S T N E D U T H T R U O F O Y D U T S E S A C A :S D R O W S U O M Y N O N Y S T N E D U T S R E T S E M E S T N E M T R A P E D S R E T E L H S I L G N E F O Y T I S R E V I N U A M R A H D A T A N A S F O

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S T N E T N O C F O E L B A T

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.) 7 0 0 2 ( o t p a Y s il a t a

N Studen’t s Competence in Understanding Nuanced W

s u o m y n o n y

S ord sa Case Study o fthe Fou trh-Semeste rStudent so fEngilsh y

ti s r e v i n U a m r a h D a t a n a S t n e m tr a p e D s r e tt e

L . Yogyakatra : Depatrmen t o f

f o y tl u c a F , s r e tt e L h s il g n

E Letters ,SanataDharmaUniverstiy. s

e i d u t s h c r a e s e r e h

T synonymou sword sandmeasure sstudents ’ablitiy i n n i d e s u e b o t g n i n a e m r a li m i s h ti w s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s e m o s g n it a it n e r e f fi d

t x e t n o c n i a tr e

c s. The research wa sconducted in rtanslaiton classe so ffou tr h-. y ti s r e v i n U a m r a h D a t a n a S , t n e m tr a p e D s r e tt e L h s il g n E f o s t n e d u t s r e t s e m e s

e h

T objecitve o fthe study i sto give some informaiton abou thow the h

tr u o f f o s t n e d u t s t n e m tr a p e D s r e tt e L h s il g n

E -semeste runderstand synonymou s s

d r o

w . et h informaitonobtained can beused to measurehow competentt heyare d

e c n a u n e h t g n i d n e h e r p m o c n

i -synonymou swords .

e h T . h c r a e s e r d l e if d n a y r a r b il e h t s a w y d u t s s i h t n i d e il p p a d o h t e m e h T

f o s t n e d u t s 5 8 m o r f n e k a t e r e w a t a

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c nt heEngilshLetter sDepatrmen.t s i s y l a n a e h t f o t l u s e r e h t m o r

F ,the average score o fthe student sin ,

9 . 4 6 s i s s a l c y a d s e u T , 7 . 1 6 s i s s a l c y a d n o

M Wednesday class i s61.4 ,Thursday e

r a y c n e t e p m o c s e s s a l c l l a r o f d n a 2 . 4 6 s i s s a l

c 6 . 530 Based on academic

t s r e d n u n i e c n e t e p m o c ’ s t n e d u t s n o it a l u g e

r anding synonymou s word s i s

t n e i c if f u s

‘ ’ . From the resutl , mos t o f the student s qutie understand the m

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s d to no .Thi si sbecause no tal lo fthe r

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s the synonymou s word s o r lack o f knowledge o f how the y

s nonymou sword saredfiferentf rom each other .s Based on t he resutl t hewrtie r t

a h t d e d u l c n o

c the studen’t s competence in mastery synonymou s word s i s d

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1

I R E T P A H C

N O I T C U D O R T N I

. y d u t s e h t f o d n u o r g k c a B . A

s i e g a u g n a

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t in ou rdaliyl ives .Languagedoe sno tonlymake p

o e

p le communicatewtih each othe rbu talso t o make people express t hei rown il

e e

f ng .Whenwet alkaboutl anguage ,wedea lwtihwords .Everys inglewordha s e

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ti s o fword ssucha snoun ,adjecitve ,verb; .

c t e b r e v d

a Thosepa trs fo speech l ate rmay havewordst ha tconsis to fthenealry s

a h c u s g n i n a e m e m a

s words hear and lsiten ot . Graham (1916:240 )asse trs tha t r

a e

h i sani nvoluntarliy act ,therefore, t hosewho have ear scanno thelp heairng ,

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w to lsiten i san intenitonal ac tsince ilstening i san intensive degree o f t a h w o t g n i n e t s il t u o h ti w g n i k l a t s n o s r e p r a e h y a m e w , t c e p s e r s i h t n I . g n ir a e h

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I alway susesynonymo uswordsi nt hei rdaily ilve s e

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e s u o t r e f e r p y a m s l a u d i v i d n i e m o

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. g n i h t e m a s e h t y ll a it n e s s e n a e

m

m y n o n y

S i s samenes s o f meaning which i s no t concerned wtih the s e l r o e r o m , e v a h h c i h w s d r o w f o s n o it a l e r t u b , s d r o w f o g n i n a e m l a u t p e c n o

c ,st he

g n i n a e m l a u t p e c n o c e m a

s (Adisut irsno ,2003:31). Synonymou sword smay have e

k il , g n i n a e m l a u t p e c n o c e m a s e h t y lt c a x

e elevator and iltf ,o rgala and fesitvtiy P

( almer ,1982:88 .)

m y n o n y s f o e l p m a x e r e h t o n

A ou sword si sAnswe rand reply. A reply i s n

a t a h

t answeri n whichanopinioni sexpressed .Everyr eplyi sananswe,rt hough a

o t n e v i g s i r e w s n a n A . y l p e r a t o n s i r e w s n a y r e v

e quesiton ;“ar eplyi smadet o n

o it c e j b o n a r o n o it a s u c c a n

a ” (Graham ,1916:38). m

y n o n y s t h g ir e h t e s u e w e r o f e

B o us word swe mus tknow wha ti sthe . ll a t a y ll a c i g o ll i r o y ll a c i g o l ,s e v l e s m e h t g n i n a e m e h t d n a e c n e t n e s e h t f o t c e j b u s

o h s e r a s e l p m a x e e s o h

T w n above can be the bes t deal twtih the study o f m

y n o n y

s s.

g n i n a e m d n a d n u o s , e c n a r a e p p a e c n e r e f fi d t h g il s y r e v a s i e c n a u N

(Hornby ,2005:1000) .In t hi scasestudent so fEngilsh Letter sDepatrmen tshould e

h t e s u o t w o h d n a s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s f o e c n a u n e h t w o n

k synonymou swordsi n

. t x e t n o c t h g ir e h

t Before students o f fou trh semeste r o f Engilsh Letter s k

o o t t n e m tr a p e

D aclas ssuch a svocabulary, i tshould bet hebasico fknowledge g

n i d n a t s r e d n u f

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s t n e d u t

s shouldknowhowf art hey masterthesynonymou sand understandingt he .s

e c n a u n

F m e l b o r P .

B ormula iton

e r e h t e v o b a d e t n e s e r p m e l b o r p e h t n o d e s a

B i s one problem tha tcan be :

s w o ll o f s a d e t a l u m r o f

w o

H wel ldo t hestudents ’o fsemeste rIV fo Eng ilsh LettersDepa trment f

o SanataDharmaUniverstiyu separi sofsynonymou swords?

y d u t s e h t f o s e v it c e j b O . C

s u o m y n o n y s e h t w o h t u o d n if o t s i h c r a e s e r e h t g n it c u d n o c f o l a o g e h T

. t x e t n o c t n e r e f fi d e h t o t y l p p a d n a k r o w s d r o

w T he objecitve i sto ifnd ou tthe n

e t e p m o

c ce o f Engilsh Letter s Depatrment semeste r IV student s of Sanata s

d r o w s u o m y n o n y s g n i s u s e c n e t n e s g n it a it n e r e f fi d n i y ti s r e v i n U a m r a h

D .

s m r e t f o n o it i n if e D . D

o v a o t r e d r o n

I idmisinterpretaitoni nt heproces so fanalyzingt hedata,i t w

o n k o t t n a tr o p m i s

i somedeifniitonoft he ilnguisitct erms .Thet erm susedi n s

i s y l a n a s i h

t a refollows:

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e h t ,s s e l r o e r o m , e v a h h c i h w s d r o w f o s n o it a l e r t u b , s d r o w f o g n i n a e m l a u t p e c n o c

e m l a u t p e c n o c e m a

(16)

y r a l u b a c o

V i sa core componen to flanguage pro ifciency and provide s d n a d r a h c i R ( e ti r w d n a d a e r , n e t s il , k a e p s s r e n r a e l ll e w w o h r o f c i s a b e h t f o h c u m

.) 5 5 2 : 2 0 0 2 , a y d n a n e R

e c n e t e p m o

C si ab litiy tha ti sused “both scienit ifcally and in everyday u

, e g a u g n a

l nde lrying al argevairety o fmeanings , tii spossiblet o discern asmal l , ” y ti li b a p a c “ , ” e d u ti t p a “ , ” y ti li b a “ s m r e t e h t y b d e r u t p a c s i t a h t e r o c c it n a m e s

, ” e c n e t e p m o c

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4 1

R E T P A H

C II I

Y G O L O D O H T E M

y d u t S e h t f o t c e j b O . A

a t a d e h t , s i s e h t s i h t n

I o robjec to fstudy wa sEngilsh synonyms. The

synonym swereclassi ifed into geneircand speci ifc synonym ,acitve and passive

s u o e n a ll e c s i m d n a y ti s n e t n i f o m y n o n y s , m y n o n y

s synonym .Al loft hemcould be

fi s s a l c s m y n o n y s h s il g n E f o k o o b n i d n u o

f ied and explained by G.F Graham

. ) 6 1 9 1 (

y d u t S e h t f o d o h t e M . B

s a w d e il p p a y d u t s f o d o h t e m e h

T ilbrary research and ifeld research .The

h c r a e s e r y r a r b il f o e s o p r u

p sw a to ifnd sources, t heo ire sand supporitng data to

m o

c pletet hi sstudywhichwould beusedf o ranalyzingpatr .However, the ilbrary

s a w h c r a e s e

r no tqutie enough to conduct ifna lresul tand analyze, then ifeld

d l u o w h c r a e s e

r beanothe rmethod t o usei n order t o completet he study, os thi s

. s t n e d n o p s e r d e s u d o h t e

m In the ifeld research the data would be brough tto

d d a o t s a w e s o p r u p e h T . s e c n e r e f e r e d i s t u o m o r f n o it a m r o f n i e m o s t e g o t e d i s t u o

w e i v f o t n i o p r e h t o n

a sot hatt hes tudys houldno tbes ubjecitve.

s t n e m u r t s n I h c r a e s e R . C

K .

1 ind so fData

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(27)

y r a m i r P .

a Data

t c e j b o e h

T data w tere aken from the Engilsh Synonym Classiifed and

d e n i a l p x

E ,w irttenbyG.FGraham .Thedatawere40pariso fsynonymou swords ,

l l

a synonymous word sclassiifed tino 4 catego ires .The fou rcatego ire swere

c if i c e p s d n a c ir e n e

g synonyms , acitve and passive synonyms , synonym o f

s n e t n

i tiyandmiscellaneouss ynonyms.

s t n e d n o p s e R .

b

e h

T survey w as to collec tdata from the respondents .The data were

d e p o l e v e

d into quesitonnaries o fsynonymou sword and the respondent swere

.s e s i c r e x e e c n e t n e s a o t n i d e d i v o r p d a h h c i h w s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s e h t ll if o t d e k s a

i a n n o it s e u q e h

T res ,which consisted o f40 quesiton ,s w ere given to 85

s t n e d n o p s e

r . Each quesiton scontaine d 2 synonymou swords .The respondent s

e r e

w the fou trh semeste rstudents o f2012 clas so fEngilsh Letter sDepa trmen t

T . a m r a h D a t a n a

S hey wereselectedbasedont hescoref rom highes tup t o l owes t

.s s a l c n o it a l s n a rt n i e r o c

s eT h respondent swereselectedf rom et h rtanslaitonclas s

o t d e t a l e r s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s e h t f o e s u a c e

b the rtanslaiton ifeld,i n othe rwords

.s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s h ti w s l a e d n o it a l s n a rt

d i v i d s t n e d n o p s e r e h

T edi ntoHigh ,Mediumand Lowwereselectedbased

t n i e c n a m r o f r e p r i e h t n

o he clas smeaning to say based on thei rscore in the

s e r o c s w o l d n a m u i d e m r o h g i h e h t r e h t e h w e r u s a e m o t r e d r o n i s s a l c n o it a l s n a rt

.s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s g n i d n a t s r e d n u n i e c n e t e p m o c r i e h t d e c n e u lf n i e b n a

c The

e h t n o d e s a b e r a w o l d n a m u i d e m , h g i h f o a ir e ti r

c score sonstuden’tspefrormance

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: s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o n o it u b ir t s i d e h t s i e r e H

s s a l

C rNesupmonbedrenots f NoC .aot feRgoesrpizoanitdoennt s h

g i

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a d n o

M 1 7 5 6 6

y a d s e u

T 2 3 8 8 7

y a d s e n d e

W 2 3 8 7 8

y a d s r u h

T 2 2 7 8 7

l a t o

T 8 5

n o it c e ll o C a t a D . 2

r e ti r w e h t a t a d e h t t c e ll o c o t r e d r o n

I h ad some steps ,fris t ifnding the

e h T . c i p o

t purposeo f ifnding t het opicwast o ifnd whatr esearch would bedone

e h c r a e s e r e h t r o f t n a tr o p m i w o h d n

a rand reader .Thesecond step wa sto collec t

m a h a r G F . G e h t m o r f a t a d e h

t (1916 ,) which was 4 catego ire so fsynonymou s

e r e w s e ir o g e t a c r u o f e h t ; s d r o

w geneirc speci ifc synonyms ,acitve and passive

m y n o n y

s s ,synonyms ofi ntenstiy and miscellaneou ssynonyms .Thewrtie rchose

10 pari so fsynonymou sfrom each o fthe catego ires .A tfe rchoosing the wrtie r

d e z y l a n

a thenuance so feach synonymou sword by usingt heexplanaiton i n G.F

m a h a r

G thencombined thesynonymou sword i nto t hesentence swhich provided

. k o o b e h t n i

s a w p e t s t x e n e h

T to create t he data i nto quesitonnaries hw ich had been

g n i d n if r e tf a e n o

d thecorrec tanswe roft hequesitonnarie .Therespondent swere

a m r a h D a t a n a S s r e tt e L h s il g n E f o s t n e d u t s r e t s e m e s h tr u o f e h

t Universtiy. The

e d u t s 0 2 1 s i r e t s e m e s h tr u o f e h t f o s t n e d u t s l a t o

t nt sand85s tudentss electedbased

e c n a m r o f r e p r i e h t n

(29)

l l a r o f s e t u n i m 0 3 d n u o r a s i k n a l b e h t g n il li f r o f n e v i g e b l li w e m it e h t n e h t

.s n o it s e u q

: a t a d f o e l p m a x e e h T

.

1 Geneirc/Speci ifc( G/S)i ncluded10pari sofs ynonyms

.

2 Acitve/Passive(A/P)i ncluded10pari sofs ynonyms

.

3 SynonymofI ntenstiy(SI)i ncluded10pari sofs ynonyms

.

4 Miscellaneouss ynonym(MS i)ncluded10pari sofs ynonyms

f o r i a p a d e d u l c n i s n o it s e u q e h t f o h c a e r o f s n o it s e u q 0 4 e r a y e h T

synonymou sso tha tthey are 80 synonymou sword .s They were 04 pari so f

t a h t d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s w eregivent ot herespondent sareasf ollows:

s b r e V . 1

r e w s n

A -Reply Todi insvceonvte- rTo Tor aeccceeivpet- To Toparroitncouulantcee- To e

d i v i d o

T - To e t a r a p e

S Tof poarrgdiovne- To Tos ee-Tol ook Shall-W ill t

c e p x e o

T - To e p o

h Tobgercoowm- eTo Toraevveennggee- To Tor aise-To iltf d

n e f e d o

T - To t c e t o r

p Tohear-To ilsten Togroetbuarcnk- To Toeat-Tof eed

s n u o N . 2

y t u

D -Obilgaiton Word-Term Value-Wo trh e

r u t c i

P - nPai it ng Ablitiy-Capactiy Happiness-Pleasure r

e b b o

R -Thief Intellect -g n i d n a t s r e d n

U R -iotTumutl t

n e l a

T -Genius Reason-Cause Wood-Forest y

a

W -Road Fautl-Mistake

s e v it c e j d A . 3

h g i

H -T all Thankful-Grateful Common-Ordinary Alone-O nly e

r u

(30)

s b r e v d A . 4

n e e w t e

B -Among Almost-Nealry y

n

A -Some

s i s y l a n A a t a D . 4

e r e w e r e h

T somestepst oexplaino ranalyzet hedata .Thef ris twasfound

o w e h

t rd orl exica lmeaning i n Oxford Advanced Leaner’s (Hornby ,2005) .The

p e t s d n o c e

s appiled some theo ire stha tsuppor tthe explanaiton on G.F Graham

) 6 1 9 1

( .Thet hrid stepwascombiningt hosemeaningt hatf ound i n al lsource sand

v i u q e e h t e r u s e k a

m alen toft hesynonymou sword could beapplied t hedata .The

s a w p e t s h tr u o

f to ifndt henuance soft hes ynonymou sword ,meaningt os aywha t

f fi d d r o w s u o m y n o n y s e h t s e k a

m e reachother .The iftfhstepwastomeasurehow

. d r o w s u o m y n o n y s g n i s u n i e c n e t e p m o c s t n e d u t s e h t r a f

: s i s y l a n a a t a d f o e l p m a x e e h T

a t a

D G/S1 G/S2 G/S3

1 H

T C I C

2 H

T C I C

3 H

T C C I

: e t o N

1 h g i H y a d s e u T = 1 H

T C=Correct

t n e d u t S t s ri f / c ir e n e G = 1 S /

G I=Incorrect

m o r

F the data abovet he wrtie rwanted to show t hat t hefris tResponden t

d a h h c i h w s s e n t c e r r o c 2 d a h ) 1 H T

( donei n quesiton snumber s1 and 3( Q1&Q3 )

s s e n t c e r r o c n i 1 d n

(31)

d a

h thesamet hing bu tdfiferentf rom t het hrid r espondent( TH3), t her espondent

d l u o

c onlyanswerf orQ1andQ2butf o rQ3i si ncorrec.t

e d a m r e ti r w e h t a t a d t a h t h ti

W a conclusion on how fa rthe studen’t s

d r o w s u o m y n o n y s g n i s u n i e c n e t e p m o

c s and also wha tsynonymou swhich have

fi

d ifcu tlt ounderstandinganddfiferenitatei .t

o t g n ir r e f e

R Peraturan Akademik Mahasiswa o racademic regulaiton o f

r a d n a t s m u m i n i m e h t ,) 4 1 : 2 0 0 2 ( y ti s r e v i n U a m r a h D a t a n a

S do fmasteryi s56%o f

e r o c s t s e h g i h e h t f o % 6 5 e v e i h c a o h w s t n e d u t s e h T . t n e m e v e i h c a m u m i x a m e h t

f o % 0 5 e v e i h c a y l n o s t n e d u t s e h t f I . t n e i c if f u s f o y r o g e t a c e h t o t n i d e if i s s a l c e r a

i c if f u s n i f o y r o g e t a c e h t o t n i d e if i s s a l c e r a y e h t n e h t , e r o c s t s e h g i h e h

t ent .The

e d e r a d o o g y r e v d n a d o o g f o y r o g e t a c e h t r o f e r o c s m u m i n i

m termined by the

y b s r e r u t c e

l consideirng t he scoredist irbuiton above t heminimum passing score

e h t y fi s s a l c o t d e s u s i h c i h w y r o g e t a c e r o c s f o t s il e h t s i g n i w o ll o f e h T . ) % 6 5 (

s s ’t n e d u t

s core.

e r o c

S Category

0

8 - 01 0 verygood( A)

0

7 - 97 good( B)

6

5 - 96 sufifcient( C)

0

5 - 55 insuf ifcient( D)

d 4 9 fali( E)

e r o c s ’ s t n e d u t s e h t f i , e v o b a t s il e h t n o d e s a

B s are below the minimum

e v a h l li t s y e h t t a h t s u o i v b o s i ti , y r e t s a m f o d r a d n a t

s dfi ifculite sandt heyhaveno t

(32)

0 2

V I R E T P A H C

S I S Y L A N A

r e t p a h c s i h t n

I thewrtie rdiscussest hedatat ha thavebeen analyzed .The

m e l b o r p e n o y l n o s a h r e ti r

w tha tformulated in the fris tchapter ,the problem

s s u c s i

d on how competence s o f the student s dfiferenitate and understand

.s d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s The way to d fiferenitate uses the analysi sof t heory in G.F

. m a h a r G

d r e t p a h c s i h

T iscussest hedatat ha thavebeenanalyzedandt her esutlf rom

t s e u q e h t m o r f d e n i a t b o s g n i d n if e h

t ionnarie .Thereare t wo sub divisions i n thi s

d n a , s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s e h t f o e c n e r e f fi d e h t n o s e s u c o f h c i h w f o h c a e , r e t p a h c

.s t n e d u t s e h t o t d e t u b ir t s i d e ri a n n o it s e u q e h t m o r f d e n i a t b o g n i d n if e h t s e s s u c s i d

r e b m u n e h t e t a l u c l a c o t s i n o i s i v i d b u s t s ri f e h

T o fcorrectnes so fstuden’t s

d e t a l u c l a c s i s s e n t c e r r o c f o r e b m u n e h t ,s d r o w s u o m y n o n y s g n i s u n i e c n e t e p m o c

n i d r o w s u o m y n o n y s f o h c a e e t a it n e r e f fi d o t s i d n o c e s e h T . s e g a t n e c r e p o t n i

f o d n a t s r e d n u r e d a e r a e k a m o t r e d r o n i n m u l o c e h t s e s u r e ti r w e h t h c i h

w howt he

. s i e t a it n e r e f fi d

.

A Thestudents ’competencei nunderstandingons ynonymou swords

4 e r a e r e h

T 0 synonymou sword sbasedon4 catego ires .Thef ris tcategory

s

i genericand speci ifco f10 pari so fsynonym ssuch as ,answe rand reply ,duty

d n

a obilgaiton ,pictureand painitng,t odivideandt o separate,t alen tand genius ,

.l l a t d n a h g i h , e p o h d n a t c e p x e , m r e t d n a d r o w , d a o r d n a y a

(33)
(34)

, y ll a c ir o h p a t e m . c t e h c r u h c h g i h

a talliss omeitme susedf o rhigh ,asi nt hephrase

. e ri p s ll a t a

it n a m e s e h

T cf eature sof‘ high ’and t‘a l’l

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S High T all

m r e t c ir e n e

G + -

m r e t c if i c e p

S - +

e l p o e p r o f e s

U - +

s g n i h t r o f e s

U + +

f o p o t e h t o t m o tt o b m o r f t n e m e r u s a e M

g n i h t e m o

s + -

g n i w o r g f o t h g i e

H - +

e l b a t e h

T aboves howst hat‘ high’i st hemeasurementt ot hing sbu t t‘all ’

‘ .t h g i e h e l p o e p r o f d n a s g n i h t r o f e b n a

c High’si smeasurementf rombo ttomt o

g n i h t e m o s f o p o t e h

t bu t t‘al’li sheigh to fgrowing.

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich were taken

t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r

f hedfiferencebetweent hoset woword scanbeunderstood

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

: s w o ll o f

 Reasonelevate sourt hought sa shighast hestars ,andl ead sust hrought he s

a

v tspace soft hemightyf ab irc ;yeti tcomesf a rshor toft her ea lexten to f )

4 0 1 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (. g n i e b l a e r o p r o c n e v e

 Two o ffa rnoble rshape ,erec tand tall ,Godilke erect ,wtih naitve hono r ,

d a l

c i nnakedmajesty,s eemedl ord so fal.l( Graham ,1916:104. e

h

T resul tof studen’t scomprehension based on the data o frespondent s

o c l a t o t e h t s i s t n e d n o p s e r 5 8 f o % 5 . 6 9 d n a y lt c e r r o c e n o d e v a h h c i h

w rrec toft he

h g i h ‘ s d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s -ta ll .’Fromt hedataabove, t hewrtiercanconcludet ha t

g n o l e

b t ‘o verygood’ becausemos toft her espondent sunderstandt henuance so f

h g i h

(35)
(36)

 A s Icanno tproceed i n t hi saffari ,wtihou tobtaining i nformaiton oft hese r

u o y y b d e g il b o l e e f l l a h s I , s t n i o

p r yepl my lette r a t you r eariles t .)

8 3 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G ( . e c n e i n e v n o c

f o t l u s e r e h

T studen’t scomprehension based on the data o frespondent s

o c l a t o t e h t s i s t n e d n o p s e r 5 8 f o % 4 . 2 8 d n a y lt c e r r o c e n o d e v a h h c i h

w rrec toft he

r e w s n a ‘ s d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s -reply’ .From the data the wrtier can conclude tha t

g n o l e

b t ‘o verygood’ becausemos toft her espondent sunderstandthenuance so f

r e w s n a

‘ -reply’verywell.

c .DutyandObilga iton.

o t g n i d r o c c

A Graham( 1916:45) ,duitesa irsef romt henaturalr elaiton so f

. s g n i e b n a m u h s a n o it i d n o c r u o m o r f y t e i c o

s Ob ilgaitons are duite svoluntarliy

e h t t u b s n o it a g il b o r u o d n a s e it u d r u o m r o f r e p o t d n u o b y ll a u q e e r a e W . d e m u s s a

a rt n o c t o n y a m r o y a m e w r e tt a l e h t , e p a c s e t o n n a c e w r e m r o

f ct .Duites are

d n a s r e h c a e t , s e v i w d n a s d n a b s u h , n e r d li h c d n a s t n e r a p , d o G d n a n a m n e e w t e b

n A . n o it a g il b o n a t c a rt n o c e w , e s i m o r p e w n e h W . s r a l o h c

s obilga iton i swha twe

.s e it u d l a r u t a n r u o f o y lt n e d n e p e d n i o d o t s e v l e s r u o d n i b

f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T ‘du yt ’ and‘obilga iton’:

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Duty Obilgaiton

m r e t c ir e n e

G + -

m r e t c if i c e p

S - +

s r o ir e p u s d n a s t n e r a p o t e u d t c u d n o

C + -

w a l f o e s u a c e b d n o b

A - +

e s i m o r p a y b d e t c u d n o

C - +

y t e i c o s f o d n o b l a r u t a

(37)
(38)

t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T ure sof‘ way ’and‘ road :’

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S W ay Road

m r e T c ir e n e

G + -

m r e T c if i c e p

S - +

s e l c i h e v r o f tl i u b e c a f r u s d r a h

A - +

d o h t e m r o r e n n a

M + -

n o it c e ri

D + +

e t a t s n o it i d n o

C + -

s w o h s e v o b a n m u l o c e h t m o r

F tha t ‘way and road’ are the state o f

e h t , n o it c e ri

d dfiference sbetween t hem arethemanne ro rmethod (way ,) r oad i s

.s e l c i h e v r o f tl i u b e c a f r u s d r a h g n i b ir c s e d r o f d e s u

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich w ere taken

d o o t s r e d n u e b n a c s d r o w o w t e s o h t n e e w t e b e c n e r e f fi d e h t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r f

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

: s w o ll o f

Theneares troadtor eacht hevillagei salongt hehighcilff . )

9 6 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (

 T hebes tands ures twaytoaccompilshyou rwishwli lbet oengagea )

6 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G ( . d a e r d n a r e t s a m

h e r p m o c s ’t n e d u t s f o s s e n t c e r r o c e h t f o t l u s e r e h t s i % 0

8 ension on the

r ‘ d n a ’ y a w ‘ d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s oad’ .Wtih t hatr esul twecanknowt ha tno tal lo f

e v a h s t n e d n o p s e r e h

t a competence in dfiferenitate ‘way-road’ .From the data

n a c e v o b

a be concluded belong t ‘o very good’ because mos tof t he respondent s

w ‘ f o s e c n a u n e h t d n a t s r e d n

u a -ry oad ’verywel.l

e. PictureandPain itng

A picturei sarepresentaiton o fobjects .Apainitng i sa representaiton by

f o s n a e

(39)

g n it n i a

p i sa picture ,because i trepresent ssomething bu tevery picture i sno t

, e r u t c i p e h t f o s l a it n e s s e e h t e r a n o it i s o p m o c , e n il t u o , g n i w a r d , m r o F . d e t n i a p

e h t h ti w r e h t e g o t e s e h

t colo irngmakeupt hepainitng ,Graham( 1916:55 .)

f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T ‘picture’ and‘pain itng’:

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Picture Painitng

c ir e n e

G term + -

m r e t c if i c e p

S - +

s t c e j b o f o n o it a t n e s e r p e

R + -

f o n o it a t n e s e r p e

R color - +

n o it i s o p m o

C + -

d e t n i a p t o n e r a t c e j b o y r e v

E + -

e h

T tableaboveshowsthat‘ picture’i sanobjec twhichcani ncludean

n a s a h h c i h w g n i h t y r e v e , ’ g n it n i a p ‘ m o r f s r e f fi d t i n o it i s o p m o c d n a t c e j b o

g n o l e b r o l o c f o n o it a t n e s e r p e r r o r o l o c f o l a it n e s s

e s to‘ painitng’t houghevery

.t c e j b o n a s i g n it n i a p

m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T p s le oft hoset woword swhichweretaken

d o o t s r e d n u e b n a c s d r o w o w t e s o h t n e e w t e b e c n e r e f fi d e h t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r f

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i tI . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c whichi sa s

: s w o ll o f

 Thear to fmixingcolors ,a sappiledbyt heoldmastersi nt hei rpainitngs , )

5 5 : 6 1 9 1 ; m a h a r G (. d lr o w e h t o t t s o l w o n s i

 Thehisto irandrawss ucha ilvelypictureoft hef olile sandvice soft ha t t

a h t d o ir e

p tii si mpossiblet or eadhi saccoun twtihoutt akingadeep h

h c i h w s t n e v e e h t n i t s e r e t n

i er elates .(Graham;1916:55) f

o t l u s e r e h

T studen’t scomprehension based on the data o frespondent s

lt c e r r o c e n o d e v a h h c i h

(40)

p ‘ s d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s icture and painitng .’ From the datacan be concluded tha t

g n o l e

b t o ‘good’ because mos to fthe respondent sunderstand the nuance so f

p

‘ ictureandpainitng .’

f. RobberandThief

A robberattack su sopenly andt ake saway ou rprope try by main f orce .A

f e i h

t enter sou rhousei n t hedark ,conceal shimsel fand t ake saway ou rpropetry

e h T . h tl a e t s y

b robberplunder ,st hethiefsteals .Therobberemploy sviolence,t he

f e i h

t gulie fo rthe same purpose .The robber brave sthe law ,the thief fear s

, n o it c e t e

d Graham( 1916:60 .)

f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T ‘t fh ’ ie and‘robbery’:

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Thief Robbery

y l n e p o s k c a tt

A - +

e c r o f y b y tr e p o r p y a w a s e k a

T - +

n o it c e t e d w a l f o r a e

F + -

w a l f o e c n e l o i

V + +

h tl a e t s g n i o

D + -

e c n e l o i v s y o l p m

E + +

s w o h s e v o b a e l b a t e h

T tha t‘robber ’and t‘hief ’have the same semantic

. w a l e h t e c n e l o i v d n a s e it r e p o r p y d o b e m o s e k a t o t n o it c a n a h c i h w s e r u t a e f

. n o it c a e c n e li s r o h tl a e t s y b ’ f e i h t‘ t u b e c r o f y b y tr e p o r p y a w a s e k a t ’ r e b b o R ‘

r e b b o r ‘ t u b n o it c e t e d w a l f o d i a r f a e r o m s i ’ f e i h T

‘ ’doe sno.t

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich w ere taken

(41)

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

: s w o ll o f

 Du irng the night ,when al lwere asleep ,some thieves had entered the f o s d e r d n u h e m o s f o e u l a v e h t o t s l e w e j d n a e t a l p n e l o t s d n a , e s u o h

) 0 6 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (. s d n u o p

 Travelersi n t hemountain o f tIaly are frequenlty stopped by Robber ,and r

i e h t ll a f o d e p p ir t

s propetry.( Graham,1916:60)

e h t n o n o i s n e h e r p m o c s ’t n e d u t s f o s s e n t c e r r o c e h t f o t l u s e r e h t s i % 2 . 8 6

d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s ‘robber ’and t‘hief’ .Wtih the resul tthe wrtie rcan conclude

e v a h s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o l l a t o n t a h

t a competence i n dfiferenitate ‘robber-thief .’

The data nc ea b concluded tha t belong ot ‘sufifcient’ because mos t o fthe

e d n o p s e

r nt sunderstandt henuance sof‘ robber-thief.’

.

g Talen tandGenius

s u i n e

G i ssrtongben toft hemind t o someoccupaitoni nwhich t hef acutly

. d e y o l p m e y lf e i h c s i n o it a n i g a m i f

o Genius o irginates i deas ,create snew forms ,

. s n o i s s e r p x e w e

n Talenti semployed i n reducing t o pracitce t he i dea so fothers .

t n e l a

T imtiate s fatihfully, copie s correclty , evolve s diilgenlty bu t o irginate s

n I . g n i h t o

n geniusthei maginaitoni sprominen ltyexercised,i ntalentthememory ,

.) 3 6 : 6 1 9 1 ( m a h a r G

g d n a t n e l a t‘ f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T enius’:

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Talent Genius

d e y o l p m e n o it a n i g a m

I - +

n o i s s e r p x e d n a s m r o f w e n , a e d i s e t a n i g ir

O - +

a e d i s ’ r e h t o g n i c it c a r

P + -

d n a y lt c e r r o c s e i p o c , y ll u f h ti a f s e t a ti m I

y lt n e g il i d s e v l o v

e + -

d e s i c r e x e t n e n i m o r

P - +

y r o m e m n i g n o rt

(42)

il s i s u i n e g d n a t n e l a t n e e w t e b t n e r e f fi d e h

T e son t hecreaitoni dea ;talent

d n a m r o f w e n , a e d i w e n e t a n i g ir o n a c ’ s u i n e G ‘ . a e d i s ’r e h t o e c it c a r p o t e r o m s i

x

e pressionbu t t‘alent ’cannot . t‘alent ’ha sas rtongmemory.

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich were taken

a h a r G F . G m o r

f m andt hedfiferencebetweent hoset woword scanbeunderstood

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

: s w o ll o f

 Napoleon Bonapatre wa sone o fthe greates tmlitiary geniuses tha teve r s e it i n u tr o p p o e l b a r o v a f t s o m e h t h c i h w n i e m it a t a n r o b s a w e h d n a d e v il

s i h f o y a l p s i d e h t r o

f talentwereaffordedhim(.Graham,1916:63) f

o t l u s e r e h

T studen’t scomprehension based on the data o frespondent s

lt c e r r o c e n o d e v a h h c i h

w yand68.2%o f85r espondent sarethet ota lcorrec toft he

t n e l a t‘ s d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s -genius.’Fromt hedatacanbeconcluded tha tbelong to

‘suf ifcient ’because mos to fthe respondent sunderstand the nuance so f t‘alent

-genius.’

h. T do ivideandTos eparate.

o t g n i d r o c c

A Graham ( 1916:78) ,to divideist o cuti n patrs ;toseparate si

t e y d n a d e d i v i d e b y a m s t c e j b O . r e h t o h c a e m o r f e c n a t s i d a t a s tr a p e s o h t e c a l p o t

. r e h t o h c a e m o r f d e v o m e r e b t s u m y e h t d e t a r a p e s e b o t ,r a e

n Divisionsarenatural ,

s n o it a r a p e

s om reviolent .Therecanno tbeaseparaitonwtihou tadivision,t hough

(43)

f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T ‘t do ivide’ and‘ t s o eparate’:

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Todivide Tos eparate

m r e t c ir e n e

G + -

m r e t c if i c e p

S - +

e r o

M natural + -

t n e l o i v e r o

M - +

s tr a p n i t u c o

T + -

e c n a t s i d a t a t r a p e s o h t e c a l p o

T - +

l a r u t a n e r o m s i ’ e d i v i d ‘ t a h t e d u l c n o c n a c r e ti r w e h t , e v o b a e l b a t e h t m o r F

e m o s e c a l p o t y a w a s i ti d n a e c n e l o i v e r o m s i ’ e t a r a p e s ‘ e s u a c e b ’ e t a r a p e s ‘ n a h t

t r a

p toanothe rpar to fdistance.

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich w ere taken

t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r

f hedfiferencebetweent hoset woword scanbeunderstood

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

: s w o ll o f

 Englandi sseparatedfromFrancebyt heEngilsh )

8 7 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (. l e n n a h C

 TheRive rRhinedividesFrancet oGermany(.Graham,1916:78) f

o t l u s e r e h

T studen’t scomprehension based on the data o frespondent s

lt c e r r o c e n o d e v a h h c i h

w yand50.6%o f85respondent sarethet ota lcorrec to fthe

d n a e d i v i d o t‘ s d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s to separate’ .From t he datacan beconcluded

g n o l e b t a h

t t ‘o insufifcient’ because some o fthe respondent sunderstand the

e d i v i d o t‘ f o s e c n a u

(44)

i .WordandTerm

A word i sacombinaiton ofl etter sconveyingan i dea .A termi saspecie s

. n o it i s o p o r p a f o e t a c i d e r p e h t r o t c e j b u s e h t e d a m h c i h w d r o w y n a s i ti ; d r o w f o

d e s u e r a y e h t n e h w , s m r e t e r a ) d o o m e v it i n if n i e h t n i( s e v it c e j d a d n a s b r e v , s n u o N

r o s t c e j b u s e h t s

a the predicate so fproposiitons .In the proposiiton , t’he wind

f o t c e j b o e h T . s m r e t h t o b e r a s w o l b d r o w e h t d n a ’ d n i w ‘ d r o w e h t , ’ s w o l b

o t s ti m il t c a x e e h t w o h s d n a s m r e t f o g n i n a e m e s i c e r p e h t n w o d y a l o t s i g n i n if e d

e h T . d n e t x e y e h t h c i h

w word term i spropelry appiled in deifning .I ti sonly to

s m r e

t tha twecanapplyadeifniiton ,Graham( 1916:69 .)

W f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T ord ’and‘ Te ’: rm

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S word Term

m r e t c ir e n e

G + -

m r e t c if i c e p

S - +

e g a u g n a l f o t i n

U + +

e g a u g n a l f o e p y t r a l u c it r a

P - +

g n i n if e d n i d e il p p

A - +

n e tt ir w r o d i a s s i t a h t g n i h t e m o

S + +

t‘ d n a ’ d r o W

‘ erm’i st heuni tofl anguagebu t t‘erm’i smoret oparitcula r

e r a ’ m r e t‘ d n a ’ d r o w ‘ f o h t o B . g n i n if e d n i d e il p p a e h t d n a e g a u g n a l f o e p y t

n e tt ir w r o d i a s s i t a h t g n i h t e m o

s meaningt os ay‘ word’i spar to f t‘erm’

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich w ere taken

t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r

f hedfiferencebetweent hoset woword scanbeunderstood

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

(45)

 Theuseoft hewordministeri sbrough tdownt ot hel tiera lsigniifcaitono f e r a l a ir e t s i n i m d n a e li v r e s , r e t s i n i m o t d n a e v r e s o t w o n r o f t n a v r e s a , ti

m r e

t equivalen.t( Graham,1916:70)

n e d u t s f o s s e n t c e r r o c e h t f o t l u s e r e h t s i % 2 . 8

4 ’t scomprehension on t he

t‘ d n a ’ d r o w ‘ d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s erm’ .Wtiht hatr esul twecanknowt ha tno tal lo f

e v a h s t n e d n o p s e r e h

t a competence in dfiferen itate ‘word-term .’ The wrtier can

g n o l e b t a h t e d u l c n o

c t ‘ lio f ’ a because some o fthe respondent sunderstand the

‘ f o s e c n a u

n word-t mer .’

j .Toexpec tandTohope

e

W expectwha twet hink wli lprobablyoccur .Wehopewha twesrtongly

s i ti t u b n i a p s u e v i g l li w h c i h w e c n e r r u c c o n a t c e p x e y a m e W . n e p p a h o t e ri s e d

y l e r e m s d r a g e r n o it a t c e p x E . e c n e r r u c c o n a h c u s r o f e p o h o t e r u t a n n a m u h n i t o n

b a e e r g a g n i e b r i e h t o t e c n e r e f e r y n a t u o h ti w , s t n e v e e r u t u f f o n o it a p i c it n a e h

t leo r

. e s i w r e h t

o Hopei salway saccompaniedwtihpleasureandi semployedupont hose

d e d n e tt a e b o t y l e k il e r a h c i h w s t n e v

e wtih graitifcaiton to ourselves ,Graham

.) 0 8 : 6 1 9 1 (

t‘ f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T oexpect’ and t‘ ho o ’: pe

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Toexpect Toho pe

m r e t c ir e n e

G + -

m r e t c if i c e p

S - +

n e p p a h l li w g n i h t e m o s e v e il e

B + -

n e p p a h o t e ri s e d y l g n o rt

S - +

e r u t u f f o n o it a p i c it n a e h t y l e r e m s d r a g e r

s t n e v

e + -

e r u s a e l p h ti w d e i n a p m o c c

(46)

l li w g n i h t e m o s e v e il e b s i ’ e p o h o t‘ d n a ’ t c e p x e o t‘ h t o

B happen bu tin

e r o m ’ e p o h

‘ srtong desrie than ‘expec’t . ‘hope ’ requ rie s o f a pleasure fo r

e ‘ t u b d e n e p p a h s a h g n i h t e m o

s xpec’t i smore regard smerely t he anitcipaiton o f

.s t n e v e e r u t u f

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich w ere taken

t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r

f hedfiferencebetweent hoset woword scanbeunderstood

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

: s w o ll o f

 Int hemiddleoft henigh,tt hes tormr agedwtihs uchviolence,t ha tnoneo f s

a p e h

t senger s expected the vesse l would outilve the )

0 8 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (. e l a g

 The fathe rhad hoped tha thi sson would occupy the same disitnguished )

0 8 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (. fl e s m i h s a n o i s s e f o r p s i h n i k n a r

o n o i s n e h e r p m o c s ’t n e d u t s f o s s e n t c e r r o c e h t f o t l u s e r e h t s i % 6 . 7

3 n t he

n a ’ t c e p x e o t‘ d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s d t‘ohope’ .Wtih t hatr esutlt hewrtiercanknow

t c e p x e o t‘ e t a it n e r e f fi d n i e c n e t e p m o c a e v a h s t n e d n o p s e r e h t f o l l a t o n t a h

t - to

.’ e p o

h Fromt hedatacanbeconcluded tha tbelongst o ‘ lif ’ a becausesomeoft he

s r e d n u s t n e d n o p s e

r tandt henuance so f t‘oexpec tandt ohope.’

.

2 Student’ sComprehensiononAcitve-PassiveSynonyms

.

a ReasonandCause

, ) 4 4 1 : 6 1 9 1 ( m a h a r G o t g n i d r o c c

A reason i san acitve, cause i sapassive

. m r e

t Reason arel ogical ,causes are natural .Reasonsarefo racitons ,causes rfo

. s g n i h

(47)

c d n a n o s a e r f o s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T ause’:

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Reason Cause

e v it c

A + -

e v i s s a

P - +

l a c i g o

L + -

l a r u t a

N - +

Astatef o racitons + +

s g n i h t r o f e t a t s

A - +

t n e d i v e r o n e d d i

H - +

e s l a f r o e u r

T + -

r ‘ t a h t s w o h s e v o b a n m u l o c e h

T eason ’i sa logica lo fa state fo raciton s

d n

a i tdepend son rtueorf alse.‘ cause’i smorenatura lo fastatef ort hing sand i t

s

i hiddeno reviden.t

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich were taken

t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r

f hedfiferencebetweent hoset woword scanbeunderstood

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which i sa s

: s w o ll o f

 Though Ihave had many conversaiton swtih him on the subject ,he ha s a

n g i s s a o t e l b a n e e b t e y r e v e

n reason o rrejecitng hi sforme rview sand )

5 4 1 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (. s n o i n i p o w e n s i h g n it p o d a

 The cause o f volcano erup iton s airse s from the combinaiton o f it

s u b m o

c ble mateiralsi nt hebowel sof t heeatrh which becoming i gntied , e h t f o e c a f r u s r e t u o e h t h g u o r h t t n e v a d n if d n a e d o l p x e

) 5 4 1 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G (. e b o l g

f o t l u s e r e h

T studen’t scomprehension based on the data o frespondent s

lt c e r r o c e n o d e v a h h c i h

w yand95.3%o f85r espondent sarethet ota lcorrec toft he

c d n a n o s a e r ‘ s d r o w s u o m y n o n y

s ause.’ From the data can be concluded tha t

o t s g n o l e

b ‘verygood’ becausemos toft her espondent sunderstandt henuance so f

c d n a n o s a e r

(48)

.

b Toea tandTof eed

, ) 7 5 1 : 6 1 9 1 ( m a h a r G o t g n i d r o c c

A to eat i s the ac t o f taking in

, t n e m h s ir u o

n tof eedist heac to fdeirvingnou irshment .Byeaitngwebecomef ed .

t a h w y b s a k n ir d e w t a h w y b h c u m s a d e f e r a e W . d e f e r a y e h t ,t a e t o n n a c s t n a f n I

.t a e e w

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e s e h

T o f t‘oeat ’and t‘of eed :’

s e r u t a e f c it n a m e

S Toeat Tof eed

e v it c

A + -

e v i s s a

P - +

t n e m h s ir u o n g n i k a

T + -

t n e m h s ir u o n g n i v ir e

D - +

h t u o m e h t n i d o o f t u p o

T + +

l a m i n a r o n o s r e p a o t d o o f e v i g o

T - +

t‘o ea’t i san acitvef orm and tii san aciton oft akingnou irshmen tand t o

o o f t u

p d i n t hemouth,i tdfiferst o t‘of eed ’becausei tmoredeirvingnou irshmen t

.l a m i n a r o n o s r e p a o t d o o f e v i g o t d n a

e l p m a x e e h t e r a w o l e b a t a d e h

T s o fthose two word swhich ew er taken

t d n a m a h a r G F . G m o r

f hedfiferencebetweent hoset woword scanbeunderstood

e r o c s n o i s n e h e r p m o c r i e h t y b d e v o r p s i t I . s t n e d u t s e h t y b y lr a e l

c which is sa

: s w o ll o f

 Theelephan tcouldno thaver eachedt hegroundwtihou thi sproboscis ;or , e

v a h t h g i m e h t a h t d e s o p p u s e b t i

fi eatupon t hef rui,t l eaves ,o rbranche s )

7 5 1 : 6 1 9 1 , m a h a r G ( ? k n ir d o t e h s a w w o h , s e e rt f o

 A t ifveo’clock i n t heatfernoon ,abelli sr ungi n t heZoologica lGardens , o t g n i o g e r a s r e p e e k e h t t a h t s r o ti s i v e h t o t e c it o n e v i g o t , k r a P s ’t n e g e R

d e e

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