two components, they are inflectional and derivational morphology” (p. 20). Fromkin et al also states that “derivational

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 morpheme is the new word with a new meaning is derived when they are added to a base and inflectional morpheme never change the grammatical category of the stem to which they are attached (Fromkin et al, 2014, pp. 44-46). Sometimes people have troubles determining the category of the base to which an affix is added. For examples in player the base play is used as a verb (to do things for pleasure) and as noun (a person who takes part in game or sport). By attaching affixes to the base of words, it is difficult to identify the category. However, people should consider using and choosing appropriate form. In this study, the researcher focuses on morphological process of derivational suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive noun. According to Szymanek (1988) “deverbal nominalizations traditionally referred to as Names of Agents are formed in English very productively, potentially from a vast majority of verbs” (p.174). However, from Szymanek’s statement, the researcher is interested to analyse the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. Because in English, these suffixes always produce in people daily life. In daily life, people always find and use these suffixes to form agentive noun and create a new form of agent with these suffixes. For examples are teacher, farmer, gardener, artist, scientist, violinist, etc. By adding the suffix {–er} to the verb base and noun base, the formed verb will change into noun and noun will change into noun. The importance of studying about suffixes {-er} and {-ist} is people can understand the characteristic of the base, whether it is acceptable or not. However, people can minimize their misuse in using these suffixes, especially to produce agentive noun.

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 In this study, the data are taken from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th Ed). (2015). The researcher takes more than 200 agentive nouns that receive suffix {-er} and more than 100 agentive nouns that receive the suffix {-ist}. The researcher collects two hundred words because there are many agentive nouns which receive suffixes {-er} and {-ist} and also it helps the researcher to analyze clearly. B. Problem Formulation Based on the background of the study above there are two questions as the problem formulations, they are: 1) Based on the lexical category, what bases do receive the nominalizer suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in the agentive nouns? 2) Based on meaning and etymology, what is the distribution of the agentive suffixes {-er} and {-ist}? C. Objectives of the Study According to the problem formulation, this study has two objectives. First, the researcher know what kind of words base that receive the nominalizer suffixes {–er} and {–ist} in agentive noun. The second objectives of this study is to find and identify the distributon of agent the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to the bases based on meaning and etymology. In this study, the researcher wants to classify the base of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} based on the part of speech. Next, the researcher went to discover distribution of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to the

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 5 bases through the meaning and etymology. The distribution here is understood when each suffix is used based on the meaning and etymology. D. Definition of Terms In this part the researcher provides the definition of terms used in this study. The definitions are going to be discussed are morphology, affixes, derivational morphology, agentive nominalizations. The first terminology is morphology. Morphology is the study of words structure. According to Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2014), “morphology means the study of the internal structures of words, and of the rules by which words are formed. Morphology itself consists of two morphemes, there are morph + ology. The suffix –ology means ‘branch of knowledge’, so the meaning of morphology is ‘the branch of knowledge concerning (word) forms’” (p.33). Most of English words are morphologically complex. They can be separated into the smaller units that are meaningful. The examples of words which are morphologically complex are teach-er, violin-ist, where teach refers a verb that perform something to someone and teacher refers to show the agent who does the verb. Next, violin refers to a noun and violinist refers to someone who plays violin. The second terminology is affixes. Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2014) states that affixes are bound morphemes and they may attach at the beginning of words, the end of words, in the middle, or both at the beginning and at the end of words (p.40). Szymanek (1989) also states that there are many types of affixation phenomena and the uses of affixation and it depends on the form of the language.

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 6 The most familiar affixation phenomena are prefixes, suffixes, and infixes. A prefix is an affix attached before the root, for examples are dis-like, re-mark, and in-accurate. A suffix is an affix attached after the root, for examples are player, and sleep-ing, cat-s. An infix is an affix inserted between the root. The third terminology is morpheme. Based on Crystal (2008) “morpheme is the minimal distinctive unit of grammar, and the central concern of morphology” (p.313). Through this definition morpheme is the smallest meaning of the words. According to Crystal (2008) “morphemes are commonly classified into free forms (morphemes which can occur as separate words) and bound forms (morphemes which cannot so occur mainly affixes)” (p.313). The fourth terminology is derivational morphemes. According to Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2014), bound morphemes like –ify, -cation, and – arian are called derivational morphemes. Derivational morphemes are morphemes which are added to a base creating a new word with a new meaning. The result from the addition of a derivational morpheme is called a derived word (p.44). The last terminology is agentive noun. According to Szymanek (1989), “agentive noun traditionally referred as names of agents. Agentive nouns are formed in English very productively.” (p.174). Based on Szymaenk’s statement above, agentive noun is a person who does something according to the bases. For examples are banker, farmer, teacher, scientist, and biologist.

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Review of Related Studies In this part, the researcher takes two related studies that are related to morphology. The first previous study was written by Denista and Alip (2014) entitled “The Distribution of the Agentive Nominalizer of the Suffixes {-er} and {-an}”. In this study, the previous researchers discuss about how the distribution of the agentive nominalizer of the suffixes {-er} and {-an}. This study focuses on the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} because people nowadays always use these suffixes in their daily life and they usually use these suffixes to categorize agentive nominalizer. From this study, the researchers find the characteristics of stems that are receiving the suffixes {–er} and {-an}, the meaning which are introduced by the suffixes {–er} and {–an} and also the distributions of the allomorphs of suffixes {–er} and {-an}.The data of this study are morphemes and affixes. The previous study uses Hornby’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (year of 2000) as the data. The result of this study is suffix {-er} are attached to certain verbs, adjectives and nouns. The suffix {-an} is attached to certain adjectives and noun. From the data analysis, the suffix {-er} is mostly attached to transitive verbs to create a new meaning. However, it is not impossible for intransitive verbs to have {–er} as an indicator to have the agent noun. 7

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 Based on previous studies, the researcher has the similar topic with the previous researcher. Both of the studies discuss about suffixes in agentive noun. The differences from this study are the variety of the suffixes. In previous study, the researchers focus on the suffixes {-er} and {-an}, but in this study the researcher focuses on the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. Another differences are the previous study identifies the morphophonemic processes and the allomorph of the suffixes {-er} and {-an}, but in this study the researcher focuses on the base of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} and the distribution of the agentive suffix {-er} and suffix {-ist}. By comparing to this study, the previous researcher focuses and analyses morphophonemic processes occured in the agentive noun. The second related study is written by Samuel Kristian (2014) entitled “A Morphological Study of the English Derivatonal Suffixes {-ence} and {-ance}”. This study discusses about the suffixes {-ence} and {-ance} in Oxford Advenced Learner’s Dictionary. The researcher of this undergraduate thesis uses morphological approach to analyze his data. In his analysis, the researcher discusses the morphological structure of suffixes {-ence} and {-ance}. In his research, he tries to find the stem which can be attached to the suffixes {-ence} and {-ance}, the meaning brought by the suffixes {-ence} and {-ance} ater they are attached to the stem, and to find the allomorph and morphophonemic processes are involvedin suffixes {-ence} and {-ance}. In this research, the researcher try to find the bases do receive the nominalizer suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in the agentive nouns and the distribution of attaching the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to the base.

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 The previous study has similar method to analysis the data which is morphological approach. Both of the research disccuses about derivational suffixes. The difference between these study is that the type of suffixes. The previous study discusses about the suffixes {-ence} and {-ance} while this study discusses about the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive noun. The third study was written by Nursanti (2013) entitled “A Morphological Analysis on the Derivational Affixes Suffixes {–ion} and {–ation} Used in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Pocket Dictionary”. This undergraduate research is about the morphological analysis on derivational suffixes {–ion} and {–ation} in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Pocket dictionary. The previous research analyses and clarifies the similarities and differences between the usage of suffixes {–ion} and {–ation} in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Pocket Dictionary. She describes the characteristics of the suffixes {–ion} and {–ation}. The usage of the suffixes {-ion} and {-ation} have the similarities in the function category. The word category such as verb and adjective are followed by the suffixes {-ion} and {-ation}, the grammatical category will change into noun category. It is called derivational affixes noun forming. However, the noun category which is followed by the suffixes {-ion} and {–ation} do not change the grammatical category, because there is no change between noun into noun. The similarities between the uses of the suffix {-ion} and {-ation} are the functions of each suffix. The differences between the uses of suffixes{ –ion} and {–ation} are the characteristics of each suffixes.

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 In this undergraduate thesis, the researcher develops this study and discover new ideas with suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. The similarity between the previous study and this study is the data. Both of these studies discuss the type of affix. Both of these studies take suffixes as the object to analyze. In this study, researcher tries to find the bases that can receive the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive noun and analyses the distribution of attaching the suffixes {-er} and {ist} to the bases. The researcher uses Hornby’s Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 9th edition (2015) as the data and collect more than 200 words which are contained with the suffixes {-er} and more than 100 words which are contained with the suffixes {-ist}. These suffixes are always used by people in their daily communication to state someone who does something. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theory of Morphology Syzmanek (1989) defines “morphology is the branch of linguistics dealing with internal structure and formation of words. Morphology define a two concepts of morphological analysis, there are ‘word’ and ‘morpheme’” (p.13). According to Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Fudeman (2004), “in linguistics morphology refers to the mental system involved in word formation or to the branch of linguistics that deals with words, their internal structure, and how they are formed” (p.2). From those theories, the researcher concludes that morphology is the study dealing with the word formation and also branch of linguistics that always relates to the word formation in every language. Morphology is the study about how to

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 know and classify the characteristics of the words and how to create words in a language. In this study, the researcher applies the theory of morphology. Therefore, by applying this theory to the research, the researcher is able to recognize how to identify the words or morphemes in English language and the distribution in forming words. a. Morpheme Morpheme is derived from the Greek word morphe, meaning ‘form’ (Fromkin, et al, 2014, p.37). The classic definition from Hockett (1958) is “The smallest individually meaningful element in the utterances of language” (p.123). O’Grady and Videa P.de Guzmain (1980) say “the most important component of word structure is the morpheme, the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning and function” (p.55). It means that morpheme is the smallest unit of the words with a grammatical function. For example, the words happy, sad, think, drink, beauty, tall, pink, and blue are morphemes. The words playing, beautiful, desks, suffixes, hunters, manly and gentleman are the words which contain more than one morpheme. A morpheme consists of a word that can be divided into smaller meaningful parts and carry information about their meaning and the function. “The meaning of morpheme must be constant. For example, the agentive morpheme {-er} means ‘one who does’ in words like singer, painter, lover, and worker, but same sounds represent the comparative morpheme, meaning ‘more’, in nicer, prettier, and taller. The identical form represents two morpheme because of the different meanings” (Fromkin, et al ,2013, p.39).

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 All languages use morpheme to create phrases and sentences. By knowing the small meanings of morpheme, the language development will keep on growing to create new words. “Our morphological knowledge has two components: knowledge of the individual morphemes and knowledge of the rules that combine them” (Fromkin, et al, 2013, p.40). From the statement, the researcher concludes that morphemes can stand alone by themselves and also they must be attached to another morpheme. “Morphemes are further categorized into two classes: free morpheme and bound morpheme. A free morpheme can stand alone as an independent word” (Akmajian, et al, 2001, p.18). By knowing the classes of morpheme, the researcher concludes that the free morpheme is a morpheme which can stand alone as an independent word and bound morpheme is a morpheme which cannot stand alone and needs another morpheme to create a word. Based on the definition, bound morpheme must be attached to another morpheme to create a word. It means that bound morpheme must be followed by free morpheme to create a word. b. Derivational Morpheme Derivational morpheme is a bound morpheme that creates a new word with a new meaning (O’Grady et al, 2010, p.122). In other words, when the morphemes are attached to the base of word, it will create a new meaning and new category for the new word. According to Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2014), “bound morphemes like –ify, -cation, and –arian are called derivational

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 morphemes. When they are added to a base, a new word with a new meaning is derived. The result from the addition of a derivational morpheme is called a derived word” (p.44). For example, the addition of {-er} to teach  teacher means ‘a person who teach’ and the addition of {-ing} to teach  teaching means ‘the work of the teacher’. By adding the morphemes {-er} and {-ing} to the base of words, people must know the characteristics and the rules of the derivational morpheme if it is acceptable or not. c. Affixation Szymanek (1989) states that “affixation is a morpheme added to the base of the words. In other words, affixation is the combination of a bound morpheme with a stem or root” (p.63). Most of the new words are created by using affixation. Affixation is the most common process to form the new words. “An affix is a morpheme which only occurs when attached to some other morpheme or morphemes such as root or stem or base” (Katamba,1993,p.44). In English language, there are three main types of affixation, they are suffixation, preffixation, infixation. i. Suffix In this study, the researcher focusses on suffixation of {-er} and {-ist}. According to Szymanek (1989) “suffixation consists in attaching a suffix to a base or root. A suffix is an affix which follows the base-form” (p.63). In other words, suffix is adding an affix after the base of a word, for examples teach + {-er}  teacher, farm + {-er}  farmer. By attaching suffix {-er} after the base of words, the meaning will change and create a new word.

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 ii. Prefix According to Katamba (1993), “a preffix is an affix attached before a root or stem or base like re-,un-, and –in” (p.44). In other words, prefix is adding an affix in front of the base of the word to change the meaning. The examples are {dis-} + honest  dishonest, {un-} + usual  unusual, {in-} + complete  incomplete,{re-} + do  redo, and {de-} + activate  deactivate. iii. Infix “An infix is an affix inserted into the root itself” (Katamba, 1993, p.44). Another theory from Szymanek (1989), he states “the term infixation describes a morphological process whereby a bound morpheme (inflectional or derivational is inserted into the base form (usually, into a root-morpheme)” (p.65). The definition means, an infix is adding an in the middle of the base or stem or root of the words to create a new meaning. Infixes are relatively rare in English language, but infix can be found in another language. d. The Derivational Affixes According to Akmajian et al (1988), “derivational affixes often change the part of speech of the base morpheme” (p.81). In other words, derivational affixes can change the meaning of the base and create new words from the base. i. Suffix {-er} There are many words that can be attached with the suffix {-er}. Most of them are used to formed agentive nominalizations and instrument nominalizations. In this study, the researcher focuses on agentive nominalizations. This suffix is productively used in people’s life. According to Szymanek (1988)

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 15 “the principal agentive suffix in English is {-er}. Its remarkably high productivity is attested by the fact that it is frequently added to recently coined verbs. It is true to say that the suffix {-er} is the first choice when it comes to deriving an agent noun from a verb” (p.176). According to Quirk (1972), “suffix {-er} added to nouns to form personal and innanimate nouns. There are varied meanings from suffix {-er} they are, something having X, inhabitant of X, and maker of X. Examples are glover, teenager, and Londoner (p.994). ii. Suffix {-ist} After the suffix {-er}, the suffix {-ist} also commonly used in people’s daily life. The suffix {-ist} also has the similar function with suffix {-er}, both of them are used to form agentive noun. According to Katamba (1993) “by suffixing {-ist} we can form a very large number of nouns with the meaning advocate of, follower of supporter of or partitioner of whatever is designed by the input noun” (p.68). Quirk (1974) states that “the suffix {-ist} added to nouns or adjectives to form personal nouns or adjectives. The meaning is member of a party, occupation. For instances masochist, racialist, Buddhist, violinist, stylist, and loyalist (p.996). C. Theoretical Framework In this study, there are several theories that are used for the data analysis. Morphology is one of the primary theories that are used to analyse this study. Morphology is related to word formations in affixation which contains suffix. From the morphological theory, the researcher can understand the processes of word formation including the change of the meaning, the characteristics of the

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 morpheme, and also the change of the word’s class. In this case, morphology theory helps the researcher to find the characteristic and the function of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. There are two problem formulations in this study. The first problem is to identify the bases receive in suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. In order to analyses this problem, the reseracher uses the theory of affixation to identify the process of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} when they are attached to the base of words.. The second problem in this study is to identify the distribution of the agentive suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. In this problem, the researcher use theory of derivational morpheme to help and find the function in each suffixes. The researcher tries to find the meaning of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. What kind of bases that can be attached with the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}.

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of Study The objects of the studies are the words contain morpheme and affixation. Type of the affixations that are used in this study are suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. The words are taken from Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th ed).(2015). In this study the researcher takes more than two hundred words that receives the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} at the end of the base of words. The researcher takes the words which are agentive nouns. The researcher collects two hundred words because there are many agentive nouns which are receiving the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} and also it helps the researcher to analyze the words clearly. B. Approach of the Study In this study, the researcher uses theory of morphology as an approach in analysing the agentive noun with the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. The researcher uses morphology because it is related to this study. Morphological approach is used to analyse the agentive nouns with the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2013) state “morphology is the study of the internal structure of words, and rules by which words are formed” (p.37). According to Crystal (2008), he states that “morphology is the branch of grammar which studies the structure or forms of words, primarily through the use of the morpheme construct” (p. 340). 17

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 Based on the theories, morphology is related to derivational morpheme which forms a word with new meaning and category by adding the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} through the base of words. According to Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams (2013) “affixes are bound morphemes and they may attach at the beginning, the end, in the middle, or both at the beginning and end of a word” (p.40). Therefore, morphological approach is appropriate for this study because these theories help the researcher to analyse and examine the words which are attached with the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive nouns. C. Method of the Study In this study, the researcher conducts a library research which analyze the agentive nouns with the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. The researcher obtains the data from reading the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 9th edition. The method of this study is divided into two parts. The first is data collection and the second is data analysis. 1. Data Collection The data was taken from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th Ed). (2015). The researcher chooses the agentive nouns that receive suffixes {-er} and {-ist} which are collected from Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th Ed). (2015). The researcher takes two hundred words to be analysed in this study. The data collection takes the words randomly and also the bases should contain the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. In this study, the researcher collects two hundred words because there are many agentive nouns

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 which receive suffixes {-er} and {-ist} and also it helps the researcher to analyse the data clearly. Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (2015) is used as a tool to answer the problem formulation in this study. The researcher chooses Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th Ed). (2015)., because it provides the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that helps the researcher to find the lexical category. 2. Data Analysis In this study, the researcher takes some steps to analyse the data. First the researcher collects and chooses the agentive nouns which are receiving the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} from dictionary. Before choosing the words, the researcher should know and check the base and the base after receiving the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} because in this study the researcher wants to collect the words base on the agent nouns. In order to help the researcher finds all the words, the researcher uses Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th Ed). (2015). It is used to reduce the error in analysing the base and also to check the IPA based on the words receiving suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. There are some steps to find and understand the functions of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. The first step to answer this problem is to make a classification of each base. The researcher uses tables to help answering these problems and categorizing the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. By categorizing the bases, the researcher knows the category of the bases before the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are attached. After knowing the category, the researcher is able to understand the

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 functions of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} and also the characteristic of the words receiving the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. Next, there is some steps to identify the distribution of the agentive suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to the bases. The first step to answer this problem is reading the Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th ed.).(2015)., because it provides the complete meaning and the definition of the base. The second step is the researcher tries to analyse and understand the meaning that is more appropriate to be attached with the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. After that, the last step is to collect the data into tables. Therefore, the researcher can compare and analyse the distributions of attaching the suffixes {-er} and {ist} to the base.

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULT AND DISCUSSION In this chapter there are two problem formulations are discussed. This chapter contains the analysis and results from the two problem formulations. The first problem formulation is what bases receive the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive noun and the second problem formulation is the distribution of attaching the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to the agentive nouns. The researcher collected the agentive nouns which contain the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} as the data. After that, the researcher analyses the data and concludes if the words that received the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} have alteration in the meaning. Suffixes {-er} and (-ist} are used to create new words from the base. By adding these suffixes {-er} and {ist}, they can change the lexical category of the words, they change the meaning to another meaning but they still have relation. The type of this process is called derivational suffix, where the new words have new meanings. Answering the first problem formulation, the researcher uses Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 9th edition (2015) as the main data of this study. The researcher collects agentive nouns which are receiving the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} from Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 9th edition (2015). The researcher chooses this dictionary because it provides the Standard English. The dictionary provides the phonetic transcription, the part of speech, and specific definition of the words. After that, the researcher finds and analyses the lexical category of the words. After analyses and knows the lexical category, the 21

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 researcher finds the distribution of attaching the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to the bases of words. By analysing the base of the words, the researcher found some bases have more than one lexical category. Based on the data, the researcher can analyses the function of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} by seeing the lexical category according to the base of words. A. The Bases Receiving the Suffixes {-er} and {-ist} 1. Lexical Category of the Bases From the whole of the dictionary, the researcher discovers two hundred and thirty eight words receiving the suffix {-er} and one hundred forty five words receiving the suffix {-ist}. Akmajian et al (1988) say, “morphemes are further categorized into two classes: free morpheme and bound morpheme. A free morpheme can stand alone as an independent word and a bound morpheme cannot stand alone” (p.58). By analysing the whole words, all the bases are free morpheme. All the bases receiving the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are free morpheme because they can stand on their own. Suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are bound morpheme because they cannot stand alone. They must be attached to free morpheme to create a meaning. Mostly, the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are used to perform an agent noun. Suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are the most commonly used in people’s daily activity and used them very productively. All the words have lexical category to indicate the part of speech. The function of the lexical category is to know the type or category or function of the words. Crystal (2008), states “part of speech traditional term for a grammatical

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 23 class of words. The main ‘parts of speech’ known as noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, preposition, conjunction and interjection with article, participle and others often added” (p.378). Every base in this data does not have the same lexical category. They have their own category as their function. Here are some examples based on the data. Table 1. The Bases of the Suffix {-er} Lexical No Bases Lexical Words Category Category 1 Admire Verb Admirer Noun 2 Design Verb Designer Noun 3 Northern Adjective Northerner Noun 4 Play Verb Player Noun 5 Present Verb Presenter Noun The table above are the examples from the data collection and it shows the process of adding the suffix {-er} to the base of the words. Based on the table, the left side are the bases and the right side are the words after receiving the suffix {er}. From the examples above, there is an alteration after suffixation process. The bases and the words after adding the suffix {-er} have a different part of speech. The words admirer, designer, northerner, player, and presenter have a part of speech as noun. Adding the suffix {-er} to the base creates a new meaning and function. These words are considered as noun when they are attached to the

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 24 suffix {-er}. They are categorized as agentive nouns after receiving the suffix {er}. The bases have different part of speech before adding the suffix {-er} and it shows the function. The word admire is categorized as a verb, northern is categorized as an adjective, and design is categorized as a noun. There are two words which have more than one part of speech. The words play and present have more than one part of speech. The word play is categorized as a noun and verb, present is categorized as adjective, noun, and verb. The researcher chooses the more appropriate part of speech that is more suitable to the meaning and function when it attached with the suffix {-er}. Table 2. The Bases of the Suffix {-ist} Lexical No Bases Lexical Words Category Category 1 Accompany Verb Accompanist Noun 2 Apologize Verb Apologist Noun 3 Herbal Noun Herbalist Noun 4 Journal Noun Journalist Noun 5 Loyal Adj Loyalist Noun The table above is also prsent the examples. The examples are taken from the data and they are the words which are receiving the suffix {-ist}. This table has the similarity with the previous table. On the left side are the bases and the right side are the words after adding the suffix {-ist} to the base. The examples

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 show the process of suffixation, adding the suffix {-ist} to the base creates a new word with the new meaning and function. The part of speech of the bases and the words are different. The words accompanist, apologist, herbalist, journalist, and loyalist have a part of speech as noun. The process of adding the suffix {-ist} to the base creates a new words and a new meaning where they are still related to the base. In this data, suffix {-ist} creates the words as an agentive noun. The words accompanist, apologist, herbalist, journalist, and loyalist have a different part of speech with their base. The word accompanist before receiving suffix {-ist} is accompany which is known as a verb and the word loyalist has loyal as the an adjective. The words herbalist and journalist before attached with suffix {-ist} have more than one part of speech. The base of herbalist is herbal as an adjective and a noun. Next, the word journalist is from journal and known as a noun and a verb. Attaching suffix {-ist} change the category of part of speech and make a new meaning that still related with the base or the original words. a. Bases Attached to the Suffix {-er} According to the data collection, there are two hundred and forty five words receiving suffix {-er} as an agentive nouns. From the data, the words receiving suffix {-er} come from noun base, verb base and adjective base. After analysing the data, the words receiving suffix {-er} are dominated with verb base and noun base.

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 Table 3. Number of Parts of Speech of the Words with the Suffix {-er} No Bases Number of Occurrences 1 Verb Base 162 2 Noun Base 76 3 Adjective Base 7 i. Verb Base After analysing the data, there are one hundred and sixty two words receiving the suffix {-er} attaches to the verb base. Most of agentive noun containing the suffix {-er} derived from verb bases. This research is supported by Katamba’s statement. He states that “agentive noun containing the suffix {-er} are numerous and can be added to indefinitely. Most verbs can have a noun formed from them in this way. So, no reasonable case could be made for listing all agentive nouns ending in {-er} in the dictionary” (Katamba, 1993, p.68). Most verb base of suffix {-er} are derived from French, German and Latin words. There are twenty four words derived from French, seventeen words derived from German, and ten words derived from Latin. Some words such as engrave and stoke origin in middle 17th century, the words lose, peddle, play, reap, and stoke, derived originally from Old English and the word manage derived from Italian and it can be attached with suffix {-er}. According to Szymanek (1989), “the majority of base verbs are characterized as [+transitive], although intransitive base are also possible” (p.176). Based on his interpretation, the characteristic of the words with the suffix {-er} attached to verb bases are transitive verbs. Hence, it is possible for transitive

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 27 verbs to have suffix {-er} as an agentive nouns. Nevertheless, it is also possible for intransitive verbs to be attached with the suffix {-er} as agentive nouns. “Intransitive base is possible to receive suffix {-er} as an indicator to have an agent noun. Among intransitive verbs, only those which refer to either protracted or repeated action can form {-er} nouns” (Randall, 1984, p.317), for examples drummer, teller, dreamer, dweller, swimmer. The second characteristic for attaching suffix {-er} to verb base is that most of the verbs are monosyllabic. According to Szymanek (1989) “the formal aspect of {-er} affixation, one may notice that the input forms are usually synchronically native, monosyllabic verbs” (p.177). Based on the data collection, the researcher can prove the Szymanek’s statement through this study. The researcher analyses and finds that there are many monosyllabic verbs. Monosyllabic is the word that has only one syllable. Etymologically, monosyllabic verbs derived from Old English words. In this data, the researcher finds monosyllabic verbs, such as: bake, bath, bear, buy, care, consume, climb, croon, deal, dream, drive, dwell, fight, find, fly, give, grow, heal, hear, help, herd, hunt, kill, lead, learn, lend, mind, read, seek, sing, speak, stalk, strike, string, strip, sweep, swim, swing, talk, teach, tell, think, tempt, throw, wait, whale, win, work, and write. Based on the data, Latin bases that are monosyllabic are not frequently with the suffix {-er}. Usually, Latin and Greek bases are bisyllabic. In this data, the researcher found the Latin bases such as admire, auction, box, commission, commute, confection, consume, convene, debate, design, export, import, intrude,

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 lecture, office, present, pretend, prison, produce, prompt, provide, publish, report, restore, satire, seduce, sin, slave, solve, spend, supply, support, train, use, vacation, value, victual, view, and vote are bisyllabic. Based on Szymanek’s theory, the researcher agrees and can prove that his theory is appropriate to this study. ii. Noun Base The next discussion in this part is the suffix {-er} attached to noun base. Based on the data collection, the researcher finds that there are seventy six words with suffix {-er} attached to the noun base. In this part, the researcher puts the table to show some parts of the data. On the left side of the table refers to the base and the right side refers to the bases with the suffix {-er}. These are the examples of suffix {-er} attached to noun base. Table 4. Noun Bases with the Suffix {-er} No Bases + Suffix {-er} Words 1 Adventure +er Adventurer 2 Astrology +er Astrologer 3 Astronomy +er Astronomy 4 Confection +er Confectioner 5 Drove +er Drover 6 Engine +er Engineer 7 Forest +er Forester 8 Gondola +er Gondolier 9 Hat +er Hatter

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 10 Hawk +er Hawker 11 Musket +er Musketeer 12 Office +er Officer 13 Rock +er Rocker 14 Shop +er Shopper 15 Slave +er Slaver 16 Trumpet +er Trumpeter 17 Train +er Trainer 18 Village +er Villager 19 Whale +er Whaler 20 Wreck +er Wrecker From the table above, attaching the suffix {-er} to the bases do not influence the lexical category. The suffix {-er} does not change the category, the bases and the words are similar in part of speech as noun. Even though the bases are noun and the words after adding the suffix {-er} are noun, they are different. They have different function and meaning. The left side shows “noun” as the meaning of “things” and in the right side shows “noun” as agent noun or someone who does something related to the base. Analyzing the data, the researcher finds the characteristics of noun base that can be attached with the suffix {-er}. First characteristic is most of the noun bases of the suffix {-er} are derived from Old French, such as astrology, astronomy, confection, engine, forest, office, and rock. Besides derived from Old

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 French, the noun base also derived from French, they are musket, satire, village, and wreck. Noun bases are also derived from Germanic. There are some nouns derived from Germanic, such as hawk, and whale. Next is derived from Latin, the word is gondola. The last is derived from Old English, the words are hat, adventure, and drove. The second characteristic is the noun bases of the suffix {-er} are consisted of concrete noun and abstract noun. For the concrete nouns the researcher has bank  banker, engine  engineer, hat  hatter, musket musketeer, puppet  puppeteer, and office  officer. For the abstract nouns the researcher has astrology  astrologer, astronomy astronomer, hagiography hagiographer, philosophyphilosopher, and radiography radiographer. The agent nouns engineer, musketeer, and puppeteer have the phonological processes. These words have phonological processes in sound. Engine /'endʒɪn/ + er  engineer /̩endʒɪˈnɪə(r)/, musket /ˈmʌskɪt/ + er  musketeer /̩mʌskəˈtɪə(r)/, puppet /ˈpʌpɪt/ + er  puppeteer /̩pʌpɪˈtɪə(r)/. iii. Adjective Base According to the data, the researcher found that there are seven words of the suffix {-er} attached to adjective base. Adjective bases are rarely attached with suffix {-er}. Below are the data: Table 5. Adjective Bases of the Suffix {-er} No Bases + Suffix –er Words 1 Common +er Commoner 2 Eastern +er Easterner

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 3 Foreign +er Foreigner 4 Northern +er Northerner 5 Southern +er Southerner 6 Strange +er Stranger 7 Western +er Western Based on the, data the adjective bases common, eastern, foreign, northern, southern, strange, and western are considered as adjective bases before receiving the suffix {-er}. After receiving the suffix {-er} they become nouns and perform as agentive nouns. After analysing these words, all the seven words attached with the suffix {-er} become an agent and also refer to the person in a certain part of the worlds. Etymologically, the adjective bases derived from Old English and Old French. From the data above, the adjective bases derived from Old English, such as easterner, northerner, southerner, and westerner. The adjective bases are derived from Old French such as foreigner, and stranger. By seeing the data, the researcher can identify the words easterner, northerner, southerner, and westerner refer to determine someone from another part of the world. The words foreigner, stranger are unaccustomed condition or things. b. Bases Attached to the Suffix {-ist} In this study, the researcher found there are one hundred and forty words receiving the suffix {-ist} as an agentive nouns. Base on the data, the bases receiving the suffix {-ist} come from noun base, verb base and adjective base.

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 The table below shows the numbers of bases that are able to be attached with the suffix {-ist} in agentive nouns. Table 6. Number of Parts of Speech of Words with Suffix {-ist} No Bases Number of Occurrence 1 Noun Base 115 2 Verb Base 3 3 Adjective Base 22 By analyzing the table above, the researcher found that the noun base is more dominant to attached to the suffix {-ist}. According to Katamba (1993), “the Latinate suffix –ist may be added to noun base to form other noun. It can also be added to noun base to form adjective” (p.68). By reading the definition, Katamba distinguished the meaning of the suffix {-ist} into three part. First, noun nounist: meaning ‘advocate of’ (as in anarchist and communist). Second, noun  noun-ist: meaning ‘practitioner of’ (as in pianist and violinist). Third, noun  adjist: meaning ‘advocate of’ (as in racist and sexist) (Katamba, 1993, p.68) By analyzing the data, the researcher finds that there are several word consist more than one part of speech. For examples, the word herbalist comes from herbal and the word lyricist comes from lyric. These words have two part of speech, they are adjective and noun. In this case, the researcher analyzes and determines the appropriate base of the words herbal and lyric whether it is adjective or noun. In order to determine the base, the researcher use Oxford

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 9th edition (2015) to analyze the most suitable base for every words. i. Noun Base According to the data analysis, the researcher finds the words receiving the suffix {-ist} are dominated with a noun base. After collecting and analyzing the data, there are one hundred and fifteen noun base receiving suffix {-ist). These are some examples of the noun bases: Table 7. Noun Bases of the Suffix {-ist} No Bases + suffix -ist Words 1 Biology + ist Biologist 2 Cello + ist Celloist 3 Drug + ist Druggist 4 Journal + ist Journalist 5 Lingua + ist Linguist 6 Miniature + ist Miniaturist 7 Oriental + ist Orientalist 8 Taxidermy + ist Taxidermist 9 Saxophone + ist Saxophonist 10 Tattoo + ist Tattoist According to the data, there are one hundred and twelve words received the suffix {-ist} attached to nouns. Most of them are derived from Latin and French. Some of the data are derived from other origins, such as Italian (lingua,

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 miniature, violin, piano), Greek (taxidermy, taxonomy, meteorology), Sanskrit (Buddha), Spanish (Canoe), Arabic (Islam), and Tahitan (tattoo). There are some characteristics of noun bases that can be attached to the suffix {-ist}. First, based on this research, most of noun base occurrences to the suffix {-ist} are derived from Latin and French. There are thirty one noun bases that are derived from Latin. Some of them are abolitionist, abortionist, acupuncturist, egoist, essayist, florist, pathologist, ornithologist, physiologist, and zoologist. Based on the etymology, there are thirty noun bases which derived from French. Here are the examples, alchemist, anatomist, diarist, economist, internist, medalist, parachutist, philologist, sociologist, and strategist. The second characteristic of noun base attached with the suffix {-ist} is most of noun bases with the suffix {-ist} are abstract nouns and concrete noun. From the data, here are the examples of abstract nouns and concrete nouns, such as: Table 8. Abstract Nouns and Concrete Nouns Attached with the Suffix {-ist} No Abstract Noun + ist Concrete Noun + ist 1 Apologist Canoeist 2 Buddhist Flutist 3 Ecologist Lutenist 4 Evolutionist Machinist 5 Herbalist Miniaturist 6 Linguist Novelist

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 ii. 7 Rationalist Parachutist 8 Numismatics Percussionist 9 Psychologist Philatelist 10 Virologist Tobaccoist Adjective Base According to the data collection, there are twenty two words attached with the suffix {-ist} in adjective bases. Adjective base is not commonly used as the base to form an agentive noun. In this part the researcher only put some examples of adjective bases with the suffix {-ist}. Here are the examples: Table 9. Adjective Bases of the Suffix {-ist} No Bases + -ist Words 1 Active + ist Activist 2 Herbal + ist Herbalist 3 Loyal + ist Loyalist 4 Natural + ist Naturalist 5 Social + ist Socialist According to the result of the data, most of adjective bases are derived from Latin. There are twelve adjective words which derived from Latin, seven adjectives are derived from French, and three adjectives are not known. Nudie, sentimental, and traditional are the words with unknown origins. These are the data of adjective bases that are derived from Latin:

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 Table 10. Adjective Bases Derived from Latin Base 7 Rational Rationalist Active Activist 8 Social Socialist 2 Alphine Alphinist 9 Solo Soloist 3 Final Finalist 10 Special Specialist 4 Imperial Imperialist 11 Spiritual Spiritualist 5 Neutral Neutralist 12 Vocal Vocalist 6 Occult Oculist No Adjective + {-ist} 1 After analyzing the data above, the researcher finds the characteristics of adjective bases after attaching with the suffix {-ist}. The first characteristic is, most of adjective bases of the suffix {-ist} ended with –al. The second characteristic is there will be a deletion in the adjective bases with final –e when it is attached with the suffix {-ist}. When adjective bases end with final –e, the final –e is deleted before it is attached with the suffix {-ist}. For examples are active  activist and alphine  alphinist. iii. Verb Base Verb base is rarely attached with the suffix {-ist}. Based on the results of the data, the researcher only finds that there are only three words which can be attached with suffix the {-ist}. Here are the examples of verb bases attached with the suffix {-ist}: accompany+-ist  accompanist, conform+-ist  conformist, rape+-ist  rapist. The word accompany means to play a musical instrument. After receiving the suffix {-ist} it turns into an agentive noun accompanist

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 which means a person who plays a musical instrument. The word conform means to behave and think in the same way, it turns into a noun conformist meaning a person who behave and think in the same way. The verb rape attached with suffix {-ist} becomes a noun rapist which means a person who force somebody to have sex. From the process of suffixation, the researcher realizes the meaning of the suffix {-ist} is a person who performs the bases. After analysing the data, the researcher finds the origin of the words. Etymologically, these verbs have similar origin. They are derived from Latin. B. The Distribution of the Agentive Suffixes {-er} and {-ist} In this part, the researcher analyses the distribution of attaching the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to the bases. As discussed in the previous part, the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} have function as agentive noun. In this part, the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are categorized as derivational suffix where the suffixes will change and give a new meaning to the bases which it attached to. According to the analysis, the researcher finds the use of the suffix {-er} is more dominant than the suffix {-ist}. There are two hundred and forty five words that are used with the suffix {-er} to form agent nouns. Meanwhile, there are one hundred and forty words which use suffix {-ist} as agent nouns. In this discussion, the researcher give the percentages of suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. The significance is to prove the study that suffix {-er} is dominant rather than suffix {-ist}. These tables also show verb base is dominant in the suffix {-er}

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 and noun base is dominant in the suffix {-ist}. Here is the frequency of the result of the data: Table 11. Percentages of the Suffix {-er} No Bases Words Percentages 1 Verb Base 162 66.12% 2 Noun Base 76 31.02% 3 Adjective Base 7 2.86% Table 12. Percentages of the Suffix {-ist} No Bases Words Percentages 1 Verb Base 3 2.15% 2 Noun Base 115 82.15% 3 Adjective Base 22 15.71% Based on the table of percentages, the use of verb base in suffix {-er} is more productive rather than noun base and adjective base. The use of noun base in suffix {-ist} is highly used to form agent nouns. According to Szymanek (1988), there are two types of English deverbal nominalizations, name of agents and name of instruments. The words, Speak (V)  Speaker (N), Sing (V)  Singer (N), Travel (V)  Traveller (N) show the semantic feature as [+human]. The words, Cook (V)  Cooker (N), Erase (V)  Eraser (N), Transmit (V)  Transmitter (N) show the semantic feature as [human]. Accordingly, nouns of these groups may be paraphrased, respectively, as

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 39 ‘one who (professionally, habitually) V-es’z and ‘an instrument (tool, machine) that V-es’ (p.171). In this study, the researcher is more focused on Names of Agents or Agentive Nominalizers because in this study, the researcher takes agentive nouns as the data. According to Szymanek (1989), “deverbal nominalizations traditionally referred as Names of Agents are formed very productively, potentialnally from a vast majority of verbs” (p.174). In this discussion of agentive nominalizations, the researcher takes the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} as the main data. These suffixes are used to create the agentive nouns. Szymanek states that suffix {-er} is the first choice when it comes to deriving an agent noun from verb (Syzmanek, 1989, p.176). The suffixes {-er} and {-ist} have meaning. In this part, the researcher divides the meaning of the words base on the suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. Based on the research, generally the meaning of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are agentive. In this analysis, the researcher analyses the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} and classify the bases which are more specific and can be attached with thhe suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. The morpheme is the key for creating new words or meanings. “The morpheme is the smallest difference in the shape of a word that correlates with the smallest difference in word or sentence meaning or in grammatical structure” (Katamba, 1993, p.24). According to Katamba, basically, all morphemes have their meaning and correlates with words to create a new meaning. Based on the definition, all morphemes have their own function to create a new meaning.

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 The suffix {-er} is the most commonly used suffix to form agentive noun. This is proved by Szymanek. Szymanek 1989 stated, “the suffix {-er} remarkably high productivity is attested by the fact that is frequently added to recently coined verbs” (p.176). It is also suported by Akmajian et al, saying “suppose that a new verb enters the English language, such a s verb to Xerox. Native speakers of English will automatically know that this verb can be converted into an agentive noun, Xeroxer” (Akmajian et al. 1978. p.117). After the suffix {-er}, there is the suffix {-ist} which is commonly used to form agentive noun as well. It is shown from Katamba’s statement. “By suffixing {-ist} can form a very large number of nouns with the meaning ‘advocate of, follower of, supporter of or practitioner of whatever is designated by the input noun’” (Katamba, 1993, p.68). In this part the researcher analyses the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} based on the meaning. By analysing the data, the researcher finds the original meaning of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are agentive noun. Through the meaning, the researcher finds the kind of words that can be attached to the suffixes {-er} and {ist}. 1. The Application of the Suffix {-er} In this part, the researcher collects all the data to analyse the application of suffixes {-er}. The researcher makes the analysis by using the tables. The researcher analyses the suffix to know the deepest function of the suffixes {-er}. The researcher focuses on the meaning to classify the data and also finds the kind of words that can be used to the suffix {-er}.

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 Table 13. The application of the Agentive Suffix + -er Base + er Words 8 Examine +er Examiner 1 Adventure +er Adventurer 9 Explore +er Explorer 2 Astrology +er Astrologer 10 Farm +er Farmer 3 Astronomy +er Astronomer 11 Lecture +er Lecturer 4 Climb +er Climber 12 Hagiography +er Hagiographer 5 Design +er Designer 13 Manage +er Manager 6 Drum +er Drummer 14 Musket +er Musketeer 7 Engine +er Engineer 15 Philosophy +er Philosopher No By analysing the data, the researcher finds there are two hundred and thirty words can be attached to the suffix {-er}. These words come from noun base, verb base, and adjective base. The suffix {-er} brings the meaning as agent noun. The verb base is more dominant in the suffix {-er}. Most of words attached with verb base. In this part, the researcher find kind of words can be attached to the suffix {-er}. For examples are astronomer and astrologer. These words use the suffix {-er} to create agent noun. “Suffix {-er} is a suffix used in forming nouns designating person from the object of their occupation or labor, or from their place of origin or abode, or designating either persons or things from some special characteristic or circumstance.” (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989, p. 482).

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 Through the Webster’s definition, the suffix {-er} is used to form person’s occupation, people from some part of origin. From the Szymanek’s statement, the particular kind of activity connected with the base noun usually refers to a trade, profession, or habit (Szymanek, 1989, p.186). His statement shows the distribution of the suffix {-er} as agent noun. It means, the reason to attach suffix {-er} to the bases is they are agent noun as profession, trade and a habit. According to Quirk (1972), “suffix {-er} added to nouns to form personal and innanimate nouns. There are varied meanings from suffix {-er} they are, something having X, inhabitant of X, and maker of X. The examples are glover, teenager, and Londoner (p.994). In this part the researcher finds the words that can be attached to the suffix {-er} to create agent noun is deverbal and denominal. The words that can be used suffix {-er} are related to professions, habit, and trade. The agentive noun of the suffix {-er} is a person who relates to the base. The suffix {-er} is an agent noun but they are not an expert of something. Here are the examples: achieve + -er  achiever, buy + -er  buyer, dance + -er  dancer, employ + -er  employer, farm +er  farmer, sing + -er  singer, and smoke + -er  smoker. Based on the examples, the words are agent but they are not a profession. They are people who have some activities that are related to the base. Most of the words that are attached with the sufffix {-er} are not an expert. Besides, the words astrologer, astronomer, and philosopher categorized as an expert. These words used the suffix {-er} to create agent noun. They do not use suffix {-ist} to create

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 agent noun. Even these words are an expert of the knowledge, they are not included to the suffix {-ist}. They have their own form and cannot be changed. According to Szymanek (1989), “some of the remaining ‘irregular’ verbs are very seldom (if ever) found in combination with {-er} unless the resultant nominalization is made part of compound” (p.178). Based on Szymanek’s statement, the researcher finds that the verb comes from regular verbs. These are some examples: attack+er, control+er, entertain+er, explore+er, fix+er, hack+er, heal+er, help+er, join+er, listen+er, manage+er, play+er and use+er. In this data, the researcher also finds the irregular verbs, for instance the verbs buy+er, catch+er, dive+er, drive+er, fight+er, find+er, give+er, grow+er, hold+er, lead+er, and read+er. Therefore, it is possible for irregular verbs to be attached with the suffix {er}. According to Quirk (1972), “There are varied meanings from the suffix {-er} they are, something having X, inhabitant of X, and maker of X. The examples are glover, teenager, and Londoner” (p.994). 2. The Application of the Suffix {-ist} In this part, the analysis is similar with the previous part. However, this part analyses the suffix {-ist}. The researcher makes tables to clarify the analysis. The researcher analyses the suffix {-ist} to find out the distributions of what kind of words that can be attached with suffix {-ist} as agent noun.

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 Table 14. The Application of the Agentive Suffix + -ist No Base + ist Words 1 Anthropology +ist Anthropologist 2 Archaeology +ist Archaeologist 3 Ecology +ist Ecologist 4 Entomology +ist Entomologist 5 Histology +ist Histologist 6 Mineralogy +ist Mineralogist 7 Neurology +ist Neurologist 8 Physiology +ist Physiologist 9 Ornithology +ist Ornithologist 10 Physiology +ist Physiologist 11 Physiotherapy +ist Physioterapist 12 Radiology +ist Radiologist 13 Sociology +ist Sociologist 14 Taxonomy +ist Taxonomist 15 Technology +ist Technologist 16 Toxicology +ist Toxicologist 17 Urology +ist Urologist 18 Virology +ist Virologist From the data collection, there are one hundred and forty words that can be attached to suffix {-ist}, but in this part the researcher only put some examples

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 to be analyzed. Base on the data, the noun base is more dominant in suffix {-ist}. These data come from noun base and adjective base. The suffix {-ist} also have the similar meaning with suffix {-er} as agentive noun. Quirk (1974) states that “suffix {-ist} added to nouns or adjectives to form personal nouns or adjectives. The meaning is member of a party, occupation. For instances masochist, racialist, Buddhist, violinist, stylist, and loyalist” (p.996). The words archeologist and ecologist use the suffix {-ist} to create noun as agentive nouns. The word archeologist means a person who studies archeology, and the word ecologist means a person who studies ecology. Based on the meaning, the words show someone who studies and are interested in something that are related to the base. Katamba (1993) states “by suffixing {-ist} we can form a very large number of nouns with the meaning ‘advocate of, follower of, supporter of or practitioner of whatever is designed by the input noun” (p.68). From the Katamba’s statement, it shows the suffix {-ist} is used to form the agent who follows, supports and studies about the base. For examples are anthropologist, meteorologist, sociologist, etc. “The suffix {-ist} is a suffix of nouns, often accompanying verbs ending in {-ize} or noun ending in {-ism}, denoting one who practice or is concerned with something, or holds certain principles, and docttrines” (Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Languange, 1989, p. 757). Based on the definition before, the researcher analyses the data and finds the words that can be attached to suffix {-ist} is product. The base + suffix {-ist}

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 turns into agent who is an expert. Most of the words with the suffix {-ist} are nouns or products to create a person who studies or is an expert on something. For examples, anatomist, anthropologist, archaeologist, epidemiologist, histologist, meteorologist, physiologist, psychologist, taxonomist, urologist, zoologist, etc. The bases are words that related to science, both in natural and medical science. The words that can be attached to suffix {-ist} are also instrument of music and transportation such as bassist, canoeist, cellist, flutist, instrumentalist, lutenist, melodist, oboist, organist, percussionist, pianist, saxophonist, soloist, violinist, and vocalist. It shows the skills of someone who is a master on playing and bringing the instrument. Furthermore, words containing the suffix {-ist} are abstract nouns of the form X-ism. It is stated by Szymanek, these are nouns of the form X-ist, related to abstract nouns of the form X-ism (Szymanek, 1989, p.187). Based on the explanation, the abstract nouns that can be attached to suffix {-ist} are the words that are related to ideology, religion, adherents of a particular theory, idea, emotion etc. These are the examples from the data, activist, buddhist, capitalist, egoist, hypotist, imperialist, islamist, leninist, marxist, nationalist, realist, and spiritualist.

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this research, the researcher has discussed the morphological process of the derivational suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive nouns. In this study, the researcher has collected two hundred and forty five words receiving the suffix {er} and one hundred and forty words receiving the suffix {-ist}. The researcher tries to analyse the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} to answer the two problems formulated in Chapter I. The first problem is identifying the bases that receive the nominalizer suffixes {-er} and {-ist} in agentive nouns. The second problem is examining the distribution of the agentive suffixes {-er} and {-ist}. By analysing the whole words, all the bases of the data are free morpheme. Free morpheme means that they are capable of standing alone as a word. The suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are classified as bound morphemes because they are incapable of standing alone. Therefore, the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} should be attached to the free morpheme to form new words. The suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are categorized as derivational suffixes. The function is to create a new meaning that are still related with the base. The function of attaching the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} are to create a new noun. In this study, the function of attaching the suffixes {er} and {-ist} are to create an agentive noun. Agentive noun is the agent or person who does something that is still related with the base. Answering the first problem formulation, the researcher found that the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} have function to form agentive nouns from verb to noun, 47

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 noun to noun, and adjective to noun. Meaning to say that the suffixes {-er} and {ist} can be attached to noun bases, verb bases, and adjective bases. According to the data analysis, the first problem formulation is answered and the result is that suffix {-er} can be attached to certain verbs, nouns, and adjectives. There are one hundred and sixty two verb bases, seventy six noun base, and seven adjective bases attached to the suffix {-er}. From the analysis, the researcher found that there are some characteristics of attaching the suffix {-er} to the verb base. The first characteristic is that most of the suffix {-er} as agentive nouns are attached to transitive verbs. Second characteristic is that most of the words with the suffix {-er} are monosyllabic verbs. It means that the monosyllabic verbs are derived from Old English. Base on the data, the etymollogy of the noun bases of the suffix {-er} are derived from Old English, French and Latin. The adjective bases are not numerously attached with the suffix {-er} to form agentive noun and most of adjective bases are derived from French. Through the data, the researcher finds that most of the bases receiving the suffix {-ist} are noun base. Verb base and adjective base can also be attached with the suffix {-ist} but they are not numerous. Etymologically, the bases that can be attached with the suffix {-ist} are derived from Latin and French, and most of noun bases attached with the suffix {-ist} are abstract nouns and concrete nouns. Verb bases are rarely used with the suffix {-ist}. Based on the analysis, the result from the second problem is both of the suffixes {-er} and {-ist} have a contradiction in part of speech. Mostly, the base of the suffix {-er} is verb base and most of the base of the suffix {-ist} is noun

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 base. There are one hundred and sixty two verb bases attached with the suffix {er} and there are one hundred and fifteen noun bases attached with the suffix {ist}. The use of the suffix {-er} is more dominant rather than the suffix {-ist}. Because there are two hundred and forty five words attached with the suffix {-er} to form agentive noun and one hundred and forty words attached with the suffix {-ist} to form agentive noun. The words that can be used with the suffix {-er} are related to profession, habit, and trade. Next is the words that can be attached to the suffix {-ist} are products. From the analysis, the researcher concludes that most of the words in the suffix {-ist} are nouns or products to create a person who studies or is an expert on something. The words related to natural science and medical science, instrument of music, ideology, religion, adherents of a particular theory, idea and emotion can be attached with the suffix {-ist} to form agent noun. They are the distributions of attaching the suffix {-ist} to the base and to form an agentive noun. The used of the suffix {-ist}, is commonly used to show someone who is an expert and a professional in their field. The agent noun produces something from the basic field he/she is engaged in. From the data analysis, the words astrology, astronomer, and philosopher do not used the suffix {-ist} to form agentive noun, even though the words categorized into expert of science. It is similar in the words drummer, gondolier, and trumpetter. They are a product from music instrument and transportation but they do not use the suffix {-ist} to create agentive noun.

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI REFERENCES Akmajian, Addrian Demers, Richard A. Harnish, Robert M. Harnish. (1984). Linguistics : An Introduction to Language and Communication. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Crystal, David. (2008). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics-Six Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Denistia, Karlina, & Fr. Borgias Alip. (2014). The Distribution of the Agentive Nominalizer of the Suffixes {-er} and {-an}. Journal of Language and Literature,14(1), 50-60. Katamba, Francis. (1993). Morphology. New York: St. Martin Press. Kristian, Samuel. (2014). A Morphological Study of the English Derivational Suffixes {-ence} and {-ance}. Universitas Sanata Dharma. Yogyakarta. Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Fudeman. (2010). Chichester: Willey-Blackwell Publishing. What is Morphology?. Nursanti, Dyah Retno. (2013). A Morphological Analysis on Derivational Affixes (suffix) –ion and –ation Used in Oxfordlearner’s Pocket Dictionary. Universitas Muhamadiyah. Surakarta. Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English (9th ed). (2015). Oxford: Oxford University Press. O’Grady William and de Guzman videa P. (1980). Contemporary Linguistics. New York: St. Martin’s Press Quirk, Randolph and Sidney Greenbaum. (1972). A Grammar of Contemporary English. London: Longman Group Ltd. Szymanek, Bodgan. (1989). Introduction to Morphological Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Analysis. Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman and Nina Hyams. (2014). An Introduction to Language, (10th ed). Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language. (1989). New York: Portland House. 50

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI APPENDICES Appendix 1 : Verb Bases with the Suffix {-er} No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Base Abstain Achieve Add Admire Adopt Advertise Advise Appraise Arrange Assemble Attack Bake Bear Begin Believe Bid Borrow Box Brew Brigade Bounce Build Buy Call Campaign Catch Cater Climb Commute Compose Consume Contend Control Convene Convert 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Noun + Er Abstainer Achiever Adder Admirer Adopter Advertiser Adviser Appraiser Arranger Assembler Attacker Baker Bearer Beginner Believer Bidder Borrower Boxer Brewer Brigadier Bouncer Builder Buyer Caller Campaigner Catcher Caterer Climber Commuter Composer Consumer Contender Controller Convener Converter 51 Croon Deal Debate Desert Design Dispatch Dive Dodge Drape Dream Drive Dwell Engrave Entertain Examine Explore Export Farm Fiddle Fight Find Fit Fix Fly Found Fund Gather Give Glaze Grow Hack Handle Heal Hear Help Herd Crooner Dealer Debater Deserter Designer Dispatcher Diver Dodger Draper Dreamer Driver Dweller Egraver Entertainer Examiner Explorer Exporter Farmer Fiddler Fighter Finder Fitter Fixer Flyer Founder Funder Gatherer Giver Glazier Grower Hacker Handler Healer Hearer Helper Herder

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 Hijack Hold Hunt Import Inform Interpret Intrude Jog Join Joke Keep Kill Lead Learn Lend Listen Loaf Lose Manage Manufacture March Meddle Mourn Observe Occupy Offend Paint Peddle Perform Play Poach Pray Preach Present Pretend Produce Prompt Provide Prowl Publish Push Read Reap Hijacker Holder Hunter Importer/ Informer Interpreter Intruder Jogger Joiner Joker Keeper Killer Leader Learner Lender Listener Loafer Loser Manager Manufacturer Marcher Meddler Mourner Observer Occupier Offender Painter Peddler Performer Player Poacher Prayer Preacher Presenter Pretender Producer Prompter Provider Prowler Publisher Pusher Reader Reaper 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 Receive Rent Report Restore Rob Rock Rustle Seduce Seek Send Sing Sit Skate Ski Smoke Solve Sow Speak Spend Spoil Stalk Stoke Strike String Strip Support Surf Sweep Swim Swing Talk Tame Teach Tell Tempt Think Throw Train Travel Trespass Use View Wait Receiver Renter Reporter Restorer Robber Rocker Rustler Seducer Seeker Sender Singer Sitter Skater Skier Smoker Solver Sower Speaker Spender Spoiler Stalker Stoker Striker Stringer Stripper Supporter Surfer Sweeper Swimmer Swinger Talker Tamer Teacher Teller Tempter Thinker Thrower Trainer Traveller Trespasser User Viewer Waiter

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 158 Walk 159 Watch 160 Win Walker Watcher Winner 161 Work 162 Wreck 163 Write Worker Wrecker Writer Appendix 2 : Noun Bases with the Suffix {-er} No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Base Adventure Astrology Astronomy Auction Bank Bark Bathe Care Clock Commission Confection Custom Draft Drove Drum Employee Engine Fraud Fence Fish Forest Garden Gondola Hagiography Hat Hawk Hurdle Interview Island Job Labour Law Lecture Lodge Noun + Er Adventurer Astrologer Astronomer Auctioneer Banker Barker Bather Carer Clocker Commissioner Confectioner Customer Drafter Drover Drummer Employer Engineer Farudster Fencer Fisher Forester Gardener Gondolier Hagiographer Hatter Hawker Hurdler Interviewer Islander Jobber Labourer Lawyer Lecturer Lodger 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 London Mind Murder Musket Office Philosophy Plan Prison Program Puppet Radiography Raid Ranch Range Rap Research Retail Roof Saddle Sell Shop Sin Slave Squat Streak Supply Tag Taste Text Tip Treasure Truck Trumpet Vacation Value Londoner Minder Murderer Musketeer Officer Philosopher Planner Prisoner Programmer Puppeteer Radiographer Raider Rancher Ranger Rapper Researcher Retailer Roofer Saddler Seller Shopper Sinner Slaver Squatter Streaker Supplier Tagger Taster Texter Tipper Treasurer Trucker Trumpeter Vacationer Valuer

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 54 70 71 72 Victuals Village Vote Victualler Villager Voter 73 74 Weekend Whale Weekender Whaler Appendix 3 : Adjective Bases with the Suffix {-er} No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Base Common Eastern Foreign Nothern Southern Strange Western Adj + Er Commoner Easterner Foreigner Northerner Southerner Stranger Westerner Appendix 4 : Noun Bases with the Suffix {-ist} No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 Base Abolition Abortion Acupuncture Alchemy Anaesthetic Anarchy Anatomy Anthropology Apologize Archaeology Archive Art Balloon Bass Biology Botany Buddha Canoe Capital Career Cardiology Cello Classic Noun + Ist Abolitionist Abortionist Acupuncturist Alchemist Anaesthetist Anarchist Anatomist Anthropologist Apologist Archaeologist Archivist Artist Balloonist Bassist Biologist Botanist Buddhist Canoeist Capitalist Careerist Cardiologist Cellist Classicist 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Commune Cycle Dent Diary Drug Ecology Economy Ego Entomology Epidemiology Essay Evangel Evolution Flute Flora Haematology Harp Herbal Histology Human Hygiene Ideal Illusion Impression Communist Cyclist Dentist Diarist Druggist Ecologist Economist Egoist Entomologist Epidemiologist Essayist Evangelist Evolutionist Flutist Florist Harmatologist Harpist Herbalist Histologist Humanist Hygienist Idealist Illusionist Impressionist

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 Instrumental Intern Islam Journal Lefty Lenin Libretto Lingua Lute Lyric Machine Material Medal Melody Metallurgy Meteorology Method Microbiology Mineralogy Miniature Monopoly National Neurology Novel Numismatics Nutrition Oboe Obstruction Organ Ornithology Parachute Pathology Percussion Pharmacy Pessimism Instrumentalist Internist Islamist Journalist Leftist Leninist Librettist Linguist Lutenist Lyricist Machinist Materialist Medallist Melodist Metallurgist Meteorologist Methodist Microbiologist Mineralogist Miniaturist Monopolist Nationalist Neurologist Novelist Numismatist Nutritionist Oboist Obstructionist Organist Ornithologist Parachutist Pathologist Percussionist Pharmacist Pessimist 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 Philately Philology Physics Physiology Physiotheraphy Piano Projection Psychology Psychotheraphy Public Radiology Reserve Satire Saxophone Science Sociology Strategy Style Supremacy Tattoo Taxidermy Taxonomy Technology Terror Theory Therapy Tobacco Tour Toxicology Urology Violin Virology Zoology Philatelist Philologist Physicist Physiologist Physiotherapist Pianist Projectionist Psychologist Psychotherapist Publicist Radiologiist Reservist Satirist Saxophonist Scientist Sociologist Strategist Stylist Supremacist Tattooist Taxidermist Taxonomist Technologist Terrorist Theorist Therapist Tobacconist Tourist Toxicologist Urologist Violinist Virologist Zoologist

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 56 Appendix 5 : Adjective Bases with the Suffix {-ist} No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Base Active Alpine Final Hypnotic Imperial Loyal Monetary Natural Neutral Nudie Occult Oriental Pure Rational Real Sentimental Social Solo Special Spritual Traditional Vocal Noun + Ist Activist Alpinist Finalist Hypnotist Imperialist Loyalist Monetarist Naturalist Neutralist Nudist Occulist Orientalist Purist Rationalist Realist Sentimentalist Socialist Soloist Specialist Spritualist Traditionalist Vocalist Appendix 6 : Verb Bases with the Suffix {-ist} No 1 2 3 Base Accompany Conform Rape Base + Ist Accompanist Conformist Rapist

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