Mark twain`s criticism on the english nobles` life in the 16th century in the prince and the puper - USD Repository
MARK TWAIN’S CRITICISM ONTH
THE ENGLISH NOBLES’ LIFE IN THE 16 CENTURY IN
THE PRINCE AND THE PAUPER
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
Student Number: 03 1214 104
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
Statement of Work’s Originality
I honestly declare that this thesis which I wrote does not contain the works or part of the works of other people, except those cited in the quotations and bibliography, as a scientific paper should.
Yogyakarta, August 13 , 2007 The writer
“Is life worth living? This is a question for anembryo, not a man.” Samuel Butler (1835-1902) British writer, painter, and musician
“Lif e is n ot a burden that makes us feel thatwe have to struggle because of it. But, Life is a bless i ng that we have to struggle for it.”
Pras I dedicated this thesis to everybody who struggles in search of truth for their life and others.
First, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to my Lord Jesus Christ for His great blessing, His guidance, His protection and His will, all the things that I need in my life so that I can pass every moment of my life nicely. He has given me love, strength and spirit through the people surrounds me. He also has given me strength and spirit so I can finish my thesis. Without His blessing I could never have finished my thesis.
I would like to express my great gratitude to my lovely parents, my father Yohanes Gatot Prasetya Kuntjara and my mother Maria Mimin Mujiwiyani, for their love, attention, trust and understanding, and support to me. I also would like to thank them for giving me a chance to know the beauty of the world; it means a lot for me. My special thanks go to my two little brothers, Andre and Fran, who have made my life more colorful with their presence and love. I also would like to thank my wonderful friend, Niken, for her love, understanding, patience and spirit, including the spirit that helps me finish my thesis.
I would like to express my special gratitude to my major-sponsor Henny Herawati, S. Pd., M. Hum., and my co-sponsor Drs. L. Bambang Hendarto Y., M.
Hum., for their patience, attention and time, guidance, suggestion, corrections and encouragement that helps me much in finishing my thesis. I also would like to thank all my lectures in English Education Study Program for the knowledge and skills of English, and also the lesson of life that they gave to me.
I would like to thank the people that support me much, my closest friends Sonny, and Robert for their amazing friendship during my life in Yogyakarta, my best friends in campus Haryo, Vendi, Febri, Galih, An, and Dudi for their support, and their help they have given to me during my study, my play-mates Mas Danis, Mas Dewan, and Anton for the good time in Yogyakarta. I also would like to thank the late pak Muryono who allowed me to live in this comfortable boarding house.
Finally, I would like to thank everybody who I cannot mention one by one for their help in my life in Yogyakarta and for their help in my study and especially in finishing my thesis. Everything that they gave to me means so much to me. May all His blessing, His guidance, and His protection be with them.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i PAGES OF APPROVAL ii STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY iv PAGE OF DEDICATION v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vi TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A.
1 Background of the Study B.
4 Problem Formulation C.
4 Objectives of the Study D.
4 Benefits of the Study E.
5 Definition of the Terms
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A.
7 Review of Related Theories 1.
7 Critical Approaches 2.
8 Setting 3.
9 Character and Characterization
11 Review of England in the 16 1.
11 The Society Systems
12 King Henry VIII (1491 - 1547)
14 King Edward Tudor VI(1537 - 53)
15 Queen Mary I (1516 - 1558) b.
16 The Law c.
16 The Society 2.
18 The Nobles a.
18 The Clothing b.
20 The Housing c.
20 The Food d.
21 The Life 3.
22 The Common People a.
22 The Clothing b.
23 The Housing c.
23 The Food d.
25 The Life 4.
26 Social Values a.
26 Monarchy b.
28 The English Poor Laws C.
29 Theoretical Framework
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A.
31 Subject Matter B.
31 Approach of the Study C.
32 Method of the Study
CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS A. Tom Canty’s Life and Prince Edward Tudor’s Life
Arbitrary and Tyrannous
Greedy and Cunning
Torturing Innocent People
Tom Canty’s Life
In the Palace
In the Offal Court
In the Palace
Prince Edward Tudor’s Life
Outside the Palace
Mark Twain’s Criticism on the Nobles’ life in the
16 th Century through Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty
Nobles’ Life Style
80 Nobles’ Ways of Governing a.
Ignoring the Common People’s Needs and Rights
85 Interfering the Church
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A.
87 Conclusions B.
89 Suggestions 1.
89 Suggestion for Future Researcher (s) 2.
Suggestion for the Teaching Reading II Using Literary Work
Prasetya, Ria. (2007) Mark Twain’s Criticism on the English Nobles’ Life in the
16 Century in The Prince and The Pauper. Yogyakarta: Faculty of
Teachers Training and Education, Department of Language and Arts Education, English Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University.
This thesis deals with Mark Twain’s criticism on the nobles’ life in the 16 century in Mark Twain’s The Prince and The Pauper. Mark Twain’s The Prince and The Pauper tells the adventure of the two young boys, Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty, who exchange their position. This novel describes the social life
of the common people in England in the 16 century, and reveals the nobles’ life
th in the 16 century.
In this thesis, there are two problems formulated that are going to be discussed related to the topic of this thesis. First is how Tom Canty’s life and Prince Edward Tudor's life are described in the novel. Second is how Mark Twain criticizes the English Nobles’ life through the characters of Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor.
Based on the two problems above, this study uses a library research to find out data. There are two kinds of sources in order to get the data used in this study; the primary data is the novel, The Prince and The Pauper, and the secondary data are from some books related to the theories and the internet. The books used as the secondary sources are books on theories of literature and books on history of England. While from the internet, the data are related to the biography of the
thwriter and the history of England in the 16 century.
The socio-historical approach is used in this study, in order to gain the
information about the society life of England in the 16 century. The theories of character and characterization are also used in this thesis to reveal the character traits of Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty. The theory of setting is used to reveal the setting of the story where the two main characters experience in.
Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor are two people born on the same day who are looked alike in physical appearance and they have similar character traits also. The two main characters who have a contrasting life backgrounds are experiencing a different life in their adventure, which reveals the English social
life. Mark Twain criticizes the English nobles’ life in the 16 Century in The Prince and The Pauper through the characters of Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor.
Mark Twain criticizes nobles’ life style, nobles’ manner, nobles’ cruelty and nobles’ ways of governing. He uses some ways to convey his criticism. First, Mark Twain conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life through Prince Edward Tudor. Mark Twain uses four ways in delivering his criticism through Prince Edward Tudor. He conveys his criticism through Prince Edward’s manner, Prince Edward’s opinion and speech, Prince Edward’s adventure outside palace and by describing the Reign of Edward VI. Second, Mark Twain conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life through Tom Canty. Mark Twain uses three ways in delivering his criticism through Tom Canty. He conveys his criticism through Tom Canty’s poor
In the last part of this thesis, there are two suggestions. The first is the suggestion for the next researcher(s) who will work on The Prince and The Pauper. The second is the suggestion for the teaching of Reading II using literary works.
Prasetya, Ria. (2007) Mark Twain’s Criticism on the English Nobles’ Life in the
16 Century in The Prince and The Pauper. Yogyakarta: Fakultas
Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Program Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Skripsi ini berhubungan dengan kritikan-kritikan Mark Twain pada kehidupan para bangsawan Inggris di abad 16 seperti yang tertuang dalam salah satu novel karya Mark Twain yaitu The Prince and The Pauper. Novel karyanya ini, The Prince and The Pauper, menceritakan kisah tentang petualangan dua anak laki-laki, Pangeran Edward Tudor dan Tom Canty, yang bertukar posisi satu sama lain. Novel ini menggambarkan keadaan kehidupan sosial rakyat jelata di Inggris pada abad XVI, dan mengungkapkan kehidupan para bangsawan pada abad tersebut.
Dalam skripsi ini ada dua pertanyaan yang akan menjadi bahan diskusi berhubungan dengan topic skripsi ini. Pertama mengenai bagaimana kehidupan Tom Canty dan Pangeran Edward Tudor digambarkan dalam novel. Yang kedua mengenai bagaimana Mark Twain mengkritik kehidupan para bangsawan Inggris melalui Tom Canty dan Pangeran Edward Tudor.
Berdasarkan dua pertanyaan tersebut, pembahasan dalam skripsi ini menggunakan metode studi pustaka dalam pencarian data-data. Terdapat dua macam sumber yang dipakai untuk mendapatkan data yang dipakai dalam skripsi ini; sumber utama yaitu novel The Prince and The Pauper, dan sumber penunjang yaitu dari beberapa buku mengenai teori-teori dan dari internet. Buku-buku yang digunakan sebagai penunjang merupakan buku-buku mengenai teori-teori literature dan buku-buku mengenai sejarah Inggris. Sedangkan data-data yang berasal dari internet berhubungan dengan biografi pengarang dan sejarah Inggris pada abad 16.
Metode pendekatan sosial dan sejarah digunakan dalam studi ini dengan tujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi mengenai kehidupan sosial Inggris pada abad
16. Teori karakter dan karakterisasi juga digunakan dalam skripsi ini untuk membantu mengungkap sifat-sifat dari tokoh Pangeran Edward Tudor dan Tom Canty. Teori seting digunakan untuk mengungkap seting cerita dimana kedua tokoh utama mengalaminya.
Tom Canty dan Pangeran Edward Tudor adalah dua orang yang lahir di hari yang sama yang mempunyai keadaan fisik dan juga sifat-sifat yang sangat mirip. Kedua tokoh utama yang sesungguhnya mempunyai latar belakang kehidupan yang sangat berbeda mengalami kehidupan satu dengan yang lain dalam petualangan mereka, yang mengungkapkan kehidupan sosial di Inggris pada abad XVI. Kedua, Mark Twain mengkritik kehidupan para bangsawan Inggris di abad 16 seperti yang tertuang dalam The Prince and The Pauper melalui tokoh Tom Canty dan Pangeran Edward Tudor.
Mark Twain mengkritik para bangsawan antara lain gaya hidup mereka, sikap maupun tingkah laku mereka, kekejaman mereka, dan pemerintahan dari para bangsawan. Pertama, dia menggunakan tokoh Pangeran Edward Tudor. Pangeran Edward Tudor. Dia menyampaikannya melalui tingkah laku, pendapat dan perkataan, dan petualangan pangeran Edward Tudor diluar istana, serta dengan mengungkapkan keadaan pemerintahan dimasa Edward VI. Kedua, Mark Twain menggunakan tokoh Tom Canty. Dia menggunakan tiga cara dalam menyampaikan kritikannya melalui Tom Canty. Dia menyampaikannya melalui kehidupan miskin Tom Canty, pendapat dan perkataan Tom Canty, dan melalui petualangan Tom Canty didalam istana.
Pada bagian akhir dari skripsi ini, terdapat dua saran. Saran yang pertama diperuntukan bagi (para) peniliti selanjutnya yang akan menganalisa novel yang sama. Saran yang selanjutnya diperuntukan bagi pengajaran Reading II dengan menggunakan karya sastra.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In this chapter I would like to provide the background information of the
study. This chapter includes background of the study, problem formulation, objectives of the study, benefits of the study, and definition of the terms.
A. Background of the Study
Literature with its development already has produced a large number of literary works. There are so many kinds of literary works, such as poems, short stories, and longer stories which are usually called novels. The development of literature cannot be separated from the development of social life. Social life gives great contribution to the development of literature. That is why most of the literary works are affected by the social life.
One of the literary works which is affected by social life is Novel. In the nineteenth century, in some countries where the famous authors could be found, like in America, England, France, and others, the popular themes of most novels at that time were about royal families. The themes were influenced by the social background at that time, which mostly still dominated or had some inheritance of the life of royal families.
The history of England became one of the most popular themes in the literary works because the writers were aware of the wealth of the history of England. England and its history had inspired some writers to write their literary life at that time. The stories were about the kings, the princes and the knights who lived in the palace, and also the life of the common people itself.
In the 16 Century, the English Nobles lived in luxurious surroundings, had great authority, different from the life of the common people who did not have the luxury and authority. Therefore, the stories were about the life of the royal families and the life of the common people. Mostly the writers criticized the life of the royal families or the nobles’ life, because at that time the nobles often did the wrong things and lived inappropriately (Carter 61).
The nobles used their authority to fulfil their ambition to have a bigger territory and authority. They used all possible ways to achieve their goals, for example by oppressing the poor, slandering the rivals, and others. Therefore, it is reasonable that there were so many writers who were encouraged to criticize the nobles’ life. Earl of Warwick (John Dudley) is one of the nobles who lived in the reign of Edward VI. This nobleman represented the actual behavior of the nobles in the real life. Warwick attempted to increase his position by persuading Edward
VI to create him as Duke of Northumberland. He also slandered Duke of Somerset to get higher position as Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person. Duke of Somerset, Edward’s uncle, was in that position (Black 119).
One of the writers who was interested in the life in England and inspired by the life in England in the age of kings is Mark Twain. Mark Twain used the theme to criticize the social life, especially on the nobles’ life in the sixteenth century. One of his novels, entitled The Prince and the Pauper (1882), tells the life of English people both the royal families’ life and the common people’s life.
The Prince and the Pauper is one of Twain’s most strong thematic novels.
Thematically, Mark Twain was particularly interested in contrasting the life of the rich with the life of the poor, the life of the nobility with the life of the lower classes. The title of the novel “The Prince and the Pauper” itself shows a strong contrasting background of the two major characters, Edward Tudor and Tom Canty. The first chapter of the novel describes the births of the Prince and the Pauper:
…, Edward Tudor, Prince of Wales, who lay lapped in silks and satins, unconscious of this fuss, not knowing that great lords and ladies were tending him and watching over him-and not caring either. But there was no talk about the other baby, Tom Canty, lapped in his poor rags, except among the family of the paupers whom he had just come to trouble with his presence (2).
Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor are the main characters who are used by Mark Twain to criticize the English nobles. Edward Tudor is a prince, whose life has been extremely guarded and luxurious, while Tom Canty is a pauper, who comes from the lowest ranks of society and whose life has been very hard.
The setting of this novel is in England in the 16 century, in the reign of King Henry VIII. At that time, there was a big gap of the life of the nobles and the common people. In this novel, Mark Twain really wants to show the gap between the two major characters. Mark Twain presents the story of the prince and the pauper alternately. For example after he tells the story of the prince in a chapter or more then in the next chapter he switches to the story of the pauper and then back to the story of the prince again and so on. He describes how hard the condition of England in the novel where the nobles are also taking a part in that hard condition his criticism on the nobles’ life that causes a hard condition in England through the characters of Tom Canty and Edward Tudor.
B. Problem Formulation
The problem discussed in this study can be formulated in the two questions stated as follows:
1. How are Tom Canty’s life and Prince Edward Tudor's life described in the novel?
2. How does Mark Twain criticize the English Nobles’ life through the characters of Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor?
C. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to answer the two questions which are stated in the problem formulation. The first objective is to describe how Tom Canty’s life and Prince Edward Tudor's life in The Prince and the Pauper are. To find the answer of this question, the analysis will focus on the two major characters, Tom Canty and Prince Edward.
The second objective is to reveal how Mark Twain criticizes the English nobles’ life through the characters of Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor. To find the answer this study will focus on the Tom Canty’s and Prince Edward’s life.
D. Benefits of the Study
This study attempts to find out the meaningful value of life presented in them to have a better understanding of the story while reading this novel by considering the socio-historical background of the story. Therefore it can lead the readers to a better appreciation on the literary works.
For other readers or researchers who conduct a study on the same novel, this study can be used as a reference. So, other researchers who will conduct a literary study can use the result of this study as a consideration in the future works in literature.
This study is also expected to be useful for the English students. Through this study, the students may have a better understanding about the story and the values of life that can be portrayed. This study also can help them in learning the English culture, so that the students can increase their comprehension about the English culture.
This study also gives benefits to me as the thesis writer; this study gives me meaningful values of life and new knowledge of the English culture and its history. Therefore that new knowledge helps me to have better understanding on this novel and better appreciation of the literary works.
E. Definition of the Terms
In this part I would like to clarify some important terms, to avoid misunderstanding. I would like to clarify two terms. The first is criticism and the second is nobles.
1. Criticism The first term is criticism. Wikipedia’s critic defines “Criticism in general intended purposes, as opposed to the authoritarian command, which is meant as an absolute realization of the authority's will, thus not open for debate”. In other words, criticism is the activity of informed interpretation and almost exclusively refers to disagreement. However, in a literary context the term criticism usually refers to a judgement which attempts to understand the aesthetic object in depth.
2. Nobles The second term is Nobles. Noble means a class of hereditary who acquired their rank through holding a high state office (Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc.). In other words, noble means a class of high rank people who hold a high state they acquired their rank by inheritance since their birth or by their services to the King or their country. According to Tregidgo (73), “The government of Britain has for many centuries been shared by three supreme authorities: the Monarch (i.e. the King or Queen), the Lords (i.e. the hereditary nobility), and the Common (i.e. ordinary people)”. In this context, the nobles are the people who are described by Tregidgo in the first and the second social classes; they are the Monarch and the Lords.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this chapter I would like to discuss all theories that will be the basis of
analyzing the novel. This chapter covers review of related theories, review on
th England in the 16 Century, and theoretical framework.
A. Review of Related Theories 1. Critical Approaches
In exploring certain literary works and having a better appreciation to the works, Rohrberger and Woods Jr. (6-15) offer five approaches. They are the formalist approach, the biographical approach, the sociocultural-historical approach, the mythopoeic approach, and the psychological approach.
The formalist approach concentrates on the importance to comprehend the total integrity of the literary object. Esthetic value is the main concern. The critics try to demonstrate the harmonious involvement of all the parts to the whole by pointing out how meaning is derived from structure and how matters of technique determine structure. The biographical approach is used when an appreciation of the idea and personality of the author is intended to an understanding the literary work. Therefore, when we are using biographical approach we are expected to learn as much as possible the life of the author and to apply this knowledge to understand the writing. The sociocultural-historical approach insist that the only way to locate the real work is in reference to the civilization as the attitudes and attitudes and actions as its subject matter. The mythopoeic approach is used to discover certain universally recurrent patterns of human thought, which they believe that they find some expression insignificant works of art. The psychological approach involves effort to locate and demonstrate certain recurrent patterns. This approach leads to the exploration of the unconscious area of the human mind, which led to the conclusion that it was this area that was the wellspring of man rich imagination, his capacity for creation and the complexity of his thought, behavior, and that the contents of his region of the mind found expression in symbolic words, thoughts, and actions.
According to Robert and Jacob (191) setting refers to “the natural and artificial scenery or environment in which characters in literature live and move”.
In studying the setting of story, according to Robert and Jacobs (191), our first concern should be to discover all the details that conceivably form a part of setting, and then to determine how the author has used these details. Robert and Jacobs propose the six uses of setting: The first concerns setting and credibility, which lead to realism or verisimilitude to make the action credible. The second concerns setting and statement, in which the author makes statements much as a painter uses certain images as ideas in a painting. The third concerns setting and character, which are designed to help to shape readers’ ideas of characters. The fourth concerns setting and organization of which the goal is to move a character from one setting to another. The fifth concerns setting and atmosphere, which are present as an element of concurrence, agreement, reinforcement, and strengthening of character and theme. In other words, the setting may create an environment that is the opposite of what actually occurs in the story.
Kenney (41) divides setting into two types. The first is neutral setting, which refers to nothing but the setting itself and it does not influence the characters and the plot of the story. The second is spiritual setting which has special characteristics that differ from other settings. According to Kenney, spiritual setting includes “the value embodied in or implied by physical setting”. This kind of setting is not only a physical setting but also its custom, tradition, faith and value. Therefore in this study the second type of setting is applied because it includes the custom, tradition that can affect the character.
3. Character and Characterization
Character, according to Abrams (20), means “an imagined person who inhabits a story and it shows a distinctive type of person”. The second meaning is “all the mental or behavior traits of a person; the sum of psychological traits” English (83). While according to Stanton (17), the term of character may refer to two meanings. The first meaning of character is the individual who appears in the story. The second meaning of character is the description of attitude, interest, desires, emotion, and moral principle of individuals.
Henkle (88-100) divides the character into two kinds of characters, the major and the secondary or minor character, in order to distinguish between those of prominence in the novel. The major character not only deserves the fullest meaning that build the expectation and desires, which in modification shift the values upon the major character. On the other hand, the minor character performs more limited functions less complex than the major character, and presents what is only one side of the experience. The minor character function is as foils to support the major character.
Van Spruiell and Abend’s Theory of Character states that character represents “the regularities in one person's behavior as observed by another, a pattern of related activities”. It thus represents “the singularity or uniqueness of a person, and hence his predictability”. In another sense character represents “a type of person, hence the placement of an individual in a group of supposedly like individuals”. In both senses, character arises in the mind of the observer.
While characterization, according to Baldick (34), is the presentation of persons in narrative and dramatic works. This may include direct methods like the attribution of qualities in description or commentary, and indirect (or dramatic) methods that invite readers to infer qualities from characters’ action, speech or appearance.
Robert and Jacob (56) have four different ways to convey the information about the characters in fiction. First is what the characters themselves say and think. In this method the author expresses the character traits through what she/he says, whenever she/he speaks, whenever she/he is in conversation with another character, and whenever she/he gives opinions and ideas. Second is what the character does. Here, the author gives readers an insight into the character through the action of the character in the story. The third is what other character says about the eyes and opinion of another. The last is what the author says about them. In using this way the author speaks as a storyteller or an observer. The author describes the characters directly.
B. Century Review of England in the 16
It is important to review the historical background of The Prince and the
Pauper in analyzing this novel in order to have a better understanding of the novel.
It is related to the socio-historical context of England in the reign of King Henry
VIII in the 16 century. This part contains of the society systems, the nobles, the common people and the social values.
1. The Society Systems a. The Government
Chrimes (11) states that the Government of England officially and legally is His Majesty’s Government (the king and the crown). Therefore, Tregidgo (73) describes that the government of Britain had for many centuries been shared by three supreme authorities: the Monarch (i.e. the King or Queen), the Lords (i.e. the hereditary nobility), and the Common (i.e. ordinary people). The monarch, according to the hierarchy, consisted of the king, the queen and the prince. The title of prince belonged to the king's eldest son, who was called Prince of Wales. The king's younger sons were called after their names, like Lord Henry or Lord Edward.
While the Lords, according to the hierarchy, consisted of the dukes, the the monarch or come to that honour by being the eldest sons or highest in succession to their parents. For the eldest son of a duke during his father's life was an earl, the eldest son of an earl was a baron, or sometimes a viscount. The monarch got their original donation and condition of the honour for good service done by the first ancestor.
The nobles have great influence to the government. According to Wikipedia’s Nobility, in many countries the nobility dominated great social and political importance. Therefore it also happened in England, that the English Government was dominated by the nobles until the twentieth century, with no
exception it also happened in the 16 century. In the 16 century, the nobles not only have influence in political and social aspects, but also in the religion aspect.
There were a lot of noblemen who tried to influence the government’s policy. Carrie’s England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century states about the Duke of Northumberland’s policy which arranged to move English policy in a more Protestant direction. In the reign of Edward Tudor VI, John Dudley (Earl of Warwick) represents the actual behavior of the nobles in the real life. Jeremy Black in A New History of England states:
The Crucial new figure was John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, who became Lord President of the Council 1550-1553, and Duke of Northumberland in 1551. A member of Henry VIII’s service nobility, he was representative of general aristocratic views on economic regulation and social policy, in being uninterested in either (119).
Duke of Northumberland tried to influence the government policy not only in political and social aspects, but also in religion aspect.
1) King Henry VIII (1491 - 1547)
Henry VIII, the second monarch of the House of Tudor, ruled England from 1509 until his death. Henry VIII was the second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Many significant pieces of legislation were made during Henry
VIII's reign, including the several Acts which separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church (Morgan 240-7).
Henry and Parliament finally threw off England’s allegiance to Rome in an unsurpassed burst of revolutionary statute-marking: the Act of Annates (1532), the Act of Appeals (1533), the Act of Supremacy (1534), the First Act of Succession (1534), the Treasons Act (1534), and the Act against the Pope’s Authority (1536). The act of Appeals proclaimed Henry VIII’s new imperial status—all English jurisdiction, both secular and religious, now sprang from the king—and abolished the pope’s right to decide English ecclesiastical cases. The Act of Supremacy declared that the king of England was supreme head of the Ecclesia Anglicana, or Church of England—not the pope (Morgan 246-7).
There were a lot of people who disagreed towards the Act of Supremacy, which established related to the Roman Catholic Church law about his divorce, and those people were cruelly executed. “The victims of the act, who were in reality martyrs to Henry’s vindictive egoism, were cruelly executed in the summer of 1535” (Morgan 247). Henry forced the clergy to admit his position in the English church.
Henry, however, ordered the clergy to make explicit admission that they had broken the law and that their gift was offered for a royal pardon of their offence. They were also told to style the King ‘Protector and Supreme Head of the English Church and Clergy’. Opinion in convocation was divide, but eventually a compromise formula was accepted, in which the clergy acknowledged the king as ‘their singular protector, only and supreme lord, and, as far as the law of Christ allows, even Supreme Head’ (Lockyer 55).
Henry were described as a king who was very autocratic in temper and high-handed in methods, and were not shy, on occasions, of straining and even perverting the law in order to get his own objectives (Chrimes 120). Kent McCroskey’s English Occupation states that he was a king who is infamous for his cruelty. Henry, the greatest nobleman in his reign, liked to spend his time for his own pleasure. “During the first years of his reign, Henry VIII seemed willing to devote himself to enjoyment, spending freely the hard-won treasure of his father.
He seemed content in those early days to let others govern for him…” (England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century).
Wikipedia’s Lady Jane Grey describes that Henry VIII’s policies actually were also affected by his own noblemen. No wonder, several Protestant nobles had become wealthy when Henry VIII closed the Catholic monasteries and divided the Church's assets among his supporters. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, figured prominently among the Protestant nobility.
2) King Edward Tudor VI (1537 - 53)
Edward ruled England at the age of nine from 1547 to 1553. He was the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. He was the third monarch of the House of Tudor and England's first ruler who was Protestant. Edward's council was first led by his uncle, Edward Seymour, the Duke of Somerset who also served as his ‘Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person’ (Lockyer 107-20). Then the Duke of Somerset was sent to prison by John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, who wanted his position. “Somerset was allowed to retain his authority. Northumberland, fearing his influence, caused him to be arrested at the council board. He was tried, condemned, for treason, and executed” (Carter 61).
Edward VI ruled in a short time, he died on 6 July 1553 at the age of fifteen. While the Duke of Northumberland wanted to prolong his position and his influence in the England government. He persuaded the King in the name of God to take Lady Jane Grey who was also a Protestant as his successor. Therefore, actually Lady Jane Grey was ordered to marry Northumberland’s fourth son (Lockyer 120).
3) Queen Mary I (1516 - 1558)
Mary brought to her throne in 1553 in the age of thirty- seven after the dead of Edward VI. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. The opening of her reign was marked with the execution of the Duke of Northumberland, Lady Jane Grey and her husband (Lockyer 121-2).
Morgan (260) states that Mary got the throne of England because of she cheated by executing Lady Jane Grey.
Mary tried to turn England Church back to Roman Catholic Church. This effort was carried out by force, and hundreds of people were executed, that is why she was called ‘The Bloody Mary’.
Between February 1555 and November 1558 just under three hundred men and women were burnt for heresy. The punishment of death by burning was appallingly cruel one, but it was not this that shocked contemporaries—after all, in an age that knew nothing of anaesthetics, a great deal of pain had to be endured by everybody at one time or another, and the taste for public executions, bear-baiting and cock-fighting suggests a callousness that blunted susceptibilities (Lockyer.127).
Many of them who were executed were common people. “The list of martyrs under Mary includes only nine who were described as gentlemen. Just over a quarter of those burned were in holy orders; the rest came from the lower levels of English society, and included weavers, fullers, shearman, tailors, hosiers, cappers, husbandmen, labourers, brewers and butchers” (Lockyer.127). Some of the gentlemen were the Protestant Leader. Queen Mary died in 1558 after she spent long time in coma in her palace of St. James.
b. The Law
Law was tribal custom, or folkright, to which the king was subordinate in every respect, as any other member of the folk. He might, and on occasion did, find it necessary to declare, with the express or tacit assent of the ‘wise man’ of his realm (the witan), what the law was on certain points, and even to commit such declarations to writing. (Chrimes 73).
th In the 16 century, the English Law strongly depended on the King.
According to Carrie’s England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century, the king established the royal council and the Parliament. The king also could call his council and Parliament on special occasions or according to the king's pleasure. Then, the royal council and the parliament were in charge in determining the policy in England, including the laws, while it was also strictly depended on the king or by the king’s permission.
c. The Society
The English monarchy, like other contemporary monarchies, had ruled well by a strong and capable king. King Henry VII was not only strong and capable, but he was also a hardworking. Some surviving documents which related to his business of administration. His chief instrument of government was the royal council, which had in the fifteenth century been dominated by the nobles and was consequently ineffective. But the tradition had a little bit broken down after the end of the reign of Henry VII. The successor, King Henry VIII was a king who seemed willing to devote himself to enjoyment, and spending the treasure of his father. “Throughout the first half of his reign he devoted his days to hunting and his nights to feasting and love, content to leave routine administration and the formulation of policy to Wolsey” (Lockyer 33).
In his reign, it seemed that Henry VIII let others govern for him while he wasted his time on pleasure (England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century).
Henry VIII only showed his desire on adventure, including on military adventure and he was also willing to be involved in the complicated diplomatic relationships of the Continental powers which violated the policy
On the other hand, when talking about the common people, it is clearly understood that they were dominated by the poor. Life of the poor was very hard.
Chrimes (63) states the common people or His Majesty’s subjects possessed no guarantees of freedom. The ‘rights of man’ were not guaranteed, nor even mentioned anywhere in English constitutional law. Therefore, the government in Tudor England became very concerned about the poor, because there were a lot more than the rich. Chrimes (64) states “the secret of English liberty rests on the fact that any subjects is entirely free to do what he likes and to say what he likes, provided only that he does not thereby break the law as it exists at any time”. His Majesty’s citizen or the common people had duties as well as rights. It was the duty of every citizen to contribute in overcoming the disorder, if they were called to do so by any lawfully constituted authority (Chrimes 66).
The common inhabitant lived in poverty. They were used too little food and to saving extra bits of food. They had one set of rags that he wears until they fall apart. They expected to take care of themselves and to do things for themselves. They slept quite comfortably on straw, tossed in a pile on the floor.
Tudor statesmen did not have to be told about the problems caused by agrarian change. Most of them were themselves landowners, and in London itself, the seat of government, the population was swelling rapidly as the beggars came to town. The stability of the Tudor state was threatened by these hunger marchers, and the government tried to stop them moving. An Act of 1495 ordered that vagabonds were to be sent back to their native parishes, and in 1501 the Justices of the Peace were made responsible for seeing that this was carried out (Lockyer 137-138).
The poor were divided into three groups by the government. The first were called the ‘Impotent’ Poor. These would include the old, the sick, the disabled and children. The second group was called the Able Bodied Poor. This group would include the people who could work and wanted to work. Each member was meant to build a workhouse. The third group was known as Rogues and Vagabonds. This was a group which is targeted by the government, because this group consisted of people who could work but preferred to beg or steal (Lockyer 137-8) 2.
The Nobles a. The Clothing th
The noblewomen in the 16 century generally wore kind of clothes that covered them completely. The corset or the top part of the gown was generally was often some type of high collar. There were some ruffles in the women’s clothes. The collar that extends to the chin and usually would ruffle at the top.
The sleeves were usually full from the shoulder to the elbow and then more tight from the elbow to the wrist. At the wrist the sleeves would open wide into a large ruffle. The gown usually contained a v-shaped point at the waistline and then expanded into a sort of funnel shape reaching the ground.
The shoes which the women wore at the beginning period were not important because the gown usually reached down to the floor; the shoes often were almost not seen. They were used to wear some accessories. As for jewelry,
many women in the 16 century wore large pendants or medallion of gold around their necks. The richer or the higher of the rank also could be seen from the accessories, as in the used of the earrings. Earrings were not very common except among the very rich, who would wear pearls for their earrings. Many women in this period also would choose the small jeweled caps or hat that decorated with jewels, pearls, or lace (Fashions: Women and Men).
thWhile the noblemen in the 16 century, according to Christmon’s.
Fashions: Women and Men, wore embroidered shirts called jerkins, which had square shoulders and buttons down the front. The sleeves were often decorated and not as tight as the sleeves in the women’s clothes. The sleeves would fit all the way to the wrists. The pants were a little bit shaggy and about three to four inches higher above the knee. They were also used the stockings in their feet.
The shoes of the men were generally made from fine leather. The shoes were contained a small leather heel and were often decorated with slashes. The was covered by fine fabric or feathers. Some of the more distinguished or high rank men wore small capes with big-edged collars. The men also wore some kind of short perfumed gloves (Fashions: Women and Men).
b. The Housing
Halsall’s Of The Manner Of Building And Furniture Of Our Houses states the houses of the nobles usually were made from brick, hard stone and timber.
The ancient houses of the monarch were made by strong timber. The houses would contain some large rooms which usually were made by either of brick or hard stone, or both. The office of the nobles was usually a little bit far from their home or their lodgings. The office and the house of the nobles were likewise wrought with brick and hard stone, as provision may best be made. It was so magnificent and stately as the house of a baron often matches in their days with some honours of the monarch in old time.
There were a lot of furniture in the noblemen's houses. The common furniture in the nobles’ house were arras, rich hangings of tapestry, silver vessels, and so much other plate as may furnish various cupboards (Of The Manner Of Building And Furniture Of Our Houses).
c. The Food th
Christmon’s Banquets and Feasts states that food in the 16 century could be regarded as the center of development of a society. In spite of showing the prosperity, it also was showing the royalty and peasantry among society.
Halsall’s Of The Food And Diet Of The English describes in the sixteenth century, the banquets that were eaten by the nobles were so big. Generally they employed so many servants, even for the oddest job tasks, for example the servants were asked to get fresh bread and replace it with the old bread that had gotten stale during the meal. Only the royal and the wealthy family in those days could afford to have such a feast. Their food also consisted principally of beef, and such meat as the butcher sold like mutton, veal, lamb, pork etc. In daily they also brought the bread made of wheat to the table, whereof the first and most excellent is the manchet, which commonly called white bread.
The beer that was used at noblemen's tables in their fixed and standing houses commonly a year old, or peradventure of two years' tuning or more; but this was not general. It was also brewed in March, and therefore called March beer. Their drink, whose force and continuance was partly touched already, was made of barley, water, and hops, sodden and mingled together, by the industry of our brewers in a certain exact proportion. In some places of England there was a kind of drink made of apples which they called cider or pomage, and there was a kind of drink that made of pears which they called perry. Both were grounded and pressed mechanically (Of The Food And Diet Of The English).
d. The Life
The Monarch and the Lords, in this study called as the nobles, lived in luxury. They used to devote their live for their own pleasure.
They needed as much money as they could lay their hands on, for they were addicted to conspicuous consumption. They built huge houses for
They were used to fine foods and magnificent clothing. They were used to being served on by hundreds of servants. They were used to being guarded and to giving commands that others obeyed quickly. They were used to sleeping in soft,
comfortable beds. In the 16 century, there were some people who owned large lands who rent them to other people, called landlords. Mostly the landlords were the nobles. They had traditionally let the poor took care of their lands, by breeding some animals or growing some crops.
The nobles were a small group, drawn, in the eighty years between Elizabeth accession and the civil war, from just over one hundred and fifty families. They were great landowners but, like the Crown, they had an example to set, and only those who were desperate for money resorted to rack-renting and eviction (Lockyer 142).
In the Tudor times, landlords realized that the land could be more beneficial when they managed it well, while they could get the poor handled it.
They had the authority employed or fired the people who they wanted. Sometimes they drove away the poor to leave their land. With nothing to do in the countryside, many poor drifted to towns and cities to look for work. Also landlords were moving away from growing crops like corn and turning to sheep farming as a growing population required more clothes and good money could be made from breeding sheep. As there were more people than jobs available in the countryside, this caused more problems for the towns and cities as people went from the country to the towns looking for work (Poor in Elizabethan England).
3. The Common People a. The Clothing
Greenberg’s Men's and Women's Work Clothing: A Portfolio of Image describes that there were no special clothes for common people. They only had some pieces of cloth, or even the poor commonly only had a piece of cloth. The clothes of the common people in England, especially for the poor who were categorized who could work, depended on what the field they work on and the season at that time. In January the woman used front fastening gown rose wool gown over narrow sleeved, red under gown and fur-lined. The woman who worked in milking the cow wore an over gown, fitted to the waist, of light red/rose with a deep v backline, over an under gown of black. The shift sleeves were visible beneath the short sleeves of the gown, and had drawn blue over sleeves on to protect her arms. She also wore a linen apron and head wrap.
In December when it was snowing, the woman wore a blue, long-sleeved, lined over gown over a blue under gown. The footwear protected the feet while two head wraps and a hat protect the head (Men's and Women's Work Clothing: A Portfolio of Image).
b. The Housing
Generally, the common people in 16 century usually lived in wooden houses. A little stone chimney or funnel stood in the center of the house, providing cooking facilities and heat during the long winters. The house only had one room for all activities. One side of the room was used for general-purpose room where the family worked and ate. On the other side was the room where all the member of the family slept. While the kitchen was part of the room where the family worked and ate together along the rear of the house (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005).
c. The Food
Halsall’s Of The Food And Diet Of The English states that the poor lived in a hard life which few looked back upon with contentment and satisfaction in their face. However they were happy and well fed with any amount of bread and bacon, and plenty of home-brewed beer. Most of them worked from rising dawn until sunset and they only ate bread and potatoes with an occasional piece of bacon and an apple dumpling. Therefore, it was not surprisingly if they often went to bed hungry.
There were there kinds of bread in England in the sixteenth century. The first and most excellent was the manchet, which was commonly called white bread. This was a kind of bread which generally was consumed by the high rank people. The second was the cheat or wheaten bread. The actual color of this bread was not white, because it was made from the grey or yellowish wheat. It was being cleaned and well dressed, that was why this kind of bread was named so.
This kind of bread sometimes was used in the halls of the nobility and gentry only. The third kind of bread which, of course, had lower quality was called brown bread, which was appointed for servants, slaves, and the inferior kind of people (Of The Food And Diet Of The English).
There was one characteristic of the food of the poor family. They had bread and treacle or molasses for breakfast, and sometimes a little tea made from potatoes and possibly dumplings. For supper they sometimes just like as what they have in breakfast, with the occasional addition of an apple pie. Sometimes they used vegetables as their food when they could not afford the meat. That was why the idea of vegetables as pauper's food was still very strong at that time.
People of this time did not use the utensils that the noblemen use. They thought that using their hands to scoop out the food was much more efficient (Food in England).
d. The Life
The way of life common people depended on the social class that divided them. The helpless poor included the old, the sick, the disabled and children. The elderly and the disabled received a sum of money and possibly some food each week. If they were unable to collect both, it would be delivered to their house. The poor children were given apprenticeships which were paid by the parish. In this way, the parish could expect to get benefit from the children when they had grown up and learned a new skill. Boys were usually apprenticed until they were 24 years old. While the girls could be apprenticed until they were 21 years old, while they would work with their mistress. People who were considered as the "aged, poor and impotent persons" were not considered to be a burden as the government believed that it was not their fault that they were in their position. While, some parishes gave these people a license to beg (Lockyer 138).
Then, the poor who were included in the Able Bodied Poor usually built a workhouse. The unemployed worked in these making clothes or anything that might benefit the parish. They got paid out of the Poor Rate. They would remain in the workhouse until they found a ‘normal’ job.
The next kind of classes was the class of people which were usually hunted by the government. They were Rogues and Vagabonds. They were people who could work but they preferred to beg or steal. This group worried the government as they were mostly troublesome. The government prohibited begging, and considered it as an illegal and anybody who was found begging would be flogged or lashed until "his back was bloody". If they were found begging outside of their parish, they would be beaten. Those who were caught continually begging could be sent to prison and hanged. During the reign of Edward VI, caught vagabonds could have their tongue branded and kept as slaves for two years
In London, the rich lived in one part of the city while the poor lived towards the east where modern-day Fleet Street is and towards the City. They had to separate each other. If a poor person was found in the west of the city, it would be assumed by those that made the law (the rich) that the poor was against the law and could be punished. The poor kept themselves living with their own tribe in London and even they had developed their own form of language. This was known as canting. This kind of language-form occurred behind the idea that no-one else could or would know what they were talking about. They meant it as a kind of self-protection against the law (Poor in Elizabethan England).
4. Social Values a. Monarchy
Monarchy is a kind of form of government in which one person has the hereditary right to rule as the head of state during his or her lifetime; the term is also applied to the state which is being governed, for example British Monarch. Chrimes (11) states “Government is officially and legally His Majesty’s Government (the king and the crown)”. The power of the monarch changes from absolute authority to very limited authority along changes that happens in the society; the latter is exemplified in modern-day constitutional monarchies. Monarchs include such rulers as kings and queens, emperors and empresses, tsars, and Kaisers (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005).
According to Chrimes (12), “…the King is a natural person who possesses a number of rights and powers (not vested in any other person), some by virtue of royal prerogative (i.e. by common law relating to the King), some by virtue of Act of Parliament, and the sum total of these rights and power constitutes the Crown”.
The king established the royal council, and he himself determined the number and composition. The king also could call his council on special occasions or according to the king's pleasure. Parliament, like the council, is also as a tool of royal government. Parliament also was called at the king's pleasure, and he had the right to dissolve or adjourn it at any time. Later, the royal council and the parliament were in charge in determining the policy in England, including the laws, while it was also strictly depended on the king or by the king’s permission (England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century).
In the 16 century, the authority of a king was very wide. Even King Henry VIII could continue his interference in the religion aspect. Woodward in separated the English church from Rome and declared himself as the head of the English church.
Through the history, it can be seen that many monarchs have wielded absolute power, sometimes based on their presumed divinity. Then, the power became centralized in the hands of the sovereigns. At first these rulers were supported by the growing middle class, or bourgeoisie, in building and maintaining the monarchs. The supporters, the bourgeoisie, benefited the rulers to form a strong central government that maintained order and provided a stable atmosphere, in which later could supports the development of the society, economic and political of the monarchs.
By the 15 and 16 centuries absolute monarchs, such as King Henry VIII of England and King Louis XIV of France, ruled the countries of Europe. Abuses of power, as well as growing dissatisfaction among the bourgeoisie, helped bring about the end of many absolute monarchies; revolutions in England in the 17th century and in France in the 18th century were major landmarks in the limitation of absolute power (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005).
b. The English Poor Laws
The English Poor Laws was a system which was set up by the government of England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The general purpose was to establish a clear public responsibility for care of the poor. It made every parish responsible for the poor and unemployed within that parish. The landlord had to pay taxes to The Justice of the Peace; a kind of organization which made by the
(Lockyer 139-40). The tax was called the Poor Rate. It was used to help the poor. This had two benefits. First, it made the poor felt that something was being done for them and made them felt less angry about the situation they were in. Secondly, some good work could be done by the poor within the parish to help the parish (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005).
The Poor Laws made local government the primary administrator of welfare. In order to keep welfare beneficiaries under the supervision of their providers, the laws also discouraged the migration of the poor among administrative regions, or parishes. From their inception, the Poor Laws generated controversy. Opponents of the laws argued that if the poor received public assistance, some of them might avoid work, not work hard enough, or not save any of their earnings (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005).
C. Theoretical Framework
In this part I would like to describe the theories and reviews that I will apply. I use the theory of the critical approaches which can give the knowledge about some approaches. It helps me to decide the most appropriate approach to explore the novel. In this case, through the critical approaches I decide to choose the socio-historical approach, because it can help me get the information of the social and historical background of the story.
The theory of character and characterization and theory of setting are used in order to understand and comprehend the novel better. In answering the first problem in this study, I use the theory of character and characterization. Through this theory, I can describe the character of the two main characters in the novel; they are Prince Edward and Tom Canty.
In analyzing the first problem, I also have to know the setting of the novel, because the two main characters are experiencing the two different setting in the novel. Therefore, theory of setting is used to help me to reveal the setting of the story in the novel
While, the review on England in the 16 Century are used to analyze the second problem in this study which concern on Mark Twain’s criticism. The
review on England in the 16 Century gives the information on the condition of
England in the 16 Century, including society systems, the nobles, the common people and the social values. Therefore, this review provides all the information that I need.
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter covers subject matter, approach of the study, and method of
the study. The subject matter contains a brief description of the novel. In the next
part I would like to discuss the approach which is used in this study. In the method of the study I would like to discuss the steps that I followed starting from collecting data and resources until using those data and resources to answer the two questions stated in the problem formulation.
A. Subject Matter
The subject matter of this study is Mark Twain’s The Prince and The
Pauper . This novel was written by Mark Twain in 1881, based on the social life inth
England on the 16 century in the Reign of King Henry VIII. The Prince and The
Pauper tells a story of two young boys who are identical in appearance but comefrom a different social level, and exchange their position.
The Prince and The Pauper is an American novel, although the setting of
the story is in England in 1547. Mark Twain, the author, is considered to be one of America’s greatest humorists and writers. The Prince and The Pauper was first published in 1881. In this study, the writer used the novel which was published by P F. Collier & Son Company in New York in 1921. The novel consists of 274 pages and is divided into thirty-three chapters.
B. Approach of the Study
In this study, I will analyze Mark Twain’s The Prince and The Pauper which reveals the social life of England in sixteenth century. The novel tells the contrasting life of the common people and the life of the higher level, the royal family life and the nobles’ life. I believe that by this novel Mark Twain would like to reveal the social life to convey his criticism through the major characters.
It is necessary to analyze the background of the society of the novel. In order to have a better understanding about the story, including the society of the story, I will use the socio-historical approach to answer the second question as stated in the problem formulation part. I use the socio-historical approach to describe the society and the historical background related to the story. By using this kind of approach, I can give a description about the socio-historical
background of England in the 16 century, and also the social life at that time in order to give the insight and the information on the condition at that time. I use the socio-historical approach because I believe that Mark Twain inserted a
criticism to the England social life in the 16 century through his novel, and also based on the fact that some references state that Mark Twain was a realist and humorist writer (Mark Twain Biography). Therefore, he usually wrote the things he knew about from the firsthand experience and inserted his criticism in it (Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910)).
C. Method of the Study
The method which was applied in gathering the data for the analysis in this study was the library research. There were some steps which were applied in this analysis.
First, I selected the literary work which would be analyzed in this study. Therefore, after reading some novels I decided to use Mark Twain’s The Prince
and the Pauper as the primary data in this study. The first impression that I got
when reading this novel was the title. I was interested in the depiction of the two characters that revealed the strong contrasting life. I studied the novel in order to gain deeper understanding about the novel and the meaning that I wanted to reveal. First, I focused on the context. I believe that understanding the context of the novel would influence the interpretation of the novel.
Second, I kept on further reading for a better understanding on the novel, including the characters, the setting and some important events in the novel related to this study. After further reading, I got an implicit meaning from the story of the novel. Therefore, I could decide the best topic for my study. I decided to take the topic about criticism of the nobles’ life.
Then the next step, I formulated two problems. The first dealt with the two main characters, that was to describe the life of the two major characters, Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor. The second was about how Mark Twain criticizes the English nobles’ life through the characters of Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor.
In the fourth step, I focused on studying the theory of the critical approaches to get the appropriate approach for my study. I read A Glossary of concerned on the theory of critical approach.. I also read Reading and writing
about literature; An Introduction to Fiction; Fiction: An Introduction to Reading
and Writing; How to Read and Write about Fiction; Reading the Novel: AnUnderstanding to Techniques of Interpreting Fiction.
Fifth, after studying the theory of critical approaches, I decided to use Psychological and Socio-Historical Approach in analyzing the novel. I also read
Character and The Novel and some handouts about literature. Then I decided to
use some theories which would help me in digging out the novel including character theory and setting theory.
In the sixth step, I started to collect some references that can be used to answer the questions as stated in the problem formulation part related to the study.
In this step, I collected the sources and articles about Mark Twain’s life, works, and criticism both from books and also from the electronic source or internet. I
also started to find some books related to the History of England in the 16
th century, the English culture and society in the 16 Century.
In the seventh step, I tried to analyze the collected data to answer the two questions which are stated in the problem formulation. I chose the references that can support the study.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter is aimed to analyze the two questions which are stated in the
problem formulation. First, I would like to analyze how Tom Canty’s life and Prince Edward Tudor's life in The Prince and the Pauper are. This part deals with the life and the character of those two main characters. Second, I would like to reveal how Mark Twain criticizes the English nobles’ life through the characters of Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor.
A. Tom Canty’s Life and Prince Edward Tudor’s Life
In this part, the study will analyze the life of the two main characters in this novel, Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor, including how their characters are described. Therefore, this part divided into two. The first part deals with the Tom Canty’s life that contains of the life and the characters of Tom Canty both in his original habitation, in a poor family, and in the palace after he exchanges his position with the prince. The second part deals with the Prince Edward Tudor’s life, including his character, and both while in the palace and in his adventure outside the palace.
In the story Tom Canty and Prince Edward are born on the same day. “….on a certain autumn day in the second quarter of the sixteenth century, a boy was born to a poor family of the name of Canty, who did not want him. On the same day another English child was born to a rich family of the name of Tudor, between the two characters. Tom Canty is born in the poor family that almost do not hope him to be born because of their poverty. On the other hand, Edward Tudor is born in the family that do hope him so much to be born to be acceding to the throne of England later.
In this novel, Mark Twain describes those two main characters as two people who looked alike in physical appearance. The similar physical appearance of the two main characters can be seen after they exchange their clothes. “….the little Prince of Wales was garlanded with Tom’s fluttering odds and ends, and the little Prince of Pauperdom was tricked out in the gaudy plumage of royalty. The two went and stood side by side before a great mirror, and lo, a miracle: there did not seem to have been any change made!” (17). The similar physical appearance of the two main characters also can be seen when Prince Edward Tudor says “….Thou hast the same hair, the same eyes, the same voice and manner, the same form and stature, the same face and countenance, that I bear. Fared we forth naked, there is none could say which was you, and which the Prince of Wales” (17).
In spite of the similarity of the two main characters in this story, there are also some traits of each main character. Robert and Jacob (56) propose four ways or methods which are used by the author in expressing the character and the characterization. The first, the author expresses the character traits through what the character himself/herself says, whenever he/she speaks, whenever he/she is in conversation with another, and whenever he/she gives opinions and idea. The second, the author expresses through what the character does. In this case, the characters in the story. The third, the author expresses through what other character says about the other character. In this method, the information about a character can be gained through other characters’ opinion. The fourth, the author describes the characters directly. In this case the author can speak as a storyteller or an observer.
1. Tom Canty’s Life
In the 16 century, the poor lived in a very hard life that it was very rare for them to appear with contentment and satisfaction in their face. Their houses generally were made of wood. Their wooden houses were very simple and only had a main room or two main rooms (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005). The way of life common people depended on the social class that divided them and lived separately with the rich or the nobles (Poor in Elizabethan England). Therefore, Greenberg’s Men's and Women's Work Clothing: A Portfolio of Image states that there were no special clothes that the common people had except for those who work for the parish.
a. In the Offal Court
In London, the rich lived in one part of the city while the poor lived towards the east where modern-day Fleet Street is and towards the City. They had to separate each other. If a poor person was found in the west of the city, it would be assumed by those that made the law (the rich) that the poor was against the law and could be punished. The poor kept themselves living with their own tribe in as canting. This kind of language-form occurred behind the idea that no-one else could or would know what they were talking about. They meant it as a kind of self-protection against the law (Poor in Elizabethan England).
Tom Canty lives in a poor neighbourhood in Offal Court, out off Pudding Lane. Offal Court, a place where Tom Canty was born, is a typical common people’s neighbourhood in London. “The streets were very narrow, and crooked, and dirty, especially in the part where Tom Canty lived, which was not far from London Bridge” (3). There are a lot of poor family in Offal Court, so that the neighbourhood is very crowded. “It was small, decayed, and rickety, but it was packed full of wretchedly poor families” (3).
Generally, the common people in 16 century lived in wooden houses. A little stone chimney or funnel stood in the center of the house, providing cooking facilities and heat during the long winters (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005). The houses in Offal Court, generally, are very simple made of wood and so is the house where the Canty’s family live (3).
There were no special clothes for common people. They only had some pieces of cloth, or even the poor commonly only had a piece of cloth. The clothes of the common people in England, especially for the poor who were categorized who could work, depended on what the field they work on and the season at that time (Men's and Women's Work Clothing: A Portfolio of Image).
As the common people in general, they also live in poverty. Tom Canty’s family have limited food and clothes (15), as well as having limited rights.
Chrimes (63-64) states that the rights of the common people were not guaranteed, did not owing the guarantees for freedom, they were just free doing what they liked, and saying what they liked as long as they did not break the law which were exists at any time. In the novel, in the Offal Court where Tom Canty lives, the safety is not guaranteed in there. There are a lot of riots every night.
“Drunkenness, riot, and brawling were the order there, every night and nearly all night long. Broken heads were as common as hunger in that place” (4). Just like as other common people, they live under the King’s laws. Often, they have to have experiences the cruelty of the English laws, hunt down by the law, and of many types of injustices.
There were three social classes of common people. The first is the ‘Impotent’ Poor who depended on Government support. The second is the Able Bodied Poor who made clothes or anything that might benefit for the parish. The third is Rogues and Vagabonds classes who could work but they preferred to beg or steal (Lockyer 138).
Tom Canty is the only son of a beggar and thief, John Canty. He lives with his parents, his grandmother and his twin sisters, Nan and Bet. The life of Tom’s
family is very simple. In the 16 century, the common people house only had one room for all activities. One side of the room was used for general-purpose room where the family worked and ate. On the other side was the room where all the member of the family slept (Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005). The same condition happens to the Tom Canty’s family. They only can rent a room for all the family and only have a little number of furniture. “The mother and father had a sort of bedstead in the corner; but Tom, his grandmother, and his two sisters, sleep where they chose” (3). “There were the remains of blanket or two, and some bundles of ancient and dirty straw, but these could not rightly be called beds, for they were not organized…. “(4). They only have no more than a pair of cloth. They work with that clothes and also sleep with the same clothes.
Halsall’s Of The Food And Diet Of The English describes the life of the common people was very hard. Most of them worked from rising dawn until sunset and they only ate bread and potatoes with an occasional piece of bacon and an apple dumpling. While it was very usual for them to go to bed hungry. Hunger is also very common in offal court, and so the Tom’s family. Tom’s family have no special things in their food and they have limited food in their daily life. They only eat what they just can afford from begging, and eat whenever they have it. The limited amount of the food makes them treat it as a crucial matter. Sometimes Tom goes to bed hungry when he is being punished by his father because he does not get the food as his punishment. Therefore, in the night, his mother who is also starving will give him a little piece of bread that she keeps from her own. “….in the night his starving mother would slip to him stealthily with any miserable scrap or crust she had been able to save for him by going hungry herself…. ” (5).
In the novel, Mark twain describes Tom as a boy who is full of spirit, especially when he is interested in something. There is a good priest, Father Andrew, who likes to teach Tom and the other children in the Tom’s neighbourhood. He is the one who teaches Tom a little Latin, how to read and write, and tells charming old tales and legends about Kings and Princes and others. He likes to listen to Father Andrew so much, and then when other children are care of it. “….but they were afraid of the jeers of their friends…” (4). He does not take that mocking as an obstacle to fulfil his desires in studying.
Moreover, he dares to take the risk to fulfil his desires and with his smartness, he will try to get what he wants and to avoid the punishment. “He only begged just enough to save himself, for the laws against mendicancy were stringent, and the penalties heavy…“(5). The second chapter describes that Tom has to beg, and he will get punishment from his father and grand mother if he can not get some money. “When he came home empty-handed at night, he knew his father would curse him and thrash him first, and that when he was done the awful grandmother would do it all over again and improve on it… “ (5). Tom knows if he does not make his father satisfied with his begging-result, his father will punish him with beatings and even his grandmother will do more than his father. That is why when Tom wants to have other activities, for example listening to Father Andrew; he has to be as clever as he can to fulfil his desire safely. Unconsciously, Tom grows to be a smart boy who can adapt with the condition in his neighbourhood.
In this novel Mark Twain implicitly describes Tom as a special boy growing in the poor neighbourhood who has great ability to adapt in the situation surrounds him, even when he has a new neighbourhood, in the palace, which is very different with his origin neighbourhood, in the Offal Court, a poor neighbourhood.
His imagination becomes full of princely life, after he learns from Father Andrew. By and by, his imagination brings such a strong effect upon him. curiously ceremonies and courtly, to the vast admiration and amusement of his intimates “ (6).
Tom Canty is also described as a person who has a great influence to other people surrounds him. His good-manner leads him to be regarded by other people.
In his society among his friends he becomes a person who is esteemed. “….Tom’s influence among these young people began to grow now, day by day; and in time he came to be looked up to by them with assort of wondering awe, as a superior being” (6). In some cases he becomes the leader, as when he organises a royal court. “Privately, after a while, Tom organized a royal court! He was the prince; his special comrades were guards, chamberlains, equerries, lords and ladies in waiting, and the royal family” (7).
Mark twain also describes Tom Canty as a deep and wise person. He can do and say wonderful things. Those ‘ability’ leads Tom Canty to be a problem- solver-boy in his society. “He seemed to know so much! and he could do and say such marvellous things! and withal, he was so deep and wise!” (7). Tom Canty becomes well-known as a problem solver not only among his friends, but also among the adults and the olds. “Full-grown people brought their perplexities to Tom for solution, and were often astonished at the wit and wisdom of his decisions. In fact, he was become a hero to all who knew him…” (7). Tom Canty is regarded as a most gifted and extraordinary creature as a result of his charisma (7). Later, when he becomes a King after Tom exchanged his position with Prince Edward Tudor, his ability as a problem solver becomes evidence and brings verification for him as a great person from a slum.
Mark Twain describes Tom Canty as a person who has a high-curiosity and willpower. This is the character trait that leads him to fulfil his desires that is to meet the real prince. “….still his desires to look just once upon a real prince, in flesh, grew upon him, day by day, and week by week, until at last it absorbed all other desires, and became the one passion of his life” (7). That is why he dares to go far to find the real prince.
b. In the Palace One day, unconsciously Tom travels so far when he does his usual activity.
He walks until he meets the King’s palace. He walks to get closer to the palace, until he is stopped by the gate-guards who drive him away rudely. When Tom gets the inconvenient treatment from the gate-guards, the Prince sees it, and he takes pity to Tom. Then, he invites Tom to come in the palace to get the compensation of what he has got. As what can be revealed from the character of Tom Canty, he is a smart boy, even the Prince, the well-educated person, implicitly confesses it. After a moment conversation, the Prince is attracted of Tom’s good manner and politeness. “Thou speakest well; thou hast an easy grace in it. Art learned?” (15). No wonder the Prince also becomes interested to change his position with Tom Canty. Tom tells his story which implicitly showing his freedom as a common citizen.
Then, Tom Canty, who is left alone after changing his position with the Prince, begins to experience the life in the palace. After some time, Tom Canty’s fear grows. He is afraid of being punished for using the prince’s clothes. “Might the great were prompt about small matters…” (25). The changes that happens to the “prince”, who is actually Tom Canty, makes the entire people in the palace think that the prince has gone mad because he does not act like a prince as he should be. All the people in the palace are busy in thinking why the prince becomes mad. In the sixteenth century the king had a great authority. The king could establish the royal council and the parliament, and the English Laws. He could determine the number and the composition of the royal council and parliament. Carrie’s England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century states that English Laws were established by the king or by the king’s permission. Therefore when he said or declared something, it became something that had to be strictly obeyed.
Chrimes (73) states “Law was tribal custom, or folkright, to which the king was subordinate in every respect, as any other member of the folk. He might, and on occasion did, find it necessary to declare, with the express or tacit assent of the ‘wise man’ of his realm (the witan), what the law was on certain points, and even to commit such declarations to writing”.
In the novel, in order to avoid an assumption that the Prince is mad, the king declares that the overstudy is the cause why the Prince becomes ‘mad’. The King declares that study hard which has done by the Prince gives himself a lot of pressures and makes the Prince gets stressed (30).
Once again, Tom Canty proves his ability to adapt in the new neighbourhood. Slowly, he gets the acknowledgements from his “uncle”, Lord Hertford, amazingly by Tom’s honest expression in denying that he is the real natural; that would be reasonable. But lived ever an impostor yet, who, being called prince by the king, prince by the court, prince by all, denied his dignity and pleaded against his exaltation? No! …..this is the true prince… ” (43). The story shows that Tom Canty is a honest person who is brave to confess his fault even it contains a high risk.
More and more, Tom’s development as a “prince” is getting better. After his siesta, Tom Canty continues to experience the life in the palace. This time he
will have a dinner, his first royal dinner. Food in the 16 Century could be regarded as the center of development of a society to show prosperity. Halsall’s Of The Food And Diet Of The English describes in the sixteenth century the banquets that were eaten by the nobles were so big. Generally they employed so many servants and only the royal and the wealthy family in those days could afford to have such a feast. In the novel Tom is dressed as a prince as what Prince Edward usually. Tom, who usually is in rags and has never changed his clothes before, changes his clothes just for dinner. “He found himself as finely clothed as before, but everything different, everything changed, from his ruff to his stockings” (44). Then, he is ready to have his first royal dinner, with everything is set for him in a luxury and well-furnished. “He was presently conducted with much state to a spacious and ornate apartment, where a table was already set for one. Its furniture was all of massy gold, and beautified with designs which well-nigh made it priceless, since they were the work of Benvenuto” (44).
The service for “prince” Tom Canty does not stop there. The chaplain greets him with a grace; the Earl of Berkeley fastens a napkin for him; the Taster suspicious dish that ordered and to get rid of the risk of the prince being poisoned (44). Tom Canty is an overt person, while he is eating; he feels something that disturbs him that his nose is itchy. He chooses to ask rather than just keep his feeling. “I crave your indulgence; my nose itcheth cruelly. What is the custom and usage in this emergence? Prithee speed, for ‘tis but a little time that I can bear it” (46). Tom Canty’s words actually not only show that he is an overt person, but also he is a person who has willingness to learn something, even it seems a trivial thing, in order to avoid any mistakes.
Tom Canty makes great development for himself and changing for England. Just a moment after King Henry VIII is dead, knowing his authority, Tom exclaims that the law of the king is law of mercy. “Then shall the king’s law be law of mercy, from this day, and never more be law of blood!” (74). And he also sets the Duke of Norfolk free. “Up from thy knees and away! To the Tower and say the king decrees that the Duke of Norfolk shall not die!” (75). Tom Canty, through his act in this moment, shows that he is a person who is full of mercy and does not like any violence.
On his next day in the palace, Tom meets Humphrey Marlow. He is surprised knowing the job of his new friend; Humphrey is the prince’s whipping boy (105). How strange it is for a boy who comes from a slum to know that when the prince makes mistakes then Humphrey, the whipping boy, will get the punishment from the prince’s teacher (107). Tom realizes that when he stops studying, Humphrey has no more jobs. “My back is my bread, O my gracious liege! If it go idle, I starve. An thou cease from study, mine office is gone, thou’lt willingness, Tom wants to help him. There is no other way, except studying again and accepting Humphrey as his whipping boy, even it breaks his heart. But Tom has a brilliant idea. He raises Humphrey’s position and makes it permanent. Tom will study very hard so that Humphrey will get more money.
Discomfort thyself…Thine office shall be permanent in thee and thee line, forever.” Then he struck the boy a light blow on the shoulder with the flat of his sword, exclaiming, “Rise sir Humphrey Marlow, Hereditary Grand Whipping-Boy to the royal house of England!...I will betake my books again, and study so ill that they must in justice treble thy wage… (109).
Humphrey Marlow truly is a smart boy, from him Tom Canty gets a lot of information that helps him in “reminding” himself as the “prince”. “…Tom as to the observances proper to the stately occasion, under the rather thin disguise of “reminding” him concerning things already known to him; but to his vast gratification it turned out that Tom needed very little help in this line-he had been making use of Humphrey in that direction...“ (110).
He often spends his time with Humphrey now. Then Tom becomes more confident now. His self-confidence becomes greater after he solves a case of a man and another case of an old and young lady. The man is accused of taking the life of a person by poisoning. He recognizes the man as a person who saved his friend, Giles Witt out of the Thames. When he listens to the explanation of the man about the time he has proven in poisoning a person. Tom knows that the man is not guilty, because at that time Tom watches this man saved Giles Witt. Therefore, he releases this man with full of spirit. This makes the people admire Tom and feel that the king is not mad again. “A low buzz of admiration swept through the assemblage. It was not admiration of the decree that had been delivered by Tom…-no, the admiration was for the intelligence and spirit which Tom had displayed” (121).
Tom shows his intelligence and also the spirit that make people think that he is like his “father”, King Henry VIII. Carrie’s England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century describes King Henry is a king who full of spirit who was interested so much in adventure, including in military adventure. He was also willing to be involved in the complicated diplomatic relationships of the Continental powers which violated the policy. In the novel Tom Canty also shows that he is a merciful and generous person. As soon as he knows that the man is ordered to be boiled alive, he tells Earl Hertford to omit this kind of punishment. “I beseech your good lordship that order be taken from this law-oh, let no more poor creatures be visited with its tortures” (118). This command makes Earl Hertford amazed of the Prince’s kindness. “The earl’s face showed profound gratification, for he was a man of merciful and generous impulses-a thing not very common with his class in that fierce age” (119).
While the old and young lady are accused of wicked thing. In this case Tom shows his wisdom. He asks the two ladies to make a storm, as what they are being accused in destroying a church. If she can do it, the “king” Tom will release them and even makes them rich. But the old lady says that she can not make a storm, and she tries hard to convince the King that she has no power in it. (125) Tom considers that the ladies are not guilty. “I think the woman hath said the true. An my mother were in her place and gifted with the devil’s function, she had not stayed a moment to call her storms and lay the whole land and ruins, if the saving made in like mold” (125). The experience with the convicts makes Tom’s self- confidence greater.
Tom’s reputation as king is wide-spread to the every corner in English. It comes to the ears of Miles Hendon. When he looses his little friend, the real king, he intends to ask some help to the great king. “He remembered what old Andrews had said about the young king’s goodness and his generous championship of the wronged and unfortunate” (230). Tom continues his role well, especially with Humphrey’s help. “He lost his fears; his misgivings faded out and died; his embarrassments departed; and gave place to an easy and confident bearing. He worked the whipping-boy mine to ever-increasing profit” (233).
Tom passes his days in the palace very well and comfortably now. “Tom Canty was sinking to sleep in his rich bed in the palace, guarded by his loyal vassals, and surrounded by the pomps of royalty, a happy boy…” (236). He forgets about the true king, Edward Tudor, whereas the coronation day is getting closer.
But Tom seems to over-enjoy everything that he has as a king now. “And all these wonders and these marvels are to welcome me-me!” (241). He is very excited of his condition now. “The mock king’s cheeks were flushed with excitement, his eyes were flashing, his senses swam in a delirium of pleasure” (241). In London the rich and the poor had to separate each other. If a poor person was found in the west of the city, where the rich lived, they would be was against the law and could be punished (Poor in Elizabethan England). The boundary between the nobles and common citizens showed that the nobles did not want to be feels that he is a nobleman. He feels that he is not the part of his poor family. Even he realizes it is something that hurts himself later.
The words “I do not know you, woman!” were falling from Tom Canty’s lips when this piteous thing occurred; but it smote him to the heart to see her treated so; and as she turned for a last glimpse of him, whilst the crowd was swallowing her from his sight, she seemed so wounded, so broken- hearted, that a shame fell upon him which consumed his pride to ashes, and withered his stolen royalty. His grandeurs were stricken valueless; they seemed to fall away from him like rotten rags (242).
Tom realizes his mistakes because his short-thinking. He starts not enjoying his condition now. He regrets his mistakes. Until, the Lord Protector notices the changes of the king’s mood, and tries to bring the mood back by speaks to Tom. “O dread sovereign! Shake off these fatal humors; the eyes of the world are upon thee.” Then he added with sharp annoyance, “Perdition catch that crazy pauper! ‘twas she that hath disturbed your Highness” (244). But Tom answers it in a dead voice that she is his mother (244). It makes the Lord Protector thinks that the king is gone mad again. While through this event, Tom shows that he is a good-hearted son, as he makes mistakes by his short-thinking and regrets it so. Tom realizes that the luxury that he has now can not replace his mother who loves him so much.
Tom shows again that he is not a greedy person, by giving back the throne to Edward Tudor, the real king, as soon as when Edward appears (250). Even Tom helps Edward when there is no one who believes that Edward is the real king. He gives the clue to Edward, who is desperate in convincing the people in Westminster Abbey, to find the Great Seal, which by it the people will know who is the real king (256). Although, Tom actually knows where the Great Seal is but again. That is why Edward Tudor is glad upon Tom Canty and gives him a royal position and authority that there is no one higher than him but the King.
And for that he hath been a king, it is meet that other than common observance shall be his due; wherefore, note this his dress of state, for by it he shall be known, and none shall copy it; and wheresoever he shall come, it shall remind the people that he hath been royal, in his time, and none shall deny him his due reverence or fail to give him salutation. He hath the throne’s protection, he hath the crown’s support, he shall be known and called by the honourable title of the King’s Ward (270).
Tom receives the honour from the king also because he has done well when he is a king, the king does confess it. “I have learned the story of these past few weeks, and am well pleased with thee. Thou hast governed the realm with right royal gentleness and mercy” (269).
2. Prince Edward Tudor’s Life
Halsall’s Of The Manner Of Building And Furniture Of Our Houses
describes generally the nobles in the 16 century lived in wealth. Their houses usually were already made from brick, hard stone and timber that contained some large rooms. There was also a lot of furniture in the noblemen's houses. The common furniture in the nobles’ house were arras, rich hangings of tapestry, silver vessels, and so much other plate as may furnish various cupboards. In the novel the noblemen not only occupy places where the safety is guaranteed and in luxurious surroundings, but also own the royal privileges (11). They also have a lot of fine furniture in their houses (24).
In the 16 century, the nobles’ clothes were made from good stuff. They were also dressed themselves with accessories. The richer or the higher of the novel, Prince Edward Tudor wears fine clothes which are also decorated with good accessories. “....clothing was all of lovely silks and satins, shinning with jewels…fastened with a great sparkling gem. (11).
The foods of the noblemen were various as in their big banquets, while they were also being well-served by so many servants (Of The Food And Diet Of The English). The novel also tells the same thing about the nobles and their food. They have various dishes and are served by so many servants. They employ so many servants even for the weird job task, such as the taster. “The Taster…prepared to taste any suspicious dish upon requirement, and run the risk of being poisoned” (44). Sometimes they also treat their servants whatever they like, even to smile (14).
a. In the Palace
Different from Tom Canty, Prince Edward Tudor lives in a rich family, the richest family in England, because he is the son of King Henry VIII, the King of England. He is the expected boy to be born to accede the throne of England. He is the son of King Henry VIII from his third wife, Jane Seymour. He is the younger brother of Mary and Elisabeth, his step-sisters.
In the 16 Century, the life of the nobles strongly showed their prosperity compared to the common citizen. The English Nobles lived in luxurious surroundings, having great authority (Of The Manner Of Building And Furniture Of Our Houses). In the novel Prince Edward Tudor lives in a neighbourhood which is in the opposite of the Tom’s neighbourhood. He lives in a well-guarded stood a living statue, that is to say, an erect and stately and motionless man-at- arms, clad from head to heel in shinning steel armor” (11). The safety is much more guaranteed in the place where Prince Edward lives.
Christmon’s Fashions: Women and Men describes the clothes of the nobles were made from fine stuff. Their shoes, as an example, were generally made from fine leather. They were used to wear some accessories that also identified the richer or the higher of the rank of the nobles. In the palace Prince Edward does not only furnished with finery, but also has a large number of glamorous clothes and full of accessories. “Within was a comely boy, tanned and brown with sturdy outdoor sports and exercises, whose clothing was all of lovely silks and satins, shinning with jewels; at his hip a little jewelled sword and dagger; dainty buskins on his feet with red heels; on his head a jaunty crimson cap, with drooping plumes fastened with a great sparkling gem” (11).
Christmon’s Banquets and Feasts describes their food also showed the prosperity, the royalty and peasantry among society. They also got the finest food.
The bread, as an example, that they ate was the best bread, which called manchet. The nobles’ banquets were so big and they employed so many servants (Of The Food And Diet Of The English). In the novel the food also speaks contrasting things. While Tom Canty is suffering with “his limited food”, Prince Edward, well-served in his comfortable room in his palace, is eating the food that only encountered by Tom in books that he reads when he learns to Father Andrew.
“Edward took Tom to a rich apartment in the palace, which he called his cabinet. By his command a repast was brought such as Tom had never encountered before
In the novel, Mark Twain describes Prince Edward as a good-hearted person, just like as Tom Canty. That is why Edward, Prince of Wales, does not like to see his father’s subjects being humiliated. The Prince gets angry when he sees a soldier acts rudely to his subjects. “…the young prince sprang to the gate with his face flushed, and his eyes flashing with indignation, cried out: “How dar’st thou use a poor lad like that! How dar’st thou use the king my father’s meanest subject so! Open the gates, and let him in!” (12). The Prince hates the violence and considers it as a disgusting thing. “Peace! It was a shameful thing and a cruel!” (17). The Prince also astonished when he heard that Tom often get some beatings from his grandmother. “A fierce look acme into the little prince’s eyes, and he cried out: “What! Beatings?” (14).
The mild-mannered of the Prince not only makes him hate any violence upon his subjects, but also shows that the Prince also cares about his subjects.
“Thou lokest tired and hungry; thou’st been treated ill. Come with me” (12). The Prince also cares about the condition of his subjects’ life, he asks Tom Canty about his life. “…hast thou a pleasant life there?” (15). When Edward hears that Tom’s twin sisters have no clothes but one that they wear, he sends his servants to give the clothes to them. “But thy good Nan and thy Bet shall have raiment and lackeys enow, and that soon, too: my cofferer shall look to it” (15). He wants to know whether his subjects also have a good life or not.
Edward Tudor never underestimates other people. Mark Twain delivers the Prince’s character traits very smoothly, especially this character traits. Mark Twain describes when the prince has a conversation with Tom Canty, suddenly the sister, is fourteen, and the Lady Jane Grey, my cousin, is of my own age, and comely and gracious withal; but my sister the Lady Mary, with her gloomy mien and – Look you: do thy sisters forbid their servants to smile, lest the sin destroy their souls?” (14). From this quotation, it can be seen that prince Edward does not like what his sister Lady Mary does that is forbidding her servants even to smile. He does not agree even he refuses to treat his servants so. He treats them as his meanest person.
Just like as Tom Canty, the Prince is also a person who is full of curiosity. When the Prince listens to the story of Tom Canty more and more about the life and the freedom that Tom Canty has, the Prince becomes more interested. His curiosity encourages him to get an idea to exchange his position with Tom Canty and this character will bring him into an adventure that leads him to be a good King later.
b. Outside the Palace
Edward Tudor’s meeting with a boy who comes from the lowest level of English society, Tom Canty, makes Edward starts in experiencing the life in the lower society where he is now involved. By these experiences, he realizes that not everyone has the same condition as what he already has. He finds out that some people have to struggle for himself in their life, and for other people besides them.
Prince Edward’s sorrow starts after he leaves the palace. He gets a lot of mocking from the other people. After he walks some hours, he meets the Christ’s church, a shelter where his father puts the poor and the forsaken children. “It is monks and given for a home forever for poor and forsaken children, and new- named it Christ’s church. Right gladly will they serve the son of him who hath done so generously by them….” (19). Edward feels that his troubles will be over that he will get some help, but what actually happens is that he gets another mocking and even such a thing which scratch the throne of England’s honour. The Prince of Wales is rudely buffeted by plebeian hands, and set upon and torn by dogs (21). Then he realizes that there is something missing in that place. The children, who belong to his father’s subjects, have not got their rights as a citizen yet. Roger Lockyer (33) implies that King Henry VIII was a king who seemed willing to devote himself to enjoyment, and spend the treasure of his father. In his reign, it seemed that Henry VIII let his noblemen govern for him while he wasted his time on pleasure. Prince Edward finds that the children in the orphanage have not got enough education beside the shelter and the food.
The experience in the Christ’s church gives him an insight of what to do later when he becomes the king. “When I am king, they shall not have bread and shelter only, but also teachings out of books; for a full belly is little worth where the mind is starved, and the heart. I will keep this diligently in my remembrance, that this day lesson be not lost upon me, and my people suffer thereby; for learning softeneth the heart and breedeth gentleness and charity” (22). From the story, Mark Twain shows the character of the Prince which is very gentle. He does not take the bad experience with anger but with gentleness. This is the kind of character trait that makes Prince Edward one step forward from his father as king.
Prince Edward journey continues to his meeting with John Canty, Tom’s treats “Tom” rudely. He asks the Prince to beg to pay the owner of the house. But of course, Edward who is born in honour refuses it and he stands to protect his honour. “Offend me not with thy sordid matters. I tell thee again I am the king’s son” (60). Then, when Mrs. Canty protects him from the John’s beatings Prince Edward springs away from Mrs. Canty. It is because he does not want other people suffers for him. “Thou shalt not suffer for me, madam. Let these swine do their will upon me alone” (60). Implicitly, Mark Twain describes that Prince Edward is not only as a person who is full of pity to other people and will not let others suffer for him, but also as a tough person.
Mark Twain describes how hard the journey of the Prince is. While Tom Canty exclaims the end of the reign of blood, after the death of the greatest nobleman in the Kingdom, the real prince mourns for the death of the king, his father, the king, that even he can not attend. “The tidings struck to a chill to the heart of the poor little waif, and sent a shudder through his frame. He realized the greatness of his loss, and was filled with a bitter grief; for the grim tyrant who had been such a terror to others had always been gentle to him” (76).
From the quotation above, it can be revealed that Prince Edward, who from now on called King Edward VI, suffers more than just his loss feeling of his father.
Moreover, the people’s delight hurts him more, because in the middle of his mourning of his father death, they are happy of his father death. “The tears sprung to his eyes and blurred all objects. For an instant he felt himself the most forlorn, outcast, and forsaken of God’s creatures…” (76). Once again, Mark Twain shows not only how big-hearted King Edward Tudor is, but also how objective the king, has a role as a tyrant for his subjects. That is why the people are happy, not because of the death of the king, but because the end of the reign of blood.
Therefore, in his mourning he finds some consolation for himself. The consolation is that he hears the people shout “Long live King Edward the Sixth” and he realizes that he is king now. “… and this made his eyes kindle, and thrilled him with pride to his fingers’ ends. “Ah,” he thought, “how grand and strange it
seems-I !” (76). In this case, Mark Twain inserts an ironical fact that Prince Edward becomes king but not in his throne now, the “higher” place in England, however he is in the “lower” place in England.
Fortunately, in his hard journey, King Edward meets a person who is very kind to him. He is Miles Hendon. Miles takes care the King compassionately, because he considers the King as a person who is weak, non-guarded, and ‘mad’. “…In his diseased ravings he called himself the Prince of Wales, and bravely doth he keep up the character. Poor little friendless rat, doubtless his mind has been disordered with ill usage” (80). But something that makes him give such a pity to the King actually is that the King is a gentle person, as shown in his sweet and gentle face, who needs some helps and moreover he has no friend. “….what a comely, sweet and gentle face he hath, now that sleep hath conjured away its troubles and griefs. I will teach him, I will cure his malady; yea, I will be his elder brother, and care for him and watch over him….“ (81).
Therefore, the prince, who is very generous, endues Miles by offering a reward as his gratitude of Miles’ help. Edward Tudor who becomes king now knows that Miles’ helps means a lot for him. “Thou didst save me injury and Name thy desire, and so it be within the compass of my royal power, it is thine” (87). The prince is not only a generous person, but also a just person. He gets angry when he listens to the Miles’ story. “Thou hast been shamefully abused!” said the little king, with a flashing eye. “But, I will right thee-by the cross will I! The king hath said it” (87). The King does not like to hear any injustices in his kingdom. That is why he gets very angry hearing the injustices that happens to Miles, his friend.
Unfortunately, after meeting a good friend in his journey, Edward gets alone again. It is because of John Canty’s trick that makes the King is being separated from Miles. Then, Edward Tudor has to face the troubles alone again. John Canty sends Hugo to bring the Prince to him. Then John Canty and Hugo join a vagabonds’ gang, and also the King with them. He realizes that there are so many of his subjects suffer and become the deserted people.
….the motliest company of tattered gutter scum and ruffians, of both sexes, he had ever read or dreamed of. There were huge, stalwart men, brown with exposure, long-haired, and clothed in fantastic rags; there were middle-seized youths, of truculent countenance, and similarly clad; there were blind mendicants, with patched or bandaged eyes; crippled ones, with wooden legs and crutches; there was a villain-looking peddler with his pack; knife-grinder, a tinker, and a barber-surgeon, with the implements of their trades….there were three sore-faced babies…. (136).
He meets the people that he has only learnt from the books, about the vagabonds, the ruffians; consist of beggars, thieves, robbers, slaves, deceiver, and etc. The vagabonds were included in the third class of the poor. The gang consists of people who feel disappointed with the English laws, and they were usually hunted by the government they get some injustices in their life. They were people government as they were mostly troublesome. They are the people who are being deserted by the society and the law; it is no wonder that they are so rude (Poor in Elizabethan England).
His understanding of his own subjects comes since he is in the Christ’s church that what are needed by his subjects is not only bread and shelter, but also the teaching, so that they can acquire the softness of the heart, gentleness and charity. He understands truly that in the poverties, his subjects may become rude and tricky. The King is aware that the English laws also force his subjects to become ‘wild’. As when he meets a blind man, who actually has two healthy eyes.
“One of the blind men got up, and made ready by casting aside the patches that sheltered his excellent eyes, and pathetic placard which recited the cause of his calamity” (136), and a cripple beggar, who actually has strong feet. “Dot-and-go- One disencumbered himself of his timber leg and took his place upon sound and healthy limbs….” (136).
In this gang he realizes how actually the life of his subjects, and what the law has done to them. The King is aware of the effect of the English laws to his subjects. He sees the effects of his father’s laws to the common inhabitants and it will drag them to the crime. He realizes it when he hears Mr. Yokel’s story (140).
Formerly, Mr. Yokel is a farmer and has a prosperous life. His mother is killed by the injustices of the English laws. His mother is accused of being a witch. Mr Yokel himself also experiencing the injustices of the English Laws. He looses his wife and his children when the law drag him away from his wife and his children.
Then he looses his wealth, is punished; his ears are removed and he is sold as a slave. Then now he joins the ruffians’ gang. This is an ironic fact for Edward who is very gentle.
In the story, Edward Tudor is also described as a person who can learn to adapt, just like as Tom Canty. Even he is a very humble person. After Edward escapes from John Canty and the gang, he meets a family which is very kind to him. They feed him, and they give a place to Edward in their table. Therefore, Edward, who is touched by the kindness of the family, removes his identity as King and sits at the family table and eats with them. He does not ask them to stand while he is eating, as when he is eating in the palace.
….by allowing him to sit at the family table and eat with his betters, on ostensible terms of equality with them; and the king, on his side, was so remorseful for having broken his trust, after the family had been so kind to him, that he forced himself to the family level, instead of requiring the woman and her children to stand and wait upon him while he occupied their table in the solitary state due his birth and dignity (161).
He understands if he still keeps telling them who he is, it will make the family get confused and he does not want to disturb the restful lunch in the family.
It implies how humble Edward is, a prince that willingly removes his identity and sits in the same table with his common citizen.
The Prince also realizes that his father, King Henry VIII, has done too far in using his authority including in religion aspect. King Henry VIII separated the English church from the Rome. The Prince meets a hermit who hopeless of his life. From this hermit, he knows the effect of his father regulation. There are many churches that resist the king’s regulation being closed. “Dost know it was he that turned us into the world houseless and homeless?” (170). That is why, when the Prince says that he is Edward, the son of King Henry, the hermit wants to kill the Prince (164).
Edward’s awareness is getting sharp after he has more experience out of the palace. His realization that there are so many cruelties and injustices in English laws becomes surer. Later he himself also experiences the injustices of the English laws when he is imprisoned for two times. First, he is imprisoned by Hugo’s trick. He is accused of stealing a pig when Hugo, one of the ruffians, asks Edward to accompany him (187). Second, when he finds himself and Miles Hendon are imprisoned by Hugo Hendon, Miles younger brother, who denies Miles as his real brother (212).
While Edward is in prison with Miles Hendon, Edward meets an old lawyer. The old lawyer is punished because he has written a pamphlet against the Lord Chancellor in accusing him of injustice. His ears have been removed as his punishment, degradation from the bar and had been fined. Then he looses his two ears and gets punishment again when he repeats his offence. Moreover, he is branded on both cheeks and remains in prison for life (224). This fact makes the king pity to that lawyer and understand that he has to do something. “…within the compass of a month thou shalt be free; and more, the law that have dishonoured thee, and shamed the English name, shall be swept from the statute-books. The world is made wrong, kings should go to school to their own laws at times, and so learn mercy” (224).
Edward becomes a tougher person as he experiencing the life out of his palace. His awareness of his society also becomes deeper. He realizes what his becomes a merciful person, and when he gets back to his throne as a King he will obeys his subjects’ needs.
While Tom is getting proper with his role as a king, Edward Tudor still in his troubles to go back to the palace and competes with the time in order to be able to get in the palace before the coronation day.
…Edward, the true king, hungry and thirsty, soiled and draggled, worn with travel, and clothed in rags and shreds-his share of the results of the riot-was wedged in among a crowd people who were watching with deep interest certain hurrying gangs of workmen who streamed in and out of Westminster Abbey, busy as ants; they were making the last preparation for the royal coronation (236).
Fortunately, he can come in time in the coronation day and he regains back his throne again. Edward gets his throne again also by Tom’s help. When he is desperate and prefers to loose his throne because there is no one believes that he is the real king, Tom helps him to prove himself as a true king.
As soon as he gets back his crown, he does everything that he has learned through his journey. Edward Tudor becomes a wiser person as well as in determining the laws in his kingdom. He makes renewal and recovery to his subjects and laws. He establishes the justice in his government. Edward Tudor becomes a merciful person, and a King who obeys his subjects’ needs (271). He fulfils his promises to Mr. Yokel by helping him to have a new good life. “The king sought out the farmer who had been branded and sold as a slave, and reclaimed him fro his evil life with the Ruffler’s gang, and put him in the way of a comfortable livelihood” (271).
He fulfils his promises to the lawyer in prison and for the woman that he He provided good homes for the daughters of the two Baptist women whom he saw burned at the stake,…” (272). He also recovers the life of all good people that he met and punishes the bad people. He also remembers indeed to his friend, Miles, who has saved and help him so much, by restoring Miles’ honour and properties.
Century through Mark Twain’s Criticism on the Nobles’ life in the 16 Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty
In the novel, Mark Twain reveals so many aspects of the social life of
England. While, the setting of the story is on the 16 century, therefore he focuses
on the social life of England in the 16 century. Mark Twain conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life through the two main characters, Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty. Mark Twain uses those two characters that come from different or even contrasting background, Prince Edward Tudor, who comes from the high- rank society, and the other character that comes from the low-rank society, Tom Canty.
In this novel, there are a lot of characters of noblemen that might represent
the actual behaviour in the real life of the nobles in the 16 Century. One of the nobles in the story is Prince Edward Tudor. He is one of main characters who are used by Mark Twain to criticize other nobles. Mark Twain uses the character of Prince Edward Tudor, a character who accustomed to live in the high-rank living not only in order to reveal the life of the lower-rank society (in spite of using Tom Canty itself), but also Mark Twain uses Prince Edward as the comparison to other
On the other hand, Mark Twain also uses the character of Tom Canty to convey his criticism. Mark Twain conveys his criticism by using Tom Canty and his life as a common people to have another point of view in criticizing the nobles’ life. Mark Twain uses Tom Canty to adopt the life of the common people to criticize the nobles’ life from the common people point of view, who have different life with the noblemen. The common people, mostly, live in a poor neighbourhood where the condition is very apprehensive (3). They live in a place where safety is not guaranteed (4). Their house is very simple and made from wood; most of them even do not have their own house and just can rent to other people. They have limited clothes and stuff (4); even they just have one cloth (15), and limited food (5). Just like as their limited food, they also have limited authority, even do not have, and limited rights. They live under the laws, and they often have to experience the cruelty of the laws, hunt down by the law (140), and of many types of injustices (224). They often feel disappointed with the English laws, and they are forced to get into crime as in Mr. Yokel’s story (140)
While in this analysis, this study highlights some points of Mark Twain’s criticism, including Mark Twain’s ways in criticizing the nobles through the main characters, both Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty. There are four points of Mark Twain’s criticism as the focus in this analysis; the first is the nobles’ life style, the second is the nobles’ manner, the third is the nobles’ cruelty and the last is the nobles’ way of governing.
1. Nobles’ Life Style
Lockyer (142) states about the life of the noblemen which were very addicted to extravagance. They concerned on building the house into huge houses, spending a great deal of money just for entertainment, extravagant clothes, jewellery, plate, and etc. The life of the noblemen was very different from the life of the common people which threatened by the poverty. While, Lockyer (138)
also states that there had always been poverty in England, but in the 16 century the poverty was so strong. While the common people lived in poverty, the nobles lived in extravagance. Their inappropriate life style implies that the noblemen did not pay attention to the common people’s life. In the novel, the nobles’ life style is being criticized, including their way of clothing, their houses, and their food. The nobles’ way of life is being criticized a lot through the character of Tom Canty.
a. The Clothing
Christmon’s Fashions: Women and Men states that in the 16 century the noblemen’s clothes were made from fine stuff and they were used to wear some accessories. Therefore, the richer or the higher of the rank could be seen from the accessories which usually decorated with jewels, pearls, lace, and etc. In the novel, Mark Twain implicitly describes that the noblemen are used to wear fine clothes. He puts the contrasting fact between the noblemen and the common people, as an example is as he uses the contrasting facts between the character of Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty since they are born (2).
Tom Canty’s adventure when he meets Prince Edward also is used to reveal the ironical fact between the noblemen and the common people. sports and exercises, whose clothing was all of lovely silks and satins, shinning with jewels; at his hip a little jeweled sword and dagger; dainty buskins on his feet, with red heels; and on his head a jaunty crimson cap, with drooping plumes fastened with a great sparkling gem (11-2).
The quotation above describes how the life of the common people is compared to the life of the noblemen. While the common people are dressed in their rags, sometimes the only rags, the noblemen are dressed in extravagant clothes. They are dressed in fine clothes which also made from the fine stuff. Of course, they have a lot of clothes. The noblemen are also decorated with so many beautiful accessories.
b. The Housing
Lockyer (142) describes that the nobles concerned about their house and they built huge houses for themselves. Mark Twain uses Tom Canty’s adventure to describe the luxury of the nobles’ houses. Tom in his adventure comes into a rich neighborhood which where the noblemen lives. “…for, though was tolerably compact row of houses on one side of it, there were only some scattering great buildings on the other, these being palaces of rich nobles, with ample and beautiful grounds stretching to the river—grounds that are now closely packed with grim acres of brick and stone (10).” Different from the common people who live in a neighborhood where the safety is not guaranteed, the nobles live in houses and neighborhood where the safety is guaranteed by so many guards (11).
Halsall’s Of The Manner Of Building And Furniture Of Our Houses states about the houses of the nobles which could be regarded as a provision that may timber, and would contain some large rooms. There were also a lot of furniture in the noblemen's houses. In the novel, Tom Canty’s adventure is also used to describe the luxury of the palace.
Tom Canty, left alone in the prince’s cabinet….He turned himself this way and before the great mirror, admiring his finery; then walked away, imitating the prince’s high bred carriage, still observing results in the glass. Next he drew the beautiful sword…Tom played with the jewelled dagger that hung upon his thigh; he examined the costly and exquisite ornaments of the room; he tried each of the sumptuous chairs…(24). After he exchanges position with the Prince, he observes the amazing ornaments that he has never met.
c. The Food
Lockyer (142) states that the noblemen were very addicted to extravagance and they disposed to spend their money to fulfil their desire, such as in food. In the story, when Tom has his first royal dinner as a ‘prince’, he finds the other side of luxury in the nobles’ life. A nobleman is served well when he is going to have his food, even he is new finely clothed before he has his food. “Tom resignedly underwent the ordeal of being dressed for dinner. He found himself as finely clothed as before, but everything different, everything changed, from his ruff to his stocking (44).”
While, Halsall’s Of The Food And Diet Of The English states that in the sixteenth century, the banquets that were eaten by the nobles were so big and they generally were served by so many servants. Tom is also served by so many servants before he has so many dishes on his table in his first royal dinner, from the oddest job such as the Taster (44) to the Hereditary Diaperer who brings a like to devote their days for pleasure, while it is just a dinner, how big the feast of a noble can be. Roger Lockyer (33) states about King Henry VIII that he liked to devote himself to pleasure that he often spent his days for hunting, and his nights for feasting.
2. Nobles’ Manner
In the 16 century, there were a lot of noblemen who treat the common people inappropriately. Just the same with the common people that they were free to do and say what they like, as far as they did not break the laws which were exist at that time (Chrimes 64), and so were the noblemen. There were no written or legalized documents which described how the manner of a nobleman should be. Mark Twain criticizes a lot about the nobles’ manner. In the novel, Mark Twain reveals his criticism on the nobles’ bad manner explicitly and implicitly.
Through Prince Edward’s speech, Mark Twain criticizes directly the way the gates-guards in treating Tom Canty that reflects the typical manner of the noblemen to the common people. “…the young prince sprang to the gate with his face flushed, and his eyes flashing with indignation, cried out: “How dar’st thou use a poor lad like that! How dar’st thou use the king my father’s meanest subject so! Open the gates, and let him in!” (12). The Prince is angry with the gate-guard who snatches Tom Canty away, just because Tom unconsciously gets close to the gate bars (12). The Prince’s speech implies that the gate-guards are responsible therefore it is implicitly shows that it is very usual that the nobles use that kind of way in treating the common people.
While implicitly, Mark Twain uses Prince Edward’s manner to criticize the rudeness of the nobles as reflected by the gates-guards. As the story tells the character of Prince Edward, a person who is gentle and mild-mannered (12), he is a person who hates the violence. Therefore, the Prince also experiences the rudeness of his own soldier after he exchanges his position with Tom Canty when he comes out of the palace to start his adventure. “….the soldier fetched him a sounding box on ear that sent him whirling to the roadway, and said: “Take that, thou beggar’s spawn for what thou got’st me from his Highness!” (18). Mark Twain implicitly wants to use Prince Edward as the comparison to other noblemen.
b. Arbitrary and Tyrannous
Mark Twain criticizes the nobles’ manner that shows tyrannous or arbitrary deeds to the common people, for example the nobles like to have scapegoat for their mistakes. They like to have other people suffer for their mistakes. He puts some examples in the story; one example is about the existence of a whipping boy in the palace (105). Whipping-boy has a job to take the whips from prince’s teacher for the mistakes that is made by the prince. Mark Twain uses Prince Edward to criticize the nobles by describing the character of Prince Edward who does not like other people suffer for him. “Thou shalt not suffer for me, madam.
Let these swine do their will upon me alone” (60). Through Prince Edward’s manner, who does not like other people suffer for him, Mark Twain criticizes the their mistakes than themselves who suffers. He would like to show the Prince Edward’s manner as the comparison for the nobles’ manner which he criticizes.
Mark Twain also criticizes the nobles’ unwise attitude such as in treating their servants that only seek for their own sake. Mark Twain uses Prince Edward’s speech to reveals the disagreements of the nobles’ attitude that they usually do their servants, which is represented by Edward Tudor speech. “….my sister the Lady Mary, with her gloomy mien and – Look you: do thy sisters forbid their servants to smile, lest the sin destroy their souls?” (14). This statement implies that the nobles only seek for their own sake. Even for a trivial thing they will not allow it, if it is not for their sake.
Through Prince Edward’s opinion, Mark Twain criticizes King Henry VIII, the greatest noblemen in his reign, who acts as a tyrant that gives such a terror to his own subjects. Mark Twain does use the Prince Edward’s opinion that expresses his confession of the unjust and tyrannical of his father reign, the reign of King Henry VIII. He expresses his confession by having an opinion about the tyrannical reign of his father when he is mourning in his father’s death. “The tidings struck to a chill to the heart of the poor little waif, and sent a shudder through his frame. He realized the greatness of his loss, and was filled with a bitter grief; for the grim tyrant who had been such a terror to others had always been gentle to him” (76). Chrimes (120) states about Henry VIII who were very autocratic in temper and high-handed in methods, and were not shy, on occasions, of straining and even perverting the law in order to get his objectives. Mark Twain criticizes King Henry VIII and considers this greatest nobleman as a tyrant who in
On the other hand, Mark Twain also inserts his criticism on the tyranny or the arbitrariness of the nobles by using the other main character, Tom Canty.
Mark Twain describes Tom Canty as a boy who has a high curiosity. While through Tom‘s high-curiosity, Mark Twain would like to use Tom as the explorer to reveal the life in the palace. Mark Twain uses Tom as a person who comes from out of the palace; a non-nobleman, to reveal the nobles’ life. In this case, Mark Twain reveals the life of the nobles through the common people point of view, Tom Canty’s point of view. Mark Twain criticizes through Tom’s opinion, when Tom experiences the life in the palace. Tom feels frightened of the exchanging positions between Prince Edward and him. He is afraid of being accused that he breaks the privacy of the royal family, by wearing the prince’s cloth, even the Prince wants it, too. “Might they not hang him at once, and inquire into his case afterward? He had heard that the great were prompt about small matters…” (25). Mark Twain would like to show the nobles’ attitude that usually considers the trivial things that disturbs their pleasure. This statement implies that the nobles only seek for their own sake.
Tom as a common citizen certainly is surprised with the life in the palace and surprised with the rules in the palace, for example the rule for the servants that they may not sit in the presence of the prince or the noblemen who have higher rank than them (34). “Tom was conducted to the principal apartment of a noble suite, and made to sit down-a thing which he was loath to do, since there were elderly men and men of high degree about him. He begged them to be seated also, but they only bowed their thanks or murmured them, and remained standing” (34). treatments to their servants, who can be considered as a non-nobility people; a common people.
Tom Canty is also surprised as he meets Humphrey Marlow; the prince’s whipping-boy (105). He is surprised when he knows the whipping-boy’s job that he has to take the whips from prince’s teacher for the mistakes that is made by the prince. Through Tom Canty, Mark Twain would like to show the weirdness of the nobles’ treatment to their servants. He criticizes the nobles’ treatments and ways in valuing the common people; by making a weird position for their servants such as whipping-boy. Through Tom Canty, Mark Twain also reveals his criticism on the character traits of the nobles that shows that they prefer to have other people suffer because of their mistakes.
c. Greedy and Cunning
Mark Twain criticizes the greediness of the nobles as he uses the Prince
Edward’s adventure as the pauper to reveal his criticism on the nobles in the 16 century. In the sixteenth century, there were a lot of facts which implies the cunningness of the nobles. Jeremy Black (119) states about The Duke of Northumberland who deposed and sent under arrest the Duke of Somerset who serves as ‘Lord Protector of the Realm and Governor of the King's Person’ to get his position, although he does not succeed.
The Crucial new figure was John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, who became Lord President of the Council 1550-1553, and Duke of Northumberland in 1551. A member of Henry VIII’s service nobility, he was representative of general aristocratic views on economic regulation and social policy, in being uninterested in either (119). Even in the royal family, there were so many unfair competitions to accede the English crown, for example Mary Tudor, Edward’s half-sister. Morgan (260) states that Mary Tudor took the Throne of England because of she cheated. She could take the Throne after she executed Lady Jane Grey. The Prince’s journey reveals that there are so many stories about wickedness of the nobles. The Prince hears his friend’s story, Miles Hendon-the son of Sir Richard Hendon (84), about Miles’ brother namely Hugh Hendon who is very wicked and cunning. “….Hugh- but I will crack his crown, an he interfere, the fox-hearted, ill-conditioned animal!” (82). Hugh Hendon, Miles’ brother, represents the kind of nobleman who has ambition to raise his territory and authority. Mark Twain puts the character of
Hugh, as a representative of the typical bad noblemen in the 16 Century, as what Miles describes Hugh in the story. “….Hugh, younger than I, a mean spirit, covetous, treacherous, vicious, underhanded-a reptile” (85). Hugh is sly person.
He uses sly way to dominate all his family’s properties as his own. “…and he had a smooth persuasive tongue, with an admirable gift of lying-and these be qualities which do mightily assist a blind affection to cozen itself” (85). He discards Miles to take Miles’ girlfriend as his wife.
….Hugh turn these faults to good account-he seeing that out brother Arthur’s health was but indifferent, and hoping the worst might work him profit were I swept out of the path…then, this brother did deftly magnify my faults and make them crimes…and did convince my father by this….that I was minded to carry off my Edith and marry with her… (86).
As soon as the Prince accompanies Miles comes back to the Hendon Hall, Hugh denies Miles as his brother and pretends that Miles is dead (200), as he tells that he receives a letter that says Miles is dead in war. Where, Hugh himself who people consider that Miles have already died; “… thou’st writ the lying letter thyself, and my stolen bride and goods are its fruit…” (204). He discards his own brothers and his father to have the properties for himself (201). In the novel, in the end of the story, it has proven that Hugh steals his brother’s estates and title and he gets punishment from Edward VI (271). Through the Prince’s journey, Mark Twain would like to show the nobles’ attitude, such as Hugo Hendon’ attitude.
Therefore Prince Edward himself becomes more realize how his noblemen’s attitude out of the palace.
Mark Twain puts so many example of the nobles’ arrogance and criticizes
on it. In the 16 century, the rich and the poor were livings separately (Poor in Elizabethan England). It means that at that time the nobles or the rich were to arrogance in keeping the poor separate from them. He criticizes the noblemen who do not want to remove their identity and live with the common people. Mark Twain uses Prince Edward’s manner that shows wisdom and humbleness as a nobleman, as a satire or criticism to other noblemen who, generally, do not have that kind of manner. Prince Edward shows his wisdom when he meets the peasants who receive him kindly (158), “The children’s mother received the king kindly, and was full of pity; for his forlorn condition and apparently crazed…”.
….by allowing him to sit at the family table and eat with his betters, on ostensible terms of equality with them; and the king, on his side, was so remorseful for having broken his trust, after the family had been so kind to him, that he forced himself to the family level, instead of requiring the woman and her children to stand and wait upon him while he occupied their table in the solitary state due his birth and dignity (161).
Edward shows his wisdom through his manner as when he removes his identity as King and sits at the family table and eats with them, and he does not ask them to stand while he is eating due to his honour as a King. Implicitly, Mark Twain expresses how the honoured-noblemen as should be.
3. Nobles’ Cruelty In the story, Mark Twain shows so many cruelties of the English laws.
Carrie’s England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century describes in the 16 century, the English Laws were absolutely established by the king or by the king’s permission. Chrimes (73) states “Law was tribal custom, or folkright, to which the king was subordinate in every respect, as any other member of the folk. He might, and on occasion did, find it necessary to declare, with the express or tacit assent of the ‘wise man’ of his realm (the witan), what the law was on certain points, and even to commit such declarations to writing”.
The novel also tells the same thing: “The king’s will is law” (32), therefore by showing so many cruelties of the English Laws, Mark Twain implicitly criticizes the greatest noblemen at that time, that is King Henry VIII. Even for his cruelties, Kent McCroskey’s English Occupation states about Henry VIII that he was infamous by his cruelty to the Irish people. Morgan (246-7) implies that there were a lot of victims due to Henry’s vindictive egoism.
a. Torturing Innocent People
The noblemen often do cruel things to the common people; even it was common people frightened, which is reflected in the Tom Canty’s thought. “Might they not hang him at once, and inquire into his case afterward? He had heard that the great were prompt small matters. His fears rose higher and higher; and trembling he …” (25). The nobles also interfere the religion aspect, as shown by King Henry VIII. He uses his authority to close many churches that resist to the king’s regulation (170). Often many peoples are suffers by challenging the nobles, even if they are right, as in the old lawyer’s story where Prince Edward is arrested with (224). Morgan (246-7) describes that there were a lot of people who were executed because they disputed the Act of Supremacy which declared that the king of England was supreme head of the Ecclesia Anglicana, or Church of England—not the pope. They were cruelly executed in the summer of 1535.
Mark Twain uses Prince Edward’s adventure to reveal the apprehensive life of the common people, which is caused by the laws arranged by the nobles who have the charge in government. The Prince meets a troop of vagabonds (136) who consists of people who are disappointed to the laws and suffers by the law.
They are people who are hunted down by the law and forced to get into the crime, as what is experienced by Mr. Yokel (140). Through this journey Mark Twain would like to show the effects of the laws and the application of the law, which are arranged by the noblemen to the common people. Many subjects suffer because of the law and live in fear because of it, as shown in the Mr. Yokel in his last speech
when he tells his story. “….A ! Do ye understand that word! An English
!-that is he that stands before ye. I run from my master, and when I am found-the heavy curse of heaven fall on the law of the land that hath commanded
Mark Twain uses Prince Edward to reveals the injustices of the laws when he himself is sent into the prison (212). He expresses his opinion about the English Laws, as he meets an old lawyer in prison. “…thou shalt be free; and more, the law that have dishonoured thee, and shamed the English name, shall be swept from the statute-books. The world is made wrong, kings should go to school to their own laws at times, and so learn mercy” (224). The Prince hears that the old lawyer is suffered by the law. He is punished and tortured because he protests the injustices of Lord Chancellor. He looses his two ears and gets marked on his cheeks. Mark Twain criticizes the nobles through the Prince Edward’s expression or speech. Prince Edward thinks that the unjust law which do tend to one side such as to neither the nobles nor the common people, in his monarch should be omitted. Therefore, Prince Edward Tudor realizes that the law in his country is not well-established yet. There are still many injustices and the laws tend to take the nobles’ side.
Mark Twain wants the reader to compare the life of other noblemen to the life of Prince Edward, who has the experiences of living in the some levels, even in the lowest level society of English. Prince Edward, by himself has the experiences of many cruelties of the English laws and many types of injustices throughout the land in his “adventure”. Therefore, by using this character, Mark Twain conveys that those experiences give Prince Edward the lesson how to be a good king, a good nobleman.
Unconsciously, the Prince Edward’s paradigms about his people, about the English laws or his father‘s law also have changed after he has the experience in English laws can bring his citizen to good life. It does not seem like that anymore since the Prince meets the Ruffler’s gang, who are consists of some people who are desperate by the English laws (131); a fact that he only knows by reading the books.
b. Violating Humanity
Mark Twain uses the character of Tom Canty to reveal the cruelty of the laws. Tom Canty finds out that there are so many cruel laws as when he meets the three accused persons, a man, an old lady and a young lady. He realizes that the law is very cruel because he knows that there still a kind of punishment that breaks the humanity, such as what the man is going to get. He will be boiled alive (118). He shows his disagreement of this kind of punishment by omitting this punishment to avoid any of his subjects suffers by this kind of cruel punishment.
Lockyer (127) states that there were approximately three hundred men and women were burnt between February 1555 and November 1558 under the reign of Mary Tudor. They were accused of heresy. While, most of them were the common citizen of English who came from the low levels of English society included weavers, fullers, shearman, tailors, hosiers, cappers, husbandmen, labourers, brewers and butchers. There were only nine people who were described as gentlemen. While Morgan (246-247) also describes that there were a lot of people who were cruelly executed in the reign of Henry VIII for resisting the king’s supremacy.
Mark Twain criticizes King Henry VIII, the greatest noblemen in his reign, use the Prince Edward’s opinion that expresses his confession of the unjust and tyrannical of his father reign, the reign of King Henry VIII. He expresses his confession by having an opinion about the tyrannical reign of his father when he mourns in his father’s death. “The tidings struck to a chill to the heart of the poor little waif, and sent a shudder through his frame. He realized the greatness of his loss, and was filled with a bitter grief; for the grim tyrant who had been such a terror to others had always been gentle to him” (76). Mark Twain criticizes King Henry VIII and considers this greatest nobleman as a tyrant who gives such a terror to the people through the Prince Edward’s opinion.
Mark Twain also conveys his criticism through Tom’s opinion and speech, while Tom Canty as king, after the death of the king, Henry VIII. Tom announces that from that time the law of the king will be the law of mercy. “Then shall the king’s law be law of mercy, from this day, and never more be law of blood!” (74).
Mark Twain through Tom Canty’s speech implicitly would like to criticize the previous reign, the reign of Henry VIII, and regards this reign is a reign which full of cruelty, that he calls it as a reign of blood.
4. Nobles’ Ways of Governing
Mark Twain conveys his criticism on the reign that ruled in the England in
the 16 Century by explicitly describes the reign of Edward VI. Mark Twain criticizes the next and the previous reign that have so many lacks in their regime, those are the reign of Henry VIII and the reign of Mary. In the novel he calls the reign of Henry VIII, as the tyrannical reign (74) and the reign of Mary, as the reign of bloody Mary (105). In the reign of Mary, there are hundreds of Protestant leaders were executed (Lockyer 127).
Accordign to Chrimes (11), in the sixteenth century the English Government is officially and legally ruled by His Majesty’s Government (the king and the crown). Chrimes (12) states “the King is a natural person who possesses a number of rights and powers (not vested in any other person), some by virtue of royal prerogative (i.e. by common law relating to the King), some by virtue of Act of Parliament, and the sum total of these rights and power constitutes the Crown”.
However, in the sixteenth century the English Government was dominated by the nobles. The nobility dominated the social and political aspects in many countries; with no exception for the English government. English government was dominated by the nobility until the twentieth century (Nobility). The nobles not only have influence in political and social aspects, but also in the religion aspect. Carrie’s England and Scotland in the Sixteenth Century states about the Duke of Northumberland’s policy which arranged to move English policy in a more Protestant direction.
a. Ignoring the Common People’s Needs and Rights
The nobles sometimes ignore the common people’s rights and needs. Mark Twain criticizes the nobles’ arrogance that they do not pay attention to the
common people’s life. In the 16 century, King Henry VIII can be as an example for ignoring his citizens that he only preferred to devote himself to enjoyment, and let others govern for him while he wasted his time on pleasure (England and half of Henry VIII’s reign, he devoted his days to hunting and his nights to feasting and love, content to leave routine administration and the formulation of policy to his man. In the novel, King Henry VIII ignores the children in the Christ’s church.
Mark Twain uses Prince Edward to criticize his own father, King Henry
VIII. He conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life through Prince Edward Tudor’s opinion and speech. Prince Edward’s speech reveals the criticism on the nobles about the default of the nobles to the common people. The story tells when Edward asks Tom Canty where he lives, he answers that he has no idea about Offal Court, place where Tom lives (13). Mark Twain uses Prince Edward’s adventure to reveal the life of his common citizen. Before his adventure, the Prince might think that all of his subjects live in prosperity. But it has changed since he knew that Tom’s sisters do not have much clothes even they only have one (15). It shows Mark Twain’s criticism on the nobles’ typical trait that likes to ignore with their lacks of attention to the common people’s life.
When I am king, they shall not have bread and shelter only, but also teachings out of books; for a full belly is little worth where the mind is starved, and the heart. I will keep this diligently in my remembrance, that this day’s lesson be not lost upon me, and my people suffer thereby; for learning softeneth the heart and breedeth gentleness and charity (22).
From the quotation above, it can be seen that King Henry VIII ignores the children in the Christ’s Church and their needs. This default is being criticized by Mark Twain through Edward’s willingness to give his subjects’ needs.
He not only ignores his subjects’ needs, but also fails in maintaining the justice of the English Laws. Mark Twain also criticizes the noblemen who ignore common people also have the same rights in the English Laws. Therefore they also seem to use the law to hunt down and give many types of injustices to the common people. It causes many people feel disappointed with the English laws, and they are forced to get into crime as in Mr. Yokel’s story (140). It also makes the reign of King Henry VIII is considered as the reign of blood, as what expresses by his own subjects (75) and the king is titled as a tyrant (76).
Mark Twain describes explicitly the reign of Edward VI in the conclusion part (271) as a satire to those two reigns. He gives a special touch to the conclusion part by giving two subtitles, those are justice and retribution. He gives the justice and retribution first to everyone who relates in his adventure. Edward gives the title Earl of Kent to Miles Hendon (271) as what he has promised when Miles takes his lashes: “Kings cannot ennoble thee, thou good, great soul, for One who is higher than kings hath done that for thee; but a king can confirm thy nobility to men.” He picked up the scourge from the ground, touched Hendon’s bleeding shoulders lightly with it, and whispered, “Edward of England dubs thee earl!” (228). King Edward also gives Mr Yokel, the farmer who is branded and sold as a slave, a comfortable livelihood and recalls him from the troop of the vagabond (271). The King also sets the old lawyer free from the prison and restores his fine. He does the same thing, which is giving the justice and retribution, to other people.
Mark Twain describes that even Edward Tudor only rules in a short time, but his reign inherits and teaches a great story with a lot of goodness of his reign.
“Yes, King Edward VI lived only a few years, poor boy, but he lived them between the harsh times. “The reign of Edward VI was a singularly merciful one for those harsh times” (274). It is no wonder that Mark Twain uses the reign of Edward as one of his ways to criticize the nobles’ life. Mark Twain, by saying “the harsh times”, implicitly criticizes other reigns, especially the two reigns, the previous and the next reign. He considers the previous reign, the reign of Henry
VIII, as the tyrannical reign (74). While, Mark Twain considers the next reign, the reign of Mary, as the reign of bloody Mary (105).
Mark Twain also uses the character of Tom Canty to criticize the default of the nobles in ignoring their duty as (the member of) the government. He criticizes it by describing Tom Canty’s poor life. Mark Twain implicitly criticizes the nobles because the nobles ignore their responsibility to the common people’s life and rights. The nobles forget that as the king’s subjects the common people also have the rights to have a good life. They ignore to give attention to the poor neighbourhoods; one example is in Offal Court, where Tom Canty lives. The nobles forget to improve the social and economic condition of the common people, which is very apprehensive (3). Moreover, Mark twain describes that even the common people do not have a safety and comfortably life. “Drunkenness, riot, and brawling were the order there, every night and nearly all night long. Broken heads were as common as hunger in that place” (4). The people suffer not only by the limited food and clothes (15), but also by having limited rights.
Mark Twain also conveys his criticism through Tom’s opinion and speech, while Tom Canty as king, after the death of the king, Henry VIII. Tom announces that from that time the law of the king will be the law of mercy. “Then shall the Mark Twain through Tom Canty’s speech implicitly would like to criticize the previous reign, the reign of Henry VIII, and regards this reign as a reign which full of cruelty, that he calls it as a reign of blood.
b. Interfering the Church
In the novel, through Prince Edward’s adventure Mark Twain criticizes again the greatest nobleman in the Kingdom, King Henry VIII. Woodward in his book states that Henry VIII had separated the English church from Rome and declared himself as the head of the English church in the 16
century. In the novel he declares himself as the ‘Only Supreme Head in earth of the Church of England’.
In the sixteenth century, the church in England experienced so many kinds of interference by the government. King Henry VIII and Queen Mary made some policy related to the church. Kenneth O. Morgan (246-7) describes that Henry
VIII declared some Acts in his reign, which some of them affected the role of the Roman Church in England.
Henry and Parliament finally threw off England’s allegiance to Rome in an unsurpassed burst of revolutionary statute-marking: the Act of Annates (1532), the Act of Appeals (1533), the Act of Supremacy (1534), the First Act of Succession (1534), the Treasons Act (1534), and the Act against the Pope’s Authority (1536). The act of Appeals proclaimed Henry VIII’s new imperial status—all English jurisdiction, both secular and religious, now sprang from the king—and abolished the pope’s right to decide English ecclesiastical cases. The Act of Supremacy declared that the king of England was supreme head of the Ecclesia Anglicana, or Church of England—not the pope (1984).
Therefore, in the 16
century the nobles also had a strong influence in political and social aspects that they could insert their influence in the government Century states about the Duke of Northumberland’s policy which arranged to move English policy in a more Protestant direction. In Wikipedia’s Lady Jane Grey, Henry VIII closed so many Catholic monasteries and divided the Church's assets among his supporters, while it is no wonder that several Protestant nobles had become wealthy because of the king’s policy.
While, Lockyer (127) states that Queen Mary in her effort in retaining the Roman church in England, burned approximately three hundred men and women who were accused of heresy against the Catholic church.
In the novel, Mark Twain inserts his criticism on the Prince Edward’s adventure when the Prince meets the hermits (164). Henry VIII has done too far in using his authority including in religion aspect. He closes so many churches. Then because of it the hermit becomes crazy (167) and homeless and houseless (170).
That is why the hermit feels so vengeful to the King, even wants to kill everybody who has a relation with the king, including the prince who apparently a pauper.
“His father wrought us evil, he destroyed us-and is gone down into the eternal fires! Yes, down into the eternal fires! He escaped us-but it was God’s will, yes it was God’s will, we must not repine. But he hath not escaped the fires, the consuming, unpitying, remorseless fires-and they are everlasting!” (171).
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter contains two subchapters, they are conclusion and suggestion. The conclusion part consists of the answer of the two questions as stated in the
problem formulation. The suggestion part consists of two parts. First is the suggestion for future researcher(s) and the second is suggestion for implementation of teaching learning process.
Based on the analysis, Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor are described as two people who are look alike in physical appearance. Tom Canty and Prince Edward are born on the same day, but different in the social context. Tom Canty is born in a poor family, while Edward Tudor is born in a rich family. Mark Twain also describes the character traits of the two main characters which are also similar. Mark Twain describes Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor as a gentle, mild mannered and kind people. Mark Twain also describes Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor as two people who have similar great-curiosity and strong will.
Based on the analysis, Tom Canty is described as a smart, intelligent and brave boy. Tom Canty is also described as a person who is full of spirit and has special talent in adapting himself to the condition of his neighbourhood, even in a new neighbourhood. Tom Canty is not only described as a person who has a great something. Tom Canty is described as a thoughtful, wise and helpful person, that he becomes a problem-solver-boy in his society. Mark Twain describes Tom Canty as an extremely honest person.
Mark Twain describes Prince Edward Tudor as a caring person and never underestimates other people. Mark Twain describes Prince Edward as a tough, thoughtful, wise and full of mercy. Mark Twain also describes Prince Edward as a big-hearted person and has an objective point of view. Prince Edward is not only described as a very generous and fair person, but also as a humble person.
This study also reveals the ways how Mark Twain criticizes the English nobles’ life in the Sixteenth Century in The Prince and the Pauper through the characters of Tom Canty and Prince Edward Tudor. Mark Twain criticizes nobles’ life style, nobles’ manner, nobles’ cruelty and nobles’ ways of governing. Mark Twain uses some ways to convey his criticism on the nobles’ life through the two main characters in this novel, Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty. First, Mark Twain conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life through Prince Edward Tudor, one of the main characters, a person who comes from the high-rank society; a nobleman. Mark Twain uses four ways in delivering his criticism through Prince
Edward Tudor. First, he conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life in the 16 Century through Prince Edward’s manner. Second, he conveys his criticism through Prince Edward’s opinion and speech. Third, he conveys his criticism through Prince Edward’s adventure out of the palace. Fourth, he conveys his criticism by describing the Reign of Edward VI.
Second, Mark Twain conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life in the 16 characters who comes from a low-rank society, a common people. Mark Twain uses some ways in delivering his criticism through Tom Canty. He uses there kind
of ways. First, he conveys his criticism on the nobles’ life in the 16 Century through Tom Canty’s poor life. Second, he conveys his criticism through Tom Canty’s opinion and speech. Third, he conveys his criticism through Tom Canty’s adventure in the palace.
Mark Twain’s The Prince and the Pauper criticizes the English laws in the sixteenth century, both under the reign of Henry VIII, and the reign of Mary.
Many of the criticism are regarded to the final execution such as boiling to death, beheaded or hanged, that violate the humanity, and also the inappropriate usage of authority that interfere in religion aspect also.
1. Suggestion for Future Researcher (s)
For other readers or researchers who conduct a study on the same novel, this study can be used as a reference. So, other researchers who will conduct a literary study can use the result of this study as the consideration in the future works in literature. The future researcher can use the data of English culture
during 16 century if he or she is interested in exploring the novels which has strong influence from English culture. The future researcher can also use historical approach to compare the real history to the story in the novel because Mark Twain wrote this novel based on the history of England.
A novel as one of literary work can be used as an instrument to teach a language since it has some benefits. First, learning a language through literary works is apart of appreciating literature. Second, literature with its evidence of vocabulary usage and syntax will increase language skills, including linguistic knowledge. Third, literature can help us to learn a culture as it is closely related to language. Rahmanto says that literature can be used in education as a means to improve language skills and the culture knowledge, to develop thoughts and feelings, and to help personality development (16-25).
Teachers may also consider some criteria as what Lazar proposes. First, the teacher needs to know the students’ cultural background. A teacher needs to pay attention to since it their cultural background will provide them with important insight and understanding of the students’ cultural differences.
Second, the teacher should consider the students’ linguistic proficiency. When the students get a text with a higher level of their linguistic proficiency, they will get dressed, reluctant, annoyed, and feel difficult. Therefore, the teacher will also difficult in giving assignment to the students. Accordingly, the teacher should choose a text considering their linguistic proficiency.
Next, the teacher needs to know the students’ literary background. Some students who accustomed to some kinds of literary works, will be easier to understand a literary works.
Fourth, the teacher is supposed to know the availability of the texts. A teacher needs to consider whether the amount of the books in the library is sufficient for the students or not. Besides, how much effort students need to get
Next, the teacher also has to consider the length of the texts. Concerning the time limitation, a teacher also should estimates the length of the texts. When the text is quite long, teacher will run out of the time. In contradictory, teacher needs to manage the time effectively.
The last, in implementing the text in the classroom, it would be better for a teacher to conceive how that can be exploited.
Some students might think that implementing literature in teaching and learning English is less practical if it is compared with other English subjects, such as structure and writing. This is possible for us to make them realize that literature teaches us the human values in general, which they tell will not be able to get from the other subjects, besides literature enables us to learn other skills, for example reading skill.
I would like to suggest Mark Twain’s novels, as he taught a lot about human values. He gave understanding on reality, and he asked us to appreciate people as they are from certain social or education backgrounds.
I choose reading skill since reading is the most important skill as what has written by Paulston and Bruder, “reading is the most important skill for most students in the audio-lingual tradition of language teaching” (157). After all one thing that is important in reading is keep reading without being worried about unfamiliar words. Students can catch the main idea although they may not know the meaning of some words. Students should not be worry about all the words which they do not understand as long as they get the major outline of the reading (Paulston and Bruder 202). The important thing is keep them reading.
The teacher has to select the appropriate novel which is acceptable for the students The teacher should give enjoyable and comfortable environment so that the students can relax in teaching learning activities. If the students are really exciting with the teaching learning activities, they will motivate themselves to learn. The teacher can encourage the students to express their ideas by their own interpretation after they read the novel. The important thing is the students are able to comprehend the whole context of the passage. There are various ways of teaching reading, and it is not only mastering vocabulary, but also interpreting the idea of the novel. Here, I use a novel as the subject of teaching reading. There are various novels, such as simple novel with simple plot of the stories.
In the reading implementation for the English teaching and learning, there are some procedures a teacher needs to follow:
1. The teacher chooses a certain part from the novel as the reading materials.
2. The teacher gives the reading materials and handouts to the students.
3. The teacher asks the students some pre-reading questions orally to arise their interests on the topic.
4. The teacher asks the students to read individually the reading materials and gives the time limit to read.
5. The teacher asks the students to answer the given comprehension questions based on the students’ understanding on the text.
6. The teacher and the students discuss the answers of comprehension questions together.
8. The teacher asks the students to discuss the difficult words and unclear things within their group
9. The teacher and the students discuss the meaning of the difficult words Therefore, the students are able to develop their understanding skill through reading, as it needs a creativity to build a mind of well understanding of certain passage or materials.
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h t m l>
APPENDICESAppendix A A.
Mark Twain’s Biography
Samuel Langhorne Clemens
1835 - 1910
Mark Twain was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens on 30 November 1835, in Florida. Clemens was the sixth child of John Marshall Clemens, a lawyer, and Jane Lampton Clemens. In 1839, the family moved to nearby Hannibal, Mo., where in this small river town Clemens spent his boyhood years. He married Olivia Langdon on 2 February 1870 and had four children; Langdon, Olivia Susan, Clara, Jean Lampton.
As a writer, Mark Twain is known as one of America's truly unique and defining personalities. His ability to tap into American culture and humor gave him an invaluable insight in his writings and speeches. Known for his realism, memorable characters, bluntness and hatred of hypocrisy and oppression, Twain is definitely one of the most recognizable figures in American history.
He started his career as he worked as printer's apprentice and typesetter to Joseph Ament, who published the Missouri Courier in Hannibal, MO, in 1848 after his father’s death. In 1851, he worked as typesetter and contributing sketches to his brother Orion's Hannibal Journal. During the next two years, he continued at the Journal and became an editor. Even, some of his sketches got published in the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post in 1852.
In 1857, Clemens headed to New Orleans. He met steamboat pilot Horace Bixby who accepted him as an apprentice. Clemens spent the next two years as a cub pilot, and received his pilot's license in 1859. Clemens also had an experience as a secretary and government worker in Nevada when Abraham Lincoln was in charge as a USA President.
In 1863 he began signing his articles with the pseudonym Mark Twain, a Mississippi River phrase meaning "two fathoms deep". In the next year, Twain started to work for the Morning Call, a local paper, in San Fransico, as a reporter and was the Pacific correspondent for the Territorial Enterprise and stayed for four year in San Francisco. Twain worked for a variety of publications over the next few years and met American writers Artemus Ward and Bret Harte, who would encourage and help him in his writings. Then, in 1866 he took a job as a correspondent for the Sacramento Union.
In 1867, Twain lectured in New York City, and started the big part of his life. Twain wrote "The Innocents Abroad" (1869) taking from his own Twain. In 1870, he married Olivia (Livy) Langdon and began their life in Buffalo, New York, before they moved to Hartford, Connecticut. After his marriage, his life became more stable but still very active and continued his writing career.
In the decade to come, Twain wrote his most well-known books and during the next 20 years Twain's family and fame would both grow. He wrote "Roughing It" (1872) that contains recounts of his early adventures as a miner and journalist; "The Gilded Age" (1874) his first non-fiction book; "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" (1876) celebrates boyhood in a small Mississippi River town; "A Tramp Abroad" (1880) describes Twains adventures through Germany and the Alps; "The Prince and the Pauper" (1882), a children's book; "Life on the Mississippi" (1883) Twain's recollections of his experiences as a river boat pilot and his memories of a visit back to the area more than two decades later; "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court" (1889) a satirical look at feudal England.
Many of Twain's works were tied to his own experiences. He wrote "Life of the Mississippi", "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" and his most famous book "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" (1884) that were tied to his experience of his childhood in Hannibal.
In the last years of his life after the death of his oldest daughter and his wife, Mark Twain moved to Redding, Conn., and spent his time in a home he called Stormfield. However, the house would not bring Clemens luck. His youngest daughter, Jean, suffered from epilepsy and she died of a seizure at Stormfield. He was decimated by the passing of Jean. He grieved by writing about her passing, "The Death of Jean”.
Twain's health failed him after Jean's death. On 21 April 1910, he sank into a coma, his heart failed and he died in his bed. Samuel Clemens died at age 74 and was buried next to his wife and children at Woodlawn Cemetery, in Elmira, N.Y. At the same time of Twain's death, Halley's Comet reappeared in the April skies. Twain often said the he would "go out with the comet.” Remarkably, his prediction came true. He was known and respected throughout the world as a humorist during his life, and since his death, his reputation has only grown. Today, Mark Twain is known as a great writer as well as a humorist and American icon (http://www.hannibal.net/twain/biography) B.
Mark Twain’s The Prince and The Pauper tells a story of two young boys who were born on the same day and very similar in physical appearance, but lived in different social background. The Prince, Edward Tudor, lived in an extremely rich family. On the other hand, Tom Canty lived in a very poor family.
Tom Canty lived in a poor neighbourhood in Offal Court, out off Pudding Lane. He is the only son of a beggar and thief, John Canty. Different from Tom Canty, Prince Edward Tudor lived in a rich family, might be the richest family in England, because he is the son of King Henry VIII, the King of England. Tom always dreamt to meet the real prince. He met Father Andrew who taught him Latin and told him about the life of royal families. His imagination and his ability led him to be able to copy the lesson from father Andrew, and he began to talk and behave as the way the royals talk and behave.
His desire to meet real Prince led him traveled so far out of his place and met Prince Edward. After, passing their interesting conversation, Tom and Prince Edward decided to exchange their position and experience the life of each other. Finally, Tom could feel the life in the palace. Even later he met some inappropriate thing such as some punishment that violate the humanity; for example, the final execution of boiling to death, beheaded or hanged.
On the other hand, Edward’s life outside the palace was really tough, especially because he was not used to poverty and inconveniences. His stubbornness of keep introducing himself as the Prince of Wales, the King’s son, only led him to get mocking from the public. His ‘adventure’ outside the palace, apart from getting himself some troubles also helped him to learn that there were loads of injustices on the English laws authorized by his late father, King Henry
Fortunately, in his hard journey, King Edward met a kind person, Miles Hendon, who protected him in his journey. Edward met the vagabonds; consist of beggars, thieves, robbers, slaves, deceiver, and etc. Therefore he realized the life of his own subjects, since he was in the Christ’s church. In this gang he realizes what the law had done to them. They got injustices from the law, and it also happened to the lawyer that he met in prison. The Prince realized that his father has done too far in using his authority including in religion aspect, as he met the hermit who attempted to kill him. King Henry VIII separated the English church from the Rome.
“The Prince and the Pauper” was satirizing the English laws in the Mary. Many of the criticism are regarded to the final execution such as boiling to death, beheaded or hanged, that violate the humanity, and also the in appropriate usage of authority that interfere in religion aspect also.
C. Pictures 1. King Henry VIII (1491 - 1547)
Born : 28 June 1491 Birthplace : Greenwich, England Died : 28 January 1547 known as : The king with six wives Henry VIII is one of the most famous and controversial kings of England. His fickle passions and demand for a male heir led him to marry six different women. (Two of those wives, Anne Boleyn and Katharine Howard, were executed on his order.) Henry's divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, led to http://home.earthlink.net/~elis his split with the Catholic Church and set the ale/queenmary.html stage for the English Reformation and for religious battles which lasted for centuries.
(It also led to his famous clash with Sir Thomas More, who was tried for treason and executed.) Henry VIII was the father of Elizabeth I, who became one of England's most powerful and longest-reigning monarchs. Henry is also known for his great girth; his obesity probably contributed to his death at age 56. He was succeeded by his son, Edward VI, born to Jane Seymour. (http://www.answers.com/topic/henry-viii?cat=entertainment)
2. King Edward Tudor VI(1537 - 53)
Born : 12 October 1537 Birthplace : Hampton Court Palace, London, England Died : 6 July 1553 Edward VI became King of England and Ireland on
28 January 1547, at just nine years of age. Edward, the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, was the third monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first ruler who was Protestant at the time of his ascension to the throne. Edward's entire rule was mediated through a council of regency as he never reached majority. The council was first led by his uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (1547
- 49), and then by John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland (1549-1553).
Queen Mary I (1516 - 1558)
18 February 1516 Birthplace : Palace of Placentia, Greenwich,
London, England Died :
17 November 1558 known as : The ‘Bloody’ Mary Mary I also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de facto) or 19 July 1553 (de jure) until her death on 17 November 1558.Mary, the fourth monarch of the Tudor dynasty, after Jane Grey and before Elizabeth I, is remembered for briefly returning England to Roman Catholicism. To this end, she had almost three hundred religious dissenters executed; as a http://home.earthlink.net/~elisal consequence, she is often known as Bloody e/queenmary.html
Mary. Her reestablishment of Roman Catholicism was reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I (1558–1603). Mary and Elizabeth were both first cousins once-removed of Mary, Queen of Scots, granddaughter of their aunt Margaret Tudor.
Family Trees THE TUDORS Henry VII, King of England 1485-1509 Arthur Henry VIII, King of England 1509-47 Margaret Mary THE STUARTS Jane Grey
Married, Guilford Dudley, son of the Duke of Northumberland
Married, James IV of Scotland
Mary I Elizabeth I Edward VIII James V Mary Stuart James I (VI of Scotland)
King of England 1603-1625 King of England 1547-1553 (By Jane Seymour)
Queen of England 1558- 1603 (By Anne Boleyn)
Queen of England 1553- 1558 (By Catherine of Aragon)
Subject : Extensive Reading
II Skill : Reading Level :
Semester of English Language Education Study Program
Topic : The Birth of the Prince and the Pauper Material : Chapter I, page 1-2 Time Allocation : 1 meeting @ 2 x 50 minutes
Activities: Basic Competencies Achievement Indicators Learning Experiences Materials Form Of Evaluation Reading
- The students are able to get complete and detailed understanding of the passage.
- The students are able to answer the questions based on the passage.
- Give opinions concerning the pas
- The teacher gives the stimulus about the topic today.
- The teacher gives guided questions to the students.
- The students answer the guided questions given by the teacher.
- The teacher distributes the reading passage The >Handout
- Chapter I, page>discussion
- students’ participation<
- The students read the reading passage
- The students answer the comprehension question based on the reading passage The
At the end of the discussions, the students are expected to be able to understand the passage and improve their reading skills
Birth of the Prince
and the Pauper
The Birth of the
Prince and the
Birth of the Prince and the Pauper
- The teacher and the students discuss the answer of the comprehension questions together.
- The students do the vocabulary task The teacher and the students discuss the answers of the vocabulary task together.
Twain, Mark. The Prince and the Pauper. New York: PF. Collier and Son Company, 1882.
Appendix C Pre- reading Questions
1. What is your opinion about living on poor community?
2. What will you do if you find yourself on a rich community?
A. Read the following text carefully!
THE BIRTH OF THE PRINCE AND THE PAUPER In the ancient city of London, on a certain autumn day in the second quarter of the sixteenth century, a boy was born to a poor family of the name of Canty, who did not want him. On the same day another English child was born to a rich family of the name of Tudor, who did want him. All England wanted him too. England had so longed for him, and hoped for him, and prayed god for him, that, now that he was really come, the people went nearly mad of joy. Mere acquaintances hugged and kissed each other and cried. Everybody took a holiday, and high and low, rich and poor, feasted and danced and sang, and got very mellow; and they kept this up for days and nights together. By day, London was a sight to see, with gay banners waving from every balcony and housetop, and splendid pageants marching along.
By night, it was again a sight to see, with its great bonfires at every corner, and its troops of revelers making merry around them. There was no talk in all England but of the new baby, Edward Tudor, Prince of Wales, who lay lapped in silks and satins, unconscious of this fuss, not knowing that great lords and ladies were tending him and watching over him-and not caring either. But there was no talk about the other baby, Tom Canty, lapped in his poor rags, except among the family
1. Could you tell the setting of the story above?
2. Why many people are happy with the born of Edward Tudor?
3. Could you describe how the people express their happiness?
4. Could you compare the social background of the two main characters, Prince Edward Tudor and Tom Canty?
Vocabulary Task Find the meaning of the words below!
1. Feast :
6. Mellow :
2. Banner :
7. Splendid :
3. Pageant :
8. Lapped :
4. Pauper :
5. Reveler :
10. Rag :
Post – Reading Questions
a. What is the topic of this novel?
b. What is the setting of The Prince and the Pauper?
c. Which one of the two main characters do you like? Why?
d. Do you think this novel is interesting?