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  .of all editors.edition,containing a reprint the labours of the previous is inThere trouble is often wasted a great deal of learned rubbish it; muchin what is and really difficultelucidating plain, points are frequentlyin I, silence" (Hillard, passed by Spenser* v-vi). Thomson's Thefor J Literature;English Background of forfor Edward Arnold Ltd, Oliver The Atlantic Elton's Shelley; Monthly Warren Beach for his TheArthur Symons' ConceptShcUey; Joseph of Nature Benn Ltd, for the in Ninetee.nth~Gertiury English Poetry; ErnestBasil Black- Julian Edition ofShelley's Works; Roger Ingpen-Waltar Peck welt for and and the Principle of Association** Ralph Houston's "Shelley for Nineteenth William R.

I. Ifatrth; Kdin-

  for Demon Arthur Wormhoudt's The & Exposition Press /xwr; Kyrcfor Leslie Hours in a Fa her mid Library:Stephens* Spottiswoode Ltd.for for hin Faber Ltd. JL Fogle "(mage St Limited of and A Prometheus Unbound"; Gambit Imagelessness: Readingfor The for Co.

H. Kfhir;

  KoilwayV George Harrap& thefor Lorli Godwin and Transition; Harvard Pnwn the Univornity Age of Classical for IIitin individual William(see editors); Library Bibliographyfor Edition of Ltd. GarJwVCharles Swinburne; Company Hough for Poems and Shelley George WoodbetrryV l*tiIiri<Ige of Percy ByssheEdition of Poetical Hutchin-The Complete Percy /tyssfw Shelley; Works of sonCo.

I. White's

  Spirit of Afrm;for Solomon in, the for Kwnantir hutn*Company Gingerich's Essays Alfred Science North Whitehead's and the Modern for ami WiHtnin JfWrf,Co. for 01 won Ware} Butler Yeats's Essays; Methuen & CnmplwlPH and the D.for C.

A. Glutton- Brock's I/if

  S toughfor Alfred Modern No Some Lippineott (Company yes'sAspects of Poetry; Press forEllsworth Barnard's The Odyssey Shelley; Selected Poems, Essays* Oxford forand letters; Press, New Kurtz's University York, Benjamin The Pursuit Death; A Oxford Press, of Study of Shells Poetry; University for IX New York, Ltd, the Sinclair John and John Lane The Bodley Bead translation of Dante's DivinePress, London, Comedy; Oxford University for H. for Bermrd The Edmund George Shaw; Works of Viking Press Blunders SfieUty.a word of thanks for and far assistance Finally, specialpatience beyond call the either vows to her to this book is whom of duty or of marital dedicated.




302CRITICAL NOTES APPENDIXES A*Drafts of Prometheus Unbound 631 Shelley'sTranslations of Prometheus

B. Shelley*s Italian

  effort to read has been mad amplified published portions of the Everyway* nil the* to in in of references the written and those languagesEnglish, foreignpoemof this material that have (muchbeen generally recognized a of inde{>emlent value of a k and American Lackcriticism)* largely a reworking of English comprehensive it is but that noShelley bibliography hat increased the possibility of oversight, hoped 1820 and 1955 has been missed. The beenor Shelley's editions manuscripts and the Preface.and the latter in detail for the verse in detail, compared to admission or has been With the critical material, rejectionrespectwill to whicha better understanding of the poem determined by the degree at refer to result.


  IntroductionAIM OF this Introduction is THE twofold; to of(1) outline the present body textof Prometheus and the of Unbound natureknowledge concerning the the of the to the (2) broader outlines of principal editions poem; survey critical to of theopinion with respect the quality and meaning poem. it for made to be Distance, however, mmt inexpedient the proofsto he on Giftbornes on 2 him, so seized hopefully the departure of the May to wrote him an and from to Chariot Oilier advocate, (a till Pisa) give14: onMay As to will.1 I>e it asm thin the printing of the "Prometheus,'* But, a*%you shall trust in repose or your care respecting the correction of the pww; enpednllywhere a minute error would be of much Mr,in the lyrical parts, coiiAac{uem*.

18 Mrs. Shelley wrote

  Nor he see" (X, 232)4,quickly forget the On May in a letter to it either have been the errors Byron, may of the printing or a of toitself momentary change heart with respect the quality of the poem that led to write: him "The 'Prometheus' is; and on June ... Roman numerals were assigned the pages preliminaryto the text of the poem, with the first to appear being yiii,and the material was PROMETHEUS UNBOUND/&C&c; [ii] Marchant, advertisements of The Cenci, The Revolt of Islam,Rosalind and Helen, and Alastor.




157Sensitive Plant The174 Vision of the Sea A 182to Ode Heaven 186Exhortation An 188to the Ode West Windhad AnOde, written October, 1819 before the Spaniards their 193recovered Liberty196 CloudThe 201To a Skylark 207Ode to Libertyhalf-title: PROMETHEUS blank; -xv Preface; [xvi] blank; [xvii] [vi] [vii] ME-[xviii] [19] PRO


[154] blank; [155] half-title:



  as the references in Contents Prometheus the the Unbound other page are correct,reference would to be either a inanappear typographical error or oversight checkingpaging. Thomas Wise the (in 1920's) that "during recent years available has nearly every collective Half-titles and Titlescopybeen broken up, the been firsthave and the three editions .


  (or the Galignanis' is usein addition to the thereof)suggested by the following comparison:consistent to indicatesyllable,use of the apostrophe an unpronounced the text of made in the Galignanis ninety-two punctuation changes Unbound, all to in Prometheus which are be found Mrs. inattempt as Newman interest in Shelley's writings,although, evidence of continuing first a noticeable"The of fame owed White noted, Shelley'sIvey growth debt to histhe accidental factor of connection with II, (Shelley,. in Byron"It a number of the editions of 399) be further pointed out that might to had also to share the of Cole- 1829 1838 the poet the period company for set and combined edition Keats, ridge the Galignani the pattern.the edition of work on 1839By Mrs.

H. Taylor

  by appeared in editions to and offers 18391839, evidence that Mrs. Shelley used the Galignani edition for as printer's Unbound, making copy her second volume, including Prometheuscorrectionsand on the proofs.her changes 14 II.iv.100.

I. II, 394-99

  year with hers is evidenced by the many typo- graphicalerrors and affection 1870edition is most pertinent: For thefirst time since whichEis poemmight not have been completely satisfactorytothe wishes of thepoet, for inthe E manuscript copy, on which Shelley ap- pearsto have worked even after the poemwas published, there are some150 readings(exclusiveof punctuationdifferences, in faulty)that differ from both the 1820 It is clear, however, from studyof the variant readings, that Mrs. Shelley'sverbal usageas his answer to Poe would some the text sanctioned ofhis differences mayhave been the resultof accident;16 and his complete independence in hisuse of punctuation and capitalization in Prometheus Unbound wassecond onlytothat of W.

18 He

  He described the "extremely confused state of thesebooks,andthe equal difficulty of decipheringandconnecting their contents" (Relics, p.xi), which would be true of the draftmaterials, but not of K. Scott in1873 brought out the poetical works, including all of the and he from Miss Both of these Westminster Reviewfor July, IntroductionIt was at thispoint that the influence of the Emanuscript of the poemfirstbecame evident,for Miss Mathilde Blind checked certain (but only a few) ofRossetti's emendationsagainst it in her review of his edition, in the 1870.

21 It

  variant readings thatinconservative first editionthis Shelley'sfollowing (and was an important corrective and histo Rossetti), and notes,changes, conjectures evidencedcritical restraint in the absence of the asyet unavailable manuscript.that a such manu- Possibly the knowledge, through Miss Blind's article, contributed to thisexisted in his work.scriptquality In the Introduction to his edition acknow- of 1890, Edward Dowden hisindebtedness to both Rossettiledged and Forman, and commented: Mr. Forman has sometimes been over-conservative of of freely,peculiarities obvious errorsand cloud the it spelling When these sense, seems of punctuation.tomake a correction in for [Edition, permissible .

22 Rossetti's

  Inasmuch as the compilers of such Jane Shelley Library by Rossetti made separateItalian and Danish translations had been a separate German translation of the poem in1876, and appeared edition of Prometheus Unboundasa separate itemin the editionof Vida in1892.) This was also the first "student's edition,"provided with anex- cellent body of critical and interpretative notes but with little contribution to the establishment of the text. did, however, introducetime some E that in had been recorded Locock's Examin- of the readings of made no mention of the ation (he work and his work of Zupitza-Schick), thusat position in assumed an important the textual history of thepoem the turn of the century.

C. Shelley-Rolls

was no independent examina-

28 Freeman found

  E and the textwas no more exact or manuscript, Ingpen-Peck final than were several it.there were several Indeed, others that precededinexcusablefailure in errors, or of andreference,typographical frequent the notesissues first between the two of the edition and the to distinguish editions two 1839 of Mrs. FromPrometheus Unbound the foregoing survey of the textual history of it will clear serious be that nothe between evaluation of the relationshipeditions made the had been since work manuscript copy and the accepted of and Ackermann whose have Locock, both of we seen, wereeditions, as deficient inthe to the To and certain respects.

30 E.3 of all lines of the

  but ten contain, hand, ain Shelley's copy poemof which are in- to in the a notebook, (eight be described below, HuntingtonThe MS fourth notebook, poet'sLibrary). probably (see B) Appendix and withmost of the Generally speaking, certainly so in comparison extant are isthese notebooks one whodrafts, reasonably legible to willingto There Shelley's are,acquaint himself with handwriting.

e, 7?i, o, 5, or whether was

capital letterwritten first alters when Shelley one by overwriting with the other; the on small e is to i confusion in withloop often suppressed or missing, leadingthose instances fails to dot the where he i, or to place the dot correctly over it a situation that is difficult made his own confusion withmore by

30 These notebooks of leaves. has

  slight difference in 21respectto of the many of the problems relative tothe manu-script must remain tentative, especially in view manner inwhich copymadeby the poet used the notebooks, but the more general evidencerelative to Prometheus Unbound may the poet (Examination, p. 29). of the handwriting permits that, heyonda few reasonable conjectures (listed in the Textual Notes of the present edition), "neither Shelley's numberingof the lines nor variation in safe additions.

81 Little

  import, or follow application until it almost and was This review did not October, reach Shelley he his answer: the final five wrote certainly at that time that paragraphsof the Prometheus Unbound Preface.written the article, and Shelley thought, erroneously, that Southey had in a letter from Florence to the Olliers dated October declared 15, He added: Iin this is the assertion that imitate remark worth noticeThe pieceonly orWordsworth, It as well be said that imitates Wordsworth. .the is And this author of the very by which being thus pervaded.influence of the is an influence neither the meanest scribbler [the which nor the age] I era and which tocansublimest genius of any escape; have not attempted escape.his for Urged on by the challenge of the review, Shelley restated positionin toinclusion the Preface the new made a draft of poem.

38 E is

  Shelley adopted systematic order of paging ployed constructing in write in the then these books sometimes he would front, the back, then with side the book bottom and downup and the pages length-up, frequently he wrote after across them and never wise written too Greek, Latin, plainly.having any are all and lines in and Italian, together, one language Spanish English mixed up across lines in another other written directly often appear written or diagonally . These lines are of in course,481-92, 500-16, 519-23, not, giventhe above makes and their the order commentindicated, as clear, complex will if inbe evident paging development and the transcription the present edition is consulted(see Appendix A).

34 The line number was

  Since chronology of importance of the in such a survey, however, dateshave been included in either the text or the references, in order that the readermayat all times be oriented in the midst of what will criticism spirit part of the Introduction only the fairly general trends of the pertinent in critical opinionhave beenindicated, withmore specific references to acts, scenes, or lines reserved for the Critical Notes. manuscript Introduction Shelley-Rolls has not yet been indexed orfully described (leaving faulty abstract of the passage was given,with no indication of the changesmade by the poet in working out his drafts. Unfortunately, thegiftof one the In each instance onlya anticipation of later discoveries), but, through the courtesy and diligenceof the Keeper of WesternManuscriptsat the Bodleian Library, the two passages givenin somewhat and Prose (1934).


  6),the Prome- Shelley's interest in is thean to theme be found in related in earlier efforts.ideas used these echoes will be found recorded in the Critical NotesMany of the present hereedition, but we observe some of the may broader aspects of the prob- as I. of the of October noted by White, toElizabeth Hitchener: "I have of the 18, 1811, been convincedlong eventualof mind of is sufficient motive omnipotence over matter;adequacy to and is willwhen become anything, golden age my the present potence Will it not be the task of human humanreason, omnipotencepowers?" I, 195; Julian, VIII, (Shelley, 160).

88 Gliasta "The

  "The main historical action is same a A View the namelyPhilosophical of Reform: the French Revolution to establishment of the from the thesymbolic depiction of age into the of the Alliance and future" (K. Oppressors, 1923, ofthe difference between the materialistic and deterministic Shelley's phase reconciliation scientific in the earlier the of science with thought poem, and in the later and Grabo Piatonism Poets, 1930, xi), work (Newton p.among "to a is the work who has ceased be stated: Prometheus Unbound of a poet 39 reformer and has become 1935,(Interpretation, p.

II, 125-26)

  Shelley, inIslam" (Correspondence, "more to the idealized" de- Prometheus, and Unbound, compared Laon scribed as "the of OneShelley's favorite subject warring with the image Evil not it, all who even Principle, oppressed only by but by the good, evil a a were deluded into considering necessary portion of humanity;full victim of fortitude the ofspirit and hope and triumph emanating from a reliance on the ultimate of Good" John (see C). omnipotence Appendix Prometheus and suggested that Addington Symonds Jupiter "give the form Ormuzd-Ahrirnan ex- of personality to Shelley's dualism alreadyin the first but canto of [The Revolt Islam]; pressed ofinstead of being ison the theatre of the strife removedhuman now into the represented life,abstractions, vivifiedregion of (Shelley, by mythopoetry" 1878, pp. 121-22).

3. The Giant has which he

  MSS (Reel 16) (Abinger MSS, the Abinger to letters written which an index of severalShelleyby Leigh Hunt, the subject of one of is as follows: "The Prome-6, (dated April 1820, before publication of the poem) given not in 1st The while the collection, theus Unbound letter,Edition nearly exhausted." to nor in is and and shows the reference be the editions, (II, 489)given in Shelley Mary in Charles Oilier to Mrs. that forest With the there the ofbegan growth the publication of poemcriticism is to see trees ofof which it difficult because of the frequently it isand sheer obtuseness with which special planted.prejudice, pleading,lavish it to in will be most blaze six Perhaps, surveying the growth, helpful trails tothat will lead to the areas of consideration accorded the major in is itIf it is mind that there abundant bekept poem.



  run mad" (see D, item X) Similar charges of obscurity prose Appendixto after critical effortsoccurred down the end which the of the century,the more that had been madeto clarifyobscure parts of the poem beganto to bear and attention was other matters.fruit,givenalso to were raised the wordiness of the Objections and hidden meaningis crushed Gilfillan wrote: "It under a load of thick allegori- poem. Symonds figures,had been reduced in their "toofilling-in much surpassing magnificence,"to the level life," to the Prometheus and of earthly descending love story ofAsia: "In he does and other words,not sustain the visionary primeval on the other has he so dignity of these incarnated abstractions; nor, hand,theirelaborated characters in detail as to them give the substantiality of isThere therefore in both hollowfigures"persons.

46 Sirmlar views have been held

  is like in the fresh to dawn of the world, the the language of beings wakening, their of own emotions and the miraculous loveliness of the universe.mystery to theWe seem behold indifference elemental splendour of things disarrayed of thatwhich from our and from effect ofsprings superficial familiarity, the deadeningour conventional existence [Memorials, 1859, p. Interesting given Symonds stressed the of thepoet's (a Turneresque quality perceptions : comparison 45 The scale of colour is and darker omitted.and the shadows are An light aerial, excess of luminousness seems to the atfrom whichbe continually radiated objectshe and in this of itself is to looks; radiation the outline lights, many-coloured aptbe a little Shelley, misty.

A. Yolland: "poetic language

  These werein all details to embodied the should be the abstract ideas work (Bowra in ; the of felt that mood and here) (2)tone the poet succeeded problemto and to relate abstract ideas human human (in how feelingsexperience ofthis he was not ; and the how much successful) (3)always problem he was should be included ("Shelley evidently believed that writing a great it all his and into mostimaginative daring philosophical poem and pouredin terms of his . man* $ felt written it lived in had heMagazine that Aeschylus might have at the close D,Shelley's (see of the century day Appendix item XIV), andfelt Vida Scudder countered those who in the a lack of unity by poem in didPrometheus Unbound "architectonic maintaining that only Shelley's itself in faculty" evidence any important way:in a distinct Each act of the Prometheus centres themephase of the one first The calm of act, endurance, breaks [Redemption].

C. Smith: "it is as as and J

  Miss Scudder felt also that the architectonic power of Shelleywas noblyshownby his use of light and color firstfrom fullglory night into dawn, then darkeningin the storm of theFuries,then again clearinginthe promise "of the peace of dawn," with the sunrise deepeninginto its have and moonstruck are We do not of the sun, not in the shadows cast bythe moon or the limelight, demands that life shall reflect andultimately emhody it. go enacted in the to it for facts concerning early Greece or the Europe of 1820,but for fundamental verities that areclamped to noageand light fever, interpretations,seemingly oblivious of thefactthat The dramaof the tangible stage has even here 'the play'sthething' "(Shelley and theUnromantics, 1924, p. 203).

B. Rajan

  by the reader with help effectiveness directions in this of theof He pointed out the the stage poem,as for of thesubstitutes and and costume,scenery descriptive passages words and the charac- in visualizing setting,phrases that guide the reader itand action of the Jacobi admittedters, that, for play. Scott cited as evidence of an fact that"infirmity of construction" the the an and trivial theso that manner, hero disappeared "in unexplainedhis result of and of the receives no endurance of nature grqat sympathy This view Helene (Edition, 1873, xxiii).adequate development" p.

49 That had no illusions clear

  It to for wesay write a play I, 117).anyother purpose" (Trelawny, Records, 1878, is isGraham comment Unbound the first line Hough's pertinent: "Prometheus of a longcast in no conceivable relation of nineteenth-centurypoems dramatic form, but with to the theatre" (Romantic Poets, 1953, he was should have; lacked the force of personality kept Demogorgonand fatal the connection with the child was unclear. Macmillan Brown saw Prometheus as realAnd, though "the onlyindramatic character the for of an ab- drama; besides being the symbol stract isidea he he the close it fades "towards agreed that a personality,"offinto that of existence that is to most real"fringe misty the poet the was Arthur D.

B. Hungerford: "Shelley chips

lies full five" fathom "the plot (Shores 97, 100).of Darkness, 1941, pp.

51 J. insisted "drift about

  it to atRevell seemed that "what a the or the foot ofcross, watcher by inthe ismore mountain, appear nothing than simple endurance,may active for most and a severe kind,reality mastery a struggle of the struggle over the weakness of the flesh"("Prometheus," 1907, 427). ** Shelley against the Spender's argumentisstatement is at all not typical: [Prometheus dramatic, Unbound] perhaps see so much a indrama the situation of the struggle because Shelley did not between as an occasion for the victory of the gods, symbol of the oppressed"28).

D. Hughes, and, frequently

  drama Newton 34; Carl Gfabo, symbolic (Oliver Elton, Shelley, p. xi; Cazamian, Edition, p.

28 Shelley, p

  Andre in "There areuses of music Coeuroy, noting the many the imagery, stated: to bond between souls.hearts which music reveals the fraternal For Shelley, the poetof as this, inasmuch she seeks poets, Introductionto the far the number of those who have refusedlarger acknowledge Byit as a with dram- as a chosen drama, however, have to classify lyricpoem atic than the vein has beenovertones, rather (for lyrical the oppositeasthose who have criticized the a drama). the one, victory to the more an reward." In the other, an immediate Eroica, hope; ultimate goal thanmore realistic also, Dawson found Beethoven than Shelley (because hehad Napoleonof the Ninth in its before him), with the choral movement use of Schiller's Symphony dieall brothers closer to An men are the Freude ("For truly," etc.) poet, especially to Act IV of Prometheus each case it isUnbound: "In freedom of the joy of themankind isbut whereas so much that of perfect .


  its poets" in this respect, as evidenced especially and dreams; and earthquake,desire, and the wind, volcano 63 thesun, clouds, dawn, his useof thestar, the cave, the by amongmodern the stood "alone he faculty of the world's primaeval poets" (Roden Noel, "Shelley," 1885, p. 121). 792, "rests well- went so far as to not argue that the merit of the poem on any iswe saying that ordered philosophy, unless qualify by beauty philosophy, fires dullestbut that the mind" imagery ("Imagery," 1924, p. 67).upon his illustrations from some of PrometheusHe Unbound, then surveyed, with the areas of animal life, life, stream, personification and imagery from plant and emo- sea, clouds,shadows, vapor, music, childhood, thoughts, dreams, made was tions.

H. Butter directed attention to "the

  108-9) equally impressed George Saintsbury (History, allhis usual restraint can only say that in the long with the following "outbreak": "I it has been fortune to which andsurvey pageant of English poetry my goodprocession as I and this itself, have nothing has ever presentedwriting History, been preparing initself, and I think, will such a combination of prosodicpresent beauty and nothing,. melody xiv-xvi] pp.was in struck, A slightly negative note however,the suggestion byinthat he found the an stiff- Salvador de Madariaga poem impression ofis at first "an almost mechanical which the disconcert- ness, more rigidity, as it lies fluidexternal hidden under an admirably rhythm," inga quality that he felt in common with Calderon Colder (Shelley andthe poet heldon, But been with credited1920, almost universally the poet has p. 14).his art andin of verse The thesong.

55 Because the general

  Of the cited, many specific in Critical of butrecorded the Notes edition, relationships of athe present here have been drawn betweeninclusion more justify general nature that Dante and andGodwin, Plato, Shelley Aeschylus, Goethe, Milton, Spenser,in Byron, and Calderon, As might be that order of emphasis. Gile defence, the bar of public opinion" (1842, p. 197).felt and but common Aeschylus shared avoided the personal that Shelleythat the latter to the trials and all "meant show ideals, inhardships of and reformers in discoverersconserva-bigotry,the face of the ignorance, tism andJohn superstitition 1908, of society" ("Prometheus," p.

D, Item XIV)

  strikes one as like a not indeed be held that Prometheus mayas like drama of the Periclean but what the Periclean drama might have age, a for become in the hands of who was the lyrical poet, not writing stage.great it than of would have been less most A Greek shocked or even puzzled Shelley's by [Classical contemporaries Background, 1948, pp. "No would serve how matter-of-factis as shown in the "PrometheusVinctus"; how simple indeed, the treatment of themyth; different is how straight-forward the plot; how well distinguishedand howjustly balanced the characters the cheery manliness ofPrometheus,the femininesympathyof the Oceanides, thehumorous fussiness the method of the genuine dramatist, of the FrenchRevolution.

66 James S

  was an architecturewere To and verisimilitudemyth Aeschylus thehis which he adorned but never obscured symbols, while with Shelley by for of his meta-the was "a mere framework the luxuriant growthmyth as a a weak result, plot (Edition, and wavering physical imagination," with, a sense ofElizabeth Meldrum had Andvi-viii). how-The Aeschylus, soundest interpretation of Shelley's relationship totothe critics felt that was that of who ever, the poet was not attemptingdramatist rewrite the lost member of the but imitate the Greek ortrilogy in tothe Prometheus Bound certain of the ideaswas,rather, advancing their own modern This was, position, asin effect, Shelley's implications.

D, Magazine may

  this wrote: "It is imita-well have sensed when he not . .

XIV). Medwin, poem

  Giovanni lines ofBoglietti felt that,although Shelley kept the principal it of the Greek he had into accord withfable, development brought happy the it with the had and of the moral development undergone,development conscience of thecon- world ("Prometeo," 1880, p. 52). Itcompletes ^Eschy-lus as modern love,the Romantic sense of Fate, the Renaissance sense of hope, the Revolution sense of freedom, the Greek sense of "the poemcombined George will be inorder to offer a composite tabulation of the general of a Titan and agod (Brit- ish the point of theused (Weaver).

H. Clarke thought that the

I. General Structure 1

2. The full

  Foresightis his ideal rather than the real(J. Bailey), poemis void of humaninterest (Gilfillan), lacks solidity andverisimilitude (Dick- inson), stresses the spirit rather than the body, the and with itsincoher- entsymbols for- (Bowra) is too far from humanity(Bush). Inasmuchas a subjective with muchleft to the imagination (Scud- der), although both use the play of the elements and emphasize heatand cold (Weaver).

II. Characters

  isparallel to Shelley (Delrieu).lo-Asia 1.lo fantastic, in a bizarre accessory, is Oceanides areindividualized (Weaver),but thechorus chorus they further the action (Scudder),and the creation; as whole 2. speeches are imposingand somber his Magazine,1848), but (Eclectic a boastful recital of accomplishments andpatiently awaits the ultimateomnipotenceof the but he, too, repents 2.

1. The

  Hefelt that Shelley misconceived both Aeschylusand the lover of men shouldhavebeenshownvanquished, was noAeschylean as a symbol tomen "that men may not be ashamed to suffer for the right," just as the crucified Christwas a symbol superior trilogy as there the triumphant Christ. Shelley opposes Necessity with freedom and control over man's des- tiny (Scudder), shrinksfroma ration- alistic interpretation of the universe higher, possess- uni- versal the sublime doctrine of love was foreign moral law(Rutland),and deals with the desire and hopeof freedom (Gile), but it is a blindhope (Scudder), for to with the personsandincidents him and to Greek myth (Herford).

57 To


  Edward Dowden "Goethe's believed that 'Faust,' inferiorIn England,in to an order of 'Prometheus Unbound,' imaginative splendour expresses ideas Richard II, but far juster (Shelley, 1886, 264); and more profound" Hutton found Faust as a ob- whole Prometheus Unbound, splendid, whileinscure and was weak, "splendid onlyindividual elements," the parts than the whole and beautiful more being greater out of context ("Shelley,"to 1876, Johnp. .had been that he meant to Prometheus and surprise hy producing part' 'playing ahad assume and which made himthe aspect of the oppressor, suddenly the reasons benefits." convince his victim that had This, Gilfillaneven been disguised his sufferings to the whole fable of the 'Prome-would meaningthought, give "almost a Christian " theus' 422).


  is to There from The advance fromsimple deliverance fate to fromtruth, from weakness the tyranny of circumstance or of strength, to inward (Dowden).disruption inward harmony, love: to self from egoisma and ascensionmoral spiritual 59 (Dowden). of It typifies The fragment typifies the progres- the progressive artto of and the the human combat sive spirit (H. Clarke), race struggling erroresthetic and thewith truth (H.

2. Prometheus an Prometheus and under

  With respecttothe scope of the two and sought melody" (Vida Scudder), to justifythe ways of God to man, Shelley gavebody to"shapes that haunt thought's wildernesses" andtried to justifythe as in haunt- ing,clinging of man in his own eyes (Place with above, on Prometheus Unbound, most of thecriticalattention has been given to specific parallels inthetext, but the more general references have treated of verse techniquesaswellas ofcharacters and ideas. University Magazine listed their similarities as iron anddetermination, self-containedself-sup- defiance of and calm and inflexible J.fate, will; and M.portingpride, in Brown the it is and PrometheusSatan alone pointed out that two poemswho have the character and to make them the imperfections dramatically But differences have been stressed interesting (Study, 1905, pp. 124-25).


  long suffering (R. in is and hatred he and de-he drags down Scott), wise, firm, Scott),good, mankind and mankind and opposes goodness (Dub- fending opposing crime lin 1877). With no consolation from He looks (R. Scott) to hour byof triumph,power hope and the of his rival (Dublin doomMagazine, 1877; pities (Dublin University R.

4. He of

  Holland, in defending lack of incidents and in the that "the in- human passions poem, argued itswould mar and integrity,"trusion of an earthly character speculative that in this the differed from those of Dante and Goethe ("Soul of poembeen ranked below, with, or justShelley," p. 157). sional intrusion of literal fact; and inDante's peculiarfaith Soul was the supreme reality, whereas thought of salvation broader,to attain it we are left with lesshelp." of Prometheus and Asiaafterthe reunionpalls ofShelley's poetry" (Dante inthe Critical Notes of the presentedition, but he pointed outthat, more important than specificechoes, "thespiritof Dante pervades the whole and tailed parallels willbe the Poets., 1904, pp. 188-96).

H. Herford, that

  studyLilian Sheof between the two was made by Winstanley.the relationshipto "the of the came pointed out that Shelley's ideas naturally disciple all thinker who above most and was, others, in [social sexual]daring with illustrations the four and she of traced, Shelley's use,speculations"; 62to evil But he alsoexcept by an held that Godwin's "principle of non-resistance as ithuman intellect ... In the idea of IntellectualNecessity gave way Beauty like Plato's inloverof mind where Shelley found, the Phaedrus, "the world isman the evil and world of to that unconquered by tyranny."Compared this a one was and to for world, veil, cameShelley hope the regeneration ofsoul man and aseven through conversion of the mind, did Plato (Platonism1949, of Shelley, p. 237).

64 This tradition

  The of any importance was in a of the "Satanic School" theme in 1839, wherein given development the linked Cain andwriter Shelley's arguing that poem byin of the sentiment are of Shelley, strains the page of Byron and loftiest religious like the voices of in a dream seemfound, [but] these strains fallen angels, singing, in theand when thelower world, one of the not yet forgotten chants of heaven,dream has rebellious shouts of hell. serenity resignation faith like hisspeare, or peace in Calderon, Shelley spent short years hovering over the future of his dreams his city when hope sustained the wings of imagina- failed his and the world's tion, or, when own him, wailing over miseryhope 66 and wrong" (Shelley Calderon, 1920, p. 24).to Elizabeth Ebeling extended the inquiry, with particular attentionPrometheus the and offered a Unbound and more detailed Prodigioso, Magico She found both universal- comparison.


  He had utter sympathy in with and came he had to Christianity; speak out the protests of the pity thatFrench sceptics against the perversions of the Deity introduced by that system; to he had to lament had devastated the earth andthe tyrannies that speak against all to to had to had the new hegovernments; he give voice passion of democracy; side ideal world of the to find in with the of the noble- spirit man; he had beauty for ness of the material world of nature. ("Shelleyin held that reductio absurdum was Van who ad reachedHenry Dyke,life to "no real relation to the of the Prometheus Unbound had man, nor conflict and thetrue dramatic between theme, the duty.passion Imaginein effect arrival of our Unitedactual of the of one States; the Demogorgonalland the and sudden legislaturedisappearance of the governor the judges all all of all churches and the ofand closing opening the policemen; the I fear the Would not" ("Knight prisons.

A. E. Randall, "the

  And again: I have re-read his Prometheus Unbound for the first fortime years, inmany the woods the Echte of Drim-da-rod, hills, and sometimes I have looked among where last battletowards Slieve-nan-Orr, of the world the country people say the shall when lift a a and the thousand be fought the third day, priest shall chalice, And I think faiththis years of peace begin. 94-95] inthe of wrote Miss Scudder, George Woodberry, spirit that "Shelley was whom the literary wasthe poet through expression of the Revolutionfor felt to and be "the poured," Promethean the poet the Titanic quality it contained the Promethean which security of victory felt, too,suffering itwas the heart of mankind as he his saw in surveying Europe day." In"the Revolution a its Prometheus therefore, as moral reached .

71 Unbound on Donald Weeks's

  in his never forsake darkest horror, sisters and who feedhim ministers of Nature, his his relation his faculties and lead to the of true self and immortal him righjt vision it in all afterto the world. 92].to find Neil was the "central of Kenneth Cameron, in turn, thought" as to be the same Ruines^thsit ofShelley's that of Volney's Les poem to from the of the Frenchbringing hope a disconsolate generation exampleto and he was Revolution" Source of Islam," 1941,p.

72 Carlos Baker's criticism was

  pertinent: "[While Cameron] assumes a particularized for each of the and is antagonists, hesymbolic political meaning major protagonists broaden to this until his the compelled ... Becauseinterpretation with political politics for was a one concede the that he had in mind abranch of ethics, view mayis that the more Shelley , .

D. Hughes

  tween the conflict in the state and conflict in soul:the "As representation ofpoem's on, the cause of takes its in outer circle an of the vasttime goes political justice place conflict of evil, life and for him is hiswhich the centre own soul" good and death, of It should 1951 still(Nascent Mind, pp. 205, 248). 376] John Platonism and Christianity in findingBailey stressed the blend of the poemallhis Platonic and Christian hatred of andfervent expression of one prolongedof is Platonic but has beenand his faith, which notkinds of wrong, always it is Christian, that which prevents our seeing that the world only our blindness live is infinite and and and in which we one of the type promise ofbeauty delight is; another which and eternal ["Prometheus," 1923, p.

75 M. choice because Christ

  Pratesi saw Prometheus had been Similarly, as Shelley's totool the as a the new who hasmade the and saw man of the oppressors, poem hymn evil the Christlike of the redeemer Prome- andthrough martyrdomconquered slavery was "nottheus W. Revell: Prometheus' revolt ("LTdea 42, 81); religiosa," 1903, pp.andthe revolt of Jesus against the oppressive irreligious anarchy, any more than H.

F. The as is "almost

  Two "This powers "Thehope of the world,to Shelley, was not thedawn of emotions,but the dawn of mind"; and "true freedomis unattainable while the higher are inoperative; He and that law can- not be set aside untillove is the activeprinciple in all life's affairs." Buthe added: pointed out the general teaching of the poem: Cousins soughtto correctapossible misreading. Although, purposes of emphasis, the it clear will have been that have beenthey approaches segregated above,to or stemmed from the broader moral have in most instances related also been ofa largepoet's thought; but there has bodyaspects of thethis latter.concerned with the more Before outlining opinion narrowly it be well to consider two will however, points of view, stemming opinion, note to the that have attracted from Mrs.much Shelley's poem, largelyto do two of critical attention.

77 Salt, in error

  Carlos Baker, isreal Prometheus the of The advance [inUnbound] developmentphilosophical resultis the of the idea that evilany means entirely, largely, though not byself-- if act of willed spiritual and that were able, by an manspiritual blindness, Introduction 102his and at some hour inheritance of hateto overcome superstition, reform, great limits to what he could think and there would be almost no do [SheUefs Major Poetry, 6-7]. content with imperfect degrees of love" and broadened this Most has re-emphasizedrecently, Stephen Spender "believed that Mob that,while the Shelley of Queen interpretation, holding iswhich external human institutions,evil an men burden imposed on by time of Prometheus be the Unbound can external change," removed by an by had looked far into the heart of and saw man deeper the corruption ofShelley .

78 This led to

  Shelley has is to Prome-final result this "Theof the complicated action of great permit the poemto the lesser thean Shelley accept the guilt for crime of the negative oedipus relation to masochistic attachmentand twothe pregenital escape that of greater crimes rebellion mother and (p. 108).positive oedipal father" Introduction this innate the destruction of the horrors of injustice, conformity with beauty by is ain avers that which and hatred. 65]calledthe "a in which the of dream Gertrude Slaughter poem myth poet's is as inmankind one fated the regeneration of representedaccomplishedto is as in hour, what conceived of symbolize happening the long process of and Melvin the ages" ("Shelley," 1922, 77);p.

II, 124-25)

  first acts man and One of the of Nature, the espousals of to in his toHuman Mind was create a God own wisdom image: he assigned Jupiter to World to him that the Vicissitude of the and ascribed the dominion of is, Heaven, only that Thestipulatingmere had should be free free in will man and in act. The as natural operations of the Vicissitude of the World, such want,and toil, disease, became when as the grievously oppressive they were regardedof Omniscient decree the of mankind wasa theatre of Omnipotence; and spiritTo all and this humandismal cravings chafings.catastrophe of well-being theof it Mind Man numerous and noble butsank beneath the supplied palliatives; Still stern theocratic Prometheus was bound and tortured.

79 Carl Grabo

  To William Guthrie, "the mind ofman, married gression, in new careera was the theme of "the wholepoem" haverejected the delusions (such Shelley considered them) of theocracy,and for the multiform and monstrous evil remained in the humanmind itself it remains in thehuman mind at this momentWhen the mindshall finally shall mind to launch the world of man upona have purged itself of the dark passions of hatredandrevenge, then will themoment ofemancipationbe sounding. Heenlightened of to them to set the of his and endeavoured persuade example a pure compatriots, his and life, conceptions of the simple by placing in the strongest point of view as it is with the vices of sensu- calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrownand is exhibited selfishness, civilized society [Julian, VI, 247-48].ality by fell when Prometheus rather than Benham pitiedconcluded that Jupiterdefied,suggesting is a function of theto use a mathematical term, that morality, sympathy and.

80 Helene Richter had held that

  Clarke, held that Prometheus "offers method forUnbound no sure the renovation of it life, but all with the assurance and and thatimpresses us reality of renovation," "the energyand enthusiasm of its and more his belief, its spirit were power"important than the his belief: matter ofmankind, "Shelley's though given fluctuating place in a vast is not . by any meansa mechanicized conception [for Shelley's] fixed were on of Love andeyes habitually the great principles Wisdom and Virtue, so realized abstractions which became and in his own keenly glowingly thought that of their inherent could entertain he no doubt" activity (Edition, view the human mind was its own oppressed by creation, the "personalof the had God and lost touch with Intellectual historical religions,"reunion with Intellectual A enable the mind to Beauty.

H. Cousins wrote of Adonais

  In Prometheus UnboundShelley links up scientific discovery with the struggle forhumanliberty (Shelley, 1952, p. 29) , so the tides of opinion consciousand have ebbed and flowed about the coves and promontories of thought that form the world ofShelley's poem. be found interpreted by science"("Shelley's can be found data which make Nor did Grabo insist thathis parallelsindicated sources, onlythat, "if in some one or several of the scientific investigators and theorists of the time Shelley's scientificconceptionsas set forth in the principal parallels there presentedwill Prometheusfully intelligible,that fact sufficesforpurposes of interpretation" (p. 86) .

82 It should

I. White was convinced that the scientific

  Shelley himself supplies gooda his scientific in which scientific know- comment on Utopia when, speaking of the way he life,says: 'Man, having ledge has circumscribed the imagination, the poetry of" slave' and enslaved the elements, remains himself a (ScienceEnglish Poetry, 1950, pp. 1034).did not believe that science was uncommon. Hoffman: "Thepenetrating statement, however, is claim that a poet expounding, such-and-such a specific doctrine, philosophic or leads to over and scientific, -simplification; the very process of creation the techniques of the its not the medium demand of a own kind of emotional truth and poem logicaldiscourse.



  Such a to system would have amounted a resignation of theirthose claims to which preference over competitors The story incited the composition. The employ have presumed"Prometheus the Unbound" of supposed his reconciliation victim asof Jupiter with the price ofto histhe disclosure of [15] the danger threatened empire V his with Thetis.

5 M lus

  on this view to 24-25 Draft at first: the consideration of above [on] 18-19 Draft at first: & Hercules bythe permission of Jupiter delivered Prometheusfrom the vulture& the chains. Had I framedmy story on this I should [20]have done no more than have attempted such to restorethelost drama of ^Eschylus; an ambition, which,ifmy preferenceto this modeof treating the subject had incited me to cherish, the recollectionof the high comparison and and perfidious adversary.

17 Shelley copied

  The of the effect of bright blue Rome, and sky in awakening that divinest climate, the vigorous spring and the new life with which it drenches the spirits even to were this intoxication,the inspiration of drama. But the Greek poets, as writers to of Iam awakening the sympathy of theircontemporaries was unknown, were in the habitual useof thispower; [70]andit is the studyof theirworks, (since a higher merit wouldprobably be denied me,)towhich one inhabits the the ranks of literature 70 power, want thespirit own minds than tothe peculiarity of ; the moral and intellectual condition of the minds among which they have been produced.

70 What looks

  If England were divided into [100] fortyrepublics,each equalinpopulation toAthens, there same; is no reason tosuppose but that, under institutions not more perfect than those of the circumstances capabilitiesremainsatevery period materially the would produce and comprehensive imagery which distinguishes of the agein which they live,and the latter must be the uncommunicated lightning of their own mind. been sim- rogatory purpose has hitherto My to familiarizeply the highly refined imagination of theselect classes of readers more with beautiful poetical untilidealisms of moral aware that the i excellence; and and andmind can love, and admire, trust, [175] hope,of moral conduct seeds endure, reasoned areprinciples life cast the of which the unconscious highwayuponwould dust,passenger tramples into although they bear the harvest of his I live toShould happiness.

17. L-73 above

  passenger tramples < >hungry rto 180-84 31 is almost but written and illegible at this point, appears havefbeencorrected as follows: that is, produce a systematical what to to me be appear ofwhich [the principles developmentsources of of] the genuine [elements lethuman not thelife], should regulate our human society injustice& advocates of [despotism] superstition flatter I should themselves that [assure] [Euclid] ^Eschylus rather astake [Euclid] than [^Eschylus] Plato model. me less than the uncandid consider that they injure and let apology with the candid; little will need dom trouble themselvesto the dust of oblivion let & minds, that they should be reproduced: with the in draft state 186-88 These lines too are so nearly E Eineffectual 191them; unknown E 195 grave, M 189 amuse or E A196 E bymisrepresentation; 188 upon E The 194 efforts.




  have noted that a hexameter; inany Shelley may its line a vertical line comma to mark the and inserted he drew between and end,things inverted caret asthe received line 4 between the an original lines, leaving a space with for Freeman end line and read the (see illustration, p. 141).a guide regard facing as inverted caret not justify this. but it appears to be the same as that used in the middle of the page,where either the pen becamedefective or a coarserpen wasused for nine 44 Freeman noted genii And even on 21 r , under a word of the Ion translation.

38 Mocking

  Fs R 48 Locockpreferred the E reading since "Each day and night leads of frost 'wingless, crawling Hours.' " 55ah over alas and no inserted above and between ah and / 54 Locock, in error, read thro1 Forman conjectured the omission of the on the 54 thro wide EFs H-Fr through M Fs ofrhythm ("the irregularityofmeasure R mountains, Fs 49 As W Lpriest Fs R 60 Echoes thro E echoes Fs 53 Disdain? , uses Heaven forthe empire of the felt that Gods [as here, at1.373, and II.iv.46], and the heaven when he means merely the sky").



  slauter Shelley wrote slaugter (sic) has only the downstroke, probably inserted after of g possibly k ' else, oversomething shrieks 'midabove [thro] h of the top. Thrice three hundred thousand yearsO'er the Earthquake's couch we stood:[75] Oft, as menconvulsed withfears, We SECOND 'mid shrieks of slaughter, [8QJThro' acity and a solitude.

70 Though



  "Ah,woeis me!" such a sound beforeTo the Indian waves we bore.4 A pilot asleepon the howling sea [95]Leapedupfrom the deck inagony, [K123 V ]And heard,and cried, as And died As at the voice of thine unrest. mad as the wild waves be.


  first to were: 82 clothed E R ah woe is cried, heard, And original lines wrote andwrote them on 23\ The lines then canceled the r , 99at the top of 23 part of lines 97, 98, and he in shrank back of line103. The word is mutebut Locockheld the contrast tosoared Fr from the Whirlwinds E 94 bore, E E Fr 96 agony E Fruprose ages;E L 87 R SD 2* E SD 4* Voice E groan: E Fs R A 92 unrest E 85 groan M 83own; 1s SD 88 Volcano's flaming fountains 97 & as a contrast to clovenAnd isfaint, 86 Garnett suggested (toLocock) roared above 4* SD Voice darker, possibly in different ink.


By such dread words fromEarthto Heaven Mystill realm was never riven: [100]Whenitswound was closed, therestood Darknesso'er the day like hlood.


  To frozen caves ourflight pursuing change, leading within the mountains tongueless[clefts The hills of the craggy [hollows] caverns as follows: pen above The EarthThe linesdeveloped AVoice with finer adopt it107-11 later editors to the then hollowCried Misery, supported E But rather than based on the errata. silence [105]Though us keepsilence thus and thus 102 oer the Fr 108 Cried Misery, then there appears And[died as the [Earth] After the before mad was deleted individually before the final crossing.

23 V ] PRO

  Possibly only adash wasintended, since the vertical line deleting the upper part of the question mark and forming the exclamation mayhave beensimply a deletion, ye above [they]118agony above [su Which first start W R 117 wind! 124Dole shifted the emphasis bydropping the comma after ye125 Locock was tempted to putthe firstcomma a word earlier, athwart be either.121 This linewas changed sufferings word at 119your above [thier] (sic) which was at first probably thine your was also another first, Itmay scarcely legible,but I believe mans120 113 Shelley's count, precedes this line, above [Ye] fedabove $now[ing]which Freemanread as snow[wy] Zupitzaand Locock read streams or stream.

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