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  Shelley's Prometheus

  Unbound A










EDITED Zillman

  BY Lawrence John



Press of

  University Washington


  Copyright 1959

  by the University of Wanhington !**

  Second printing, with corrections, 1960

  Library of Congress Catalog Card

  Number* 50-90M






I IT WAS EAULY in work on volume that read the comment

  the present


  of S. Hillard to the


  (1345) with respect

  George 1805 Henry James

  edition called

  is what is a variorum

  of Spenser's works; "This technically , . . of all editors. edition, containing a reprint the labours of the previous

  is in There

  trouble is often wasted a great deal of learned rubbish it; much in what is and really difficult elucidating plain, points are frequently in


  silence" (Hillard, passed by Spenser* v-vi).


  soon became evident that was not his without Shelley, like 9 ' Spenser, tribute

  which have led to

  of "learned rubbish,

  may Douglas Bush suggest is

  that "one the effect on his

  about he has

  of the worst things Shelley

  all to

  of them are reduced a common admirers; nearly denominator, of

  is which the outward evidence the

  perhaps a wild glitter in

  eye" (My-

  in at

  But the case of Pronmtlieus least,

  thology, p. 156) Unbound* the judg- of Kenneth Neil in and

  ment Cameron is, the main, both true

  pertinent; views it should

  "The on Prometheus

  [the results, divergence of Unbound]


from critical but from

be emphasized, not difficulty.

  caprice genuine


is one of the

Pmmethem Unbound


  most profound and

  difference in its

  and And

  subtle of the great English poems. divergence at first from


  interpretation are might appear- leading us farther


  closer to it"

  but 100).

  ("Shelley Scholarship/' p

  and in Too

  divergence" frequently, however, the "difference interpreta- tion to student are those of a to available the names and

  few major only,

  as does that for critical comment on Prometheus

  Bennett Weaver,


  must for articles Unbound we "follow the of the books there are few way

  to written on this is overlook a fertile


  (Rom&ntic Poets, p. 187), of brief smaller, but not comments always minor, studies or

  body certainly

  of the

  changing whose impact on our understanding of the poem, and is

  in- attitudes toward it, negligible only because they are in large part accessible, full of these

  A treatment of the comprehensive variorum range would to to this situation. be the corrective

  writings appear For, although viii i

  not a in classic,

  Matthew Arnold 1888 "Shelby

  could argue that to no p, be ted with earnest attention" ("Shelley*" 206), various readings are for treatment was evident to the need such a

  Swinburne some twenty

  wrote: earlier. He years


It is the of a scholiast is <> noon wanted <** it

  seldom that work

  an in Shell** y*n

  works error** has been. first collected edition of his had and The

  many gapn patent serious reader. text is far debute mid

  and to Hia palpable any ulntad) matter

  as classic unearthed. tain

  he were a Or comment, pawtgr?* l*gm though newly

  for the to be as crucial and

  famous emendation; muster singer of our subjects

  leant <*f his own masters and models the modem

  enviable proof poets shares with 3 diverse fame and comme.utarieH {"Note*/* p. that given by corrupt readings


  certainly, only the would deny the detnibiltty

  Today, prejudiced

  be a of the that can thrown on an and fullest possible light

  jmem complex* and Prormtlieus a

  subtle, significant as Unbound, even though part of that be from sources dimmed time,

  now somewhat

  light by final should to nrlttrttoii

  word A

  be said with respect the requirements of condensation well

  and in variorum au thorn Some editing. may object that

  their work has its abbreviated,

  been unhappily

  general significance largely lost in is details. It that, the segregation of

  my hope, however, fHjweially

  in fair the broader view indication of of ha* the Introduction, a



  if and much

  that, been given, of the supporting evidence haw MixwHHortly sacrificed to the demands a fair limitation, fttatomont of the of space attitude be and the of acknowledged, desirability


  for tiny

  pewpi^ttve one in the total

  critical be udmittm), interpretation pattern of thought



  University of Washington

  A cknowledgments is

  IT to record hero for

  PLEASANT thanks my the help so cheerfully given

and so essential to this at the to

same time work; and

  the completion of


all share in as

  absolve such the

  work concerned from any shortcomings evidence. may

  the on

  To have borne

  the University of

  many Washington campus who with Professors A. R.


  me, for special help, to Benham,

  Charles Goggio, late the Curtis C.

  D. Mrs.

  Vail; to Ruth


Linden Mander, and Kirk, In-


  terlibrary Librarian, for diligence in locating seemingly inaccessible to Research the Committee of the Graduate School for in items;

  funds and to

  the Fund

  Committee Agnes Anderson Research

  support of research; for in aid of a grant publication,


  To San

  the Bodleian Library; the Marino,,

  Huntington Library,

  fornia 2176 and and the



  (for HM 2177); University for to use microfilms and

  Library, permission photostats of

  manuscript materials in their collections.


  To the Keats Memorial Association to

  • Shelley permission



  now Memorial

  Joseph Severn's posthumous portrait* the Keats-Shelley in

  House Rome*


  To Unwin

  the following holders of copyrighted material; &


  Classical Ltd. A* K. Thomson's The for J

  Literature; English

  Background of

  for for

  Edward Arnold Ltd, Oliver The Atlantic

  Elton's Shelley; Monthly

  Warren Beach for his The Arthur Symons'

  Concept ShcUey; Joseph of


  Benn Ltd, for the

  in Ninetee.nth~Gertiury English Poetry; Ernest Basil Black-

  Julian Edition of Shelley's Works;

  Roger Ingpen-Waltar Peck

  welt for and


  the Principle of Association**

  Ralph Houston's "Shelley

  for Nineteenth

  William R. Rutland's Swinburne, a The



  British Council for Spender's Shelley;

  Stephen Calcutta University Press

  for for Sen's Studies in University Press

  Amiyakumar Shdky; Cambridge

  Literature and for S. J. Suddard's History English

  The Cambridge of Mary The Catholic World Mer- and for Sister Anna


  Sfaetttty Shakespeare;



  arid St. Gwtto & cedes'

  "Two Paths from Augutine";

  Plato: Shelley for Herbert JL C.

  and Oxford Press, New York, Windus, Ltd., University

  Critical /'win; The


  C. Smith's A Grierson J. History Knglisti of for The letters* for

  Clarendon Press, Oxford, John Bailey's (smtinuity

  of I).

  A. M,

  Mental Ihi^hwls Shelln

  Bald's Progress, for Shelley's


  for B.

  Published in "The


Poems 1820, Rajan's Motivation of Shelley^


  Some and

  for Walter Authors*

  Prometheus Unbound," Raleigh's Columbia for

  in Shelley; University Prrsn Archibald Strong's Three Studies for B.

  Rnww Edward Qmtempomry

  Hungerford's Shores of Darkness; Classical

  Elizabeth Meldrum's "The

  Background of Shelley,"

  for Gerald Duckworth Co, Ltd.

  Also to: & Stopford Brooke's Studies for 7%<* Plutonium

  James Duke

  A, Notopoulow' in Poetry; University Press

I. Ifatrth; Kdin-

  for White's The

  and Newman

  Shelley Unextinguislwl of thr for P.

  H. Butter's Idols C/nv;

  Shelley's of University Press


  Inc. for Demon

  Arthur Wormhoudt's The &

  Exposition Press /xwr; Kyrc for Leslie Hours in a Fa her


  Library: Stephens* Spottiswoode Ltd. for for hin

  Faber Ltd. Leone Vivante's Englisli Poetry; K.

  JL Fogle "(mage


  Limited of

  and A Prometheus Unbound"; Gambit

  Imagelessness: Reading for The for

  Co. Ltd. Cousin's Work Promethean; Dr. II HaltsWhitc

  James W. Hale-White and Amelia

H. Kfhir;

  Sterling's translation of Spinoxa*

  and Barnes Inc. for

  G. Co. Ltd. & Noble A. K.

  KoilwayV George Harrap&

  the for Lorli

  Godwin and Transition; Harvard Pnwn the


  Age of

  Classical for


  individual William (see editors);

  Library Bibliography for Edition of

  Ltd. the Bonchurch The


  Qmtplete Works of Al^rnon ton Mifflin for

  II* *Sr/#^'W

  G. GarJwV Charles Swinburne;

  Company Hough


  Poems and


  George WoodbetrryV l*tiIiri<Ige

  of Percy Bysshe Edition of Poetical

  Hutchin- The Complete Percy /tyssfw Shelley;


Works of

  son Co. Ltd. for Graham Pw*t$; The



  Hough's The Romantic of

  Aesthetics Criticism for

  and Art Charles (X "Whtteltfsitcfit

  Hoffman'* (J.

  Nature and Romantic for hit!

  Philosophy of Poetry**; Wilson Knight 1 The Christian Renaissance and The Starlit Alfred In* for


  Dome; * Knopf

I. White's


Newman Green Co. ami Koiwrt

& Ltd



  for executrix Robert


  The Mac miUttti

  Bridges' The. Spirit of Afrm; for Solomon in, the for

  Kwnantir hutn* Company Gingerich's Essays

  Alfred Science

  North Whitehead's and the Modern for ami WiHtnin

  JfWrf, Co. Ltd. for 01 won Ware}

  Butler Yeats's Essays; Methuen &

  CnmplwlPH and the

  D. for C. Ix)eock^s The. tivxithe

  Shelley Unromantics, PIMMS



  and for

A. Glutton- Brock's I/if

  Shelley, Man A** mil! Shelley the and his Introduction to the


  edition; fur


  University of Ellsworth Barnard's


  Shelley's Modern Religion (1937); Ixutgttaga Association of America for K, N.

  Cameron's "The Political

  SymtxtltMm of Prometheus Unbound" and for


  Weaver's "Pwmrthcua Bound and

  Prometheus North Carolina

  Unbound"; for

  University of Frew Carl Graho'* Prometheus

  Unbound: An

  Mrs. Viola Notanello Interpretation; xi


  for J. millari Macmillan Brown's The

  Prometheus Unbound




  Shelley: Study,

  Also to: Hodder ion Ltd., and J. P.


  Alfred Noycs, Messrs. S tough for

  Alfred Modern

  No Some

  Lippineott (Company yes's Aspects of Poetry;

  Press for Ellsworth Barnard's


The Odyssey Shelley; Selected Poems, Essays*

Oxford for

and letters; Press, New Kurtz's

  University York,

  Benjamin The Pursuit Death; A Oxford


  of Study of Shells Poetry; University


  IX New York, Ltd, the Sinclair

  John and John Lane The Bodley Bead

  translation of Dante's Divine Press,

  London, Comedy; Oxford University


  H. N. BrailsfonFs Their and for

  and Circle,

  Slwtt&y, Godtvin, the poets in the Oxford Standard Authors

  Princeton Univer- represented series; for

  Press Carlos Baker's Fabric


  sity Shelley's Major Vision; Poetry; ofa for Paul G. P* Putnam's Sons Elmer Mora's Shelburne.

  Essays, Seventh Series for his

  M. Hader of Evil Mis-

  (1910); Melvin "Shelley's Theory

  Sir Herbert Read for his Phil- understood";

  "Shelley the Optimistic Rinehart& for N.

  Inc. K. Cameron's Rinehart Edition osopher"; Company of for

  and Prose; & Ltd,

  Shelky\*t Selected Poetry

  Routledge Kegan Paul

  f^ord G. Wilson and for F.

  A. Lea's Knight's Byron; Christian Firtues the

  and Romantic Revolution; Authors for The Col-

  Shelley The Society of lected

  Inc. for

  Bermrd The Edmund

  George Shaw;

  Works of Viking Press Blunders

  SfieUty. a word of thanks for and far assistance

  Finally, special patience beyond


  the either vows to her to this book is


  of duty or of marital dedicated.













  A* Drafts of Prometheus Unbound 631

  Shelley's Translations of Prometheus

B. Shelley*s Italian

  677 Unbound

  Passages Mrs.

  (1 Note on Prometheus Unbound Shelley's for Her Edition of 682

  Written 1839


  689 Contemporary Reviews The Prometheus


  Story before Shelley

  F. Basic to

  A Values"

  the "Representative


  in Prometheus

  732 Unbound

  G. of the

  The Time Scheme Poem 741

  II* *s in the E 744

  Shelley Lyric Indention

  Manuscript 747 BIBLIOGRAPHY







  Portrait of Shelley writing Prometheus in the Baths of Caracalla 140

  V Bodleian Folio 18 lines of I 141 MS E.l , Act

  Shelley opening 172

  Bodleian MS c.4, draft of

  II.iii.28-42 Folio 6,

  Shelley Additions

  from Bodleian 3 173 Debatable MSS E.1, 2,

  Shelley readings The This Edition

  Plan of



THE edition of to

  Prometheus Unbound of the present bring 1


  of the and textual critical, that together

  important published material,

can in assist reader of the this

  the Of significant


any way poem. necessity

  certain of selection on editor,

  I tried to

  the have choose

  imposes problems from that extensive to

  the of writing that has accrued wisely body


its first in and to correlate in

  since the material such a

  1820, publication that critical discernible. trends be

  way emphases and may is it


The basic text and has with verbal

  that of 1820,

  been reproduced

  It exactness* wa to decide between necessary this relatively imperfect text in

  was and the

  (printed England while Shelley in Italy)


  decision left the was based on

  by poet* the following considerations, My

  historical: The is not the one from which


mainly manuscript the play

was was revised after had made

  significantly Shelley printed, but by Mary


it, is

  the itself

  (2) The


  copy from manuscript imperfect, especially its literal as

  in and a basic text could have little punctuation, reproduction detailed in

  more than The treatment

  curiosity value* descriptive possible

  and fuller and much more

  ray textual notes variant readings permitted a best on

  this, than

  Shelley's 1820,

  adequate presentation of commentary it. have been base text abstracted from

would had a been The




full evidence for "final" text is before

  the Shelley's debatable question of

  an ab-

  the reader without the prejudice of assumed judgment through l been for some have made only certain theses that have, in significant

  Kiptkm studies. effort to read

  has been mad amplified published portions of the Every way*

  nil the* to in in

  of references the written and those languages English, foreign poem of this material that have

  (much been generally recognized a of inde{>emlent value of a

  k and American Lack criticism)*

  largely a reworking of English comprehensive

  it is

  but that no Shelley bibliography hat increased the possibility of oversight, hoped 1820 and 1955 has been missed. The work between exigencies of publi- of importance



  cation the have have of the book, of items that prevented detailed treatment, body



  but have come to

  latter data,

  appeared following the pertinent studies that my have in the


  been included (preceded by an attention before actual press time


in footnote references.

  and where Bibliography feambla,

  The. xviii

  Plan of This use of the straction. in 1839 made manu- relatively slight

  (4) Mrs. Shelley

  to scholars her it did not become available until IH93, edition; script for 1 Histori- as to a critical edition until (3)

  and was not used corrective Wk 1820 corrected rvpresrntcil

  slightly by Mrs. Shellry) cally, (or that edition editors. for most nineteenth-century the point of departure draft lines of text on variants the

  Immediately below each page, selected

  A), as we!! an de- (the drafts fully in are given are reproduced Appendix 8 to be in the and tailed found K variant readings manuscript in repre- editions Of the edition* of the sentative

  many of importance. subsequent

  hold serious interest for textual KdJtors have


  study, only a

  poem and the detailed variant

  to rest on a editions,


  heavily few key


work have been limited

  largely to these, anil to readings of the present as have sufficient such others interest to justify their inclusion. independent late release

  But the

  the history of the text, especially in of the manuscript,



  editions have therefore treated thorn these unusual significance, gives

  is to in


  more than

  fully customary, notably with respect punctuation characteristics verse. of


  general other representative edition* are in the Introduction. given as throw on textual


  light these readings are such notes may

  These include of the E

  Shelley's alterations manuHcript, wdleeied problems. differences of to the


  draft readings, opinion with respect


  be etc. Here also will found such variant** in other than the conjectures,

  fall into

  editions as editorial do not imitation*

  key the pattern of

  avoid an awkward critical

  To not*


  page makeup, pertain-

  to scenes and lines have been the ing specific interpretation of plueeit nt

  end of the unless stems from textual conniibrii-

  such interpretation



  which case a reference will direct to

  tions, in the Textual Note*, Trait- of draft as well as the Italian translation scriptions passages* by Shelby, to

  have been Introduction The deals with

  relegated appendixes. more


  historical, textual, critical interest general matters of



  whatever nature have

  relevant manuscripts, textual variants of

  it been the reader to

  given, making possible for reconstruct completely any of these items. For Mrs. of nht?

  1839 OH

  Shelley's editions wa* (inaftmuch in at least


from , all

  textual variant* for


working part Shelley's errata) the


  verse the Preface have as well as cif been indicated, in

  any importance

  directions. Minor the stage the latter not stylistic differences in have hmt included. For the other all essential principal editions variant* have noted.

  been It must is

  a relative and be granted that "essential" there be term,


  a reader of this to

  book it is whom to know that one editor u*w important


  t have

  instead of double quotation marks, or spells labor, labour,

  assumed that no real can be served at

  purpose by minh 2 indicating length


  MSS and E,3 E.I, E.2, have referred to

  as B formerly been (for !hc!l*tnn). but recent

  acquisitions make a

  by the Library clearer distinction The. This



  Plan of

  matters of individual of them mannerisms.

  For the editorial style,

  many editions other than those of Mrs. key Shelley, therefore,

  the following

  have been

  items omitted or treated as indicated: errors. Obvious errors

  have not been

  Typographical typographical given in These have included or erroneous the variant readings. clearly

  dropped broken to lines,

  type, failure punctuation, capitalize at beginnings of failures, accidental hyphenation, spacing omission of closing quotation

  and mis-

  letters, marks, transposed misplaced apostrophes or accents,


  if the error in a

  the latter instance, has resulted spellings. however,


  different has word, been included.

  i/.e, and have in the

  not been Type. Type style, spacing noted, except italics for case of emphasis.

  Some editors have used some

  Quotation marks* single quotation marks,

  some at and end of

  double; quotes, others quotes the beginning


  the These differences have not been passage only. indicated, but,


where marks have for in


  quotation been supplied passages not so 1820, this fact has been noted*

  move- have been admitted when the

  Spelling, only (1) Spelling variants of the line the case of a


ment has been when

  altered (as in dieresis), (2) in assonance in altered

  (as in chant,

  change pronunciation has resulted


  (3) when some has attached the variant*

  chaunt)) or special interest will

  The variations be indicated

  spelling principal types of the following

  by list:

  aereal; aerial, aggrandisement, aggrandizement; amphisbenic, amphis-


  latter as


  hasnie; aye., bleat, clearly ay; blessed (where the pronounced burthen, burden; cameleon, syllable); chameleon, camelion; candour, can- dor; cloak, eloke; desert, desart; frenzying, development, developement; learnt, gulph, gulf; immoveably, immovably; phrerizying; gray* grey;


  learned; 'mid, Oh; oer,

  mid; might's mightst; 0, o*er; past, passed; rapt,



  siren, tho, the'; rapped; skiey, skyey; syren; though, in later

  Preface have editions some- Tides, Titles referred to in Shelley's in times in sometimes marks* These differ-


  quotation been given ences have not been noted


  Punctuation* In a work phrasing are of poetry* matters of rhythm in of

  Because this, by ahadings punctuation.

  strongly or subtly influenced in

  and because of the influence of W. Rossetti and the E



  for errors) punctuation variants (except this respect, obvious typographical verse. in editions have the For the Preface the fully for

  key been given and directions have

  they changed the stage been given only w}ien meaning be

  one mark

  results* In certain instances^ clearly, of punctuation may to

  it seemed desirable furnish

  has considered the equivalent of another, but to his the reader can determine satis- the exact evidence own

  by which

  in emphasis. faction the presence or absence of shadings to

  Inasmuch used

  are frequently suggest personifi- Capitals. as capitals have been admitted. cation, for etc,, these variants it ion



  7Hv xx

  Plan of

  is and

  If the line clear, accents. movement

  and apostrophes


  have not hwn

  to or accents indicate syllables

  pronounced nonpronounced is been

  debatable If the movement

  IV.367), the accent has (as at given. included. has use of has been indicated, as

  compound Hyphens, Hyphenation

  result in

  inasmuch as words, both frequently modified emphasis.

  to the


  It above not apply exceptions should be repeated that the former have to Mrs. of 1839. The been or

  Shelley's editions

  manuscripts and the Preface. and the latter in detail for the verse

  in detail,


  to admission or has been

  With the critical material,

  rejection respect will to which a better understanding of the poem

  determined by the degree

  at refer to result. It is a rare work on some point

  Shelley that does not

  is a contribution to

  too seldom there

  Prometheus Unbound, but positive

  can he found in


Mere course,

  or censure, of our understanding. praise any

  and of the rhetorical efforts to

  in some extreme, and, while period any

  and are offer outdo

  delightful to read, they predecessors blaze brightly in


little the of and would amount

  illumination, justifiable

  way require an

were more included* An

  than a representative exception of space sampling in the inclusion of the reviews of has

  been made, however, contemporary

  the first hold a and edition, which insofar special interest are given fully, as in

  on Prometheus D

  they bear Unbound,


  in critical In the Introduction the trends have


  principal thinking as for detailed consideration?! serve an orientation the more found traced, to in the Critical Notes. in

  More have bean treated the

  general subjects


  appendixes. Insofar as practicable, however, opinion has boon in Critical at it the where will be most

  Notes, the point pertinently useful

  It is to the reader.

  inevitable that


  over a period of time the


  of imitation* will recur, either independently or through the flattery tried in these to

  have instances credit to the first

  to occurrence, or give the first full idea, reasonably development, of the

  Where critical has to a

  reference been made possible source or analogue, without quotation of the been or, parallel material, quotation has supplied has

  where this been All summarized* from

  impracticable, quotation* classical or writers

  have been


  major modern aubtitutbii f by where necessary, of a single edition.


  is that the wider and more immediate of the hoped usefulness

  decision to

  work the all

  in will justify give foreign4anguage items


  I limitations tion,


  regret that space prevented the


  inclusion of the rather original texts for this of material large body

  Shelley's Prometheus

  Unbound A




AIM OF this Introduction is


THE twofold; to of


  outline the present


  text of Prometheus and the of

  Unbound nature knowledge concerning the

  the of the to the

  (2) broader outlines of

  principal editions poem; survey critical to of the opinion with respect the quality and meaning poem. De- tailed text notes on and will elsewhere in book.

  be found the





  interest in the Promethean will in

  Shelley's be considered early story the second division of this Introduction, interest at this

  Our major

  point centers on under date of

  by [5] -14,

  a journal entry Mrs. Shelley September "

  1818: Drama and on a letter

  "Mo writes his

  of 'Prometheus,' of Sep- to


tember from which he

  22, 1818, Shelley, in Padua, at Este, in


  her to will


  bring "the sheets of 'Prometheus Unbound,' which you find to

  numbered from one on , is first l twenty-six the table of the pavilion"

  This the evidence we have had (Julian,

  IX, 332) that the poet

  • *In all than that as or notes in the

    (other found

  the present million prose prefaces

  thorn Marian of the Poetical text

  Oxford Standard Au

  IForh) follows the of the Ingpen- data of this letter in as

  IVck Julian Edition of Jforks (the 22,

  Shulloy's given

  ?Septembcr but it to be in fact of that Short titles fre-


Mr. shown date). have

  Shdky'B journal

  in critical full identifica- bem references, for which

  quently employed or biographical can

  tion be consulting the Bibliography. cam'ly made by in

  Mrs. her note on Julian and Maddalo on the Poems of 1818

  Shelley, in (note site

  was a villa built on the of a Julian 21^1), wrote: "I [at Kate]

  [III, Cappuoeini it

  when the was convent, dotnoliHhed religious houses;

  French suppressed Capuchin

  hill the

  brow of a low at foot of Hitunted cm a range of higher ones. tha very overhanging

  as called

  The house vine-trellised it is in was cheerful and walk* a pergola, pleasant; a

  to a at end of the

  led from the halkbor summer -house the which



  made his and in which he tha Prometheus"

  Shelley study, began Un-

  to, to,

  Other or probably the composition of Prometheus pertinent references

  as follows: writes'*

  bound in and letters are

  Mr. Shelley's "Shelley m given journal

  1818 Reel ; ; "Write

  15, f 10] [22] -24) out Shelley's

  MSS, September (September Abmger



  begun the actual composition of the poem, and the sheets probably a

  are not extant. draft,

  is indicated That he wrote the dated

  steadily letter, next pertinent

  by October to Love Peacock: "I

  Este, 8, Thomas have ben 1818, writing


  indeed have first of a classical the act and just finished drama, lyrical

  " to be called Unbound'

  'Prometheus But on

  (IX, 24, 1810, 336).

  January from to act Peacock that the first wan

  Naples, Shelley could only repeat finished: I little "At write else and little of that. present but poetry,


  1st act of

  I likts Prometheus and think it"


  My you would

  failure to 21). The as as at first to

  (X, can be asoritwd progress rapidly distress the

  24, following the death of Clara Shelley 1818,

  on September and the to and

  Rome subsequent journey

  Naples, with aigh

  many tawing excursions to time.


  The however, was



  only temporary, f for to


  by April 1819, the poet could write Peacock from Rome:

  • My

  Prometheus Unbound is and in a

  I month or two shall

  just finished, wnd


  it" (X, 4&). the

  That drama was not sent as as is

  intended evident

  from promptly

  another letter to

  Peacock from Livorno

  1819; 1

  "As to Oilier,

  in July, don't know has or


what what at

  been published, has arrived hw hatuk


  do till


  not send know ,

  My Prometheus though ready,

  more** (X, 63)

  But other considerations have

  contributed to the William

  may delay. on June and

  7, was affected

  Shelley died the logs of the poet deeply hw

  by child. know

we that Prometfwus

  Indeed, although Unbound was "finfohwd** to

  6, Hunt from Livorno as late at*

  by April Shelley wrote

  15: Leigh



"Though surrounded by suffering

  almimt disquietude, and, latterly,




have not been idle. by our strange misfortune ProraetlieiiH

  My is 68).

  finished" (X,


  "Finish copying (December 19); "I painting

  • (December 18); his Poem*'

  is so

  that the

  Sfhelley] arte take all

  writing a our tiimT <i poem Me up

  (to Hunt, April

  "Read "

  1819); Shelley's Drama"


  25); Shelley'a Tromethniw' "Copy

  " 9xpt*!tnl*r

  1 5 ad R Trome theus

  Unbound"* 1820 (October , (the publiNhecl 17, ?] ptmm|); iwr" l the Goodness to at order

  Would you have your Stationers a doom bcmkn likr


  that the Prometheus was


(to Maria

  copied in" March UCJO Gisborne, February or

  MSS, Reel [Abinger 6]).

  "finished" would, at

  this time, to the first throe

  apply only Ant* Iniwiiiiirh



  Act had M


  not yet been Edward

  projected, that Hi*

  Hungerford'a suggestion Shf v must have been the names of punning on Prometheus and hi brother




  IV as

  referring to

  an "afterthought in (Shorn of Darkn***, p, 192) attnuttivr,


  but fcna no evidence that Shelley used the word.

  ^Charles and James Oilier were

  Shelley's publishers. !> wroti*

  Apparently Shelley

  of the to poem latter

  Leigh Hunt, or the learned of for

  it, he wrote to in this

  Shelfey same month:

  I long, to see Prometheus hnnidf.




  have no doubt


  have handled wearied virtue'


It is



  nobly. curious, had

  Hub white



  ago of writing a myself,


  Prometheus Throw*!; m which


  bttombfi to nave described as him

  • * having lately taken possession of

  Jupiter's seat. But thu mlmn


  is in better every account hands. I am

  rather the son of one of


  than of Atlas himself' (Correspondence, 1,


  5 thereafter,


  and James

  6, the poet wrote Charles f on September Oilier:

  is Prometheus/ which finished, now '"My

  being has been long

  and . . .

  will soon be to for transcribed, forwarded The f 1 you publication.

  will Prometheus be so you usual" (X, 79). good as to print, as Ap-

  to of


  parently Shelley intended forward the manuscript, by way to where it to be held for

  Gisborne, was England, Peacock,

  on Septem- by

  "I latter: have sent


  ber 21 the poet wrote the you


  I which do not wish to be sent Oilier for until I to

  to write publication that effect. Giaborne it"

  Mr. will

  83). And bring (X,

  on September 27



he Hunt; have sent to Peacock

'Prometheus Unbound'

  wrote Leigh



if ask for it him he will it show you (X, 87). you"

  Giflhorne's were arid he did to

  But John not

  changed, go plans England until the Gisbornes nevertheless interested


  the following May, That in is the matter of the clear from a letter to

  wrote manuscript the poet Maria from Florence on October 13 or

  14 to Gisborne with respect copies of The Ce.nci sent to

  which he wished

  being printed , . . in Italy, copies England If is returned 'Prometheus' with the next Mr.

  G. send the ship.


  confirmed this to


them" And he intent Charles and

(X, 94).


  by .

  • - Oilier 'Prometheus* , it

  James the "The will arrive with

  next day: but in in [The, and the season"

  OndJ, MS.,

  can print publish

  which you (X,95). first



  by marriage), the Henry Reveley (son of Mrs. Gisborne whom wrote had become

  engineer with Shelley friendly*


  the poet


on October 28; "Please to let the Bill be sent where the box

  of lading


  should likewise be addressed Messrs, Street, Oilier, Booksellers,

  (X, finally suggests that Gisborne sent the

  Street** But a later letter Bond 100).

  (see below),


  letters it as

  From these seems Martin Freeman

  pointed out, probable, that did unless a

  Peacock second

  not actually receive the manuscript

  and did it until after the Olliers was not see had

  sent him, transcription


  2-3), (Text, pp.

  2 as he wrote from On November the was mind

  in Shelley's


  to "I to Florence Hunt; am about more

  Leigh publish serious things Ball the this winter" and that he was

  (Julian, X, [than Pater Third] 104);


  for work indicated letter anxious an of the

  by another


  appearance I to

  to also in November: "The Prometheus wish be and

  Hunt, 1 * printed

  to In the same vein, but with the come out (X, 131).


  Charles Oilier


  IV wrote

  at least), of "additions" (Act the poet sailed for

  15 about the

  on December

  (or 25), at time that the ship England

  The Cenci and the first three acts of Prometheus Unbound

  with the copies of : f< Let

  wiE receive Trometheus* without You

  below) delay* be printed a It

  Mrs* S, is few has

  which now

  the additions, transcribing, in days*


  read to the

  been 134), But Gisbomes

  persons" (X, already many to wrote on 23:

  wore see the "additions." To them December




  'Prometheus* which "I additional act to

  have an Mary

  just finished will be enclosed for

  and which now

  inspection before transcribing, your as an soon

  ... Be it is transmitted to the Bookseller.

  kind enough, you


  to 'Oilier Co., Vert* Strret,

  have to inclose &

  read the

  Prometheus, London'" 136).



  heard nothing Despite an early printing he

  Shelley's desire for I*wa: wrote them from

  from the Olliers when he March 1820,


  by I


  I received "Promethean" and "Tim (lend";

  do not hear that you have

  if not fore it safest to tell them

  think how and when yri

  to get you have

  you done so.

  bill Gisbornc sent to a broker in

  Give the Mr. the city* whom of lading you

  to and to on the unixmmi Inrnkn, The

  the duty you employ get the packages, pay


sailed in middle of will have arriwl

  the long

  December, and assuredly ship before now. I f

  I tell ia

  must favourite "Prometheus Unbound," rhurgr yw you, my jwrn; with fine him and feed him ink 148J,


  therefore, specially to pet and good papr

  to for to this latter Churltw

  Without he wrote again

  waiting a reply : Oilier on March


  aiitf I anxious to hear that have reeieved

am \$ic\ the parcel from leghorn,


  are the If it can Ix* without to learn "Prometheus," done

  what you doing with

  I that the revised

  should great difficulty, be very glad cheats might Im by

  at It into

  the Post to he divided four


  fm<im# Leghorn. might partition*,


  four or five sheets me once [X, 151]. It

  is was concerned about

  quite evident that Shelley the accuracy of the text. it for

  made to be

  Distance, however, mmt inexpedient the proofs to

  he on Giftbornes on


  him, so seized hopefully the departure of the


  to wrote

  him an and from to Chariot Oilier

  advocate, (a till Pisa) give 14:

  on May As to will. 1 I>e it as m thin

  the printing of the "Prometheus,'* But, a*% you

  shall trust in

  repose or your care respecting the correction of the pww; enpednlly where a minute error would be of

  much Mr, in the lyrical parts, coiiAac{uem*.

  Gisborne will revise

  it and will therefore it; he heard recited, more readily error.

  I I

  ... to send in a few tiir any ought say that poatft, to print at you poems end fitted for in of "Prometheus,'* better your paft*t*Hiort that purpose than any [X, 167-168]. thus reconciled himself to a situation

  he Having

  disliked, clearly

  on 26:

  Shelley sought reassurance

  by writing the Gisbornes May




  thus because have determined to

  offer about

  you early, accept your kind the correction of Prometheus. The bookseller makes difficulties about nomling


  and to else


  the proofs me, whom can so well entrust what

  I am much m interested in

  and to

  I well; whom would owe the recollection

  having done prefer to of an additional kindness don to

  I little

  me? enclose cor- you two papers of



  and additions; do not think will find you any difficulty in interpolating them into their .


  proper places [X, that to

  were The poems

  complete the volume were ready about 30,





  "Mrs. ia train-

  that date the poet wrote Charles now Introduction

  7 for

  little to me the at the end

  of Prometheus; scribing poems be printed


  he sent in

  two" And

  they (X, 177). thereafter, in a post or shortly




June he to send "6 Prometheus

  July, requested the Gisbornes copies of his to see the


(if 184), volume*

  printed)" (X, eagerness again demonstrating this also

  At about time he learned that Peacock was to assist in the is

  There no indication as to what had

  proofreading. occurred with respect to to earlier com- the project since the time of the

  Peacock's relationship

  and in the letter to

  munication, him tr from Leghorn on July 12 Shelley

  l make bold to to news that cor-

  write the are said merely;

  you on you


  I I which return thanks, and send some 'Prometheus/

  recting my


  6 which be added"

  (X, 186) things may

  It is in

  almost certain that the was

  poem published though August, even

  as in as

  7 wrote to Maria Gisborne "I

  early July Mrs* Shelley England: will with

  Prometheus I, and even hope you bring you" (Letters, 112);

  to "I it

  20 the wrote Thomas hear Medwin; though on July poet, in Pisa,

  I is

  I and shall before

  just printed, receive copies 1 * probably from England to see and on

  27 tell Oilier

  (Julian, X, 192),

  you July

  Keats: "I always

  I to books.

  copies of my imagine will at the this letter" Mrs.

  'Prometheus Unbound" send you you

  same time with 194).

  receive nearly (X,


would have whether or not


  they Shelley's been a natural request,

  and well have comments

  Shelley's received a report of publication, may in

  from announcement of the book the London stemmed

  the prepublieation for It assumed that the


  D, item can be (see I),

  Majg&im Appendix from their close association with the the


  poem, would be on

  alert for the of the that volume. On

  appearance August 3 Maria noted Fen wick called "Mr. books which he had

  yesterday evening with the to for there is no

  undertaken but

  us" (Journals^ certainty procure p, 41), the was for the she that

  poem among them. In her entry twenty-second

  does think


wrote that Godwin "has not seen the not he

Prometheus, and it

  shall read and in this that she


(p. 45), the suggestion


  seen it is and a date latest at the confirmed, established,

  mid-August by

  her letter to on in which she wrote: "We Mrs. Shelley the twenty-third, a of the she


  [Mr, Gisborne's sister] Trometheus,' which

  copy gave

  to little and

  have lecture, We

  study. given her a preparatory

  promised n it with her


  some 67). Hunt, too,

  part of (p. Leigh might be expected to for and he wrote to also

  watch the

  of the volume, Shelley,


  • I seen the

  on have Prometheus"

  just the twenty-third; (Correspondence, to 4: from

  Horace Smith wrote 1, 158). And

  the poet "I got

  on September

  Oilier last week a of the Prometheus Unbound"




  Reel 14).*



  The date is uncertain because the latter torn.

  • is

  not Whether thwe known. addition* were corrections or short poems

  in for considera-

  • The a notice of the book,

  September, postponed I^ndon Magazine * f out this

  tion until bacauwe it had come month"

  October (see

  D), hut Intrduction


  see book until the

  It would


however, that the Shelleys did not

  appear, : to Gisborne

  October. Maria (in London)

  On June

18 Mrs. Shelley wrote

  we are too

  to about

  "As the had better them[;] books you do nothing and on we

  I, ; 7, as

  unsettled so do not send them" 109) July (Letters,

  Maria Prometheus The have she asked that

  seen, "bring with you."

  on October

  3 went Gisbornes reached Genoa but directly to



  noted without


  II, Mrs. Shelley friends (White, Shelley, 229).


  in for and them their return October 10, the poet wrote her journal to of Prometheus send

  11: "If have

  October brought a you copy happen

  carries 16 Mrs.

  it too" For October

  Shelley's (Julian, X, 210). journal to for seventeenth: Prome- the notation: "Go the "Read

  Leghorn"; and

  Reel theus Unbound

  The & MSS, 10)*

  papers Indicators" (Abinger


  first extant reference to the volume was on November when,


  from he wrote to the Olliers

  Pisa, with evident disappointment:


  Gisborne has sent a which mot Mr. me of the "Prometheus," certainly copy

  It is to errors of the are so printed. be regretted that the press



  numerous, and species of poetry


many respects so destructive of the sense of a

this will understand I fear, even

  which, with [without?] very few disadvantage,

  shall send list errata in or like. I the of a or two 219].

  [Julian, X,

  you day did 15 a

  To Peacock he not reveal but wrote on ?November

  his feelings, sentence of the has an ironic that, in view note: "Thank foregoing, you for kindness in

  I afraid am your correcting Trometheus/ which gave you 222).

  a great deal of trouble" (X, It until

  was not

  sent the errata 20,

  January 1821, that Shelley finally . .

  to the Olliers . the Errata of 'Prome- with the following: "I send you


  to theus,' which have formidable as

  sincea list, ought you

  sent long ,

  7 will did inaccuracies.

  Nor he

  see" (X, 232) 4, quickly forget the

  On May

  in a letter to it either

  have been the errors

  Byron, may of the printing or a of to itself

  momentary change heart with respect the quality of the poem

  that led to write:

  him "The 'Prometheus' is ; and on June ... a very imperfect poem" 8 he was to Charles

  (X, 266) again Oilier, to whom

  outspoken he wrote: "I shall send either

  [Adonais to] or tran- you, at Pisa, printed in it scribed such a as shall difficult

  manner be for reviser to

  the leave such "


  errors as assist of , the 'Prometheus' the obscurity

  (X, 273)

  it is

  that the notice itself was in for

  possible written the issue*

  quite August

  September The Oilier to send of the to poet instructed copies book

  Hunt, Godwin, Hogg, Peacock,

  Thomas Moore, Horace

  X, was, ap-

  Keats, Smith, Godwin and Byron (Julian, 81).

  as as his for his

  parently, word, 19 listed his good diary entry of



  reading: "Prometheus Unbound, Act Reel

  1" (Abinger evidence that to he returned the poem.

  I MSS, 2), and have found no

  7 The letter misdated 1820.


  8 Charles D.

  Locock this reference to transcriber reviser as interpreted and indicative of

  own Shelley's it

  opinion of the cause of the errors (Edition, I, 595-96). But might rather be that Oilier had the errors attempted to justify by pleading poorly written Introduction

  9 THE

  Locock also felt that "some explanation





  POEMS/ by






  due, or at any rate some hypothesis which




  the superior readings of



  manuscript became converted into inferior readings


  Fenchurch-Street, London.; [iii]


  first edition, for the

  distributed as follows: [i] the half-title:

  second leaf with a following 2 (B B2;

  C C2; etc.).

  Roman numerals were

  assigned the pages preliminary to the text of the


  with the first to appear being

  yiii, and the material was



  advertisements of

  The Cenci, The Revolt of

  Islam, Rosalind



  and Alastor.

  At the bottom

  of the page:


  most part uncorrected in Mrs. Shelley's editions."


  A and B

  Peacock's responsibility (p. 595).

  9 In the

  copy owned by


  Wise, apparently unique, both leaves were present, the canceled leaf in

  its original position,

  the cancel-leaf inserted between signatures


  proofreading, or actual

  Library, p. 56).

  10 It should be



  that the Library of Congress copy


  incomplete, lacking pages i and ii of signature A, and the

  final leaf (O 8 ) of advertisements.

  alterations on

  errors in


  are such

  suggested three possibilities:

  (1) printer's errors;


  faulty transcription by Mrs.

  Shelley ("nearly


  the mistakes





  easily arise in



  MS."), whose accuracy Shelley would "no douht" take


  granted; and


  on the



  but the E manuscript and

  the publisher




  Shelley, Letters,


  195, 206, etc.]),

  such drafts of the






  to us will

  be examined in

  their proper place.


  the general characteristics of the edition of 1820 should



  issues of this edition.

  worked is not


  foregoing section has traced the evidence relevant to the writing, publication,

  and first

  reaction of Shelley to

  what he

  considered his finest poem.

  The copy from which

  the printer

  extant (although Mrs. Shelley



  every effort to get




  Oilier after the poet's death,


  Peacock, early in

  be noted. There were two

  In the

  signatures [A] to 0, with J omitted. Each signature



  the d! has


  written in

  by hand.

  10 The book appeared

  as a

  volume, with leaves

  but in

  measuring $% by


  inches, bound in dark blue-gray paper boards, with white


  label reading: Prometheus/


  9s. There were fourteen sheets of eight leaves each,


  the Library of Congress

  of the book,


  dropped out

  a typographical error

  on the Contents page gave

  Miscellaneous as

  Misellaneous. This

  page was

  then reset, with the word spelled correctly, for the second issue. 9 But before the second issue


  printed, the d! of wind!

  in II.i.195, leaving: Asia.



  the notes sink



  ebbing win

  This hiatus remains in the



  The Huntington Library copies are complete.

  Introduction \Q



  as follows: blank; [v]








  157 Sensitive Plant

  The 174

  Vision of the Sea


  182 to

  Ode Heaven

  186 Exhortation


  188 to the

  Ode West Wind had

  An Ode, written October, 1819 before the Spaniards

  their 193 recovered

  Liberty 196

  Cloud The

  201 To

  a Skylark

  207 Ode to

  Liberty half-title:


  blank; -xv Preface; [xvi] blank; [xvii]

  [vi] [vii]

  • 153

  ME- [xviii] [19] PRO


  [154] blank; [155] half-title:



  • 222 miscellaneous as in


  [156] blank; [157]

  POEMS.; poems is with the title of the above headed ;

  (each poem thereon) [223-224] page advertisements of the the

  works with

  Olliers, recently published by ,

  of [224] as [ii] imprint repeated on page

  12 Marchant at the bottom

  Details this first edition will of from which text, be apparent the present is on the the first issue. based of


  Huntington copy u


  1 as Contents

  on on the indicates, the play begins page 19 rather than page

  shifted to Arabic

  from Roman Inasmuch printer having numbering without repeating.

  as the references in Contents Prometheus

  the the Unbound other page are correct, reference would to be either a in an appear typographical error or oversight checking paging.

  I2 In 1823 the remainder sheets of four Rosalind and Helen

  works , Prometheus


  Unbound called Prometheus Unmasked on title the inclusive Tlie Cenci

  (1820; but page), and Hellas were for

  (Second (1822) bound into a volume the

  Edition, 1821), single W. and R. Marshall. in,

  Olliers, Each books was bound

  Simpkin, of the separate

  just as it with the stood, title etc., original half-titles, pages, advertisements, retained.

  In this volume Prometheus Unbound was second of the with Miscel- composite issue, laneous noted

  correctly spelled. Thomas Wise the (in 1920's)

  that "during recent years


  has nearly every collective Half-titles and Titles copy been broken up, the been first have and the three editions . . ,

  sacrificed, have This

  been separately bound,

  is the reason first editions

  the and and


why of Prometheus Unbound, Rosalind

  Helen^ Hellas are in modern invariably bindings" (Shelley pp. 69-70). Introduction





  that a corrected of the would edition be

  hope Any poem forthcoming

  within a reasonable time was after the Sir

  when, death,

  finally lost poet's


  Shelley forbade Mrs. Shelley,


Timothy penalty of revocation of allow-

  to of the while the baronet lived. ance, works publish any poet's


  it was this

  A. and with W. proscription that prevented her cooperation in edition in of the works 1826. Galignani the projected Paris of Shelley

  In event, more came until, in

  any nothing 1829, they under-

  of the proposal took a new


  project, to comprise the poetical of Coleridge, Shelley,

  and in

  Keats one volume. For this drew Mrs. Shelley a pencil sketch of


  the from which an was made. poet, unsatisfactory engraving basis

  The used editions of as

  Galignanis the published Shelley's


  for their text. That assistance editorial from is they received

  Mrs, Shelley clear from to in her letter assisted the Galignanis)

  Cyrus Redding (who

  the Errata of the Prometheus Adonais,

  ?January, 1829: "I send you [the

  and extent of these of

  II, The

  Hellas]" (Letters, 10). (or the Galignanis'


  use in addition to the thereof) suggested by the following comparison: consistent to indicate syllable, use of the apostrophe

  an unpronounced

  the text of

  made in

  the Galignanis ninety-two punctuation changes


  all to in Prometheus which are be found Mrs.

  except eighteen of edition of 1839. to two


  Shelley's agreed respect verbal changes, the in the consistent in use of for

  and the a an before h; but

  spelling through

  from in her edition made

  of other changes 1820 Mrs. Shelley twenty-eight,

  14 of in edition. which five are found

  only the Galignani In addition to edition of the there were several the Galignani 15 poems issues in in in


both none of

  America, pirated England and

  which was any

  at critical Their value lies

  made determination of the text. in attempt



  interest in Shelley's writings, although, evidence of continuing

  first a noticeable "The of fame owed


  noted, Shelley's Ivey growth debt to his the accidental factor of connection with


  (Shelley, . in Byron" It a number of the editions of

  399) be further pointed out that


  to had also to share the of Cole-


  1838 the poet the period


  for set

  and combined edition

  Keats, ridge the Galignani the pattern. the edition of work on

  1839 By Mrs. Shelley had completed the poet's it which she for and

  several years, appeared, published

  had been engaged

  in four small volumes. In a second one-volume

  Edward Moxon,


  by to the first edition were made.

  edition certain 1839 13 corrections necessary See Collected


  II, 440-41. The Poems,

  Peck, Shelley, Early Editions of Shelley's

  C. too late for here. It throws on Jr., consideration fresh light

H. Taylor,

  by appeared

  in editions to

  and offers 1839 1839, evidence that Mrs. Shelley used the Galignani edition for

  as printer's Unbound, making

  copy her second volume, including Prometheus corrections and on the proofs. her changes

  14 II.iv.100.

  See M.

  variant readings

  ILii.53, at 1.637, 733; 71;

  15 See N.

I. II, 394-99.


  12 Introduction



  way, not wholly


  be improvised


  the occasion [Edition, I, xii].

  The first effect of Mrs.


  appears to


  have been on the

  pirated edition of

  Charles Daly, originally published in

  1836. In


  there appeared

  "A New

  Edition, Revised and Corrected,





  and unmeasured enthusiasm to the task of editing her husband's works.

  But ill health and the pain of reminiscence cur-

  tailed her editorial





  judge from the

  you would say that Mrs. Shelley was not one of the persons


  to whom



  of consistent accuracy has been imparted;







  Cuning- ham." The work

  Mrs. Shelley brought deep

  Philadelphia in 1845.

  strong also

  on the first


  edition of Shelley's



  work of G. G.

  Foster, published in


  Shelley's influence

  publisher took occasion to advise the reader that

  "it has been carefully edited so

  much we have a

  right to say," although

  he did not

  feel "called





  (which omitted Shelley's Preface)

  out to appear in the



  dependent on

  both of Mrs.

  Shelley's editions,



  the haste with

  which it was brought


  the general carelessness present in the text.

  year with hers






  typo- graphical errors



  1870 edition is most pertinent:

  For the first time since

  which E is


might not have been

  completely satisfactory to the wishes of the poet, for in the E

  manuscript copy, on which

  Shelley ap- pears to have worked even after the

  poem was

  published, there are

  some 150

  readings (exclusive of punctuation differences, in

  faulty) that differ from both the 1820

  It is clear, however, from study of the variant readings, that Mrs.


and the 1839

  editions. It

  must be assumed, from

  the evident care with which the poet revised his work, that the errata

  and emendations

  there given represented Shelley's

  own final word on

  his dissatisfaction with the

  Shelley's text for the

  Appendix C).


  in her note to the


  it was

  possible to bring to

  Prometheus Unbound

  the textual corrections desired






  Mrs. Shelley stated: "I may mention, for the information of the


  critical reader, that the verbal alterations in this edition of Prometheus are

  made from a list

  of errata, written





  first edition.

  conclusion dictated

  Preface to his

  as it

  may in

  the course of nine


  years have been mislaid? Failing


  hypothesis, we can only assume that


  "formidable list" was not nearly so formidable

  might have been"

  list" . . .

  [Edition, I, 5961.

  Nevertheless, credit must not


  withheld for the


  Mrs, Shelley did. Possibly

  William Michael Rossetti's comment

  in the


  1820) not the "formidable



  this circumstance is that Mrs. Shelley did not

  make full

  use of the materials available to her with respect to this poem.

  Charles D. Locock, indeed, asked:


  we suppose that Mrs. Shelley never


  use of

  "formidable list" of


  errata] at all?

  that what she did use was a. preliminary

  list, the list

  which Shelley





  a day or two" (November

  assume the Introduction

  13 estimate of the poet in the

  Shelley in E, used


  II.iv.165; II.v.77;

  IILi.6; III.ui.131; III.iv.58; IV.184, 399.

  With respect


  punctuation, Foster was generally





  See Fs variant readings

  dashes. He used fewer


  than did Mrs.


  consistently used while

  for whilst,

  and normally spelled veil, vail. 17 See


  Power, Shelby



at 1.54, 386, 449, 539, 716;



  in the

  restrained, especially in the


  of punctuation, in which his

  changes were more extreme even

  than those of Foster. Like

  Foster, how- ever, he frequently hit


  the pointing Shelley himself



  the later evidence in Shelley's hand.



  Rossetti's verbal conjectures

  and emendations showed

  imagin- ative insight,

  even when


  were not

  supported, as they frequently were,


  America, passim; and

  Shelley, II, 639-41.


  Felix Rabbe

  Giuliano Bonazzi


  Ettore Sanfelice



  Faccioli (1902),

  Adolfo de Bosis


  and R. Piccoli (1924); in French by

  (1885-1887), Tola Dorian (1912), A.

  Mario Rapisardi

  H. Koszul

  (1929), Maurice



  and Louis Cazamian (1942);




  Moishe Blaichman (1953); in Braille

  Institute for



  The more important





Shelley's poetry that

  have included


  or parts of Prometheus Unbound have been those


  German by



  Enrico Giacohini

  Adolf Strodt-

  mann (1866),

  Helene Richter


  and Arturo Graf


  in Italian


  G. Aglio


  Unbound^ however, was not so

  His practice with respect to

  memoir (Edition, p. 5).

  suggest, although

  Mrs. Shelley



  regard as the evangelist of her transfigured lord" (p. 20).

  Actually, however, Foster was not as faithful to Mrs.

  Shelley's verbal usage as his



  Poe would


  the text sanctioned

  of his differences

  may have been the

  result of accident; 16

  and his complete independence

  in his use of punctuation


  capitalization in

  Prometheus Unbound was second

  only to that of W. M.





  expect a reasonably literal faithfulness to her




  dependence on Mrs.

  Shelley's edition,

  and reproduced

  her notes to the poems.


  one might


  at liberty to


  view of

  a statement made when Poe suggested that Foster



  word change



  Indian Serenade. Foster wrote: "But

  I have not felt

  Indeed, the

  agreed at so

  I, xv-xvii).

  and to emend

  that another carefully prepared edition



  by William Michael Rossetti.

  Rossetti's editorial aims


  acceptably modest: to correct "absolutely

  wrong" grammar, rime, and


  conjecturally only as



  stop-gap expedient against a patent


  formidable blunder," or


  the conjecture


  "convincing in a very high degree




  17 but it was not


  but the number of occurrences is interesting.

  points that

  one must wonder whether there was not more than coincidence

  in Rossetti's


  use of the

  American work.


  course, coincidence alone can account for frequent agreement between

  Foster and the E manuscript,

  Foster's text, the pirated texts,

  and Germany during the next decades,

  and those of

  Mrs. Shelley continued to

  be reissued


  England and





  in Italy, France,

  the blind, London, 1922).

18 He

  of the opposite


  in the correction of the extremes to

  which Rossetti had

  gone, although this

  must remain

  a ques- tionable value in




  sought by Shepherd.

  Harry Buxton Forman's impressive and influential

  edition of the poetical

  works first

  appeared in four volumes in

  1876, with a reissue, containing Mrs.

  Shelley's notes, in 1882.

  principal value of his work was to be

  his Prometheus Unbound followed the 1820 text almost slavishly at times.

  followed Mrs. Shelley in correcting obvious errors in the 1820 edition,

  re- ferred to

  purport of the


  (Garnett, Letters, p. 46), Shepherd was,

  if compared

  with Rossetti, manifestly restrained in his text.

  Indeed, the




  Rossetti were not incorporated in the

  1874 edition, most of

  the changes there having to do with punctuation, in


  considerable refinement on the earlier editions was evidenced. Actually

  it was to the

  "original editions" that he turned, and, except as to punctuation,


  and he

  misconception of the



  345, 774; ILi.122:

  II.ii.50, 53,


  IILii.22; IV.95, 387.

  20 E.g., at 1.619;

  II.ii.38, 50,

  II.iv.100; II.v.54; III.i.5, 20, 69;


  IILii,39; HI.iii.55,


  III.iv.121; IV.208, 274, 282, 355, 575.



  employed, as had


  conjectures at

  variant readings


  notebooks in 1862 likewise resulted

  from Miss Blind's article, but


  he did not have

  access to the

  E manuscript


  18 Richard Garnett's examination of




  no mention of

  E, and it is

  probable that he did not

  see it.


  described the "extremely confused state of these books, and the equal difficulty of deciphering and connecting

  their contents" (Relics, p.

xi), which would be true of the draft

materials, but not of K.

  19 See R


  and silliest


  his work. Miss Blind herself edited a selection of the



  in his 1878 revised edition. 19 Following

  Rossetti's first edition,

  two others appeared

  that leaned heavily



  Blind's corrections,

  (1872) in

  which she included Acts

  I and IV of Prometheus Unbound; and


  B. Scott in 1873 brought out the poetical works, including

  all of


  and he

  from Miss

  Both of these

  Westminster Review for July,

  Introduction It was at this point that the influence of the

  E manuscript

  of the

  poem first became

  evident, for Miss Mathilde Blind checked certain

  (but only a few) of Rossetti's emendations against

  it in her review of his edition, in the

  1870. Rossetti, of course, did not

  was, however, quick to profit


  access to the manuscript,

  and he gave no

  evidence of




  existence in his Preface or notes.

  drama except the Preface.

  editions incorporated the changes suggested in Miss Blind's review of




  I was



  Silenus . . .


  I am



  with con- jectural


  another 'Passionless,



  yet free from guilt


  pain,' wh.

  seems to me the


  not so prolific)


  Shepherd's 1874 text


  otherwise (except for a few minor changes in punctuation or capitalization) they


  in effect reproductions of the Rossetti text. Quite different, however,




  ("now first



  from the author's

  original editions"). Despite Rossetti's state-



  "Mr. Shepherd is

  just as


  • d to indicate the



  and continued or

  so initiated a

  number of

  errors, some almost certainly

21 It

  will be in

  noted the Forman was typographical.

  variant readings that in conservative first edition this

  Shelley's following (and

  was an important

  corrective and his to Rossetti), and notes, changes, conjectures evidenced critical restraint in the absence of the as yet unavailable manuscript. that a

  such manu-

  Possibly the knowledge, through Miss Blind's article, contributed to this existed in his work. script quality

  In the Introduction to his edition


  of 1890, Edward


  his indebtedness to both Rossetti ledged and Forman, and commented:

  Mr. Forman's is annotated edition to must which unquestionably that appeal


  be made But any question of doubt on any point of Shelley scholarship.



  Mr. Rossetti modified the editions somewhat too perhaps of the early

  Mr. Forman has sometimes been over-conservative of of

  freely, peculiarities

  obvious errors and cloud the it


spelling When these sense, seems

of punctuation. to make a correction in for


  permissible . an edition designed general use

  p. xxxv]

  In to strike a the two

  attempting extremes, however, compromise between Dowden was not and he

  successful, more always closely to frequently held the 1820 edition than was desirable or of


  justifiable in Mrs. Shelley's


  a (see 1.106, 619; IV.559). His general

  tendency was toward

  conservatism little less

  whom he Forman, from

  stringent than that of a of

  number two Forman 1.519 and

  readings, errors (at

  adopted including

  It is with Rossetti

  some of

  IV.355). possible that at agreement points of taken the Dowden were from that or were edition, readings independent, evidence

  but the would

  suggest a greater dependence on Forman.

  The marked and was the

  year 1892 the centenary of Shelley's birth, for occasion several Forman's items of importance. conservative point of in his also

  new five-volume was followed

  edition, view, continued


  in in his in his


Edward Woodberry Edition (and, 1901,

George Centenary

  in which his critical notes are to Edition,


Cambridge be found), although

  to have was been influenced more than

  Forman by Woodberry appears

22 Rossetti's

  ad- Edition, however, punctuation changes. The Centenary mirable as it was as as would be was, suggested scarcely complete by

  "all the with statement that he variations, line for line,

  Woodberry's gave But he

  notes" (Power, Shelley in America, p. 179).


  did give for

  first collation indicated

  the and of the 1820 and edition, time a description

  had Forman variants, much more

  completely than the principal conject- the editions of Mrs.

  and emendations

  ures, verbal) in Shelley, (mainly as well as to noting the corrections

  Rossetti, Forman, and Dowden, 21 See



  II.iv.100; TI.v.76; III.i.13; III.ii.34; especially 1.519, (after Blind); in

  IV.355. five-volume edition in 1892 contained a few refinements

  A new


  at II.i.155 to and

  corrected born borne

  (1.733), significantly modified the punctuation ILii.22-23. Otherwise he retained his 1876 text.


  22 0n his semicolons for the colons of 1820. For verbal own

  part he substituted many

  see 1.774 II.v.76.

  ^g Introduction


was an edition





  in- fluential after



  that, in certain details,

  Hutchinson's edition was well received

  left much to be desired.

  Although Hutchinson

  wrote in his note on Prometheus

  23 At


  (possibly after Scott), 172;



  in 1904.


  ation of the Shelley

  and had been made available

  to scholars in 1893. Following

  its examination and

  description by Zupitza-Schick (to be considered below),


  the publication of Charles D. Locock's

  An Examin-

  Manuscripts in the

  Thomas Hutchinson

  Bodleian Library (1903), the


  editorial use

  made of

  the findings


  that of

  IV.383. At 1,338 both halves of the divided line were numbered


  Lady Introduction


  their texts with

  but minor changes from earlier

  editors (usually

  Forman or Hutchinson),

  their textual

  variantswith the exception of those

  in, Grabo and Freeman's Tlte

  Shelley (see below, p. 19)

  satisfied to

  have not been considered


  the present


  although any original interpretative notes have been given due attention.

  24 See Textual Notes at 1.104;



  have been


  selections of Shelley's poems, many times including Prometheus Unbound,

  that altered the numbering


  the end of the act. The numbers have been corrected


  the present edition. Since 1892, and with increasing frequency during the past two or



  have been published


  either as

  individual volumes

  or in

  anthologies of poetry, primarily

  for class- room use.



  the compilers of such

  Jane Shelley

  Library by

  Rossetti made

  separate Italian and Danish translations


  been a separate

  German translation of



  in 1876,



  edition of Prometheus Unbound as a separate item in the edition of Vida

  in 1892.)

  This was also the

  first "student's

  edition," provided with an ex- cellent


  of critical and interpretative notes but with

  little contribution to the establishment of the text.

  Scudder. (There



  in error in several instances (probably the result of faulty proofreading),


  Miss Blind through her use of the "incomplete

  MS." (Centenary



  426). Unfortunately, the variant readings for

  Prometheus Unbound were



  incomplete in others, thus vitiating


  authority of Woodberry's work.


  centenary year,

  1892, also saw the publication of the



  herself indicated that she followed

  presented to the Bodleian

  Forman, and Wbodberry appear

  poem by

  G. Lowes Dickinson



  dependent on any one




  he did so. In the same


  influenced the text, but Dickinson initiated several readings,




  possibly typographical errors. 24 In the

  meantime the E manuscript had been

  year, also, a separate edition of the

  difference (at III.i.13),


  Alexander's edition of a selection of the poet's

  text "except in

  two or

  three instances" (Edition, iv). This was not strictly true, for actually she followed or agreed with Rossetti in a

  number of

  punctuation choices and, possibly through typographical error, introduced four verbal alterations of her


  23 William J.

  work was

  and one verbal

  published in 1898.



  Alexander noted that he followed


  for his text, and, except for minor matters of punctuation



  II.iv.47; III.iv.150; IV.3, 552,



  text Unbound: "Our ed.

  and the

  that of 1820, modified 1839,

  by by

  Bodleian fair

  it is

  evident from the variant read-

  copy" (Edition, p. 200), he adhered the text of

  ings that closely to Forman, whose work he praised


  in his for first

  Hutchinson the

  general Preface. did, however, introduce time

  some E that in had been recorded Locock's Examin-

  of the readings of

  made no mention of the

  ation (he work and his


  of Zupitza-Schick), thus at position in

  assumed an important the textual history of the poem the turn of the century.

  In the following year, 1905, a of beautiful library edition Shelley's

  poems was

  edited Nathan most of

  whose by Haskell Dole,

  readings followed

  26 and in 1907 edited the


Forman; Andr< Henri Koszul, who works

  poetical for the in his

  Everyman's Library, acknowledged, Introduction, the use of


  Examination but did not mention whose text he

  Hutchinson, in followed details to as not ascribable clearly


  many mutually


  errors initiated well as in Hutchinson.

  some by

  This popular edition has


been not other

  widely read but, fortunately perhaps, widely imitated

  by editors.

  In the most to date


1908 E that

  complete use of the readings

  manuscript was made in his Ackermann separate edition of the poem. by Richard



  incorporated the principal findings of Zupitza-Schick, as shall in detail

  we see were much fuller than were

  which, below, reported in Locock's Examination. those As a of the result, E

  he gave more readings

  to as with than did Hutchinson, although not (especially

  many respect

  as in his

  Locock was to edition. Ackermann's use

  1911 punctuation) give of E was since he did not


  necessarily incomplete, however, directly

  from but a of his will reveal the advance he it, made


  comparison on Hutchinson. two 1820 volume

  thereafter, in Shortly 1910, ap-

  "reprintings" of the of with no editor

  One these, named, was published peared. by Henry

  brief other was with excellent notes and a

  The edited, Frowde, London, life of

  of the texts

  M. An examination

  Shelley, by Arthur D. Hughes.


  material to con- reveals that common both books actually, insofar as cerned Frowde no two were from


  notes or memoir), the printed (the

  Frowde contained a not found in

  the same The of Shelley plates. portrait a volume "contains errors, note stating that the 1820

  Hughes, and many it is which would have been The

  pointless to reproduce. present text

  25 his cited

  he continued Forman sources (1.519;

  E.g., readings by


  He also continued a verbal error of Miss Scudder


  II.v.76; ni.ii.34; IV.355).

  of his

  this and introduced two own (1.112), have been coincidence,


  may later editors.

  influenced (II.L200; IV.435) which


  continued errors Dole Forman's at 1.519; II.iv.125; II.v.76;

  IV.355), (notably introduced his and and accented the edfor two of own ni.iii.75),

  (II.iv.80 pronounced

  end syllables.


see Textual Notes at 1.10,



  For KoszuTs own 309, 637, 724; changes




  existence of the in his notes,


  therefore composite." Hughes, in editions of the stated that "except previous poems, but

  manuscript and


  the corrections made


one or two instances jfffutchin-

by have adopted Frowde

  his text also), (and therefore the son]" (Edition, Actually, p. 162). cor- for six differences in and the five or minor

  some punctuation

  except to at that of Hutchinson. rection of

  L527, rapt reproduced

  rapped works from

  the edition of In 1911 Shelley's poetical

  appeared important first results of a

  the hand of Charles


D. editor to

  Locock, the bring the to his text of In of the Prometheus Unbound. personal study manuscript his Locock had

  Examination (1903), reading

  suggested that a manuscript ce texts if it


  gives sense should be given precedence over the printed

  is or more

  instead of nonsense, or (2) correct, (3) is manifestly metrically in sense and sound, or (4) is be misread, or (5) is likely to likely to superior this indeed

  would seem be 1). In the main,

  p. misprinted" (Examination, basis for as to be the and he such readings punctuation admitted, although in his


he the incon-

  unnecessarily influenced

  was probably by manuscript

  in sistent use of and dashes. capitals the frequency with

  which he employed


  in 136 differed to verbal Locock found the that

  As variations, manuscript from both the Mrs. and he 1820 and

  Shelley's editions, wrote: "Forty-nine of these 136 variants seem to me so to superior the readings of the printed that it is altered for the texts, inconceivable that Shelley (who never

  I have abandoned them. have

  worse) could deliberately introduced them, also

  (Edition, I, 595). Locock's edition accordingly, into the present text" offered the reader the most of textual and significant

  body interpretative full

  notes that and and to date, these were especially penetrating with to Prometheus Unbound. respect edition of that of Charles H.

  Following Locock, the next

  importance was Poems in 1918 and Dramatic Poems in 1922.

  Herford, with Lyrical published that his text was based on that of Hutchinson and,

  Herford acknowledged



  he, like Koszul and except details (principally of punctuation) with the result before him, followed that that his


  editor closely,

  little of interest to work added

  the textual history of the poem. did the

  Nor handsome

  ten-volume Julian Edition of the complete works, edited E.

  Peck (Volume

  II, by Roger Ingpen and Walter containing

  Prometheus in definitive treatment of

  Unbound, appeared 1927), give the

  the that was the editors offered a nice balance

  poem expected. Although

  to the 1820 made Mrs. and with respect text, some the changes Shelley,



  and for

  manuscript by gave first

  Locock, the of the readings of the given

  drafts time some from in the sixty lines of early manuscripts then


  John there

  possession of

C. Shelley-Rolls,

  was no independent examina-

28 Freeman found

  Martin "more The was than 150" (Text, p. 9). discrepancy probably the result of differences in

  in his

  count of reading, or possibly of Freeman's inclusion such did not list

  slight differences as checked, checked, his

  which Locock (who readings

  in full) have as

  treated as punctuation rather than

  may verbal changes. Introduction

  19 tion of the

  E and the text was no more exact or



  final than were several it. there were several

  Indeed, others that preceded inexcusable failure in errors, or of and reference, typographical frequent the notes issues first

  between the two of the edition and the

  to distinguish editions

  two 1839 of Mrs.

  of of


  Shelley. the general



  and indicate the nature of the editorial

  the Julian Edition, however, at full the time, variant in treatment has been policy given the present errors in work, but obvious the notes have been passed or misprints over silently.

  From Prometheus Unbound

  the foregoing survey of the textual history of

  it will clear serious

  be that no the


  evaluation of the relationship editions made the

  had been since work manuscript copy and the accepted

  of and

  Ackermann whose have

  Locock, both of we seen, were editions, as deficient in the to the

  To and

  certain respects. of re-evaluation,


  determination of a more definitive text, Martin Freeman nearly

  Joseph in addressed himself of a disserta-

  A Text


  Prometheus Unbound,

  tion for


submitted at in


  the doctoral degree the University of Chicago his thesis

  As Freeman

  transcribed afresh the part of materials,


  related his and selected and editions, readings to earlier transcriptions


made his final text basis of the as in Reader's

  the The

  poem published

  edited in collaboration with Carl Grabo.

  Shelley (1942), text close to

  The Freeman was the

  kept extremely readings,


  as in his the of statement that "the

  might be expected light manuscript

  in it reasonable those instances where more readings should, except appears to later

  made even

  suppose that the poet changes, take precedence over the First text that

  But Freeman's demonstrated

  Edition" (Text, p. 38).


  there the should not a point beyond which fidelity to go.



  must be remembered was a

  that Shelley clearly not attempting printer's in

  was and He

  copy. frequently inconsistent punctuation capitalization,


and to inconsistencies into a text is in itself a trans-

  that not carry these

  29 is to

  of the cription misinterpret editorial responsibility.

  manuscript is final

  With to word different:

  changes the matter certainly the respect

  first made a edition or


  by the poet should take precedence over

  29 to

  The one faced with promise of Freeman's full transcriptions of the manuscripts

  as was the editor,

  deciphering Shelley's handwriting, present illusory. proved Many

  errors in the some of these


  transcription, and, while were defensibly debatable in

  or the manu- words

  figures clearly present

  readings, others represented omission of and failure to indicate

  errors, script, obvious misreadings, frequent many typographical

deletions. a result it has to re materials

  As transcribe the been necessary manuscript

  I I be remiss did not

  Yet would


in their entirety. the help available in


  for in

  and Freeman's work, combination with the transcriptions of Zupitza-Schick

  it has confirmed me into further

  Locock times own

  many my tentative readings or forced errors for

  the principal consideration of questionable passages. See Textual Notes

  also excellent and Freeman.



  in its final form

  have the

  edition that did not

  any subsequent manuscript

  as are the determination of what


  the only a check-copy. problems to is

  "final and the extent which


  a given editor actually the changes,"


  his in successful than

  more handwriting.

  predecessors transcribing in differed from and Locock

  Ackermann Freeman

  In the present instance

  II.iii.38; III.i.3;

  III.iv.114, Preface 98; 1.35, 208-9, 253;

  (at eleven readings


  III.iv.151; 171).

  151, 165; IV.165, four of these changes (Preface 98; trans- in

  were even Freeman's


  IV.165, 171) authority,


  in ; three were choices


  (II.iii.38; 165)

  cription; debatable readings in Free-

  and one resulted

  (1.208-9) a tetrameter questionably defended by

  all had been noted and man. The

  three remaining adoptions rejected by are

  Locock. Moreover, there several uncanceled Shelley readings (notably the

  some directions)

  of the stage not adopted by Freeman, presumably on

  not final that they did changes. assumption represent


  of the Prometheus

  As has been noted above, the most important item

  to materials was the presented


Unbound manuscript Bodleian Library by


  and became available to scholars 1893. Of the four

  Jane Shelley,

  Lady is

  in which this material to and

  notebooks MSS E.I, E.2,

  be found, Shelley

30 E.3 of all lines of the

  but ten contain, hand, a in Shelley's copy poem of which are in- to in the a notebook,

  (eight be described below,

  Huntington The MS

  fourth notebook, poet's Library). Shelley D.I, contains the translations as

  II.v.48-71 and into an of

  IV.1-82 Italian, exercise, . probably



  Appendix and with most of the

  Generally speaking, certainly so in comparison extant are is these notebooks one who drafts, reasonably legible to willing to


  Shelley's are, acquaint himself with handwriting. however,

  difficulties should be noted. for

  that It


  certain transcriptional example,




  or impossible frequently distinguish small capital letters 7i, and to determine a small or a


e, 7?i, o, 5, or whether was

  capital letter written first alters


  Shelley one by overwriting with the other; the

  on small e is to i

  confusion in with loop often suppressed or missing, leading those instances fails to dot the

  where he i, or to

  place the dot correctly over it a situation that is difficult

  made his own confusion with



30 These notebooks of leaves. has

  and number E.I


  differ slightly in size leaves, 1 1 5%

  8H inches; E.2 has 43 S S

  by leaves, A A



  by inches; E.3 has 38 leaves, by and D.I has 156 leaves, inches. inches;

  6M 8% Locock E notebooks as

  by gave the


  8 Ys

  5% by inches (Examination, p. 28).

  The back cover of E.I and the front cover of E.3 are missing, a circumstance that led Julius to these whether notebooks

  Zupitza have been question originally might one, cut

  down the back binding.

  Joseph Schick, however, pointed out that the half-covers and in ornamentation do not match such a and

  way as to justify this assumption,

  that the evidence of which continues E.2, from would it.

  directly E.I,

  argue against The

size should also be noted.

  slight difference in Introduction

  21 respect to

  of the


  of the


  relative to the manu- script

  must remain

  tentative, especially in


  manner in which

  copy made by

  the poet


  the notebooks, but the


  general evidence relative to

  Prometheus Unbound


  the poet (Examination,

p. 29).

Conclusions with respect to

  the first fair




  ever made


  Shelley," holding that "the evident care

  with which it was made;

  the fact that



  of the

  thought it an "intermediate draft" and probably

  poem but ten

  lines; the fact that

  it contains all

  of the preface everything, except in a few instances,


  carefully written, as Shelley's writing goes lend support to this view"

  (Text, pp. 37-38), Locock, however, in general agreement with Zupitza-



  here (for matters of detail see the Textual Notes).

  of the

  handwriting permits


  heyond a few reasonable conjectures

  (listed in the Textual Notes of the present edition),



  numbering of the

  lines nor variation in



additions. But he

  con- jecture" (Text, pp.


  82 There is in these, as in the

  other Shelley notebooks, material not related

  to Prome-

  theus Unbound, This includes, for E.I, E.2, and

  E.3, an Italian street line,


  changes and



  can be learned from the appearance of the manuscript. Shelley changed pens, or sharpened the pen being used, frequently.

  At other times a pencil was used. At

  times, also,

  the ink grew weak and was apparently changed or renewed.

  But whether or not there was a time lapse between these changes cannot he determined. Freeman attempted


  reconstruct the progress of the

  noting the



  at which pens were changed,

  etc., and

  speculating on the degree

  to which

  such evidence might


  dicate early or



  ei and ie

  scarcely correct


  are sometimes reduced to dots;

  and dashes differ

  widely in length.

  As to

  punctuation, Miss Blind




  in her review of Rossetti she wrote that the E

  manuscript was "always carefully punctu-



  for the question mark, which


  usually present,





  (he clearly writes thier at times, as well as

  viel, weild> and

  ivierd) ;


  frequently looks like a poorly written


  the final

  (where, there) are occasionally indistinguishable

  pen movement


  n; there are


  irrelevant ink splatters

  which may be confused with punctuation,


  may an occa-




  "the only fair

  31 nor can one state

  any certainty when

  the different parts of

  E were

  written, or


  the additions and changes

  were made in it;


  is no way

  what was its

  relationship to the 1820 edition.

  Freeman went

  so far as to state

  it as his

  opinion that



  to determine with

  the letters, there

  frequently omitted at line ends. Within the lines



  is more

  (but certainly not "always") careful, although


  times the dash is substituted for


  exact marking, and ambiguity through altered punctuation often plagues the reader. All

  difficulties have been treated either in the


  Variant Readings or in the

  Textual Notes of the present edition, as


  Shelley's misspellings


  other orthographic idiosyncrasies.


  for general dates supplied

81 Little



  to at the be- not, as Shelley started copy the play might be expected,

  r first


  notebook , where he

  (E.I) ginning of the but on page placed the


  I and

  to 18 for

  Act title, subtitle, He

  dramatis personae. then proceeded this act on the


  (to line 498) verso pages, leaving the recto pages copied for and additions to the text.


blank corrections therefore,



  V left

  to l 17 were originally pages blank, possibly with the intention of later. for to be added a preface reserving the space line was then continued in the

  Act I,

  499, beginning with immediately

  and for second notebook

  the (E.2), the foregoing procedure of verso pages for This was com- recto corrections and additions was followed. act text,

  V V , Act the end with

  II on 21 and to following continuing pleted on page 20


  of the book , into line II.iv.74). (page 43 Again Shelley continued directly


  with the next line

  II l the of Act

  next notebook

  (E.3), starting

  on page v

  V V .

  III .

  10 Act followed on ll

  and ending on and was completed on 36 a

  "climb two lines of Greek from [lall] ladder";

  /cAijua (identified by Zupitza-Schick as Philoktet sketches of

  from ; trees, towers, a 387-88) pencil and pen bridge, a head,

  r at E.3 a and more and ink sailboats, and

  39 a harp, full-page

  detailed pencil drawing

  a to of view shore rocks a small island of rock, flanked two sailboats

  across large

  by with a cave in and and the rock; mathematical


  topped with many computations


to his Prometheus Unbound line

lines not in

  count; three other than those pertinent

  also not

  hand and list,


  signed "Clare"; a in Shelley's hand, of eight of the

  to in ink, of the Invocation

  longer a penciled copy, plus one stanza Misery; poems; of the to a translation of

  Ode Heaven; and a copy, in ink, slightly less than half of Plato's


Ion. In addition, there are two Unbound

  fragments possibly written with Prometheus


  mind. see at II.iii.98. in For the Textual Notes The on E.2


  first, second,

  inverted, was

  to (I The Mask

  thought by Kroder believe correctly) to be pertinent rather of


  treads: Anarchy. screams a Nation aloud

  When [cries]

  Like from the cloud an eagle a


  the [When


  the look askance

  Watch & cold See falsehood fold.

  & neglect, is

  notebook E.I much as is it Since the Ion fragment scattered through Act



  was in not written before that act. Several circum- be questioned whether might


  this: The translation starts

  on after stances argue against page 16 and, carrying

  r finishes

  the end of the book, on the two l v l


irregularly to (inverted) and , and

  pages Act

  IV. Had

  IV Act the paste-down immediately preceding the opening of not already written reason for been in, there would have been no on the blank not placing the Ion

  for that act. on

  pages used 36*, which the final line of Secondly, at the top of Act IV

  is below the line act written,

  (and the count written under with the Ion picks up it), would not have had translation the an ample spacing that been present been written

  first. in

  the Ion And, finally, by he was the time the poet wrote

  willing to use pages

  I Act on which additions or corrections to the act

  had been at opposite made, even




  times writing the over these changes. when skipped these pages Act

  IV, copying in Introduction

  23 With the

  original three-act version of the play thus completed (except for and additions that added at

  have been time

  certain changes

  may any

  to his first this later), Shelley Preface. At probably turned consisted only of the final version. will recalled that

  It be

  opening four paragraphs of the


  1 to

  17 of notebook E.I had left four been blank. The pages

  paragraphs r

  V r

  V r were on ,

  14 , 15 , 15 , and 16 still , which left copied pages 14 three pages

  title blank before the It is

  page. possible that Shelley

  misjudged the space

  that would be for that he left possible needed, but equally purposely space later to Preface. addition the In final five event, before the

  any paragraphs were under circumstances to be

  written, described below, other material to

  was these and

  the balance of the Preface was assigned blank pages, in written notebook E.3.


  three acts of the to



  poem were, according

  Shelley, by

  and Act

  IV at least

  6, 1819, (see 4-6). When April by December above, pp. this final act it into the notebook is was

  Shelley copied not known, but item to in E.I.

  be included

  almost certainly the next major Using only for first

  blank the lines, wrote the verses of

  pages the poet completely

  r .


  2 this his

  IV At he abandoned and on page point previous procedure

  V and to wrote on both recto the bottom of 13 ,

  verso pages which brought to

  him the Preface. He blank


  IV.427) pages then skipped over the

  r r


  16 , and 17 still to for 17 , , reserve later addition


  probably possible to and continued

  Act IV on the blank

  the Preface, r r recto pages opposite I.

  19 and 20

  Act were Pages skipped because they contained corrections


  to first 21 for or additions the and , blank one act; word although except


  also at the


  IV on 22 , bottom, was skipped. Shelley then continued r r and 24

were not

and resumed

  because they completely blank,

  skipped 23 r r r . on 25 and 27 had been used so Act

  IV was

  for additions,

  Pages 26 r r r . r

  to recto to

  31 carried

  28 and and 33 had

  pages through the Pages 32

  r r I and 35 ,


  for one changes, except

  and Act IV was completed on 34 r .

  line at


  the top of to


Between this time and the time of add the

  Shelley's decision to

  all for notebook E.I were used

  (the Preface, pages of other writings pages for to to addition the Preface were the apparently reserved given


  to let of the Ion had determined the four translation).

  Possibly the poet

  commented on

  stand without addition, since they



  its and

  of the the Greek

  matter models,

  the subject relationship to

  poem, it written. But last five

  the circumstances under which was the paragraphs, called their

  were forth

  with imitation, strong defense against the charge of in in a review of The

  Revolt of Islam published attack against Shelley

  by an

  after 1819. In this

  Review review,

  for April, the Quarterly

  commenting on

  resemblances to Southey, the writer (John Taylor Coleridge) stated:


  the rich stores of another mountain whose draws on poet,

  [Shelley] largely to it must see the

  mind be matter, we think, phil-

  religious of perpetual sorrow as it

  and from his and pure holy pen, degraded perverted,



  atheists this miserable of who have is, crew just

  continually by or pantheists,


  sense to abuse

  principle to

  terms, but neither heart nor comprehend enough

  its its [pp. 461-62].

  import, or follow application until it almost

  and was

  This review did not October, reach Shelley

  he his answer: the final five

  wrote certainly at that time that paragraphs of the Prometheus Unbound Preface. written the article, and

  Shelley thought, erroneously, that Southey had in a letter from Florence to the Olliers dated October 1819. so declared


  He added:

  I in this is the assertion that imitate

  remark worth notice The piece only

  or Wordsworth,


It as well be said that imitates


  may Lord Byron

  and that Wordsworth imitates Lord

  Byron, both being great poets, deriving from the new and which


  springs of thought the great events of our age .

  to similar and

  have view, a tone of sentiment, imagery, exposed expression.

  all writers of

  certain the best

  A similarity

  any particular age inevitably are

  all. This I in

  from the on had marked with, spirit of that age acting explained


  The which the writer was


  preface [to Revolt of too disingenuous


  advert to [Julian, X, 95-96].

  from that earlier as follows: The were

  preface pertinent sentences

  as I I have have said the imitation of

  avoided, before, any contemporary style. not

  But there must which does their be a resemblance, own will, depend upon

  all writers

  the of from sub- between any particular age. They cannot escape

  influence out of to a common which arises an infinite combination of


  in to the times which each is in live;

  circumstances belonging they though a degree influence his . . . the is And this author of the very by which being thus pervaded. influence of the is an influence neither the meanest scribbler


[the which nor the



  era and which to can sublimest genius of any escape; have not attempted escape. his for

  Urged on by

  the challenge of the review, Shelley restated position in to inclusion the Preface the new made a draft of

  poem. Having rough

  for all the material but the last

  new (see


  Appendix (which paragraph if we the

  in E.3), Shelley, judge ink used,

  was worked up may by pen and it almost


  For this

  copied E.3 (Freeman, Text, immediately p. 23). turned the

  he notebook down

  upside purpose and began writing

  on page V r

  r r r r r r .

  38 , on 38 , 37 , 36 ,

  35 ,

  32 , 3'l , and 30 The

  continuing skipped pages for text

  had been used the of Act III or for thereto.

  additions already after the E available to scholars in


  manuscript became 1893,

  a careful Julius made of the notebooks. took as his

  He com-

  Zupitza study text that of indicated the differences to

  Forman, and be found

  parative in also described the in

  He some the

  the manuscript. detail,

  manuscript gave and alterations

  the made as canceled readings he worked over

  by Shelley

  the his

  lines, in work was not he of-

  and, although complete every detail, fered the first full


  nearly picture of the nature of the

  manuscript and

  contents. Before his materials for

  were ready however,


  and worked the data into

  Zupitza died, final Joseph Schick form,


  25 of his own

  comments after earlier

  and, editions checking against the in to certain of the

  whether manuscript respect

  debated readings, indicating to

  was be found results

  hand. The support or refutation in Shelley's ("Zu in three articles in 1899. Shelleys Prometheus Unbound") were published

  One some and may disagree with

  of the Zupitza-Schick readings, point out of the omissions and


some but all in

  errors, who work with textual matters a debt for skill Shelley's the care and with which

  poem must acknowledge


  work was done. In

  preliminary such matters, involving chirographical

  difficulties, to the truth re can come approximation only threading through

  of the maze later minds, with each on

  by many transcriber resting heavily the work of those who before. have gone So it was in his

  Examination that he

  that Locock, (1903),


  his his

  work and were had compared with that of Zupitza-Schick, readings

  in with those of the German scholars usually general

  agreement (differences and will be treated in Textual

  the Notes conjectures edition). of the present

  But his aim was much less inclusive than

  de- theirs,

  and he attempted no

  tailed while he admitted the im-

  Also, analysis of the variant readings. in list

  he did not them but instead in-

  portance of variations punctuation, to to field. vited scholars write him in this This with respect questions considered a serious


must be lack in his was

  work, for, although Shelley in his his that can be thrown on frequently faulty punctuation, any light


  the fact of phrasing be expected, however, of importance. As might in as

  he discussed con-

  English Locock's publication gave such readings in influential


  siderable weight, especially they the widely


  in and in Locock's edition of Hutchinson own edition year, the following in 1911.


No further work of note was done on the we have

  until, as


J. to establish a

  Martin Freeman more exact text for

  seen above, sought dissertation in the as his doctoral 1934.


  in to described are materials next those



  manuscript importance

  in drafts to be found that two notebooks the early occupy parts of presented later sales to to Richard


  by Jane Shelley and, through Lady

  in the

  Huntington, Huntington

  K. Bixby and Henry

  E. now housed W.

  as 2176 and

  MSS These

  2177, notebooks, catalogued Huntington Library. to to in addition Prometheus

  much Unbound.,

  contain, material not pertinent in drafts latter handwriting that confirms Trelawny's of parts of the poem

  to was a

  Guitar, Jane: "It frightful Shelley's description of poem, With a the out with other, over

  words smeared his finger,

  scrawl; and one upon


  in most admired

  and over in and all run disorder; tiers,

  together might


  for a sketch of a

  have been taken with bulrushes, marsh overgrown

  wild ducks." the blots for with these pages, the copy

38 E is


  83 also in 310).

  ("Prometheus," Archiv, GUI, Compare Quoted Zupitza-Schick her note on

  to Posthumous Poems Poems Mrs.

  (in Shelley's



  and and after Forman had transcribed edited

  indeed "fair,"

  Harry Buxton he was

  the draft for the Boston


notebooks (1911)

  Society of Bibliophile offered

  and who the who wrote the Preface


  justly praised

  by comment:

  following The Note Books seemed task of deciphering the contents of these impossible;

  familiar with it could

  hand- one thoroughly Shelley's be accomplished only by


  and with

  practically his entire works, writing, an intimate acquaintance with


  as a of his habits and and the methods em-

  well characteristics, knowledge

  in in his no

  work. Shelley adopted systematic order of paging ployed constructing


  write in the then these books sometimes he would front, the back, then with


  the book bottom and down up and the pages length- up, frequently he wrote

  after across them and never

  wise written too Greek, Latin, plainly. having any

  are all and lines in



Italian, together, one language

  Spanish English mixed up

  across lines in another

  other written


  often appear written or diagonally . . . there all to be of here and had through the books language. Fragments poems

  fitted their

  and transcribed, and then related


  puzzled out together with . . . one across be found. a disconnected wherever they might Imagine coming

  it after from the confused mass of crisscross lines,

  passage and, disentangling being

  to it as the five hundred and of Prometheus Unbound

  able identify ninety-first line !

  34 xi-xii]

  [Note Books, pp.

  2176 draft lines for Act of MS


  contains the following


  Prometheus Unbound: 185-93, 319-27, 370-423, 431-36, 444-48, 457-70,

  and 529-38. These lines are of in

  course, 481-92, 500-16, 519-23, not, given the above makes and their the order comment indicated, as clear,


  will if in be evident paging


development and the transcription the present

  edition is consulted (see

  Appendix A).

  contains less material

  MS 2177 Prometheus Unbound Four Huntington

  five final fifth of the to paragraphs of the Preface are in draft (the appears

  Bodleian E.3 at the time these four originally in

  have been worked up is were the of the

  therein), as copied "Song Spirits" (the "Down, down"

  and an

  at earlier draft Some of IV.397-99. lyric

  II.iii.54-98), speculation has offered as to in

  been the order which

  the stanzas of the of Spirits"


were written notebook order habit of

  (the is iii, ii, i, iv, but v), Shelley's for using


  pages or parts of pages without regard textual continuity rule out

  on this any certainty problem.

  material in the form of drafts



  Other manuscript bearing


  Unbound remained Sir until John : the possession of Shelley-Rolls 1946, see

  from which

  I drew

  of 1822) "Did anyone the papers wonder that volume, the would be how

  it a

  any from so confused eyes or patience were capable of extracting


  and so mass, broken into fragments, that the sense could only be deciphered and rather intuitive than joined by guesses which founded on might seem reasoning." these

  Of two has 56 2176 notebooks, HM leaves,

  5M inches, and 2177 has

  4 by HM



  3 5 Y* inches.

  leaves, A


34 The line number was

  as is draft for line

  there no 591 of apparently hypothetical, act in notebooks. these

  • six

  88 For


  the former, the

  first item of

  possible significance

  is the letter written

  to Clio

  Rickman on December 24,

  a description of


  these materials


  Neville Rogers' "The

  Shelley-Rolls Gift


  the Bodleian Library," TLS, July




  that reflect the ideas inherent in the


  expressions in his

  10, 1951.

  in 1887,

  The manuscript was reprinted

  in facsimile


  the Shelley Society (with

  an introduction by

  H. B.



  myth, and

  I have worked from

  this facsimile for the transcription in

  Appendix A.




  Evidence of

  Shelley's interest in the Promethean theme is of two types: his direct references to or use of the

  and August

  36 In this



  might be communicated.

  A topical

  rather than a purely chronological approach has seemed most meaningful and has been employed, although within each subsection a chronological


  of items has been approximated, with such deviations


  unity of thought has dictated. Since chronology

  of importance

  of the


  such a survey, however, dates have been included


  either the text or the

  references, in order that the reader may at all

  times be oriented


  the midst of what will



  part of the Introduction only the fairly general trends

  of the pertinent

  in critical

  opinion have been indicated, with more

  specific references to acts, scenes,

  or lines reserved

  for the Critical


  Here, also, no attempt has been

  made to list all


  order that something of the

  comments (which could




  tiresome duplication), but frequent quotation rather than mere


  has been used


  The Mask of Anarchy.



  Shelley-Rolls has not yet been indexed or fully described (leaving

  faulty abstract of the passage


  given, with

  no indication of the changes made by the poet


  working out his drafts.

  Unfortunately, the gift of

  one the

  In each instance only a

  anticipation of later discoveries), but, through the courtesy


  diligence of the


  of Western Manuscripts at the

  Bodleian Library, the


  passages given in


  and Prose (1934).

  Ingpen-Peck have been

  (see 1.766, 772-79;

  27 when his collection

  of Shelleyana


  presented to the Bodleian Library.

  35 Previously, however,

  six passages (involving fifty-two text lines)

  had been

  transcribed for the Julian Edition of the works

  II.i.133- 40;

  Rolls-Ingpen Verse


  5-23, 41-56),

  and two

  additional passages (twenty

  lines con- jectured to be for



Unbound) had

  been included in the Shelley -

  Verse and Prose and three of the passages given by


  of a


  e.ll), photostats of


  were supplied to


  for first transcription


  Appendix A).




  of manuscript remains




  draft of IV.327-31, written on the verso of page 16



  MS Shelley adds.

  a part of the Preface




  Shelley adds, e.12)


  photostated for

  my independent examination, thus permitting a complete transcrip-

  tion for the first time.

  In addition,


  attention was directed




  of Western Manuscripts


  another draft


  (II.iii.28-42, in


  Shelley adds, c.4)



  left him to experience the sad effects of them."


  that "Jupiter,


  the rest of the gods, foreseeing the consequences of these inventions,

  were amused or irritated at

  the short-sighted devices of the newly



  As Douglas Bush remarked: "No one

  guide the wanderings of exacerbated passion.

  could predict Prometheus

  Unbound from

  Shelley's interpretation" of the myth in this note (Mythology, 1937, p. 133). It


  clear that


  1816 the



  Shelley then quoted further from Newton to


  active interest to the poet.

  by the vulture of disease. It consumed his being

  the condition of


  nature, and applied

  fire to

  culinary purposes; thus inventing an expedient


  screening from

  his disgust the horrors of the shambles.

  From this moment his vitals were devoured


  known, when reason vainly attempted

  every shape of


  loathsome and

  infinite variety, inducing the soul-quelling

  sinkings of premature and violent death. All vice rose from the ruin of healthful innocence.


  superstition, commerce, and

  inequality were then


  was of


  some great change

  of course, not surprising that

  and his words "often flowed on line after line in blank

  verse, into




  prose resolves itself naturally" (pp. 242-43).



  by 1820

  French or



  thus completely mastered the text. In


  1818, Shelley recorded the passage of Les Echelles in

  Savoy, on

  the journey to Italy,

  and called

  Aeschylus for


  written in


  at Lake Geneva (Shelley, p. 161);

  list of his

  reading included

  it for the


  and Thomas Medwin

  recorded that in the


  year the poet translated

  it for Byron





  in 1820,

  he was


  make an

  oral translation for




  as fluently as


  human race) effected



  strangely different from that to be


  in Prometheus Unbound.

  In a note to

  Queen Mab

  VIII.211-12 (incorporated also into


  Vindication of Natural Diet,


  in a

  followed the interpretation



  John Frank Newton's



  Nature; or, A Defence of the Vegetable

  Regimen (London, 1811),

  in which Prometheus was made responsible for the



  of the world because he taught the use of


  Introduction 1812, in which he ordered,


  other books, a


  of Aeschylus, with the direction that it should be an "original

  and translation, if

  possible, united"

  (Julian, IX, 35-36).


  of course, be

  use of


  that Shelley




  as such from his earlier studies,


  in 1813

  he made


  animal food.

  Prometheus (who represents the




  its hunger.

  Hesoid says thai, before the time of Prometheus, mankind were exempt from

  suffering; that they

  enjoyed a vigorous youth, and that death, when



  came, approached

  his liver, that

  like sleep,

  and gently closed their eyes.

. . .






  spoken by

  all this!


  Caucasus, where a vulture continually devoured

  In view of the varied interpretations to



  given later to Shelley's

  poem, it is inter-

  esting to note his


  emphasis at this time,

  and his awareness of the

  uncertainties of allegorical interpretation:

  The story of

  is one likewise


  which, although universally admitted




  has never been





  stole fire

  from heaven, and was chained for this crime to

  • formed

  29 is

  scene like in that described the Prometheus rifts


  of ^Eschylus. Vast in caverns the granite with

  mountains ice and snow

  precipices, wintry above; the loud sounds of

  unseen and walls of

  waters within the caverns, to as rocks, be scaled he toppling only the chariot of described,

  by winged



  the ocean (Julian, 293.) later in


  IX, And the same year, after


  of the wrote to

  Thomas Love Peacock on completing Act drama, he October 8 is in

  "what there Cicero a to

  asking about drama have



  been under this title by /Eschylus





  (IX, 336. See Appendix the Cicero passage). called

  Carlos Baker Prometheus Unbound first at- successful

  "Shelley's to ideas which he synthesize the had handled

  tempt 5 ' (separately or con-

  in the his

  works of

  fusedly) (Shelley's Poetry, apprentice period Major


  1948, the "internal evidence" of p. 6), the Prome-

  Shelley's interest in


  thean to theme be found in related in earlier efforts. ideas used these echoes will be


found recorded in the Critical

Notes Many

  of the present here edition, but we observe some of the

  may broader aspects of the prob-

  as I.


  letter lem, the relevance, N. of the of October

  noted by White,

  to Elizabeth Hitchener: "I have of the

  18, 1811, been convinced long eventual of mind of is sufficient

  motive omnipotence over matter; adequacy

  to and

  is will when become

  anything, golden age

  my the present potence

  Will it not be the task of human human reason,

  omnipotence powers?"


  195; Julian,

  VIII, (Shelley, 160).


A and to the

been marshaled show wide range

  of early prose poetry has in

  Prometheus far the thought Unbound, larger anticipations of but by


  her return to in this scene once more and


  England 1823, Mrs. Shelley passed wrote to

  1, that the "dark above

  Leigh high precipices Hunt, on August towering idea of his

  Prometheus" I, gave S[helley] the (Letters, 23940).

88 Gliasta "The

  comments: and The Jew: Prome- Typical Wandering angel choruses of

  Unbound stumbled theus

  [these pieces] before they learned

  through the measures of

  to to the

  dance the music of "Mad

  (E. S. Bates, p. 140);

  spheres" Shelley," 1929,

  to a

  The and of Atheism: "[The] attitude of protest rebellion [gives

  Necessity way]

  for self himself

  man's from


positive faith in -emancipation by the strength of


  is akin to universal soul of intellectual his own which the



  beauty and love" S.


  (J. Thomson, "Unbinding of Prometheus," 1945, p. 10); Alastor:

  forerunner of the massive the Earth [is] a true Prome-

  feeling for

  • song

  mighty Earth breathes that

  Starlit The Assassins: "[It]

  theus" (G. W. Dome, 1941, 207); Knight, p. of and founded on love, which was developed

  spirit domestic peace general brotherhood

  " ; afterwards in the 'Prometheus Unbound' (Mrs. Shelley, Preface, 1839, p. x)

  Prometheus Unbound" on (0. on gloss Elton,

  Essay Christianity: "[A] kind of prose ; Shelley's interest in the victory Rosalind and Helen: indicative of

  Shelley, 1912, p. 74) ; Shelley's

  of the Good 1884, 252) Frankenstein (assuming (H. Druskowitz, Shelley, p.


  similar in the theme of "victorious (A. Delrieu,

  collaboration): pantheism" Maddalo: like Prometheus Unbound and modernes," 1843, ; Julian a projection

  p. 197)


  madman" into

  of the

  own with

  the "hysterical agony of Shelley's tragedy, with and



  of Prometheus, emphasis personal, more upon upon the "god-like agony

  evil will

  vicarious but with both showing overcome by the practice of




  those and of have been Mob

  numbers relating to Queen

  such comparisons

  The Grabo The Revolt

  Islam, with Carl noting that (and


of both poems

  Prometheus in "the rebel and like Unbound theme:



  Wandering whether secular or

  heretic divine, and, suffering


  defying tyranny, in his assur- of his soul and torments, steadfastness giving

  remaining master

  Poets, 1930, overthrow" (Newton among p. 28). ance of the tyrant's ultimate to have The

  With three points of view prevailed.

  respect Queen Mab, close to in

  first Mob

  has held that Prometheus Unbound was very Queen


  theme. Thus


  Delrieu that the "insolent spinozism" of the Queen in abstract notes was now 1843, p.

  form fTo&tes modernes," 186);


  xlii-xliii; 145, ;

(B. Kurtz, Introduction, 1933, pp. Pursuit of Death, 1933, pp. 150)

. . .

  "The main historical action is same a

  A View the

  namely Philosophical of Reform:

  the French Revolution to establishment of the

  from the the symbolic depiction of age

  into the of the Alliance and future" (K. N.

  a projection of that age Quadruple tyranny

  after the


  Edition, 1951,

  Cameron, p. xxi); The Witch of Atlas (although written

  to it is identical in Prometheus,'" for

  "[The] best preface the study of "philosophy,

  since it and The Cloud

  and "were fashioned from materials


  symbolism, imagery," . .

  in . suit

  the theme and because they did not rejected the shaping of Prometheus



  (C. Grabo, Witch, 1935,

  scope of that grave profound poem" Meaning of vii, 21, 108). pp.

  The most extensive -Promethean

  single effort to trace

  the pre ideas in Shelley's Bennett works, however, has been that recently undertaken Weaver, who by pointed

  until Unbound

  out that the mass of is


  "up the writing of Prometheus prose

  his in the his and the main is

  tendency of greater than that of poetry, thinking prose

  in noted that as 1812

  toward the celebrated the drama." He as


principles early


  Address the Irish and an Association contained six of the "most for People Proposals


in Prometheus

  Unbound: and


  important concepts" that eventuated tyranny, power, virtue as as and wisdom love the for succor

  evil; (2) (3) solution; (4) need

  true power;

  for self-destruction

  the and the eventual of man; (5) (6) of despotic power; triumph

  ideas continued to

  dominate Letter to


  good. Moreover, these the prose, especially Lord A A Tlie


  Ellenborough, Vindication of Natural Refutation of Deism, Assassins,

  the to

  on Address the

  Essay Christianity, A the Vote, An on Proposal for Putting Reform


  Princess and Death of Charlotte, ("Pre-Promethean Prose," . Speculations on Morals 1948, passim)


  also traced, on the reflection of own

  with particular emphasis Shelley's


earlier interest in

his characters, the the theme as found

in three

  personality in : longer and and Julian and Maddalo. In these

  Prince Athanase, Rosalind Helen, Weaver poems found such as

  Promethean and

  (1) love

  concepts acquaintance with suffering grief; (2)

  of desire to

  fellow men and the save them; (3) calm, steadfast and (4)

  invincibility; will itself be

  and lost in tyranny that destroy eternity ("Pre-Promethean Poems,"

  1950, passim).

  was extended in another

  This investigation 1953).

  article ("First Beginnings," With to particular reference the which juvenilia,

  he considered "too long neglected," Weaver other

  traced, ideas, into eternity; madness

  among the concepts of aloneness deepening madness to

  (the ;

  especially, social will

  Prometheus, of course) love; not applicable the deeper and,

  sympathy and indignation against tyranny. be found

  Specific comparisons in

  the Critical Notes.


  essay, late for detailed

  Prometheus Unbound, regrettably appeared too

  inclusion in It is

  the present work. a a wisely written study of the poem, offering balanced, tempered reading illuminated by and mature

  many fresh insights Introduction

  31 and William

  Michael Rossetti found in to the the be

  argument two poems

  the "the

  same: of too in man, and too power truly


  proved the past and in to

  turn his earth his the present, into and hell;

  an approximate if

  likewise, he so wills

  it, of power by a gradual but energetic change

  spirit, to turn his earth an into as

  approximate heaven" ("Prometheus Poem," Paul Elmer

  1887, More stated "Prometheus is p. 144). flatly: only

  Queen Mob ; and would Barrell

  writ large" ("Shelley," 1910, p. 14) while Joseph far

  not this he did feel that the "essential

  go Shelley"

  was fundamentally

  emotional rather than

  and that at the end of


  both poems he

  to this returned emotionalism and

  (Shelley 158).

  Thought, 1947, p.

  The second more advances

  point of view, widespread, has recognized in

  made Prometheus Unbound on the ideas of Queen Mob. Thus Medwin,

  in attitude toward but without

  Shelley's discussing materialism,


  the earlier wrote:

  poem, sufficient to

  A answer

  the eloquent, but specious reasoning of Mirabeau, the Materialism of the so

  la to the mere matter-of-

  Nature, unanswerable Systeme de


  Prometheus Unbound. It is the best fact mind, given in Shelley's practical refutation of the that "there is in that not first maxim, the was nothing intellect,

  in all

  and of the sorrowful deductions therefrom the senses," [Shelley, 1847, p. 431].

  Thornton Hunt stated this view "a distinct more

  clearly in finding present-

  ment of the Revolt Mob and The

  original ideas [of Queen Islam],

  of coupled

  far less

  with a for on a much more measured and

  suggestion them, acting bitter allusion to


  the and love are obstacles; more while the charity


  embracing and 201).

  apparent than ever" ("Shelley," 1863, p.


  amplified by John Todhunter: position

  Mob is

  Queen chiefly interesting as being the forerunner of Prometheus Unbound,

  it first

  does the and containing as sketch of the philosophy which, purified rough

  is in

  embodied drama in perfected, lyrical a mythical form. There, the great

  find some are discernible

  however, we which not glimpses of an evolution -theory .


  the juvenile [Study, 1880, p. 4.6]

  poem is far from wrote: new world of the Prometheus ...

  "The George Gordon

  the of farther still men can

  Arcadia from anything which Queen Mob, and

  for is lost in for within a time worth reform

  The measuring. hope passion not world made but of a

  better, the rapturous contemplation merely of the better and the Carl Grabo stressed

  world" (Shelley p. 11).

  Oppressors, 1923, of the difference between the materialistic and deterministic



  reconciliation scientific in the earlier the of science with

  thought poem, and

  in the later and Grabo

  Piatonism Poets, 1930, xi), work (Newton p. among

  " to a

  is the work who has ceased be

  stated: Prometheus Unbound of a poet


  reformer and has become 1935, (Interpretation, p. 8). a philosopher"

  89 in late for

  Carlos Baker, a study that appeared too detailed inclusion in the present Prometheus Unbound "the in found key poem work ("Bottom of the Night," 1957),

  his -stations"

  the "second of the of humanism," which was way



  first: (the (p. 195).

  [materialistic Necessity])



  of view has been


The concerned with the changes from Queen

  third point to in the drama. Thus Grabo

  Mob be found

  lyrical pointed out thai Shelley

  is and in

  reversed his earlier idea that but a

  mind function of matter,

  the will became Prometheus Unbound 1935, p. free (Interpretation, 168); differences in

  and N.



  White noted several important two poems:


  and the are not mentioned Prome-


  (1) of marriage



  in theus an

  Unbound; (2) Christ, given

  imposter Queen Mob, sympathetic in later evil becomes "a

  treatment the (3) subtle perversion of poem;

  as in free- rather than an external (4)

  phenomenon, Queen Mob; thought"

  in "the

  dom of the denied one will,

  Queen Mab, becomes quality that and the neces- an

  (5) bulwarks humanity against eternity of oppression"; is in Unbound

  of love Prometheus


  (Shelley, sity Queen replaced by 1940,

II, 125-26).

  with in much the vein.

  The have been same

  Revolt of Islam

  Comparisons first to

  wrote on


  Leigh Hunt, on reading Prometheus Shelley in it! and affection-

  1820: "What What lines 23,

  August noble things grand it is

  But liable to some

  ate thoughts! of the objections against the Revolt

  of I, Mrs. her note to Prometheus 158).

  Shelley, in Islam" (Correspondence,



  to the idealized" de-

  Prometheus, and Unbound, compared Laon

  scribed as "the of One Shelley's favorite subject warring with the


  Evil not it, all who


  Principle, oppressed only by but by the good, evil a a


  deluded into considering necessary portion of

  humanity; full

  victim of fortitude the of spirit

  and hope and triumph emanating from

  a reliance on the ultimate of

  Good" John

  (see C).

  omnipotence Appendix Prometheus and

  suggested that


Addington Symonds Jupiter "give the

form Ormuzd-Ahrirnan ex-

  of personality to Shelley's dualism already in the first


  canto of [The Revolt Islam]; pressed of instead of being

  is on the theatre of the strife removed human now into the

  represented life, abstractions, vivified region of (Shelley, by mythopoetry" 1878, pp. 121-22).

  is Brooke in the earlier

  wrote that "there no artistic fusion Stopford


  at of which aims

  which aims at

  high pleasure with that the poetry giving a to his duties. That in


man fusion was made the



Unbound" also in

  (Edition, he noted 1882, xv); but p. that the subject both "is at root the are the

  poems same," and

  "the things same,


  the doctrine is the

  but whole method his idea and

  the same, of approaching

  its is form and all into

  fulfilling that changed, the questions are brought artistic which stirs

  around them and

  representation inspiring enduring

  emotion" Brooke also held had in

(p. xxvi). that, remained



  "I do not think he land, would have worked on this in the ideal matter


  of Prometheus


  because continual contact with the reigning

  would have driven

  into direct theology violence his easily wrought anger in

  The [as Revolt of Islam]" ("Thoughts on Shelley," 1880, p. 126).

  Carlos Baker noted that in


The Revolt

of Islam Shelley adopted from

  Peacock's Ahrimanes the idea that the



  which dwelt if the

  to usher in a new apart, '"ready, world were ready, order."


  of Prometheus plan was held, similar; but,

  Unbound, Baker "where

  the revolution failed in Islam, out-

  having been superinduced by ward

  in action, that involved and

  Prometheus Unbound,

  having taken place

  in man's whole mental constitution, must succeed" (Shelley's Major Poetry,


  1948, pp. Kenneth Neil commented: 101-2). finally, Cameron


  His object Unbound was same as his had been writing Prometheus the the object

  in Revolt

  previous year writing The of Islam: "[Gloom] and misanthropy have become the

  characteristics in

  we which live, the solace of the age of a disappoint- ment

  finds relief in the wilful its

  that unconsciously own . . . only exaggeration of

  despair. But mankind to me to their trance. I

  from am appear be emerging

  silent belief I

  aware, methinks, of a slow, gradual, change. In that have composed


  the following (Shelley's Preface) [Edition, 1951, p. xxii].



  OPINION first

  Hie critical to Prometheus Un-

  expressions of opinion with respect bound came from himself.

  I Act he was almost the poet

  After completing

  he to

  wrote 1819: apologetic as 24,


Peacock on January

I consider if to moral and and I were

  very subordinate well, Poetry political science,

  I should



  aspire to latter; for

  certainly can conceive a great work, embodying


  the discoveries of and


  by which man- harmonising the contending creeds kind ruled. Far have been from me is such an and

  I shall

  be content, attempt,


  amuse and some and cast


  by exercising my fancy, myself, perhaps what

  I can into the

  which the


right scale of that balance,

  weight Giant of Arthegall


  holds [Julian, X, 21].

  As the work

  evaluations of the drama progressed there were some twenty

  by the poet, encompassing four general areas of consideration. was


  frequently Shelley stated without hesitation that the poem to his and would to his favorite, other work, superior please the person to the letter was was his the Olliers

  whom statement

  addressed. Typical

  it was "a in best that on October whatever

  15, 1819, that

  poem my style, is and that "It the most amount

  to," productions" perfect of my


  his to is not

  and comment

  (X, 95); Trelawny: "If that durable poetry, is. tried the severest do not know what It is a not

  test, I by

  lofty subject,


and me"

  treated, should not perish with (Trelawny, Records, inadequately 4t)

  as follows: "The allusion is to

  Peacock the Fairy Queen explained the reference and canto

3. The Giant has which he

  book v, scales, in professes to wrong, weigh right

  evils result from

  and and moral which inequality of condition.

  rectify the physical c to this

  once me, observing, Artegall argues with the Shelley pointed out passage knocks iron over

  Giant man him


  Giant; the has the best of the argument;

  deals is in with

into the sea and drowns him. This the usual opinion.'

  which power

  way the lesson to he

  I not which not,' said, 'That was Spenser intended convey.' Terhaps faction.' In the


I of the Giant's

  'it is the lesson which he me. am said; conveys Castle he held that the Enchanter

  with to Thomson's Indolence, same of

  feeling, respect in

  and the of Arts and

  in first canto was a true Industry

  the philanthropist, Knight

  the second an (Letters, p. 319).

  by power"



  said: is and cost to "It me


  1878, xv). Trelawny he original;

  Again have

  like children who severe mental labour. Authors, mothers, prefer the .

  41 most them trouble"

  (p. 118)

  given in was

  The of the

  par- originality poem, noted the preceding quotation,

  on four different occasions. To

  stressed Peacock, ticularly by the poet


  wrote: "It a with characters and mechanism

  6, he drama

  1819, April to the Olliers

  6 of a kind (Julian, X, 48); on September yet unattempted" called it imitation before it"

  he less an

  of anything that has

  gone "perhaps it as

  in on he described

  Medwin 20,

  detail, to 1820, (X, 79); greater July

  I do not

  The know

  totally different character [from Cenci]*

  a composition of a


if it in to excel in

  be wise to affect whether variety compositions, or the attempt


  does not debar from excellence "Prometheus one particular kind. ways



is in the merest of and the name would not, as

  Unbound," spirit Poetry,

  if been

  a mere imitation of the or indeed

  I have successful, indicate, Greek drama, is it ;

  an imitation of anything [X, 191-92] in to


and a letter Keats of Prometheus

  of July 27, telling expect a copy

  I to avoid "In have

Unbound, Shelley wrote: poetry system and


  mannerism" (X, 194).

was also aware that the was of such character and

  quality Shelley poem that it could wrote the Olliers on March

  not He 6, that,

  1820, te be popular.

  I sell if its the Trometheus' cannot

  merits, judge beyond twenty

  may by ; to Medwin on "Not that in the 1820 16:



  copies" (X, 148) April will of the razors in 'Peter


  volume] they are the reverse, in this respect, in fact

  Pindar,' A like can dint of him-

  man me by stinting

  only be a poet


  self of drink to that he

  meat and is, pay his printer's can only print cc

  to this and Hunt on 26: it is written condition" (X, 157);

  poems on May

  for the elect" In he was that 171). November Claire

  (X, only


  so few

  verses please

  poem: "My persons that

much of the of to listen

  I Clairmont liked the make

  the few, were

  (if I encouragement whose judgment


  to of our

  Vanity, the familiar race) spirit should say with



  and theatre of others' whole On

  Plato 'outweighed a (X, 226). February

  I he Olliers desire

  16, wrote the "For Trometheus' and 1821, again: expect


no as late as in a letter to

And 26,

  great sale" (X, 237). 1822,

  January he declared that "Prometheus was for John never intended



  than 5 or

  6 It would he was

  persons" (X, 354). appear, however, that to for to

  human he wrote Charles

  sufficiently on February 22, 1821, hope,

  Oilier: tell the

  me how Trometheus Unbound' was received" "Pray

  42 (X, 244).

  41 See 48, 79, 87, 131, 319. also Julian, X, 135, 148, 155, 157, 168, 171,

  42 The for Oilier is not it

  number difficult to estimate of copies printed known, making but as a

  sales, to F. possible L. Jones, five hundred

  comparison there were, according copies of Posthumous Poems On

  Shelley, Letters, I, 11, printed (Mary 264n).

  January Gisborne wrote to

  1822, John Prometheus

  Shelley: "I cannot help thinking that the must have had a more sale than of.


  extensive are aware have you been reading the


it for

it, and their

  quarterly review upon know Introduction

  35 was conscious of the with which the

  Finally, Shelley possible obscurities

  was soon to The Cenci to Hunt he poem be charged. In dedicating Leigh

  I little

  wrote: "Those which have have been writings hitherto published, else visions than which own impersonate apprehensions of the beautiful . . .



and the dreams of or be"

  just. [They] are to be, 43 what ought may

Even more to the


  (Dedication of The point, reported



  have said:

  Shelley Mine is a life of failures. is of

  Peacock poetry . . . says my composed day-dreams and

  Jefferson all is and

  inverted sense, night-mares. says poetry consequently Hogg nonsense. man to was should attempt do something. Poetry

  Every the rage of


  racked to be a

  I critics

  and and the de- imagination poet. wrote, the day, my

  as a friends said


  nounced me and that had mistaken mischievous visionary,

  my I in

  of words; that was vocation, that soaring

  my my poetry was mere rhapsody all

  the air, disconnected from human


  blue regions of the sympathy 1878,1,135-36].


  to Prometheus Olliers on

  With Unbound

  respect Shelley wrote the errors of the numer-

  November were so tc 10, 1820, regretting that the press in so of

  ous, and destructive of the sense of a species respects

  many I this will few

  fear, even with [without?] poetry which, disadvantage, very like" and to Charles

  understand or ; on June

  Oilier, 8, 1821, (X, 219) again told his to or "in such a


he of intention transcribe Adonais manner

  print be considered much

  business, their criticisms may more ample and elaborate than they a circulation. I of their

  would have been on work of very limited believe very many


  readers will admit on most of which

  of unintelligibility they

  the charge passages


  La dei sciocchi e infinita! infinite!']'' schiera ['The of the stupid quote. company

  in is in error. It is

  Reel Another item

  14). MSS (Reel 16)

  (Abinger MSS, the Abinger

  to letters written which

  an index of several Shelley by Leigh Hunt, the subject of one of

  is as follows: "The Prome- 6,

  (dated April 1820, before publication of the poem) given not in

  1st The while the collection,

  theus Unbound letter, Edition nearly exhausted."


  nor in is and and shows the reference be the editions, (II, 489) given in Shelley Mary in Charles Oilier to Mrs.

  Cenci. The final bit a letter from to The of evidence, found little In it he advised dated November offers information.

  17, positive Shelley, 1823, at her to to Posthumous

  her that he had sent John Hunt (who was Poems), publish


  works as remained "such copies of Mr. Shelley's my possession," including


  noted Unbound in He however, that "the


  "quires." twelve copies of Prometheus


  which unsold stock of those [works] were printed at our expense were disposed of

  I to

in sale but, as that, England,

  thought when you came the general of our property;

  I for a or reserved some few like to have two of each, that purpose";

  copy you might of that "the instance, Mr. Shelley's works has been very confined" and sale, in every

  is re- If a five hundred assumed, twelve

  Reel edition of MSS, 15). possible



  mainders indeed be but that the twelve copies of would number, respectably small



  Prometheus Unbound sent to have sug- Hunt been only those "reserved"


  Rosalind and

  the of of Hellas, fact same number copies

  the that exactly gested by were the items listed for Hunt (ibid.). and The

  Helen, Cenci, in quires, among

  43 in

  Later, Charles Middle ton a unique (and surely unwarranted) statement, linked

  lifeblood as follows: "In these the of

  Cenci reality Prometheus Unbound and The


  the earlier 1858, II, 166).

  circulates more works]" (Shettey, freely [than



  for reviser to such errors as assist the ob- as it shall difficult the leave be


  Trometheus' (X, 273).

  scurity of the to

  4 of this he written to had

  year Byron, possibly with respect

  On May

  the in view printer's errors (see above, p. 8) but, of the transposed quo- tation from more moment

  (lines likely in a Horace's Art of Poetry 39-40),




  a "The Trometheus' ... very imperfect begin of uncertainty: poem. ferre shoulders to learn, recusent' ['what

  'quid valeant humeri, quid your to re-

  and what And

  refuse, bear']" (X, they are able 266). Trelawny too told friends Trometheus' is

  had him:

  say ported that Shelley "My


  It be so"


  1878, wild, ideal,

  (Records, perplexed with imagery. may

  1, 118).

  that forest

  With the there the of began growth

  the publication of poem criticism is to see trees of of which it difficult because of the frequently

  it is and sheer obtuseness with which

  special planted. prejudice, pleading, lavish it to in will be most blaze six

  Perhaps, surveying the growth, helpful


  to that will lead to the areas of consideration accorded the


  in is it If it is mind that there abundant be kept

  poem. overlapping, may

  said that these areas have


  the general been concerned primarily with to the the ob- descriptions, originality; (2) response the "poetry" lyrics,

  and the

  the dramatic tech- scurity, wordiness, intangibility of (3)


  the the and versecraft; (5)


  niques; relationships to earlier writers; the and scientific ideas.

  (6) moral,

  political, religious,

  ON THE GENERAL POETIC POEM QUALITY OF THE Extreme as have been the attacks even violent on

  Shelley's opinions, for

  been balanced the

  they have, with rare exceptions, lyrical

  by praise and of the but

  "Unsettled, poetic beauty poem. irregular, magnificent,"

  was the

  of the (see

  1820 prepublication judgment

  London Magazine and in the

  D, item same Horace

  I); Appendix year

  Smith, although he


  Cenci, that Un- Prometheus preferred wrote Shelley on September 4

  was "a most bound

  original, & grand, occasionally sublime work, evincing, in a of

  my opinion, higher order of talent than any produc- your previous

  tions tho'

  I have no doubt it will

  be than [But] more admired


  I it will

  written, whether be so much read as the Cerici"

  you have question

  Reel this

  To an added (Abinger MSS, 14).

  early reviewer "stupendous," outlines," "innumerable and "a vast wilderness of sweetnesses,"

  "gigantic see beauties" (London-Critical Magazine, 1820;


  D, item IV);

  and Edmund Blunden has "At

  53) noted that (in Rogers, Keats, Shelley, p.

  Oxford in in

  1822 a blank leaf of Un< [T. Prometheus

  L] Beddoes wrote


  it in


  A of the sun,

  gold spirit

  intellect An ablaze

  with heavenly thoughts, with all

  A soul the

  dews of pathos shining, Introduction



  adoration of the

  poem and

  reached his

  climax by


  It is to all


  almost breathless in

  poems what the Ninth

  Symphony is to all other

  sym- phonies; and more than this,


  Shelley has here outsoared himself more un- questionably than Beethoven in


his last

great orchestral work.

  Prometheus Unbound


  who became

  the supreme

  heart's song, or to the

  lyric poetry,"

  and found

  in it

  "melody more purged

  of mortal dross than

  any other poet's ear has caught, while listening to his own



  of the world" (Shelley,

  1878, p. 124).




  lavish praise of the century

  came from John Tod-



  capacity for



  from which we have been

  rapt away


  the wings of passion, that

  "outlaw of Time and Space,' with a shock, to feel ourselves once

  the prisoners of mortality"

  reading the poem,

  (p. 183).

  Edward Dowden was more temperate but found in the poem

  "radiant song," with

  music that "sounds

  like the


  (Shelley, 1886,

  "We return to the everyday

  and he added that, after


  sphere, which can scarcely be called a lower, though an immensely narrower one.

  of the nineteenth century, and must


  rank beside

  King Lear, being



  in its own


  134) ;


  speak of


  great work,

  criticism should become


  (Study, 1880, p.


  Prometheus Unbound may be reckoned the touch-stone of a man's

  Odorous with


  the enchanted leaves Of

  breaking buds,


  and the flow of dawn,

  Were centred and condensed in his one name

  As in a providence and that was



  expressions, often

  accompanying predominantly

  adverse criticism


  the ideas expressed in the

  poem, were not uncommon

  in the decades that followed. Later, in a general defense of the poet, R.

  whose anthems wild Note after note unbind

  the night of beauty, The dancing showers, the


  The bright creations of an

  love, and sweet to silent woe

  With the dark


  of concentrate song,


  sphered in mortal earth.

  Angelic sounds, Alive with panting thoughts, sunned the dim world.

  human heart



  Wrought magic

  in the

  bosoms of mankind.



  summer burst on

  poetry; Of which the crowning


  asked: But where else will you

  believed that cc a genuine liking for


  the inspirations of

  Dante and those few

  spirits of the



  sublime calibre,



  Barnett Smith ranked the

  these to


  inferior level can it be relegated"

  (Shelley, 1877, p.

  204) ; and J.



  poem "beneath




  such cosmic might of imagination condensing


  nebulae of

  mind into a

  world of dream with landscapes

  clear as

  ever delighted eye of

  yet so phantasmal,

  droop of wing ["Soul of Shelley," 1876, pp. 155-56]; while


  seems, the


  of a sunbeam would dissolve them . . , such

  flights of speculation exploring height

  above height the remotest firmaments of mystery without a tiresome strain or


  II, 264).


  and not seldom unmelodious" (British Review^ 1840, p.


  in the following year

  an anonymous

  writer found


  "singular" that the poet should

  have been

  "contented with choral songs so loose in their structure, inexpressive,

  113); while George



  admitting beauties "of a rare order,"



  poem was

  written too fast, in a state of overexcitement,

  and twenty years too soon, and

  that "its lyrics

  has not" (Journals, 1839, V, 344).

  imagination, the original authentic fire of the bard,

  flow of

  in particular, agreed: "Shelley



  D, item X).

  Twenty years




  without speaking of Prometheus



  and memory; but

  never a poet.


  mind is

  uniformly imitative;

  all his

poems composite.


  fine English scholar

  he is,

  with taste, ear,

  have more

  sound than beauty

  awkward, and

  heaven of heavens; the Prometheus soars



  compassionates the earth" ("Lyrics of Shelley," 1907,

  p. 164);

  and Harriet Monroe wrote: "Shelley



  home in the

  like livid flame,

  a universal music, by a great Archangel; by Raphael who



  choruses reach a celestial height of lyric exaltation.



  or echoes or furies speak, they speak with eternity behind and before them, reveal

  to us birthless

  and deathless minds"

  in his

  scale, for


  From these, two statements may


  or depth of sentiment" ("Prometheus," 1855, pp. 431-32). Rabbe,

  Francis Thompson,


  Wbodberry, J.

  M. Brown, Dawson, Payne, Brooke, More, 0. Elton, Glutton -Brock, R. M.

  Smith, Lynd, Monroe,

  Ullman, and others.

  be chosen: Stopford Brooke compared the

  on a mighty

  poem to







  world than


  intricate construction of the sentences"



  beyond condemnation.

  a rainbow. In



  poem itself is

  a mirage; and




  It may

  songs! The imagery of the

  be unsubstantial, even illusion, but

  it is

  radiant, beautiful and

  iridescent [Shelley, 1936, p. 64] .

  But the devil's advocate was not without

  his phrasemakers,

  even with

  respect to the poetry,

  poem is

  verse! And what swift and beautiful

  early reviewer



  descriptions set the pattern for later praise,


  with the recent



  George Cowling

  typical: As a drama, even

  the study,

  Yet what magnificent blank

  it is nothing.

  As a contribution

  to political


  it is

  worthless. As


  work of moral philosophy

  it is as vain as Shelley's own principles.

  which an


  and by

  148). To this the 1821 Quarterly

  dix D, item IX).

  Hazlitt also wrote:


  author of Prometheus Un-

  bound . . .

  has a fire in his eye, a fever in his blood, a maggot in his brain, a hectic flutter in his speech,


which mark

  out the philosophic fanatic" (Works, VI,

  Review added that

  fanatic zeal and poetical licentiousness" ("Table Talk," 1821; see



  of the verse is often harsh and unmusical;


  both the ear


  the understanding are disgusted by

  new and uncouth



  "mixture of

  "wild and rhapsodical declamation," with Shelley



  poet because neither lines nor images




  the reader (Dublin Magazine, 1820; see

  Appendix D, item VI). William

  Hazlitt, too, denied him the rank of poet, dismissing

  as "a sophist, a theorist, a controversial writer in verse,"

  brain," together with a

  and commenting on

  his "rhapsodies of

  words" and



  flimsy, allegorical pictures



  on the cobwebs of his own

  p. 212)j Introduction


  the latter half less

  During was to the

  of the century there opposition in poetic quality of the the late


  but with increasing admiration decades it

  was it would be revived. William

  perhaps inevitable that Trent c closed the to the

  by century objecting 'extravagant" praise accorded the and drama, that "there are more false notes struck in the Prome- argued

  theus than in the rest of Shelley's is]

  poems [The

  taken together .... poem

  little more than a series wonderful

  of flashed forth

  phantasmagoria upon

  the curtain of the reader's a of

  mind by very unsteady hand" ("Apropos

  This view was not unrelated to that of Shelley," 1899, pp. 86-87).


  R. Elliott

  some was deficient in the artistic twenty years later: "[Shelley]


  emotion its nature: this

  of following an through, into full specific that

  means he He lacked poetic spontaneity. was animated by a quick,

  affectionateness" Is Poetic

  vague ("How Shelley's 317).

  Poetry?" 1922, p.

  To was added that of Frank R. Leavis wrote

  these charges when



  "the and move-

  elusive imagery, the high-pitched emotions, the tone ecstasies and the ardours, too much the all

  ment, same

  despairs are


  Louis held ("Shelley's 1934, p. 278). And in his turn,

  Imagery," MacNeice,

  as that the Romantic

  from an anarchist

  poets or prophesied


  their failed to with left fuse their and we are with position message poetry the

  one hand and on as witness

  the other,"

  message on (usually) fantasy



  unsatisfactory work, Prometheus Unbound'" (Modern Poetry,

  MacNeice was an inferior he 1938, pp. 3-4).

  added: "Shelley poet because . did not his with observation. . . as

  Enthusiasm such

  qualify dogmas

  is asset to a if with but is the better

  Shelley's a great poet,

  tempered Reason and observation of fact"

(p. 202).




  and as

As might be expected, the poet anticipated, charges of obscurity




  intangibility frequently leveled against the poem, although, I. N. numerous as

  White has the

  out, pointed "among passages analysed of those to refine and

  absurd" occur most

  illustrating "Shelley's attempts the of Maria


  II, (Shelley, 1940, 131).

  poetic expression"


  in for William


Gisborne noted 22, Godwin

  1820, that her journal August read the hates to did not think he would drama he read through, "for


  that are obscurities and the

  books of To puzzles" (Journal, p. 45).

  "little Gazette of 1820 it was else but absolute reviewer in the Literary

  and and his reference to the

  "utter nonsense," trash," raving," "stupid to the abstractness of

  "dramatis impersonae" represented an early reaction this for the first time the on the characters. In also, review, ec appeared pun

  45 title: worth The

  the no one can ever think him binding." Monthly


  item for the versified See

  II for this and

  XI D, item review, appearance


  in Butt. for led

  of the Charles Lamb's John penchant Benjamin Kurtz punning pun



into when he stated that Lamb "found Prometheus just




  and "Manichean

  for also nonsense"

  Review 1821 found "pure unmixed Hunt on March 1,

  absurdities" 1821,


  VII); Leigh

  Appendix D, item

  to be able to in his review he "did


  not expect Shelley that


  a at all recommendable to readers

  make so abstract and poem

  odi-profanum in and in the same

  I, ; Review

  the Quarterly general" (Correspondence, 163) differences

  was more be

  detailed, of opinion year holding that there might



  and taste as to but

  the poetry, cpiestion of meaning, or no meaning,


  fact to a of on which sense ...


matter common decide"; that


  was of words and

  "in general a heterogeneous the poetry mere jumble

  and accidental that the

  ideas, associations"; descrip- slight

  connected by

  to in tions in is a


  be taken partly metaphorical

  "language which

  in that the the at all"; had same

  no meaning meaning, and partly poem

  to of an itinerant readers that the "incoherences appeal

  Methodist preach- for his was er" had

  "drivelling congregation; and, finally, that the poetry .

  run mad"


  D, item X) Similar charges of obscurity prose Appendix to after critical efforts occurred down the end which the of the century, the more that had been made to clarify obscure parts of the poem began to to bear and attention was other matters. fruit, given also to

  were raised the wordiness of the


  and hidden meaning is crushed

  Gilfillan wrote: "It under a load of thick allegori-

  poem. George

  cal darkness" "The is (Sketches, 1845,

  p. 115); and, frequently thought its is drowned in a diarrhoea

  of words; dialogue heavy and ("Prome- prolix"

  Russell theus," 1855, James 432). represented p. Lowell thought the poem his before his of incoherent worst

  Shelley "at period, . . .

  unwieldy abundance words and in the stricter molds

  images had been compressed of thought ;

  II, John M. Robertson wrote

  (Complete Writings, 1867, 109)

  and study" . . .

  a and else"

  159). Lamb wrote lo capital story nothing (Pursuit p.

  of Death, 1933,


  Bernard Barton a in August, 1824: "The Trometheus,' unbound, capital story. The

  if literal What ordered 'Elfrida' in sheets!


  she'd have been sent rogue! you had


  I 'thin

  can no more can. is warrant you. ... understand Shelley than you His poetry

  " sown with or friend of had written a

  profit delight' Works, p. A Barton (Lamb, 884). for a told

  bookseller of and was that the work was not to be ob-


  copy poem tained "in sheets" (p. 1073).

  Apparently Barton passed the "capital story" (and the to Lamb. on pun)

  Later, Medwin credited Campbell with originating the quip (Shelley, 1847, p, 358).

  him as

  He described "a who has literary man, [Shelley's]

  without a tythe of genius obtained a hundredfold more said to

  • -* with a sneer me Prome- reputation, [and who]


  theus Unbound, It is it?'

  well named. Who would bind

  214). Forman (p.


  as its

  and noted in Butt and "in

  Campbell the originator of the story appearance John a little in volume of miscellanies verse and called prose Sweepings of Parnassus (1830)" under the

  Forman added that some lines to pseudonym of "Steropes." "Steropes" were written in


  few "Prometheus copy of Sweepings, the pertinent being yet remains

  Unbound 'tis

  / Whene'er in virgin state found, / Because,

  in bibliopolic hoards,


  its in

  worth Since love to see weight of gold Shelley's lovers of

  boards,/ / That tome as the folk beheld it first

  on it master-minstrelsy/just a thankless world


  burst" identified

  p. 215). Rossetti as

  (Medwin, Shelley, the John Butt author Theodore Hooke (Edition, I, cxxiii). Introduction

  41 in as


"luminous and

  such phrases fog," "diffuse fantastic digression," "falsetto declamation

  and "sound and



and rhyming verbiage,"

and ; and Andrew

  signifying nothing" ("Shelley Poetry," 1884, pp. 224-26) in rested understatement: "I do not mean that

  Lang everyone

  could pass " in

  an examination the 'Prometheus Unbound'

  plot of ("Letters," p. 8). to the was that to

  Associated with these objections the intangibility


  of character or scene. after in

  The Cenci and

  Keats, reading anticipation of the of

  Prometheus Unbound to

  had asked be sent copy that Shelley him,


  wrote curb

  August, 1820, that Shelley

  "might your magnanimity, and

  of and rift

  I be more an artist, of ore. ... am

  load every your subject with in

  I Could have own wish

  expectation of Prometheus every day. my in

  it still an


  but now you would have

  manuscript, or be putting to

  end the second act" in a letter to

(Letters, Horace Smith,

  p. 507). Shelley

  The Cenci it contains

  4, "because &

  on September 1820, preferred a deep sustained of which feel a in the other. human interest, we want Prometheus little of after his we him

  himself certainly touches us nearly, but see very Reel this

  was aware of liberation" (Abinger MSS, 14).

  Shelley himself

  and to Gisborne to real

  wrote John on October 22, 1821: "As difficulty flesh and know that

  I in do not deal those blood, articles" (Julian, X,

  you J.

  A. felt that the a scale

  main sketched "on of 333).

  Symonds figures, had been reduced in their "too filling-in much

  surpassing magnificence," to the level

  life," to the Prometheus and

  of earthly descending love story of Asia: "In he does and other words, not sustain the visionary primeval

  on the other has he so

  dignity of these incarnated abstractions; nor, hand, their elaborated characters in detail as to


  give the substantiality of


There therefore in both

  hollow figures" persons. something vague and

  Calvert noted: beam-


  (Shelley, figures,

  1878, pp. 123-24); and George are not but bodies, ing with poetry, shining incarnations of pulse-thridded . . bodies. .

  and essences in the of Prometheus deals semblance

  principles in in elemental in voices in forces, in ideal more than forms, speakers, of

  humanized beams

  light" (Coleridge, Shelley, Goethe, 1880, pp. 216, 218).

  C. and and


  processes, Shairp considered "the powers, personified . . . the abstractions [to reform idea], as irrational ludicrously inadequate as it would be to to build a solid out of shadows

  house and moon-

  try ideal to the

  beams"; and though he admitted that "the high

  imparts poem

  its felt that the material of the was

  of own he elevation," lyrics


  "deal with

  not and not

  "fantastic, substantial truth," that they did per- to all and for all

  manent emotions which are but men time,

  belong appeal in and that rather to minds a culture, not a healthy stage of particular that stage" ("Lyric Poet," 1881, pp. 209-12). Francis Palgrave thought

  its were rare "amidst

  "strokes of genuine natural description" vague sinks into is

  which too often what above

  hardly prosaic unreal splendour, at "rises a bird-

  he admitted that with

  verbiage/' although times Shelley characteristic aerial in like into his

  \ bound


  Introduction ; "what found is in this is the 1897,

  222) Irving Babbitt held that play p. the law.

  on human The

  exact opposite of imaginative concentration

  normal wanders in

  a region quite outside of imagination irresponsibly to

  human and Romanticism, 1919,

  p. 359); while experience" (Rousseau

  Levi Lind the "and other who wheel Echoes,

  Phantasms, sprites


  head the wild creations of a romantic about are

  [Prometheus'] imagination akin to that and the Phantasms "are forth Puck himself,"

  which brought

  nursery Reappraised," 1935, parts of Shelley's apocrypha" ("Shelley

  Donald Davie commented: as Most has

  "Shelley goes p. 420). recently, far as it in

  can while uses

  poetry go, intelligible language, cutting the

  tie his fancies to hawsers which the

  Urbanity," 1953,

  ground" ("Shelley's .


  p. 133)


To of more critics

  these objections charges, the answers friendly varied.

  were Some on the reader.

  responsibility placed the Typical of called these were Allan who the "which some

  Cunningham, a story poem

  to resolve not understand"

  (History, 1834, p. 101); the Massachusetts

  critics either to which accused the "too indolent

  of being give Quarterly, for their so obstin-

  [the] great masters the required

  study appreciation, or

  to old models the


  ately ; who that they are incapable of understanding


  419) R. A. Holland, suggested that (1849, p.


  what appears author's mysticism may . . . be the student's mistiness of appre-

  offices than Her noblest work is to hension. amusement.

  Poetry has other


elevate, to make future, to remove

  the goal of the past the starting point of the aloft. . .


ideals of the race further and further onward and . such a




  it is clouds, Prome-

  crag into the region of though springs with the steepness of a theus

  Unbound ;

  ["Soul of Shelley," 1876, pp. 160-61]

  and whose answer to those who found the unreadable


  was poem


  and blunt:




  can. have read and do read Though you cannot Prometheus Unbound, it, and this with ever into its

  it, wonder, and

  • increasing admiration, insight


  it is a if for still for written, not

  of beauty. Therefore

  me poem you and yours,


  I it as

  mine, and am

  justified in

  quite regarding a masterpiece ["Prometheus as Poem," 1887, p. 173].

  Edward Edmunds held that the was "a W. poem meaningless rhapsody"

  to those who tested it to with the but not those who "are com- intellect,

46 Sirmlar views have been held

  D. Moir: "unsubstantial and "shadows by wiredrawn,"

  J. Slater;

  of power, rather than itself" (Sketches, 1887, 227); power p. exag-


  ideal stuff"

  ("Prometheus," 1884, gerated p. 395); A.

  Symons: "a cloudy procession of W. J.


  phantoms, seen in a divine hallucination" ("Shelley," 1907, 350); Courthope; . . .

  for a with outlines as clear as moment

  "images appear Alpine peaks

  in sunlight,

  and then or vanish in

  dissolve, seas of rising

  vapour" (History, 1910, 315); H. Levine: p. of Plato Milton and Godwin, and

  "a compound Mist" (Broken Column, 1931, p. 58). writer in the

  A in (1877, p.

  Dublin University Magazine 776) rejoiced the obscurity because "we of no if we


know whose are

poet, calculated

  except Swinburne, writings

  to mind so as

  injure the youthful Introduction


  to hear the

  all which haunt the of true

  petent spirit-voices

  atmosphere and Arthur Glutton-Brock

  felt (Shelley, 1911, p. poetry" 92); that Shelley suffered

  had because as

  of a and

  he had not been thought religious poet,

  failed to to his asso- readers, had realism,

  demanding bring conceptions the


  More work

normally brought to religious (Introduction, p. xxi).

  has written unlike our recently, "He will,

  Douglas Bush wisely: contemp- make his


  and he feels at

  then conception fairly clear, principal


  adorn or obscure with a multitude of details we often liberty to which, feel sure, have him to significance for us"


  but remain hazy I.

  that 1937, p. White commented: "An 139); while N.

  understanding is not and is


  imagery vague, but necessary

  intelligible profound,

  if to in his we are see him

  II, true proportions" (Shelley, 1940, 133).


Another defense of and was based


  Shelley's obscurity intangibility to his

  an for felt that "had


  appeal youth. example, he,


  a and and in later, healthier, better 'clothed,

  twenty years man,

  happier, his the

  Milton or Keats

  right mind,'


approached sublime subject," only


  equaled 1855, 432) might have what he would have done ("Prometheus," p.


  Lanier that the wordiness resulted


Sidney from immaturity but doubted


  that Shelley 90); would have outgrown ("English Novel," 1881, p.

  Macmillan "had not to Brown mellow

  held that Shelley lived long enough his


  ideas wisdom mould them

  by or experience, or into consistency; is and and unwise hence there half

  • intelligibility,

  a youthful crudeness violence and self -con tradictoriness in his


  53); play" (Study, 1905, p. to failed

  Arthur also, in the because

  Glutton-Brock, passages poem


  like other must fail to tell us

  when what do

  writers, they try they "poets, themselves"


not know and but he added that,

  Poet, 1909,


(Man p. 207)

  reach of artists beauties the who in Shelley's failure, beyond

  "he produced

  Francis the possible" (p. 218). Thompson, however, saw no


  to for his in reason the He poet's age. youth, or apologize argued that any event his childlike him "to Prometheus nature, qualified be the poet of for it and "assimilated

  made him ... a him Unbound, mythological poet,"

  childlike their rise" to the whom have mythologies peoples among

  (Shelley, 1889, pp. 46-47).

  have been More

  significant, perhaps, than the foregoing statements critics those of who was

  more apparent than

  argued that the obscurity

  and that the materials which disturbed the reader were

  real, actually ap- to the Hunt answered Review subject, Leigh the violent Quarterly propriate to attack were true of the areas which holding that the descriptions


  conclude that


and that to cite an two and

  they applied obscure passage or

  is all of and mere work was nonsense,

  Shelley's "obscurity dishonesty" in Later see

  ("Letters," D, item XII). the century, R. A.

  Appendix it

  took a similar "Fault

  Holland but more

  specifically: position amplified

  its and

  because of lack of human incidents has been found with the


  to its for these would design*


  passions, unreasonably,

  44 . . .



  intrusion of an would mar


  earthly character speculative world the "inhabitants held that must be

  and he

  integrity"; for Shelley's often


  spectral, formless, only voices" ("Soul of Shelley," 1876, too, believed that the unsubstantiality of pp. 156-57). Stopford Brooke, de-

  and dream a "mistake of

  world were form, methodical idealization, liberate

  method on rather than a weakness

  Shelley's part, of capacity"

  most later With these views writers ("Inaugural Address," 1886, p. 15).

  insisted that

  have and the poem's

  agreed, Gertrude Slaughter has even than abstractions. "creatures are are

  more suffering,



  etherealized- elements rather than sublimated and the beings, exulting

  H. Butter the of actual life"

  saw forms

  ("Shelley," 1922, p. 78); or, as P. clear to the are of the reader

  it, means

  personifications "Shelley's making in internal drama" the mind of


  taking place the progress of

  Prometheus Idols, (Shelley's 1954, p. 169). and

  The between has

  unintelligibility relationship subtlety of thought also theme in Prometheus criticism. It was first

  been Unbound

  a recurring offered in in who that the reviewer the noted

  Album, Shelley's 1822 by . . . and him

  of thought equally subtle profound, occasionally lead

  "powers and in of

  he, course,

  beyond the capability of those passages


  becomes was

  unintelligible" (see Appendix

  D, item XIII). This sentiment

  and most echoed

  Disraeli's in later criticism, frequently interestingly : by

  comment on Marmion Herbert Venetia

  (Shelley) in (1837) These must have incited so peculiar doctrines of Herbert, which, undisguised, . . . veiled odium so and


  were necessarily by the highly spiritual metaphorical


  some language of the poet that required previous acquaintance with the system enforced to be able to and of his discover Muse

  esoteric spirit

  recognise the

  in and

  [quoted Beaconsfield," Garnett, "Shelley p. 127].

  But these tentative overtures and were made

  strengthened the pattern


  Mrs. in her note on the that "it Shelley's statement,

  poem, requires a

  as subtle and as his to


mind own understand mean-

  penetrating the mystic ings (see

  C). Jane scattered throughout the poem" Appendix


  this: Shelley amplified almost

  own subtle, and [Only] his instinctive,

  apprehension of metaphysical enabled him to his ideal have endow characters analogies could with a language . . .

  ,to the abstract ideas which The of

  proper they typify. personifications

  are not the

  drama idealisms of a

  Shelley's mythological

  vague young poet seeking

  for effect; have The

  they which poetry they utter a deep psychological meaning.

  is like in

  the fresh to

  dawn of the world, the

  the language of beings wakening,


  of own emotions and the miraculous loveliness of the universe. mystery

  to the

We seem behold indifference

  elemental splendour of things disarrayed of that which from our and from effect of springs superficial familiarity, the deadening our conventional existence [Memorials, 1859, p. 111]. variations have been on this theme.


  A. Interesting given


  stressed the of the poet's (a


Turneresque quality perceptions : comparison Introduction


  The scale of colour is and darker omitted. and the shadows are An

  light aerial,

  excess of luminousness seems to the at from which be continually radiated objects he and in this of itself is to

  looks; radiation the outline lights,

  many-coloured apt be a little


  misty. moreover, pierced through things to their spiritual essence

  [Shelley, 1878, p. 1251.

  Walter felt that this held world"

  Raleigh "spectral in Shelley's thought

  is called the real and as a result the

  of what world,"

  "the place commonly that sets in for most his

  he motion are the own

  "figures part creatures of

  who have no of his realm


  making, tangible being outside the


  but Unbound is a

  Prometheus dance Raleigh added:

  something more than and concert of it is a record of

  a sweet sounds; spiritual of prismatic lights in its in its and he held that analysis, insight," experience, subtle profound . . ,

  "the details of the have been as freaks of


  wrongfully regarded

  ornament and


  Other fantasy" ("Shelley," 1902, pp. 296-97). have been offered who the admitted remoteness of

  Charles H. Herford,

  by is



  Shelley's equally setting thought argued that "to suppose that . . . unrelated and remote is to confuse

  Shelley surely image and purport. .

  life' . .

  'refuse to facts Babbitt and does not face the of [as had said] in vital

  much some he saw more clearly though escaped him, points

  very of his


  1922, 131);


than any contemporaries" ("Romanticism," p. by

  Cecil carried issue to a

  M. who the that, Bowra, logical arguing extreme by and

  are to "wide issues


  normally, individual characters represent to issues "wished

  show what these show how mean,"

  but that Shelley their and so he

  were in

  wonderful [the ideas] very vagueness vastness," coherent as and a of



  system symbols which would appeal



  subject" yet take the metaphysical character of

  away nothing ; to which Bennett Weaver added

  104-5) (Romantic Imagination, 1949, pp. . . . of ideas lead the drama that these embodiments lyrical

  "mystic and it is who toward Rather I think,

  they suggest the grand song. importantly, transmutation of the character of Prometheus into

  something approaching

  the character of the Galilean" ("Prometheus," 1949, p. 132). But probably

  was that James H.

  the most analysis in this category made by perceptive did Sen

  who stressed 1936, 243-70]

  Cousins, (as [Studies,



  and G.

  Shelley's interest

  Dome, 1941, 211]) Wilson Knight [Starlit p.

  of the (Work Promethean^ Indian lore and experience of things spirit

  and wrote:

  1933, p. 43),

  to is the emotions and more the

  the whose less to

  [In] realm of poetry, appeal

  statement is Yet of an mind clarity essential quality. than the appeal of music, be a demand

  is the demand

  there for clarity in poetry a stage beyond which may

  is for other than where

  external expression incapable poetry; a stage something


  bear on one and words have


  of carrying the whole of inner meaning, and on the other the shoulder the sometimes shadowy, immediately evoked, image and sometimes feelings seeking incarnation in the

  shining, shapes of thoughts .


  always inadequate hodies of speech [pp. 8-9]


  must always be a

  Similar views have heen held

A. Yolland: "poetic language


  be said and which the which can the things


  the things




  of critical attention concerned with the dramatic has been

  Another body

  be well to

  and Unbound. It will

  verse techniques of Prometheus


  faced this Cecil of the discussion M. Bowra's analysis by

  through problems

  faithful in

  how (1) the question of

  Shelley writing the poem. These were in

  all details to embodied the

  should be the abstract ideas

  work (Bowra

  in ; the of felt that mood and here) (2) tone the poet succeeded problem to and to relate abstract ideas human human (in


  feelings experience of this he was not ; and the how much successful) (3) always problem

  he was

  should be included ("Shelley evidently believed that writing a great

  it all his and

  into most imaginative daring philosophical poem and poured in terms of his .

  but own led

  always system) These problems speculations," to certain difficulties which Bowra not


  pointed out: the poet did always translate his abstract ideas he did not


  into images; successfully always literal

  and and he between (3)

  clearly distinguish symbolic expression; force to failed to most of the

  (Romantic Imagination, give dramatic poem .


  1949, pp. 117-20) Defenses of the dramatic effectiveness of the have been under- not

  poem and as direct

  taken writers, not been usually the

  by many arguments have

  in as those from the other In 1823 a writer the Gentle- or convincing camp.


man* $ felt written it lived in

had he Magazine that Aeschylus might have

  at the close

  D, Shelley's (see of the century

  day Appendix item XIV), and felt

  Vida Scudder countered those who in the

  a lack of unity by


  in did Prometheus Unbound "architectonic maintaining that only Shelley's

  itself in

  faculty" evidence


any important way:

in a distinct

  Each act of the Prometheus centres theme phase of the one


  The calm of

  act, endurance, breaks

  [Redemption]. expressing the proud

  still at sinks into

  towards the middle into and the end an agony passive the peace

  The second act is one of first in of exhaustion. if the centres hope and promise:

  this in action. The life centres of line.

  endurance, palpitates

  spirit through every

  Faint at as in it Asia waits more


first, eager,

  lovely passiveness, grows stronger,

  till it

  culminates in the marvellous which close to Goethe's

  lyric brings us

  would ; and poetfain say" (Shelley's Poetry, 1907,

  p, 16)

  0. Elton: Shelley Plato "quarrel with because it is in there and the

  H. J. Grierson

  reality 1912, ; (Shelley, p. 35)


  Hebrew vague are the prophecies of the genuine prophets.

C. Smith: "it is as as and J.

  It is who And

  always the fraudulent prophets are definite" (History, 1944, p. 396).

  late for detailed R. in


  D. Havens, in a study that appeared too the present work Artist," commented that as artist an

  ("Shelley the 1957), has Shelley "idealized


  and universalized embodiments of human nature or mythological personages and, he often observed external nature his he though closely, generalized descriptions of

  it. ... It is his this reason that is Prometheus

  Unbound partly for greatest achievement


  the eternal" [since it] with the cosmic, the timeless, 180).


  Cazamian had listed as faults of ^Earlier, Louis

  style the repetition of

  words nearby in different and Earth contexts, and The ambiguity in use of words, characters (e.g. and the caves

  Spirit (e.g. two and

  of the Earth), settings However, he con- temples).

  to faults

  sidered these be in

  (Edition, Introduction


  in the later



  comparing The



  Islam with Prometheus


Unbound, he found

  poem "a more

  Wilson Knight went

  satisfying fusion of




  of action with artistic design,


  consequently no extreme symbolisms . . . take precedence over


  farthest, however,


  and he

  set out

  and applicable

  to all

  ages and


  ideas and thoughts that "look before and after" towards a golden age of



  not" but was and will be; an age which, because humanity has

  on a circumnavigation that






  back to


  native harbour in the realm of the

  spirit, is at

  once in the romantic past and the still more romantic future [Work Promethean, 1933, pp.

  atic realism";

  felt that the

  therefore current

  "His mind has become the mind




  last suffering taught

  Prometheus wisdom, and

  his com- prehension progressed

  and led to redemption.

  of the universe and its






  penetrate to all existence.


  universalize the mental re-organization of

  Prometheus is ...

  the function of transmit the revolution of mind to the revolution


  except a fundamental change in the nature of




  the principal obstacle to understanding



  rather than narrative" (Starlit

  Dome, 1941, p. 204).


  contended that

  "the causation is unorthodox but com- plete,


  is the statement." Rajan explained by

  and can be altered by nothing

  pointing out that at first Prometheus defied

  Jupiter in the curse:


  equilibrium thus defined








  Werdelust the creative rapture of the soul of the world.

  at last to be

  intensifying into day in


  II, and

  this in turn darkening into

  shadows at

  the cave of


  "lifted to the final

  full glory


  of Vision,


  to the consummation of the drama" (pp. xlvii-xlix).


  years later,

  Olwen Campbell

  wrote that



  of [Shelley's] critics

  his use of light

  The third act is the calm of

  fulfillment, as



  was the calm of endurance. In the fourth act ... the full paean of triumph sweeps us along with tumultuous and unequalled harmony

  [Edition, p. xlv] .


  Scudder felt also that the architectonic power of Shelley was nobly shown by

  and color

  with the sunrise deepening into


  first from

  night into dawn, then darkening in the


  of the Furies, then again clearing in the


  "of the peace of




  no age and

  "Prometheus Unbound" is a drama of this order.

  enacted in the


  of the sun, not

  in the

  shadows cast by the moon or the


  demands that life shall reflect and ultimately emhody it.


  We do not



  to it for facts

  concerning early Greece or the Europe of 1820, but




  that are clamped




  tried the most elaborate allegorical, philosophical

  H. Cousins offered a subtler

  and moonstruck

  interpretations, seemingly oblivious of the fact that


  here 'the play's the thing'

  " (Shelley


  the Unromantics, 1924, p. 203).



  composed by the creative impulse of humanity, not merely by

  The drama of the tangible stage has





  the duty of being the


  interpreter and reflector of human life. The drama of the human


B. Rajan,


  Introduction "evil should of matter is ... the business of If, be then,

  Demogorgon." is to and to endure." an love once more

  impulse of behaviour, the remedy faith the which Prometheus"

  This, emotional held, "is

  Rajan integrates if to coherence and not our assent the we "must intellectual, total,

  give our of an valid of emotionally Prometheus," 1943, pp. plan" ("Motivation

  if fact

  Butter in the that

  H. saw form,

  297-301). P. not drama,

  is mind outwards. The

  the movement of the whole from the of Prometheus

  poem in circles over effects of the him are

  men, change seen spreading in ever-widening . . out into "the void's loose field." .

  moon and

  over the earth, the This provides


  but sufficient structure the

  a loose, 1954, p, 171].

  [Shelley's Idols,


was on the surest

  Jacobi when he discussed

  ground But probably Walter

  as it to the related dramatic He between

  problem types. distinguished



drama that and costumed and drama Prome-

  which, could be staged

  from must be visualized the

  theus Unbound., poet.

  by the reader with help

  effectiveness directions in this of the of


  pointed out the the stage poem, as for of the substitutes and and costume, scenery descriptive passages


words and the charac-

  in visualizing setting, phrases that guide the reader

  it and action of the Jacobi admitted ters, that, for

  play. drama, a reading

  was better directions in

  fully to incorporate the stage the dialogue (which Prometheus

  not but he nevertheless ranked Un-

  do), Shelley did always


bound as one of the most dramas of literature

  world reading typical

  und ("Biihnen Lesedrama," 1932, pp. 207-17). it


With few has is

been not

  agreed that the exceptions, however, poem in the definitions have dramatic


narrower meaning of the term, although

  49 not into the discussions. in

  The writer Taifs

  usually been brought

  it it "dram- was

  with Aeschylus even

  Edinburgh Magazine ranked though is little

  atic in form or no ;


  only; there 338) interest in it" (1833, p.


and in also felt that the to a

  led Julian Schmidt, 1852,

  superhuman themes form William

  resultant disintegration of (Price, "Julian Schmidt," p. 34).

  B. Scott cited as evidence of an fact that "infirmity of construction" the the an and trivial the so that


  hero disappeared "in unexplained his result of and of the receives no

  endurance of nature



  This view Helene (Edition, 1873, xxiii). adequate development" p.

  Druskowitz and her the


  To Prometheus of Act amplified.

  supported I.

  Prometheus of Act was too He showed nothing of the depth of the

  naive and evidenced a that

  had never known and spirit pain suffering. was sometimes sometimes

  Moreover, Asia a goddess, a mortal; Jupiter

49 That had no illusions clear

  on this score should be Shelley himself from

  his calling

  the work a his discussion of drama in his Preface to

  "lyrical drama," from The Cenci,

  and from his statement to

  to Prometheus

  Trelawny (which could not apply Unbound)

  to the First: "I for

  Charles the is affectation with respect am now writing a play stage. It

  to for

  we say write a play I, 117). any other purpose" (Trelawny, Records, 1878,

  is is

Graham comment Unbound the first line

  Hough's pertinent: "Prometheus of a long cast in no conceivable relation of nineteenth-century poems dramatic form, but with


  the theatre" (Romantic Poets, 1953, Introduction

  49 he was

  should have; lacked the force of personality kept


and fatal

the connection with the child was unclear.

  entirely nebulous;

  But Miss felt also Druskowitz that the exhibited a


  secondary not

  plasticity frequently attained by (Shelley, 1884, pp. 276-78). the poet

  J. Macmillan Brown saw Prometheus as real And, though

  "the only in dramatic character the for of an ab-

  drama; besides being the symbol

  stract is idea he he the close it fades


  agreed that a personality," off into that of existence that is to most real" fringe


misty the poet the

was Arthur



  (Study, 1905, p. 54).

  This opinion further developed by

  who wrote: Hughes,

  The Prometheus must as a sort for drama in a be judged of Mystery, the proper sense it is not. drama is links an action the of which are

  clearly A

  a picture of But Prometheus does not and both and the


  causally connected. Jupiter deus ex he is

  whom are obscure entities with no motives

  overthrown machina by

  for do. are

  what There these are

  incidents, but moments

  they great dramatic single .

  in a miraculous tale. . . in

  there is a break the of Prometheus where

  [Also] figure it

  seems from an infirmer hand to the head and on that sculpture has been joined

  50 lovers

  frame ... It is more in the the


  of a masterpiece. especially third Act,

  in fall

  meet a no more to suffer or to do, below renovated world, with that they


  and 180-81]. dignity cloy the reader with girlish happiness [Edition, 1910, p. cited

  The lack of action has been noted by Hughes frequently. George saw this defect as "but on scale of

  the larger

  Woodberry Aeschylean, it is noticeable. real

  there is no

  more The but

  Shelley scenes change, action" At times this (Studies, been

  1908, 278). qualified p. position has for

  which would make by admitting the absence of the physical action

  the substitution of "to intellectual action, be

  drama, but stressing

  explained, the of


not by motivation, (Barrell,

but by development thought"


  and "Milton and Shelley p. 150).

  Thought, 1947, To Harry Aeschylus succeeded in

  on a vast scale. men

  creating superhuman figures

  by drawing . . . and so to con-

  of characterization Shelley lacked the he sought



  To Column,

by imagery and allegory" (Broken 1931, pp. 59-60).

  Carlos Baker: "The


  difficulty in the interpretation of Prometheus

  from fact characters

  the both arises chiefly that the leading characters are in a

  drama and

  Poetry, 1948, symbolic universals" (Shelley's Major p. 111).

  But Cecil felt M. Bowra that the characters were not so much

  actually as in visual


symbols (Romantic Imagination,

  "ideas presented shape"

  it a

  that was "much more" than 1949, John p. 107). Bailey


  a in

  He drama, but not drama ("Prometheus Poetry," 1923, p. 118),

  dramatic ineffectiveness

  noted the the of

  the events, especially

  meager plot,

  to fade into

  and "one seems

  the character weaknesses, wherein person . to here


  another" called attention the

  (p. 113) applicability

  Bailey then

50 E.

  Cf. his monumental and

  idea into bric-a-brac,"

B. Hungerford: "Shelley chips

  lies full five"

  fathom "the plot (Shores 97, 100). of Darkness, 1941, pp.

51 J. insisted "drift about

  W. that the characters did not

  Beach, however, aimlessly." the could a the

  doom of one not motivate

  Demogorgon was Jupiter, and, while doom,


  he Critics," poet could personify it, 1922, 724).



  as "a sort of of Shelley's description of Hellas lyrical, dramatic nondescript

  Horace Julian, and

  (to 11, 1822; X, 377), piece of business" Smith, April

  is of added: an affair and women: and

  "Drama men Shelley's imagination and fiends. could not even


  preferred creating angels project himself into his

  was a drama" 118). much more (p. Shelley, Bailey thought,

  his was was

  human Prometheus, who

  person than too good, while Jupiter . for successful drama too black,

  124-27) (pp. use of the form chosen. to justify Shelley's

  Another group has sought

  in- stated that the lack of was dramatic action

  Salt, for

  Henry example,

  the tentional To Brooke (Shelley Primer., 1896, p. 63).



  for crea- double nature, the fusion represented "the marriage of Shelley's tive of the lover of ; while

  work man and

  (Edition, 1882, the poet" p. xvi) to it have been alien to theme in

  Rossetti would a "directly present the for realistic

  would have meant

  or plainly delineated kind," greater severity a loss as to ; and William

  Poem," 1887, p. 173)

  of spontaneity ("Prometheus

  F. it to at Revell seemed that "what a the or the foot of cross,

  watcher by

  in the

  is more

mountain, appear nothing than simple endurance,


  active for

  most and a

  severe kind, reality


  a struggle of the struggle over the weakness of the flesh" ("Prometheus," 1907, 427). Similarly, p.

  William J.

  de- Alexander, Louis


  and Stephen Spender have fended that he intended a drama. **

  Shelley against the Spender's

  argument is statement is at all not

  typical: [Prometheus dramatic,

  Unbound] perhaps

  see so


much a in


  the situation of the struggle because Shelley did not

  between as an occasion for

  the victory of the gods, symbol of the oppressed" 28).

  (SheBey, 1952, p.


With the nondramatic for the it

  has category poem generally supported,


not been to on what the if Little

not drama.

  easy agree

  poem stage

  consideration was a substitute until

  term John Robertson

  given to finding

  it is

  "if we read on because for

  we care more than

  suggested that fantasy for

  and human ; and

  significance in song" ("Shelley Poetry," 1884, p. 195) into

  wanders off diffuse and

  fantastic "the poet every kind of digression, for us 'rich that exclude the


  creating an endless range of light, "

  and to as To

  passages that lead (p. nothing' 224). fantasy a possible for dramatic literature were added

  subtype such descriptions of the poem

  as a of if at

  drama all, closest to

  forms, and,

  compound many

  the rhapsodic

  dramas of the in Hebrew the ; drama poets Old Testament (W. R. Rutland, rather than

  Swinburne, pp. 66, 88) drama reading stage (Walter to

  Jacobi, "Biihnen und the

  Lesedrama," p. 217); material better suited

  cinema than to (St. John as ;

  the stage Dramatist," Ervine, "Shelley 95) p. a "Classical ; a

  (Elizabeth Meldrum,


  p. 161)

  Background," Mystery M. if

  (A. ; at all Edition, p. 180) drama then

D. Hughes, and, frequently,

  drama Newton

  34; Carl Gfabo, symbolic (Oliver Elton, Shelley, p.


  Louis Poets, p. xi; Cazamian,

  Edition, p. 38; Carlos Baker, Shelley's



  M. Bowra, Romantic

  Ill; Poetry, p. Imagination, 105; Introduction

  51 with writers

28 Shelley, p.

  many acknowledging found the

  Spender, the symbolism).

  Others a

  poem basically (Vida Scudder, Edition, myth p. xi;




  171; Gertrude

  Hughes, Edition, p. 77; Slaughter, "Shelley," p.

and and

C. S.

  Barrell, Shelley Thought, p. 150; Joseph

  Lewis, "Shelley, Eliot," with the most that of Lewis: den, p. 29, comment



  all its "Like is to its

  indirect great the imagination:

  myths primary appeal and to the will

  and understanding can diversely

  therefore be further appeal

  as the reader is a a Christian, interpreted according ; an politician, a psycho-


  not") analyst, or epic (Stopford Brooke, "Poetry of Shelley,"


  214; ; a dramatic

  p. ode, or a

  p. Shelley, 69) Herbert Read, Defence of of odes linked it like an

  by much sequence dramatic poetry, thus making


  Gamier, 155;

  H. Clarke, opera (Charles George

  Study," p.

  latter with the

  Edition, 238; p. and George Cowling, Shelley, p. 63, noting that "its to to Italian which Peacock introduced

  form owes something

  opera, in and in

  which he afterwards found

  1817, Shelley great pleasure"); a to noble oratorio (Parke

  Godwin, 127); nearer

  "Shelley," p. symphony


  to in


than drama form and ; or

  (Arthur Glutton-Brock, Man 209) Poet, p. ideal

  and a of scenes

  suggestive of fresco painting,

  panorama (George Woodberry, Studies, p. 278).

  ^Prometheus Unbound Koszul has frequently been the subject of musical settings. found no fewer than five for Asia's at

  "Musical song

  ILv.72-110 (Cceuroy, Inspiration and lists the

  Music of Shelley," 1923, p. 82). Grove's Dictionary of Musicians (1954)


Sir for chorus

  Granville and orchestra following items: Bantock's Prometheus Unbound, and orchestra

  (1936); for solo voices, chorus, Havergal Brian's Prometheus Unbound, ; Norman Demuth's incidental music ; Katharine

  (1937-44) (1948) Emily Eggar's setting


  and Maurice Emanuel's


  of Asia's song, mezzo-soprano, string quartet, piano

  • act

  music Prometh&e enchalne, three opera (1916-18); Lars -Erik Larsson's incidental

  Prometheus Hubert from Unbound" for contralto,

  (n.d.); Shelley's

  Parry's "Scenes


  and orchestra

  tenor, bass, chorus, (1880); Sir Stanford Charles's setting of

  song and of the Hour ; William Wallace's of

  (1913) setting

  (1911) of the song of the Spirit Asia's and Maude Valerie same (1896); song (n.d.). song White's setting of the


  The has music or musicians. John frequently suggested comparisons with



  for his

  Todhunter Mozart's Don "was written own

  that, like Giovanni, the poem

  not for It all is the world. is to other the Ninth

  delight, lyrical poems what Symphony to all

  other Armin Kroder

  (Study, 1880, p. 134). regretted that musicians



  had the basis for a ;


  passed by ("Shelleyana," 1906, p. 139)

  poem symphony

  Clarke held there was as difference Bound Helen between great a Aeschylus' Prometheus


  and as "the naked scales and between


Shelley's of Pythagoras the poignant

poem of

  a touching diminished seventh harmonies modern symphony" ("Prometheus Myth," ; and J. "comes nearer to than music

  1910, p. 110) de Gruyter declared that the


  other drama that has and perhaps been written" ("Shelley Dostoievsky," 1922, any

  felt which is the



p. 134). spirit special preroga-

  Bailey that "in that escape of the

  H. Clarke music (Poets

  tive of and and G.

  Poetry, 1911, p. 168);

  Shelley stands alone"

  fit for

  the a (Edition, 1907, "the musical genius of a thought poem subject Wagner" p. 238).

  Andre in "There are uses of music

  Coeuroy, noting the many the imagery, stated: to bond between souls. hearts which music reveals the fraternal For Shelley, the poet of as


this, inasmuch she seeks



  52 to the far the number of those who have refused larger acknowledge

  By it as a with dram-

  as a chosen


drama, however, have to classify lyric


  atic than the vein has been overtones, rather (for lyrical the opposite as those who have criticized the a drama). This recognized poem

  even by work as

  reverse was, in effect, to Shelley's a 'lyrical description of the to it as dramatic a non-

  drama" and view a (or, occasionally, as

  lyric for found dramatic Roden mood, and

  Noel, "unity of lyric). example, in ; the

  p. 120)

  lyrical absence of dramatic unity ("Shelley," 1885, feeling" as the


  Salt pointed out that "the lyrics in fact are as prominent

  Henry it as blank verse" Brooke saw

  Primer, 1896, (Shelley p. 63). Stopford a of a Titanic than drama" ;

  "more p. 144)

  lyric ("Lyrics of Shelley," 1907,


and Arthur noted that "both the and the dramatic

  Glutton-Brock epic a

  were dead" and the was drama forms

  day, lyrical in Shelley's poem that which

  reality the very essence of poetry" ("Musical Inspiration of



  Charles Gamier was the of music

  p. 95). especially sensitive feeling

  Shelley," 1923,

  in and offered if


  that, Shelley's

  a comprehensive comparison, pointing out


  was was dramatic imagination lacking, his musical imagination faultless, "his lyrical . . .

  recall to

  subtle one's

  Shelley's harmonies invincibly gift peerless. charm and mighty . . . terse dal-

  mind now now and Mozart's chaste elegance . . Meyerbeer's weird power


liance . Mendelssohn's wealth of tender

now now Schubert's

crystalline facility;

now and

  Beethoven's deep sense of joy imagination; sorrow, metaphysical yearnings,

  science to

  and our profoundcst strong-rooted optimism, constructive thrilling appeal

  All associations if

  these musical illustrate sympathies. may independent passages, but

  to whole of

  one was allowed to us characterize the

  name Shelley's lyrical

  only drama, .


his as his . .

  intense intellectual as well emotional Sehnsucht, the essence of mysticism the one name would be ...

  Chopin" ("Metrical Study," 1937, pp. 156-57).

  in R. V. the


  amplified the Beethoven comparison noting composer's use of

  in the ballet

  the Prometheus from music (1801), story Die Geschopfe des Prometheus

  in as chief in

  which a theme the finale was used a the finale Eroica

  of the

  subject Sym- a that took as as as its

  (1804), well Prometheus

  phony inspiration. symphony Napoleon


  The of the two however:


artists differed, "To the

  one [Beethoven], the joy of

  creative to To is

  the other the Beethoven, Prometheus a pain. heroism predominates; a To is as an attainment as

  much a

  type; to Shelley, personification. the one, victory


to the more an reward." In the

other, an immediate Eroica,

  hope; ultimate goal than more realistic

  also, Dawson found Beethoven

  than Shelley (because he had Napoleon of the Ninth in its before him), with the choral movement use of Schiller's



all brothers closer to

  An men are the

  Freude ("For truly," etc.) poet, especially

  to Act

  IV of Prometheus each case it is Unbound: "In freedom of

  the joy of the mankind is but whereas so much that of

  perfect . . .

  Shelley's feeling sought

  hope frantically

  as Beethoven's is a

  from disillusionment, more matured and a refuge

  fully seemingly

  which have and tangible joy," a position easily

  Shelley might reached ("Beethoven 4142). Shelley," 1929, pp.

  Such led to out:

  Edmund Blunden parallels "Lovers of coincidence

  possibly point care to that while

  know work was may Shelley's

  being published, Beethoven's 'Overture

  to Prometheus'

  was on being performed and Robson, the Apollonican of Messrs. Flight had

  his shilling to Cazamian

  which Shelley paid hear before leaving England. Louis At almost the same date as striking. points out something more that of the composition

  " of

  his 'Choral Shelley's lyrical

  drama/ Beethoven was composing Symphony' p. 261). Introduction


  a sustained emotional lyric"

  194, 196-97).


  recently, also,

  Douglas Bush

  has supported this

  view by

  describing the poem as



  drama but

  (Mythology, 1937, p. 151); as did

  result as the cause of that experience"



  who wrote

  that "it


  as a play


  turned into a



  (Man and Poet, 1909, pp.

  much the

  because "all other

  new ideas of

  forms were

  clearly impossible."

  Glutton-Brock added

  that the

  myth used

  in this lyrical

  drama was "of a new


  and made

  to express the

  an age of revolution,"



  that, whereas the great


  reflected "the experience of multitudes


  generations," Shelley's expressed "only his


  rather limited experience

  and his own

  peculiar ideas,

  which were not

  Once More," 1941, p. 92).


  dramatic aspects of the poem to consideration of

  poem on


  Edgar, with many examples taken

  by Pelham

  in Shelley's poetry was made,

  and metaphors

  that an exhaustive catalogue of the similes


  It was not until 1899,

  II, 127).


  ground" (Shelley,



  Unbound. Edgar

  would still have misunderstood and underestimated

  other prejudices they





  Had the


  original- ity of the imagery.

  commonly misunderstood lies in the boldness and



  the first



  included similes of color, light, sound, odor, swiftness, change, evanescence, love, thought,

  I. White,

  tracing the mythical creations of Shelley,

  other poets" (Power and Elmiveness, 1937, pp. 100-1).


  the apathy and neglect of


his single person


  himself to the task of atoning


  he had

  as if


  is as devoted to

  0scar W. Firkins commented: "Shelley


  approach by

  and number;




  1904 Hans


  (Study, passim).

  to animal, etc.

  human, human



  similes, similes of human to natural,


  as well as double similes,

  indeed, pointed out that "the reason why Prometheus Unbound has



  poets" in this respect, as evidenced






  earthquake, desire,


  the wind, volcano


  the sun, clouds,


  his use of the star, the cave, the


  among modern


  stood "alone


  faculty of the world's primaeval poets" (Roden Noel, "Shelley," 1885, p. 121). To Henry Sweet, indeed,



  recognized as possessed of "the


  found. Shelley has


  general agreement







  poem have touched on these matters.

  only created with a high, holy



  critics of the


  that nearly

  it is natural to find

  of speech,

  imagery and figures

  fully evidenced in the poet's use of

  Inasmuch as the mythopoeic quality is most

  (Coleridge, Shelley, Goethe, 1880, pp. 217-18).


  Midsummer-Nighfs Dream,

  quality of light

  ass ages in


  as the


  choral pages . . . are as


  beauty and significance. . . .

  exhaustless spring of likenesses which his poetic faculty illuminates into

  is an

  Calvert was of the same belief when he wrote: "Shelley's brain

  When we turn from

  color ("Shelley's


  Nature Poetry," 1888, pp. 298-324). George


  Introduction with illustrations from Prometheus

  Unbound, under the headings of many etc., how

  Earth, Echoes, Fauns, Flowers, Water, Spirits, showing

  Nymphs, s life into these

  a mythical reality (Shelley Shelley infused


and gave them


  B. more established that Evans,

  Mythendichtung, passim). selectively, the "certain

  and autumn

  star, the boat, the lake, figures the sphere, the his leaves remain threading themselves through poems"; persistent images

  and in felt that "the of the Prometheus Unbound he permanent power


  Act be

  IV, especially in

  image" established with great strength,

  star if boat and stream and and

  where "the of return, as



  of determined to en- these his earlier vision, Shelley, faithful to symbols

  Arthur Keith

  shrine them here" ("Persistent 796).

  Image," 1922, pp. 792,

  "rests well-

  went so far as to not

  argue that the merit of the poem on any

  is we

  saying that ordered philosophy, unless qualify by beauty philosophy,

  fires dullest but that the mind" imagery ("Imagery," 1924, p. 67). upon

  his illustrations from

  some of Prometheus He


  then surveyed, with the areas of animal life,

  life, stream,

  personification and imagery from plant

  and emo-

  sea, clouds, shadows, vapor, music, childhood, thoughts, dreams,

  made was

  tions. A Firkins, who slightly different by Oscar

  approach was from the entire

  concerned primarily with tabulating, range of Shelley's illustrations abstract in of


  the variety of the poet's imagery poetry, united "the


were of elusiveness, of momentousness and

  qualities power and ; Firkins concluded and Elusiveness, 1937,

  (Power and p. 185)



  that not the better and


was "very nearly, quite, among

  the poet unique letters" in his


  representatives of habitual practice of present- terms of


matter in mind Ants

(p, 48). Or as,

  ing In the following year Firkins' approach, concerned himself primarily with extending the scope of


how the manner

  determining "illustrate [Shelley's]

  images of perceiving

form and movement" Poetic Richard

  ("Shelley's 1938, p.



  H. of the of Keats and Fogle's

  imagery Shelley (1949) comparative study


  and more subtle treatment than that of much

  Firkins, permitted a

  it so in its distinctions was not minute

  (and although . In a dealt was marred by many incorrect article line references) more

  Fogle directly



  with Prometheus considered "a effort to

  Unbound, which he

  gigantic syn- thesize the abstract with the ideal the with the actual" concrete,

  ("Image and

  three Imagelessness," 1952, p. 24). Fogle treated the

  imagery under


  which classified (1) (2)

  develop the theme; images images by repre- sentation ; and mental this

  (visual) (3) process* images of Through study of concluded instead of a surrender to his that,

  imagery he "helpless own

  as criticism

  would have

  emotions," it, anti-Shelley


  not but the result of in- Shelley a passive emotion, expressing not a surrender,

  tellectual effort to its all

  furthest reaches, with the difficulties and pushed dangers which are involved in it. ... seems

  What be formlessness and the superficially to is

  form and shattering of order really the synthesis of formlessness, of expansion and determination, of Introduction


H. Butter directed attention to "the


  recently . . . content of because is this them which

  his intellectual more P.

  [Shelley's] images the aspect of

  is distinctive and most of him that which the reader is most



  to to miss" Idols^ contributions of these writers 1954, p. The (Shelley's 4).

  Unbound in

an will be found the Critical Notes.

  understanding of Prometheus has it the not been

  Finally, overlooked, although has usually


  in as included As blank


  studies of larger scope. 1823, Shelley's early

  it "it

  verse but was out that with that of Milton, pointed

  was compared

is as it is . , . it is

  in ideas. One as totally different in cannot say



  like other metre it as individual verse; is,

  any of English blank say,

  I one as well as

  say, Miltonic" (Gentleman's Shelleyic may suppose, Maga-

  Gilfillan was

  1848 D


  zine^ [1823]; see item XIV). George


  the with their the


  especially lyrics, impressed by "rush of poetic of an ;


  1845, infuriated imagination" (Sketches, 116) gallop p.

  if it Brooke noted verse as were "used blank

  that Shelley while Stopford


  his It or natural tongue. easy, flowing, well paused, close knit, weighty, as within the mind him let free, exactly drove, or the subject claimed" to fuller

  A statement with

  ("Inaugural Address," 1886, p. 11). respect versification was who wrote: the

  Scudder, given by Vida


  Blank verse rises into the

  long, swing of the anapaest, or

  passionate broken by the half of the flute-like notes of short trochaic relieved

  lines, or -lyrical effect

  by . , . The is marvelous. -six distinct

  54 Thirty

  endings. variety of metres rhymed verse. verse-forms are to These forms he found, besides the blank are usually

  is as as that of the most

  simple; but at times the versification-scheme complex elaborate odes of or Collins.

  Dryden to in the but re-

  Miss Scudder admitted a frequent Miltonic echo lines,

  is in haunt- on "a cadence of which master, marked

  Shelley alone unique

  drawn a new music

  concluded that "Shelley has ing, clinging melody," and in She was also aware of a "subtle

  from words" English passages. many

  in blank

  even the but stressed the

  verse, variety lyrical cry" "sweep and

  and she that the

  of noted modulation," major characters, direct lyrical recita-

  "use as a rule verse, in distinctively the plain speaking appropriate while and

  Panthea, tive, lone, the other chorus-characters generally sing transition or of rather than speak," with blank verse marking passages of


  lyrical (Edition, feeling, while climaxes of passion rush into repressed 1892, pp. Uiv). in the blank verse

  Arthur varied the theme


  by finding Symons


  and broke from was 1910, pp. 108-9) equally impressed

  George Saintsbury (History,

  all his usual restraint can

  only say that in the long with the following "outbreak": "I

  it has been fortune to

  which and survey pageant of English poetry my good procession


as I and this itself,

  have nothing has ever presented writing History, been preparing

  in itself,

  and I think, will such a combination of prosodic present beauty and nothing, . . . and

  as this. This was which

  seven centuries of poetic labour the heritage of variety and

  Godric to from English poetry in possession; experiment Coleridge had put

  it to

  that was threw

  Shelley's open enjoyment,"



  none music harmonies of of the sweetly broken of Shakespeare or of the organ . . is in it .

  Milton. It is a of aerial There a music thrilling music, rarer eloquence.


  sound than that of other and chastened



  any by the severity that in liquid air. of fire and ... It has an illumined can clothe a [also] gravity, a shining


  a luminous

  clearness, motion" ["Shelley," 1907, ; pp. 354-55]

  crystal enthusiastic:

  and Arthur Glutton-Brock was


  intellectual sets it far all


  [Shelley's] purest music has an quality that is not a but a all


  made the faculties tinkling tune, versifying. It harmony by

  The keenness of his music ex- of his and

  mind peculiar swiftness acting together. as it soars one idea to his from

  thought another, always presses the eagerness of . .

  truth. . is all . . . to the ultimate His very blank verse lyrical.

  pressing nearer

  it it is to

  because near to and is Other employ prose their difficulty distinguish poets . in in


it . . But blank verse is as and the

  from Shelley's simple language prose.

  it its sentences as his never and is

  structure of becomes rhymed lyrics; yet prosaic,

  full all it

  of never

  full of music even when sense; above

  not very lags or stumbles, it.


as if momentum in ...

  but moves

  He needed rather

  there were a great swiftly


to lower his than to lift it blank verse. It to recitative

mind into was him what

to is a musician with a boundless command of

  [Introduction, 1911, . melody

  xiv-xvi] pp. was in



  slightly negative note however, the suggestion by in that he found the an stiff-

  Salvador de

  Madariaga poem impression of is at first

  "an almost mechanical which the disconcert-



  rigidity, as it lies fluid external

  hidden under an admirably rhythm,"

  ing a quality that he felt in common with Calderon Colder

  (Shelley and the poet held on,

  But been with

  credited 1920, almost universally the poet has p. 14). his art and in of verse The the song. general

  mastery tendency to praise

  as at a whole of unfortun- has, course, been lyrics the expense of the poem

  I. falsifies

  ate. To N. such for

  White "merely Shelley's intention,"

  praise be

  White considered the to "one of the most

  highly integrated unions


  noble which literature of has

  thought and subtle expression by English

  ever been 1940,

  II, White added that "the enlarged" (Shelley, 127).

  Prometheus is

  sudden burst of in Unbound

  lyrical genius . . . genuinely aston- of the handled


  ishing. [perfectly had verse forms] Shelley ap- before. Several of

  them are either never employed

  or parently



  and he as

  extremely rare English poetry before Shelley"; suggested sources the Greek possible lyric dramas, Byron's Manfred, general reading, that "these are all

  but admitted There

  music, or opera, guesses.


  to be seems richness of Prometheus

  no adequate explanation of the lyrical

  other a

  Unbound than sudden

  flowering of lyric genius" (II, pure 133-35). Louis Cazamian noted that in Jupiter, etc.,

  Mercury, Hercules, Shelley chose the Latin nomenclature, while with lone, and Panthea

  Demogorgon, and Cazamian he used ascribed the

  the Greek; eclecticism either to the to the of metrics

  (Edition, poet's preferences, or problem 1942, p. 12). like the of

  And, Carlos Baker, White,


  emphasized importance on

  differences of opinion



  on Prometheus Unbound, among

  for illustrations

  Till, who drew

  was made, by Hermann

  to the metrics


  that a significant technical

  It was not until 1902,


  ("Shelley's Metre," passim).

  to line-endings




  given to the technique of variation, to alliteration

  and some consideration was




  poems, and whose

  was to




  given in his chapter


  Prometheus Unbound

  clusions. Kroder's principal attention to

  its con-




  such matters,

  the general



  Shelley's art of versification, with findings subject to the usual weaknesses

  published his painstaking study of

  Armin Kroder

  his artistic tools to gain his effects (Metrische, passim). In the following year



  skill with which the

  a few of the verse structures

  treated only incidentally,

  where he



  to mourn

  Their function is roughly that of a dramatic chorus:

  the play.

  significant relation to the progress of

  mere musical interludes without

  lyrics . . .


  wind in trees after thunder. Nor



  which they frequently seem a distant echo,

  rolling iambs, of

  the austerity of the

  to relieve

  which serves admirably

  sacrifice of dignity,

  The interspersed lyrics contain a quality of lightness without


  rejoice as

  require, to

  Unbound was

  1948, p. 117].

  in 1888, Prometheus



  by J.


  first of

  special studies of importance. In the

  have been a few

  In addition to the incidental references to Shelley's versecraft, there

  [Shelley's Major Poetry,


  complexities of the myth Shelley has evolved


  the deep and



  are, moreover, carefully


  introduce or close the scenes, or to provide commentary on the course of the action.

  transitions, to


  • strophenformen"

  analyzed with technical facility the stanza structures typical of the

  his specialized

  Prometheus Unbound


  been concerned with the study

  of parallels

  and influences found in

  development of Kroder's discussion



  to his

  study, and because

  it is



  acquaint oneself with

  terminology, no attempt has been made

  ON THE RELATIONSHIP TO EARLIER WRITERS The fourth area of critical

  to give his separate illustrations in

  the present

  edition. His findings are

  in general agreement with those included in the

  Critical Notes.

  The other- wise important


  Analytical Study of Shelley's Versification, by Louise Propst

  (1933), like

  others of



  is limited to selected lyrics only,

  with no examples taken from Prometheus Unbound.

  attention with respect to


  poem, dealing with rime

  to thirty verses in length

  schemes, phrasing,


  appropriateness of


  to content,

  and comparing them

  with similar uses in other


  (Shelleys Verskunst, pp. 178-88) ,

  55 More

  recently, Charles Gamier has catalogued

  and related

  to context the different stanza patterns, ranging

  from two


  Study," 1937, p.

  impossible to



  stands a vast musical whole, a noble dramatic


  in such an analysis, for "Shelley's lyrical



  sound and movement


  such studies, that there are subtleties of

  might all who attempt

  edged, as

  poems; and he acknowl-

  of the longer being in themselves short


55 Because the general



  will instances most be found earlier authors. Of the cited,

  many specific

  in Critical of but recorded the Notes edition, relationships of a the present here have been drawn between inclusion

  more justify

  general nature that

  Dante and and Godwin, Plato,

  Shelley Aeschylus, Goethe, Milton, Spenser, in

  Byron, and

  Calderon, As might be that order of emphasis. expected

  in his

  and from his Preface to from discussion

  choice of subject Shelley's and most varied treatment. the has received the widest

  poem, Aeschylus

  with Aeschylus

  Comparisons was too 'Vast and Bound

  Douglas Bush has pointed out that Prometheus

  for taste the but that with the neoclassic period, changing explosive" in to the Romantic view Prometheus came point of represent

  brought by

  heroic individualism and There were two main revolt against tyranny. to esthetic lines Bush:


  concep- of development, according the "partly tion" in Goethe and the "rebellious or

  which culminated (2)

  (1773); or as in

  humanitarian both" Byron and Shelley (Mythology, 1937, pp.


  That was the drama has

  78-79). Shelley early attracted Aeschylean

  and Mrs. note to Prometheus Un~ been demonstrated,

  Shelley's already


  "the sublime him with

  bound related that

  of /Eschylus


wonder and that "the and throes of

  delight," as well as . . . mighty passions fascinated

  [his] (see

  gods and demigods abstract imagination" Ap- in


  C). Southern Literary Messenger (an exception holding pendix to be an intended imitation of and to

  Shelley's Aeschylus)

  poem sequel

  the two as and tried before

  men compared Aeschylus "accused of impiety,



  "arraigned and condemned,

  Areopagus," Shelley without being

  in his at F.

  H. Gile

  defence, the bar of public opinion" (1842, p. 197). felt and

  but common

  Aeschylus shared avoided the personal that Shelley that the latter to the trials and all

  "meant show

  ideals, in hardships of

  and reformers in

  discoverers conserva- bigotry, the face of the ignorance, tism

  and John

  superstitition 1908, of society" ("Prometheus," p. 435).


  Bailey, in particularized explanation of the Aeschylean attempting a attraction, Bound

  would have

  suggested that the Aeschylus of Prometheus

  on the basis of and

  appealed (1) his lyrical, prophetic, theological genius; his use of the still

  Chorus which dominated and (2)

  action; a simple plot a

  human (3)

  (lo dramatis personae without beings being semidivine); the his use of the the

  (4) airy remoteness of the scene; (5) car, winged and lo as on the road

  beast, common


winged "hardly a walker of earth";

  his full

  (6) and and

  use of nature; (7) his political, theological, occasionally almost bent. "The in

  Prometheus Vinctus is, religious Bailey concluded:


  the of neither fact, like

  nor nor

  nearly poems Shelley, particular, local,

  all nor even the other dramas are: it is

  national, earthly, as of Aeschylus cosmic rather, what and universal" to be, in

  Shelley loved

  ("Prometheus Bennett found a Weaver more 120-22). Introduction






  unlike Aeschylus in his style;

  and was not

  imitating, caught the general spirit of the ancients

  Shelley, while

  and (3)

  may be suggested as typical: (1)

  three general views


  his model,


  adequately the poet

  unsuccessful and actually perverted the Aeschylean materials;


  sharply divided as to

  quality in the Titan's

  held that Shelley

  Vida Scudder



  [1823]; see

  monologues (Gentleman's Magazine, 1848


  was not attempting an

  taken early, with comment on the


  of these views

  The first

  was, rather, extending the earlier writer's work.


  imitation of Aeschylus



  for the choice, feeling that Shelley


  could exult

  sacriiice. He

  could brood upon the tragedy of


  his own.

  similar to that which he thought was

  the lonely Titan Shelley could contemplate

  the glory of the hard






  the play ("not the greatest of those

  was attracted to


  will set


  its victory over power.


  Poems," 1950, pp. 356-57] .


ally] ['Tre-Promethean


  could see in Prometheus



  against tyranny,

  rejoice at intelligence



  and over- throwing it.





D, Item XIV).

  1892, p. 121). Taifs Edinburgh Magazine thought the

  this too was an early theme, with a writer in the Literary

  became full

  [the] improvement was manifest: his style

  of the ancients . . .



  wonderful mind to

  the poet turned "all the energy of his


  noting that



  and rich with



  to the influence of general Greek thought and culture



  (Classical Tradition, 1949, p.



  if not in depth

  poet in nobility,

  to overflowing of classical associations,

  allegorical fancies,

  actually surpassed the

  wonderful and beautiful


  a rationalistic




Greek mind, even pre-Aeschylean in

  to the primitive

  he was close

  in this


  led him to see nature instinct with life and beauty,

  has pointed out that Shelley's absorption in the

  and as

  Arthur Keith



  (1825, p. 163) .

  its ornament"

  of thought, as for the luxuriance of

  and depth



  celebrated for






With this


  Shelley, 1878, p. 21).


  overtones (Place

  but with Hebrew

  fact a Greek drama in the English language"

  thought it was "in

  while R. Pickett Scott

  p. 212),

  "steeped in the spirit of Aeschylus" without being plagiaristic (Edition,

  called it a "truly classical

  disagreed, the


and Thomas Medwin

  ,/Eschylus" (1833, p. 338);

  rank beside

  conceptions, to



  might and magnitude


  "worthy, from


  De Vere and Swinburne


  a sequel



  for Aeschylus' Prometheus



  Prometheus Unbound

  recently, however, Gilbert Highet has declared that "in


  XVIII, p. 28).

  (Letters, 1865,

  and un-Hellenic"


  holding that "in his

  ("Poetic Versatility," 1849, p. 420) ; while the latter found the




  inappropriately introduced," although he admitted an "Aeschylean


  political or metaphysical disquisitions


  his clas- sical vein is too often checked

  Trometheus Unbound'

  (Shelley, 1847,



  A. K. Thomson which And J. 1924, Shelley p. 176).

  shrank ("Imagery,"

  has written: from Greek

  The most massive evidence of the inspiration drunk by Shelley

  course only too easy poetry

  is Prometheus It is of to show how unlike Unbound.

  for it is is to a To

Shelley's hardly a play typical Attic tragedy. begin

poem it is

  there is no


  with, completely devoid of dramatic excitement or even

  the are an excessive


  lyrical given plot, parts are too lyrical, parts


  all are this is said when

  importance, the characters altogether too shadowy. Yet . .


it still Unbound . strikes one as like a

  not indeed be held that Prometheus

  may as like

  drama of the Periclean but what the Periclean drama might have

  age, a for

  become in the hands of who was the lyrical poet, not writing stage. great

  it than of

  would have been less most


A Greek shocked or even puzzled Shelley's


  [Classical contemporaries Background, 1948, pp. 231-32].

  These have

  Shelley's are typical of expressions that recognized


  reflected in his it Prometheus

  Unbound, but

  deep perception of the culture art as well as also been was influenced the has stressed that the poet by

  by Medwin the writings of the past.

  recorded that "the Praxitelean shapes his in- of the the were alike sources whence he drew

  Vatican and

  Capitol, in this classical ; com-

  drama" and,

  (Shelley, 1847, 212) spiration truly p. the figures created through the poet's faculty,

  menting on mythopoeic


  wrote: as have at

  Roden Noel "One done, might almost be looking,

  those sacred the so pictures in temple-tombs of Thebes, painted many thousands of years ago" ("Shelley," 1885, p. 121). writers

  But there have been a number of who have

  not shared the feeling the note. on

  An commented

  that Shelley


caught Aeschylean early reviewer

  in of father

  [the] the "audacity" of the poet attempting "the very flight

  and felt that

  of of tragedy," Shelley, despite "very extraordinary

  powers and "tried to had and

  imagination" [the language pervert myth's] purpose see


  D, item


  meaning" (Blachvoods Magazine, 1820; Appendix

  of felt another, while admiring the Aeschylean monologues Prometheus, in that

  had marred and

  other respects Shelley what he


many destroyed



  1848 ; worthy [1823] might have (Gentleman's Magazine, Ap- it was

  Later, XIV). pendix D, item objected that for the lost Prometheus is . . . substitute unsuccessful.

  Shelley's [to

  sequel Bound]

  real to

  the ^Eschylus lived with the ideal, knew up Shelley scarcely anything of the world as and little

  it is, the he knew he wished to alter. The is,

  consequence that in all his mind


  beautiful poetry the scarcely recognizes a familiar This is fatal to . dramatic poetry [American Quarterly,

  1837, pp. 196-97]


  another in


  writer Act of the did

  anonymous held that only poem

  his criticism with of


  Shelley suggest Aeschylus. This writer supported


  the uses of the the letter to poet's He correspondence.

  quoted from 7, 1817 left

  Godwin, December (before

  Shelley England), Shelley's report

  on his state: "I find nervous and of

  the grass the very blades of boughs distant trees to


  present themselves with microscopical distinctness" (Julian, The writer commented:

  IX, 258). "No Introduction


  how matter-of-fact is

  the method of the genuine dramatist,




  the "Prometheus Vinctus";


  simple indeed,

  the treatment of the myth;

  of the French Revolution. How


  straight-forward the plot;


  well distinguished and

  how justly

  balanced the characters the cheery manliness of Prometheus, the feminine sympathy of the Oceanides, the humorous


  different is


  Hermes! . . .

  in spite


  objection of

  William J.

  Courthope was more


  but no less severe:

  As a whole,


  misery, and oppression which cloaks the


  splendid passages,

  it is

  a tiresome poem. The imagery blazes without

  relief ; the action flags

  amid the cloying sweetness of the melodies; the characters are mere empty abstractions employed on a monotonous repetition of a tale of


  of Oceanus, and the gentlemanly good breeding of


  he had

  Bound was

  Explained, London, 1920)


  denied that Aeschylus' Prometheus Unbound and Prometheus


  Fire Bringer ever

  existed, or that


  philosophical: "Rather, [Harman]


  avers, it is completely contemporary.





  and Zeus is the upstart Athenian government" of



  of Aeschylus: Represented in English and

  G. Harman (The Prometheus

  conception has

  G. Lowes Dickinson believed that Shelley




  French sentimentalism; ^Eschylus


  on Attic commonsense

  [Liberal Movement, 1885, pp. 148-49].


  that E.

  lost the quality of Aeschy- lus


  too great departure

  from the ancient legend.


  a result, solidity

  Thomson noted

  misconceived Christianity ("Prome- theus," 1882, pp. 29-45).

  mis- conceived the Greek poet, as

  poetic style . . .


  much. It is

  too like Eschylus to be equal to Eschylus.

  It reads, in part, like a translation



  the Greek,


  this is fatal to

  success" (Sketches, 1845, p. 116). And Swinburne's admiration for



  lus led



  much the same


  which he supported more

  attempting too

  held that "it fails

  Shelley began

  of ^Eschylus. Shelley has

  would serve

  so well as this sentence to

  show how

  unlike his

  dramatic poem is

  to the


Chained Prometheus



  a chaos of poetic material without

  symmetry and without even

  formal unity" (British Review, 1840, p. 111).


  Gilfillan, however, while admiring the poem, found a blemish in the fact that the

  drama was, on

  the contrary, like that of the Greek dramatist.

  fully: At Este . . .




  wings of more perfect music, than


  the sublimer passages of the


  and fourth

  acts ["Shelley," 1870, p. 336].

  A more unusual argument was advanced by

  Reverend William A.

  higher into

  0' Conor,

  who did not

  believe that Aeschylus


  written a sequel to the

  Prometheus Bound, and who

assumed that

  Shelley, therefore,

  clearer air, on


  great and daring venture of attempting



  write a new Trometheus Unbound.' It is unnecessary


  say that the





  But poetry has hardly ever

  or complete work of creative and

  plastic power,

  can bear no comparison whatever with the transcendent and unapproachable work of the greatest poet that ever lived comparable only with Shakespeare on the one hand, and with the greatest of

  Hebrew or Arabian prophets on the other.

  From the

  dramatic or from the prophetic point of view

  it is

so insufficient as to

  be almost liable to the charge of absolute futility.

66 James S.


  62 lost. was an architecture were To and verisimilitude myth

  Aeschylus the his

  which he adorned but never obscured

  symbols, while with Shelley


  for of his meta- the was "a mere framework the luxuriant

  growth myth

  as a a weak result, plot (Edition,

  and wavering

  physical imagination," with, a sense of Elizabeth Meldrum had

  And vi-viii). wrote: "Shelley 1898, pp. none of character. cannot


  principle, quite sustain the characters of the to their in Greek own

  Greek who

  were, plays, written of according gods characteristics. like his own

  become of Air" ("Clas-

  Spirits proper They sical

  1948, Background," p. 161).

  how- The

  Aeschylus, soundest interpretation of Shelley's relationship to to the critics felt that

  was that of who

  ever, the poet was not attempting dramatist rewrite the lost member of the but imitate the Greek or trilogy in to the Prometheus Bound certain of the ideas was, rather, advancing their

  own modern

  This was, position, as in effect, Shelley's implications.

  and as a careful his Preface will we have seen from his letters,

  reading of

  added a one noted

  show. Thus, that Shelley of the early reviewers symbolic to the treatment in


meaning Aeschylus (London-Critical Magazine^ 1820;

and the writer in the Gentleman's

  see item ;



D, Magazine may

  this wrote: "It is imita- well have sensed when he not . . . it is the and properly though an tion but had in what, nineteenth century,

  ^Eschylus lived ; see written" (1848 [1823]


been an Englishman, he might have Appendix

found the "a bold and at-

  item successful too,


XIV). Medwin, poem

  so to lost as to

  not revive a make the much

  tempt, play of ^Eschylus, a for his and

  medium abstruse

  allegory developing imaginative theories in his .

  an he never of of

  lost sight 1847, 212) object any poems" (Shelley, p.


  B. Scott was more specific: Titan

  To the Hellenic mind was a will [Prometheus] gifted with unconquerable and the and He was no more

  gift of seeing into futurity prophesying. the repre- its

  sentative of of than humanity and development intellectually through the ages, .

  all -wise . .

  Zeus was of the creator and sustainer we moderns call God.

  [Shelley's to

  us moderns and most possesses the grandest portentous significance, poem]


  thrones tremble as well as that of Zeus


  making xxii-xxiii].

  1873, pp.


  lines of Boglietti felt that, although Shelley kept the principal


  of the Greek he had into accord with fable,

  development brought happy

  the it with the

  had and of the moral development undergone, development

  conscience of the con- world ("Prometeo," 1880, p. 52).

  Sidney Lamer,

  cerned with the of from to

  human modern growth personality

  Aeschylus to illustrate times, used Prometheus the

  Unbound modern


  although he that as a result

  felt of the different which would not look at audience, the thunders and as a

  drama had

  earthquakes did the Greek, Shelley's of of dilettantism" in but he also felt that

  it; "tang insincerity, if

  the had direct all audience of Aeschylus acquired that

  way of looking phenomena is

  in the face which one of the incidents of our modern would have personality they the thunders and on perceived such an inadequacy between Introduction


  and hope

  cited, but, since the attitudes toward the philosophy of the poem will be outlined fully below, further illustrations will be reserved for that discussion. Here

  might be



  are typical of

  Such comments

  deal with the when in later centuries ("Prometheus," 1908, pp. 430-31).


  while others



  with the how

  of freedom, Shelley

  indicated that Aeschylus dealt with the desire

  will be in order to offer a composite tabulation of the

  H. Gile

  and F.

  (Edition, 1907, p. 239);

  England completes Greece"

  sense of science. It completes ^Eschy- lus as


  love, the

  Romantic sense of

  Fate, the Renaissance sense of hope, the Revolution sense of freedom, the

  Greek sense of


  poem combined





  the one hand, and the immortal

  chaos of poetic material

  the point of the used (Weaver).


  story only up

  2. The

  (Gutteling) .


  complex phantas- magoria with redundance of

  in a

  more complex and more organic (Scudder) ; or a many-tinted, symbolistic nature painting (H. Clarke) growing from a metaphysical imagination (Dickinson) and resulting

  diffuse (Gilfillan), yet



  Review, 1840), exhibiting debauch- ery of the imagination

  (Brit- ish

  1, A


  story used (Weaver).

  Mel- drum), together with an architecture adorned but never obscured (Dickin- son) and an austere majesty (Guttel- ing).


  M. Brown,

  Palgrave, H. Clarke, J.

  (Delrieu, Gilfillan,

  grand, magnificent, sculpturesque, bleak, and compactly restrained


  unity described variously



  have been made with the Prometheus Bound.



  Edition, 1901, p.

  myth [Cambridge

  and the conception of universal nature, totally transform the primitive ^Eschylean

  boy would


  modern boy" ("English Novel," 1884, pp.





  so that

  and illogical:

  to the extravagant


  a constant

  overmuch, and with

  be, crudely,

  penetrated as a

  human nor divine,

  modern ideas, but

  penetrated with



  held that Shelley



  doubtless was, would have been simply a matter of ridicule.

  as it



  Prometheus, on the other, that the play, instead of being a religious and impressive spectacle


  of a Titan and a god



  1893 a writer

  in the

  Nation held that Prometheus Unbound touched cc

  imaginary beings neither


  music and landscape, the use of


  the development of the old and introduction of new characters, the conduct of the action, the interludes of


  metaphysical sug-


Shelley, his allegorical meanings,


  wrote: The ethical motive of

  George Woodberry

  own" (p. 87).


  coming century rather than

  of the

  he struck the keynote

  likely that in this regard

  on about us; it is

  on the new problem


  humanity," and

  satisfied "its altering needs

  and creeds.

  It is likely that


  had some

  part in bringing

  about the

  reformation of social ideals

  which we

  see going

H. Clarke thought that the

I. General Structure 1.

2. The full



  himself with continents, spheres, and elements (Levin).

  Prometheus 1. Prometheus, merely a Titan


  Courthope) rather than a pure

  saint (J. Bailey)

  or an

  hero (D. Sen),

  saken both gods and men



  a distinct

  character who has healthy


  truculence, even grim humor

  to concern


  who wavers between retribution and compromise (Campbell).

  rather than the body, the

  (American Quarterly, 1837) the

  poem is void of human interest (Gilfillan),



  and verisimilitude (Dick-

  inson), stresses the spirit

  ideal rather than the real (J. Bailey),

  Shelley has

  and with its incoher- ent symbols





  from humanity (Bush).

  (Bush), yet

  2. Foresight is his

  Shelley scarcely knew anything of the world

  is his

  gradually submerged

  in the

  background (Bush), yet whose purpose

  is inflexible (Campbell).

  2. Rebellion

  against constituted authority

  leading quality (Court- hope).


  3. He forgives (Lanier),



  bracing pity (Scudder) and love

  (Pres- cott),

  and does not gloat (Guthrie).


  who becomes soft and effeminate

  leading quality (Courthope).


  3. He

  hates (Middleton),

  is fiery,

  untamed, revengeful (Scudder),

  vio- lent

  and cunning

  and would gloat over the curse had he uttered it 1.


  Prometheus, a representative of humanity


  and a mere


  philanthropist and rebel (Courthope),

  is a saint (J. Bailey)

  and the very type of heroism and moral perfection (D.

  as it is

  9. Inasmuch as

  3. The

  scope (Weaver) .

  present (Campbell).

  8. The

  play broadens

  to its



  9. A realistic


  play (American Quar-

  terly, 1837) containing a human in- terest (Gilfillan)


  is definite,


  crete (J. Bailey),

  humor is

  7. Some

  in human

  physical setting

  play works primarily through plot (Tillyard).

  4. The consummate

  act would have been the unbinding


  Review, 1840).

  5. The

  is stressed,

  presentation (Courthope).

  and nothing

  is left to

  the imagination (Scudder) .

  6. It was written for


  the- atrical

  and rooted always

  nature and human values

  broad imaginative scope (Weaver) .

  6. It is

  5. Stress is on the spiritual,


  much left to

  the imagination (Scud-

  der), although both use the play of the

  elements and emphasize heat and cold (Weaver).

  a subjective

  is made

  reflection of Shelley himself (Courthope).

  7. No humor is

  employed (Camp- bell).

  8. The


  starts with a

  the climax (James Thomson).


  (Bush), with

  put on him


  persons, whether divine or human, existing in a real world (Bowra).


  3. Prometheus is isolated,


  the stress is

  in isolation (Till-


  yard) .

  4. The


  is dismissed in

  a stage

  direction (British

  Review, 1840), and

II. Characters


  present, has a character

  4. Jupiter's beastly

  only complete overthrow (Harris).

  is possible,

  an abstraction, a permanent attitude of mind, no reconciliation


  has no reverence for Jupiter (Guthrie), and, since he

  3. Shelley

  Bailey) .

  2. He is a mere devil ( J.

  a creation of Prometheus' mind (Fresco tt).


  that of Zeus (Weaver), but

  similar to

  1. Jupiter is


  of a god with lo (Weaver).

  4. Zeus takes the pleasant privilege

  (Harris) .


  reconciliation is

  a passing mood, the


  not permanently tyrannical but




  Zeus (Guthrie), and,


  ravishment of

  is stressed (Weaver).

  3. Aeschylus has reverence if

  nymphs (Gentleman's Magazine,

  1. Asia is

  Asia (Fresco tt).

  is parallel to

  Shelley (Delrieu). lo-Asia 1. lo

  fantastic, in

  a bizarre accessory,


  Oceanides are individualized (Weaver), but the chorus

  chorus they further the action (Scudder), and the

  creation; as


  2. Shelley adds voices of the

  1848 [1823]).





  and Panthea are a disgusting travesty of

  1. Asia, lone,

  Prometheus (Delrieu).


  since Ocean proposes mediation

  to their roles

  however, appropriate


  not individualized (Weaver). They


  serve as chorus but are mere observers (Scudder), and

  2. They

  1848 [1823]).

  They have kind, innocent virgin pity (Gentleman's Magazine,

  not esteem


  4. He delivers

  served for his sin of elevating unde- serving

  5. He refuses to reveal the secret

  Magazine, 1848), and his speeches are eloquent only (Delrieu).

  (Ec- lectic

  accomplishments are more gracefully related through Asia

  4. His


  9. He agonizes (Levin).

  through the play (Slater).


  developed gradu-

  8. His character is

  (Hungerford) .


  is harsh but de-

  Good (Middle ton),


  7. His

  (British Review, 1840), which gives significance to his will (Weaver) .



  on physical

  6. The emphasis is

  5. The revelation of the secret is humiliating (Middle ton).

  (Delrieu) .

  speeches are imposing and somber


  Magazine, 1848), but


  a boastful recital of accomplishments

  and patiently awaits the ultimate omnipotence of the

  but he, too, repents

  2. He is not a mere devil (J.


  (Weaver), and he is external (Fresco tt).

  is clear

  person, but his character


  Zeus does not appear

  Zeus- Jupiter 1.

  9. He rhapsodizes (Levin).

  Act I (Slater).


  practically dropped

  8. He is

  Aeschy- lean conception (Hungerford) .

  undeserved because Shelley resented the


  for his

  7. His

  even more sharply focused (Weaver) .

  will, is


  significance to

  and the pain, giving


  and modern

  is spiritual

  Review, 1840), but

  effect (British

  weakens the dramatic

  6. The emphasis on mental suffering

  hatred (Lea).

  in every respect richer than lo (Prescott).


1. The

  Christianity, for

  the story


  the drama closed with the extant


  0' Conor viewed the problem

  in narrow Christian terms.

  He felt

  that Shelley misconceived both Aeschylus and

  the lover of men should have been shown vanquished,

  was no Aeschylean

  as a


  to men


  men may

  not be ashamed to suffer for the

  right," just as the crucified

  Christ was a symbol superior


  as there

  the triumphant





  as such (Campbell).

  4. Shelley thinks in terms of Man-

  kind (Rutland),

  deals with the




  assumption, noted above, that

  and adds love to hope (Scudder).


  this listing

  should be added the unique comparison

  made in

  1882 by

  William 0' Conor,

  who started from the


  0' Conor was thus led


  3. Act



  Prometheus who thereby

  loses his

  symbolic value for us.

  2. Prometheus, identified with the race, self-conscious

  of utterance, leads us

  to self-pity.


  to tyranny.

  scene iii removes



  for suffering

  Titans and is counter to



  to human nature.


  our con- tinued opposition

  to the


  following comparisons ("Prometheus," passim):



  unjust god

  vs. a


  who is


  bound, and re- mains a symbol of




  self- lessness.

  2. Prometheus, distinct and isolated,

  proud of utterance, leads us

  to feel for all who suffer wrongly.

  3. The closing


  (Rutland), and can see nothing good

  by hopes and

  Introduction Mercury

  ethical im- agination (Babbitt).


  (H. Clarke), and


  is satisfied

  with separate truths


  2. It has

  an informing

  3. Aeschylus


  accepts Necessity (Scudder), seeks

  a rationalistic inter-

  pretation of the universe


  with a

  spiritual stoicism (Rutland),

  and a rapprochement between


  philosophy of

  but without a

  (Keith), lives

  Ocean i.

  1, He is

  a type character (Weaver), 1.

  He is a

  more complex character

  who is flippantly cruel (Scudder). (Weaver),


  is well

  disposed toward Prometheus (Scudder).

  He is full of proverbs (Weaver).


  1. He is

  more complex


  character (Weaver).


  Other Considerations

  play sketches a great deal



  Powerful and the Benignant (Campbell).

  4. Aeschylus thinks in

  terms of

  ethical im-

  because more menial and

  spiritual, significance (Fresco tt),

  and Shelley seeks


  truth behind the

  myth (Jack).

  2. It lacks

  an informing

  agination (Babbitt).


  3. Shelley opposes Necessity with

  freedom and control over man's

  des- tiny

  (Scudder), shrinks from a ration-



  of the




  uni- versal

  the sublime doctrine of love was foreign

  moral law (Rutland), and


  with the


  and hope of freedom


  but it is a blind hope (Scudder),



  with the persons and incidents

  him and to Greek

  myth (Herford).

  1. The



  a complete spirit- ual and


  philosophy (JI.


57 To




  with Goethe

  Comparisons first

  The Goethe were Julian important comparisons with made by


  Schmidt 1852. Schmidt

  considered Shelley the channel through which tradition the Faustian

  and he found

  letters, entered English in Shelley's poetry the "cardinal errors" of Faust: (1) overstrained idealism, already

  form Schmidt as an

  taking the whom of scepticism in Shelley, regarded iconoclast in ethics and for religion; (2) preference themes;

  superhuman and (3) (4) the

  a resultant disintegration of form; allegorical tendency, with a constant shifting of viewpoint because the allegorical interpretation

  was but

  "Julian partially (Price, Schmidt," applicable pp. 33-35).


Edward Dowden "Goethe's

  believed that 'Faust,' inferior In England, in to an order of

  'Prometheus Unbound,'

  imaginative splendour expresses ideas


  II, but

  far juster (Shelley, 1886, 264);

  and more profound" Hutton found Faust as a


  whole Prometheus Unbound,

  splendid, while in scure and was weak, "splendid only individual elements," the parts

  than the whole and beautiful more

  being greater out of context ("Shelley," to

  1876, John p. 146). Todhunter, however, Shelley superior



  Goethe and

  in vitalizing his personifications

  transmuting "philosophy Both to

  135). into poetry" (Study, 1880, p. poets, according Steichen,

  on and Promethean with

  the Saturnian, Jovian, existence, agreed stages of rest, the life"; the Saturnian representing or the "unconscious vegetable into intro- or "conscious existence which evil has been

  Jovian, conflict, the

  an existence

  attainment, or "conscious

  duced"; and Promethean, joy,

  off evil"


which has cast Karl Heinemann noted

("Study," 1904, pp. 49-50).

  belief in and considered that both God such poets turned against a personal belief real and the foe man ;

  (Gestalten der Griechen, 1920, tyrant of p. 30)

  saw in

and J. M. Brown same "veiled" treatment of "the

  both poets the relations to the the divine to the

  and demonic

  natural, of the supernatural

  But in his human. ... method

  play, as his Shelley overdid the great great in his Philo

  1905, European master second part of Faust" (Study, p. 9).

  it "more than that the form and of much

  indeed, considered possible

  Buck, Unbound owes

  itself directly to the Faust, the apparatus of the Prometheus

  its and to the as this in earlier version." Helena had He

  episode appeared also that were interested in

  noted both Goethe and

  Shelley science (with the and fruitful observer and and

  Goethe more "ardent


  to Gilfillan had also the



Earlier, treatment congenial

  George Aeschylean


  a lost he assumed Aeschylus either

  Christianity. However, play but believed that in to as

  "meant "the forgiver instead repentant" thus making Prometheus represent Jove

  to it

  more "meant make


  of the forgiven," probahly, Aeschylus appear that Jove . . . had been that he meant to Prometheus and surprise hy producing


  'playing a had assume and which made him the aspect of the oppressor, suddenly the reasons


  convince his victim that had This, Gilfillan even been disguised

  his sufferings to

  the whole fable of the 'Prome- would meaning thought, give "almost a Christian


  theus' 422).

  ("Prometheus," 1855, p.





  that the synthesis of science ("Goethe and Shelley,"

  both attempted 1932, pp. 85-86).

  be tabulated as Contrasts Faust and Prometheus

  between Unbound may


  follows: FAUST



  1. is

1. is to There from

  The advance from simple deliverance

  fate to from truth, from weakness

  the tyranny of circumstance or of strength,


  inward (Dowden). disruption inward harmony,

  love: to self

  • transcending

  from egoism a and ascension moral


  59 (Dowden).

  5S as it until

know was

  not not printed Shelley did Goethe's fragmentary Prometheus,

  is to third act had

  which sometimes made comprise the

  1830, although the soliloquy

  in is

  1789 "Prometheus There been (John Bailey, Poetry," 1923, p. 134). published in no knew even however, and

  this soliloquy, the comparisons that

  evidence that Shelley with the have been made German

  Prometheus are included here only because of the

  interest in Faust E for

  related an outline of Goethe's Prometheus

  (see : Appendix


  UNBOUND 1. mind 1.


  It typifies

  The fragment typifies the progres- the progressive

  art to

  of and the the human combat

  sive spirit (H. Clarke), race struggling error esthetic

  and the with truth (H. Clarke), conception in the development


  of the or humanitarian conception (Bush).

  myth in

  the of the (Bush). development myth

2. Prometheus an Prometheus and under

  is 2. is

  independ- chained, utterly

  whom Zeus has

  ent being over Jupiter's no power power (H. Clarke).

  as as is to his chosen ideals

  he true long




  3. Since Prometheus himself He cries rules, he who

  out against Jupiter, and evil who repre- never complains against Zeus, represents tyranny (H. Clarke).

  sents conventions the world thinks

  which from the important, standards conserved Clarke). past (H.

  4. his 4. is as

  Prometheus men in own He visioned


  shapes the perfected scorns Zeus (Herford). image and of the future (Herford).

  5. is 5. is

  Prometheus He selfishness and against the impo- against the .

  dullness tence, idleness, and J. ( Bailey)

  of the gods cruelty of Jupiter (J.


  has also until

  Shelley's been

  compared 1832) in

  poem with Faust II (not published its

  boldness and details grandeur of idea, of creation, splendor of Schure*,

  (Edouard "Poete pantheiste," 1877, p. 777).

  59 in

  William Guthrie held that was in advance similar to that Shelley the Faust,

  as in

  viewed imminent the in only Shelley weakness and the the strength already

  error: is to in

  which "[That] revelation, Faust

  Shelley seems attainment" (Poet


  156). this fuller statement from Philo Buck should Prophets, 1897, p. be point a included: "Nowhere is the difference between and Goethe

  Shelley greater, however, in their . . than attitude towards . it is man's evolution.

  [To and

  Shelley] mystical It

  ... itself confused with all manner of vitalisms and catastrophic. got of .

  spiritisms ether and and . .

  But Goethe

  electricity the paraphernalia of transcendentalism. takes Introduction

  2. Goethe

  poets, R. Pickett Scott noted that, while Milton clothed in verse ideas already in vogue,


  to the organlike power


  greater compass of Milton's verse (John Bailey).


  respect to the scope of the



  and sought

  melody" (Vida Scudder),

  to justify the


  of God to

  man, Shelley gave body

  to "shapes that


  thought's wildernesses" and tried to justify the


  in haunt- ing, clinging

  of man in his own eyes (Place

  with above,

  on Prometheus Unbound, most

  of the critical attention has been given to specific parallels in the text,


  the more general references


  treated of verse techniques as well as of characters and ideas.

  The verse considerations have been dealt

  where it was


  pointed out that, although a Miltonic echo


  recognized, the Shelleyan quality


  generally regarded as

  dominant, a quality char-

  acteristically described as "aerial"

  (Arthur Symons) or




  humility and renunciation? One can




  superhuman in his agony



  is in his

  live with


  Goethe and discover always the right inspiration and the right comment. One





  atmosphere of a Prometheus




  picture him

  Shelley, 1878, p. 22).


  But William J.

  Alexander felt


  Prometheus Unbound gave "a view

  of the history of the universe, past



  as a more modest course. . . .





  is a creature of flesh and

  blood, of

  human intelligence

  and human passion and human weakness as was


  with Milton In considering the influence of Milton

  the death (Buck) .

  never lost the zest of the struggle and saw before

  7. Goethe knew where

  6. Goethe, interested in

  what is


  ing on today,


  a beautiful picture of what we are

  now (Steichen).

  imagination should stop and the

  illusion, so Faust dies still striving for

  practical affairs



  begin (Buck) .

  8. Mephistopheles is

  not pure


  the ideal (Steichen).

  a mere

  conflict is

  (denied by show- ing

  man eternal strife and fruitful

  creative labor (Buck).

  3. Concerned as

  he was with attain- ment

  as a process,

  Goethe would don the godlike (Guthrie).

  4. For Goethe, evil



  creates good)


  not adventitious but essential, and

  sin is a

  condition of progress


  5. The Promethean


  and the Faust- Mephistopheles

  not one to the death (Buck).

  theus' fight is to

  us an imaginary, unreal world (Steichen).


  potentially the Promethean (Steichen).

  6. Shelley, distressed

  about the

  pres- ent, offers

  a beautiful expression of what seems


  7. To

  5. The

  Shelley there were no


  when man has once gained

  his rightful heritage (Buck).

  8. Jupiter is



  and Prome-

  Jovian period

  comes from without and can be shaken off (Steichen).


  the human,

  2. Shelley



  peace and saw an eternity of peaceful enjoyment of the fruits of congest (Buck).

  3. Concerned with the revelation of

  the divine


  Shelley would doff the human (Guthrie).


  4. For Shelley, evil

  (denied by show- ing



  itself) is not

  bound up with consciousness,


  adventitious, impedes

  difficult p. 100).



  of the in Paradise Lost"

  Milton view same

  subject reflecting gives another in as Paradise


  pre-Revolutionary the philosophical ideas current Lost reflected ;

  (Edition, 1898, pp. 314-15) the philosophy of Puritanism

  and William that the "scheme of

  P. Ker added


  in Shelley's poem of as fixed as that of Paradise Lost. ... It is the ultimate tion

  [is] triumph

  Soul of the

  Reason and of the world" p. 46).

  ("Shelley," 1923, pure of Milton's

  (or held that Shelley

  Bush, however, had no thought


  of Aeschylus') "total philosophic design but only of individual character his usual sees isolated from the and, with Manicheism, he the antag- plot, onists in terms of black and

  p. 152).

  white" (Mythology, 1937, his to which he

  J. Macmillan Brown turned attention Samson



  than considered "far like its model the Prometheus Bound






  great (Study, 1905, p. 11)


  of and takes the view of the

  perplexities yet reaches a

  most uncompromising

  faith in

  the force of of the world, [while the righteous simple unity by government

  his to and of human nature

  shuts much

  Shelley] the grossness animality of


  faith in his

  and solution of the human would problem; he thus gains purify the world all institutions and none be put by away existing taking care that sweeping in their place. . . . his the last

  "Milton drama

  Also, tragic to keeps whereas Shelley allows his the fall and of

  on an act of Jove the

  to linger play beyond resumption self-control

  On Brown each

  the other hand,

  by human thought." thought, is .

  has fault its . .


drama "a that nature

  greatest merit the purely lyrical its J.

  A. of K.


  poetry" (pp. 14-16). however, held that Shelley's in less in

  "is more Greek Samson essentially spirit, form, than

  though poem is which Samson but of Milton.


  Agonistes., really the tragedy not of

  had one of a dramatist which was denied to

  Shelley necessary qualification Milton


  (Classical 232), could forget himself" Background, 1948, p. to


As Helene Richter was alone in

  characters, although comparisons of

  Asia, Eve dealing with pointing out that Milton's represented physical intellectual

  beauty whereas (Shelley, Asia represented beauty 1898, pp.

  Satan and Prometheus

  have, of course, been 417-18), comparisons of many.

  Vida Scudder Prometheus in a

  sense, was, held that Aeschylus' the parent of both the Dublin in

  (Edition, ; 1877 1892, 125) p. University Magazine listed their similarities as iron and determination, self-contained self-sup- defiance of and calm and inflexible J. fate, will; and M. porting pride, in

  Brown the it is and Prometheus Satan alone

  pointed out that

  two poems who have the character and to make them

  the imperfections dramatically

  But differences have been stressed

  interesting (Study, 1905, pp. 124-25).

  and follows: more than likenesses, these be tabulated as




  1. is

  Satan selfish, all- Pride has enormous, Prometheus lacking in

  Dublin conquering pride (Gilfillan; because of Introduction

  71 Tod- and disin-

  Magazine, 1877; self-devotion (Todhunterj, University terestedness and


  hunter), elemental dignity (Bald). (Bald), and, believing

  his own

  innocence, he waits (Dublin University Magazine, 1877). -

  2. is 2.

  His an love

  With active malignity (R. long suffering (R.

  in is

  and hatred he and de- he drags down Scott), wise, firm,

  Scott), good,

  mankind and mankind and

  opposes goodness (Dub- fending opposing crime

  lin 1877). (Dublin University 1877).

  University Magazine, Magazine, 3.

  forward with hope, undying he endures sheer of will the

  3. With no consolation from He looks

  (R. Scott) to hour

  by of triumph, power hope and the of his rival

  (Dublin doom Magazine, 1877; pities (Dublin

  University R.


  University Magazine, 1877).

4. He of

  4. He all

  opposes the gave Jupiter he has (Dublin omnipotence

  God the one to and Scott), whom he

  (R. Magazine, 1877), University op- owes the of evil everything (Dublin

  University poses reigning power (R. Scott). Magazine, 1877).



5. is marked In his is

He Keats's Titans)


  temporary subjection he and frantic and by wild regret indignation calm, passionless, fearless (Salt), and his hate and scorn are his noblest elements are and



  intensified Milton (Scudder).

  by by Shelley (Scudder).

  6. infernal world were 6.

  He and the

  Shelley dealt with airy abstrac-

  real tions

  believed and the shadows of a dream by Milton (Quarterly Review, 1887). (Quarterly Review, 1887).

  Dante and

  Comparisons with Spenser


  with Dante, while not numerous, have

  Comparisons frequently and In

  Shelley's penetrating illuminating. 1876 R. A. Holland, in defending lack of incidents and in the that "the in-


  passions poem, argued

  its would mar and

  integrity," trusion of an earthly character speculative that in this the differed from those of Dante and Goethe

  ("Soul of

  poem been ranked below,

  with, or just Shelley," p. 157). Shelley has frequently

  Italian in Barnett Smith and the



  poet inspiration by George as

  and Herbert considered in his Read that,

  conception of love the guiding to to

  was "much nearer Dante than

  of the universe, Shelley principle 378).


  Plato" ("Optimistic Philosopher," 1950, To Benjamin Kurtz both Beatrice and Asia "idealizations of her

  were love,

  each gazing upon peculiar Beatrice was

  Heaven," but

  "almost completely shorn" of sensuousness, while Asia

  was "an p.

  apotheosis of the sensuous" (Introduction, 1933, ; that, like Una, "Asia xxviii) pointed out Spenser's

  and James Notopoulos is seen a so beautiful is veil, 1949,


  through she" (Platonism of But the and the more more detailed, p.

  248). important, comparisons have been Levi Kuhns.

  made by Vida Scudder and

  Mediaeval called "Ideals of and Modern""

  In a chapter Redemption,

  theme Scudder

  (Life of the Spirit, 1895, pp. 96-144), Miss developed her



  and as around

  respectively, Shelley representing,

  Dante, Spenser,

  60 in her edition in

  0ther than Miss Scudder's chapter (and in incidental references have been of the already noted) general comparisons with Spenser few, although poem, Critical T. echoes the Bohme (see Notes).

  specific been pointed out

  72 Introduction



  "definite, hideous, obvious"; to


  it came


  a fair face, disguised in


  of sanctity

  beauty"; while to


  Shelley "sin

  is gone.

  Disbelief in

  moral evil was

  part of the creed of Shel- ley's day."


  a result she felt that Shelley lost relief



  that to

  from his


  from his

  resistance of


  without; but,

  having no

  foes to fight within,


  sug- gests vacuity." Moreover, she

  that "Dante's love

  Scudder noted




  varied," while that of

  Prometheus was "a benevolence monotonously

  diffused." In considering the ethical scope of the three



  variety in eliminating sin

  picture of


  p. 35) ; and J. Kooistra held that,


  Shelley "the meaning of the drama is ... clearer than its


  a contrary

  effect to

  that which


  produced by the Faerie Queene" (Shelley, 1912,

  while Spenser wished

  Nachkben, 1911, p. 310).

  to tell



  with Shelley the spiritual meaning was the


  and the


  poet was not strong in allegory

  0. Elton felt that




life, but that he

  source and centre of his Titan's pain,"


  "what no

  older poet ever knew, the insidious

  and profound

  danger of

  doubt" which was



  and that

  and saw Dante as the more important influence (Spensers

  in his "consciousness of altruism and of

  doubt he

  signals the era of to-day,


  therefore we hail


  prophet." found Spenserian evidence only

  in "slight traces"




  Scudder found


  II "Shelley's version of the journey up the purifying Mount," and


  III and


  the final triumph. In all three



  the same dominant interests:

  Unbound was

  (1) pure

  interest of story; (2) political interest;

  and (3) spiritual interest.

  "Pain, expiation, glory,


  this threefold experience

  life is conceived

  in every century.

  the "Inferno" of Shelley,

  of Prometheus

  differ in their thought of the source of the pain, the nature of the expiation, the

  it is endurance"; but all

  Ages, the Renaissance,

  and the Revolution. "To

  Dante, the struggle of

  life is

  pilgrimage; to


  it is

  warfare; to Shelley,

  three, she held, told the story of the



  soul as

  it moved from

  passion to peace, with

  Shelley's Hellenism representing the forerunner of that

  neopaganism which has sought

  to escape Christian in- fluence and return to classic forms.

  To her, Act

  But the centuries


  done with him"): "The


  recognized with pride."

  Arthur the


  and Prometheus

  the Rebel, with the rebel (unlike the heroes in



  Milton) "not only recognized,


  To her Dante was


  the most vivid,

  Spenser's knights being



  shadows" and Prometheus a puppet

  ("a brief list of abstract qualities,

  and we


  the Mystic,

  the protagonists as

  of the glory."

  innately good and purity

  The problem

  for Dante she conceived to be the purification of the soul; for

  Spenser, the routing of the




  for Shelley, the liberation of the soul (with


  an instinct; by

  Scudder saw

  "the force of Revolution,

  man is

  at last set free"). "The

  aim of Dante is



  the aim of Shelley


  freedom." Miss

  ("Prometheus," 1916, p. 214). Introduction




  and Freedom Natural.

  Shelley longed "for a state of absolute equality, unrestrained liberty, a state where, as



  feel, growth cannot


  difference was that between

  the Christian Dante it was freedom won


  long discipline; with the revolutionary Shelley

  it was freedom as an innate

  right: "If the



  And Miss Scudder concluded that the


  Shelley there

  us, as inevitably in a Utopia.

  Dante was

  successful because his

  Paradise was a "frank and exclusive use of


  whereas in

  was occa-

  Shelley could offer no vision of the Absolute.

  sional intrusion of literal fact;


  in Dante's peculiar faith

  Soul was the




  thought of salvation

  broader, to attain it we are left with less help."

  of Prometheus and Asia after the reunion palls

  of Shelley's poetry" (Dante

  in the Critical Notes of the present edition,

  but he

  pointed out that,


more important than

  specific echoes, "the spirit of Dante pervades the



  tailed parallels will be


  Poets., 1904, pp. 188-96).


  Traugott Bohme concluded that




  made man the measure. Kuhns's de-


  life, of music, and of dance.

  Kuhns found the Paradiso




  Prometheus Unbound

  in that both made the same use of light, of love as the principle of


  the measure of all things, Shelley


  found the

  spirits of the nine heavens paralleled many times in Shelley's

  poem. But where Dante was

  medieval, Shelley was modern; and where

  Dante, profoundly religious,

  made God



  As to

  Dante and

  marked by



  in radiance." The love between

  Prometheus and

  Asia Miss Scudder felt was less concrete than that in

  Spenser; in

  and "the movement towards


  it was "absolute but remote from human comprehension. . . .



  give us love in absence, the love that


  victory . . .

  streams," with the glory at first darkened,

  but the love that is




  of salvation, in

  all three "salvation comes through women. . . .



  they reveal";

  women were "the source whence radiance


  Miss Scudder noted that in each


  there was a separation,

  and a reunion that led to final triumph.

  To all

  three poets, also, the




  given place to the personified forces of nature, or the instincts of the soul of man. ...

  that in Dante and Spenser "help

  from above



  countless ministries," but, in Shelley, "angels


  A kindled

  Finally, Miss Scudder treated of the "Ideals of

  con- sciousness of the


  but elusive life in nature has replaced the old faith in supernatural help. . . . Shelley

  knows no heaven but

  a regenerate earth,"


  Triumph" and found

  [and Asia] brings no message of the Divine."

  he cannot



  Both Dante and



  mystics, according to

  Miss Scudder,

  "the 'beauty un- beheld,'

  God . . .

  whereof Asia is the shadow, is the Anima


  the soul of the natural world; the vision


  gaze the eyes of Beatrice

  is the Face


  especially in the treatment of


  74 . . . is

  The influence of the no but absolutely Dantesque. longer Spenserian, above and do not of which are the earthly

  figures light enthroned high


  in conflicts has ... in

  mix earthly general forced the Spenserian allegory very

  literarisches much into the Nachleben, 1911, p. 310],

  background [Spensers with Godwin


  offered this In

  1907 Arthur

  explanation of the prevailing attitude

  Symons toward in his own

  Shelley day:

  its to them abnormal to us abnormal in innocence was

  What seems in guilt; they s*aw Godwin chari-

  a and

  to liberty,

  revolution behind every invocation imagined . . .

  else there.

  oted in clouds of Prometheus the nothing Unbound. They saw Eng-


  land still and still looked worth upon poetry fearing ["Shelley," feared thought, p. 347]. to of

  This is a fair of Godwin down the end the comparisons with


  61 its in 1913 as extreme statement

  with the attitude finding the century, to

  H. would be no Godwin N. Brailsford wrote: "It exaggeration say that that Prometheus Hellas were the

  formed Unbound and

  Shelley's mind, and

  Godwin's works" (Shelley, Godwin, 174).

  greatest of


  however, suggested that "Plato has displaced

  George Woodberry,

  in the intellectual

  win and . . . the eighteenth century philosophers sphere, without

  entirely Edition, 1901,

  though excluding them" (Cambridge ; and William Butler Yeats considered that was so

  Shelley's 622)

  "liberty that it was one with In-

  much more than the of Political Justice

  liberty tellectual


  Shelley's Poetry," 1900,

Beauty" ("Philosophy of p. 81).

  D. over

  M. saw an advance Godwin:

  also, "Shelley has converted


  faith into the core of

  Political Justice and the bald propositions of a mystic in literature to raised the noblest monument the cause which he served" as C. did who held while

  (Edition, 1910,

H. Herford, that,

  p. 182); Shelley's


"Godwinian creed had abate-


  perfectibility] respect of undergone no

  ment was to

  whatever," nonetheless "the sublime doctrine of love foreign"

  "under from the atheist Godwin, and, and

  forms of thought derived materialist Prometheus

  Godwin, given,, in

  Shelley has Unbound, magnificent to faith the of Plato and of Christ" (History, 67). expression 1915, pp. 64-65, concluded that the

  Benjamin Kurtz . . . Platonism "superimposed upon God- winism difference between the more makes strident declama-

  the great tion of and and of Un-

  Mob wisdom Prometheus Queen Islam, the lovely bound"

  that (Pursuit Death, 1933, Sen, too, felt


of p. 185). Amiyakumar


  had Godwin "a series of

  Shelley gone beyond leading Asia through

  61 :

  Dublin comments: in ideals to the

  Typical (1820) Magazine Shelley erred applying test L.

  reflection of

  of experience (see

  D, item VI); Appendix Stephen: "a continued

  characteristic views"

  Godwin's E.

  ("Godwin and p. ; Dowden : as Shelley," 1879, 379) (like

  Slater, "now wrote as the of

  Scudder, Hancock) [Shelley] William always, disciple Godwin" II, J.

  (Shelley, 1886, 264); W. Godwinian axioms"

  Courthope: "foundation in

  (History, 1910, p. 307)|


  75 Reason would save Godwin's mankind at

  educative experiences," whereas

  62 once

  (Studies, 1936, p. 135).

  Ellsworth Barnard those built

  who the "miscon-





  evil to be the of ception" that Shelley "considers institutions,"

  outgrowth and that illustration

  Prometheus Unbound was "an of this Godwinian later


  121-22). He


dogma" (Shelley's Religion, 1937, pp. that Shelley

  differed from in another

  Godwin "Godwin's doctrine of

  respect, for 'per- forth in Political Justice, fectibility,' as set involves 'perpetual improve-

  it is ment' and not attainment of which

  perfection, to expressly


  E. offered


  A. a succinct statement of (Edition, 1944, p. 88). Rodway over in


  Shelley's Godwin, which he found transmutation of


  the Godwin's "benevolence as means" "love an

  to Shelley's

  on the Prometheus

  vision, in

  "the empire of feeling"; end"; the greater emphasis of man's and reason are

  Unbound, future undividedness, -when passion one (Passion

  as it

  Nature -as ; and heing, were, -Love; the

  Reason, Nature-as -Necessity) finally, on the need for so that this come about. union can a change of heart emphasis

  This will man is in with the is

  when Nature where union

  happen already harmony


effected. Such union a to the colder rational

gives spiritual

  power analogous non-violence of It is as As

  Godwin. ... God- poetry [Shelley]

  to prose. developed,

  elements of his win's remained the basic were transmuted


  thought, but


  into own substance [Godwin, 1952, pp. 49-50]. with Plato

  Comparisons on Prometheus The Unbound'has been

  general influence of Plato variously stressed. David Moir the "as a few

  To M. was not

  unintelligible as



  reveries of Plato, Kant, and of the superlatively metaphysical Coleridge"

  Vida Scudder to and

  ascribed Godwin Plato the (Sketches, 1887, p. 227).

  communist anarchical attitude toward

  poet's authority (Edition, 1892,

  and and as have we

  Kurtz, just seen, recognized that p. xx); Woodberry

  Plato Oliver Elton Godwin was in Prometheus Unbound. being replaced by

  life with from "watches

  felt that, like Plato, intelligence . . . But the first serious Shelley profound


  afar, 1912, rejects it" (Shelley, p. 35). study Lilian She of between the two was made by Winstanley. the relationship to "the of the



  pointed out that Shelley's ideas naturally disciple


  thinker who above most and was, others, in [social sexual] daring with illustrations the four

  and she of

  traced, Shelley's use, speculations";

  62 to evil

  But he also except by an held that Godwin's "principle of non-resistance

  as it human intellect ... is

  the cornerstone, were, of the Prometheus enlightenment of the Unbound" To this would have "The mind of

  Shelley's (p. 211). agreed:

  George Cowling : 'I could

  is that of in V. 11 endure

  Prometheus William Godwin Political Justice, [II, 98]

  all in


  I the resource of a inflict, injustice provided that possessed,

  or caprice could


  on and of that firm mind, the down tyrant, of looking with pity knowing power my

  all his

  had virtue and fortitude, which that within, that sacred character of truth,

  " D. could not reach' ; as would


injustice (Shelley, 1936, p. 62) Bush: "Although Shelley

  a millennium he kind of Platonism, the had been moving from Godwinism toward

  is still

  envisions Godwinian" Poetry, 1952, pp. 144-45).


  76 around and

  (1) religious philoso-

  general Platonic groups of ideas centering social and con- cosmic

  (2) (3)

  speculations, political phical speculations, in



  (4) the theory of love ("Platonism Shelley/' 1913,


  As on Prometheus have been

  these bear Unbound they pp. 73-74).

  Critical edition. in the

  Notes of the present

  felt to

  that Plato's a

  Johanna influence

  led Shelley Gutteling produce


  in the Platonic a feature no


  phantasmagoria, mysticism


  the redundance of style" less striking than the profuseness of imagery and ; but

  Bennett Weaver 1922, thought that Shelley

  (Hellenic Influence, p. 95)

  and the "was conscious that Jesus stood between him Plato, adding

  infinitude to of the spacious uttermost genius the best thoughts of the held that


  1932, Carl Grabo, too, (Understanding Shelley, p. 160). of ethics of is of Plato"

  "the Christ fused with the metaphysics (Interpreta- ; but he believed that neo as set "the tion, 1935, p. 13)

  • Platonic philosophy forth and Plotinus Prome-

  in Proclus, more clearly elucidates Porphyry, . . than do the Platonic . no theus Unbound Plato offers dialogues. philoso- do

  This the neo-Platonists offer, and in phic system. Shelley's system

  63 is

  Prometheus Unbound akin to While Grabo dealt ex- theirs" (pp. 9-10).

  64 it

  tradition, in tensively with the Platonic

  was James Notopoulos who, this area, made the most and detailed to date.

  complete study

  felt and Plato

  Notopoulos that experience plus the reading of Berkeley the final Personal and national dis- expression in Shelley's

  shaped poem.

  ideal this

  was not of

appointments showed the poet that world,


  and so

  to idealism. In the idea of Intellectual Necessity gave way


  like Plato's in lover of mind where

  Shelley found, the Phaedrus, "the world

  is man the evil and

  world of to that


by tyranny."


  this a

  one was and to for

  world, veil, came Shelley hope the regeneration of soul

  man and as even

  through conversion of the mind, did Plato (Platonism 1949, of Shelley, p. 237).

  Notopoulos distinguished three types of Platon-

  ism and combined all

  (1) in it

  three in his work: held that Shelley Indirect

  ^Carlos Baker, found commenting on Grabo's work, where


  except the critic to was "led to of


  apply the interpretation either far a given passage concept from

  tr Shelley's views or not demons to the

  customary known ably poet, who, though not so was learned as Grabo. learned, Professor The so-called neo-Platonic interpreta-

  tion so


is, however,

  deeply informed considerations that Grabo's is a by only modification of the traditional that the a view is moral

  poem allegory" (Shelley's


  Poetry, 1948, p. 286). Male

  has suggested that

  Roy "Shelley's Well-known enthusiasm for


  his translation of the

  Diakgues and obscured the fact Symposium have that a source of his

  lies in

  primary pervasive theory of love . the eighteenth-century develop- ment of the doctrine of . . [i.e.,] social the broader sympathy well as a impulse as means for psychological analysis" ("Shelley and Sympathy," 1950, p. 183).

64 This tradition


  defended as no of

  Richard Fogle "one two heresy, but great and streams, the Platonic the Aristotelean, into all which 'creative' be writing




  held that "Prometheus Unboundis neither nor a baseless a fascinating sport

  it is a ot

  fantasy; a


  supreme example in literature" permanent ("Image and

  5 Imagelessness," 1952, p. 25). Introduction


  "the Platonist is Plato in-

  who influenced

  Platonism, represented by




  directly, through Plato's plastic interpenetration the thought history of

  "the Platonist who civilization"; (2)

  Direct Platonism, represented by

  is and Plato's as

  influenced contained studies, accepts, directly

  by thought


  and "the Platon- (3)

  the Dialogues"; Natural Platonism, represented by

  ist has Plato's who and the of

  wonder, same realm inspiration, insight into in

  Prometheus was then, speculation" (p. 4). Unbound, Notopoulos' opinion fruition the of and natural. Both Plato and

  Shelley's Platonism, derivative stressed in the need of

  moral wisdom and virtue both

  Shelley poetry; science and


  mingled poetry; both used symbolism despite their belief was in this either


  that the deep truth imageless; symbolism was natural in

  ("essentially concerned with the use of pure sense perceptions


  the character of symbols") or ("concerned with the imaginative of

  and in an and novel common ; uncommon

  arbitrary use symbols way")

  and ideas on the of

  both shared evil for, neither was

  problem even though

  consistent to of in his views, evil the realm both agreed that belonged

  and not to that of and it

  that was appearance Reality, accidental, in Shelley to in Plato in be will, the soul of the rational

  overcome by by "mastery

  element" (pp. 232-36).


  also, Unbound was motivated

  opinion, In Notopoulos' prim- arily Shelley's

  by reading of the Republic, although the Symposium shaped its

  to in "The expression terms of Beauty: Shelley the

  Republic appealed to


  reformer, whereas the lover;

  Symposium appealed Shelley the poet

  sides his nature in the Prometheus of Un-

  Shelley manifests both of these in the use of Asia as held

  bound" And the

  of Love,

  symbol Notopoulos

  tradition Wiel-


  that Shelley followed the Platonic of Dante, Spenser,

  all of whom influenced him

  and, (pp. 238-39).

  Comparisons with


  Prometheus Unbound of to several relating


Comparisons poems Byron

have been so numerous nor first

  neither so detailed. The of

  any importance was in a of the "Satanic School" theme

  in 1839, wherein given


  the linked Cain and writer

  Shelley's arguing that

  poem by in

  of the sentiment are of

  Shelley, strains

  the page of Byron and loftiest religious

  like the voices of in a dream

  seem found, [but] these strains fallen angels, singing,


  the and when the lower world, one of the not yet forgotten chants of heaven, dream has rebellious shouts of hell. The

  fled, the choice fugitive again joining in

  such Cain show that these and mode of of and Prometheus,

  treating subjects, as feel that Faith is wiser

  two than

  master-spirits of the Satanic School, do not

  Reverence is nobler than and rebellion [Christian Examiner, 1839, douht, p. 149].

  Gilfillan as a described Prometheus "between man, demon, figure

  George and lacked the "lurid who

  deity," malignity" of Byron's Lucifer ("Shelley," as Childe Harold's Pil- 1845, while R. Pickett Scott suggested that p. 95);


  rejoicing in his




  one who

  Prometheus Unbound was suddenly "the glad paean of his in secret of all who very soul the true


harmony, and pours forth


  1878, 25) (Place of Shelley, p.

  Richter held In

  Shelley's Prometheus, Helene

  comparing Manfred and

  as latter was not scorn of humans, that the marked was Manfred, but


  did for did love; Prometheus mankind, whereas Manfred

  penance by

  his fate

  Prometheus overcame



  guilt; a personal


  his boasted of

  and noble whereas Manfred

  pride; suffering, patience at with all created


Prometheus was things, especially humanity,

was a from and Prome-

  Manfred's love of nature the world;



  Manfred was love into a

  whereas theus love, trapped by

  was saved by from which him

  situation (Shelley, only death could save 1898, pp. 413-16). be source of the also to one possible lyrical eff^ctive-

  Manfred was thought I.

  ness of II, 134).

  Shelley, 1940, Shelley's (N. White,

  poem Ackermann

  to Richard

  As (see

  E), thought Byron's Prometheus Appendix for hero and hints, Jupiter that Shelley got including the allegorical, for his ac-

  Prometheus from this

  was, Byron's ("Studien," 1892, p. 31).


  to of the the heroic divineness, endur- Charles Herford, cording "a symbol . . .

  man. of

  ance and the 'funereal destiny' of But, for Shelley, no symbol of the future he could suffice which man

  humanity excluded the perfected found

  Buell, too, (History, 1915, Llewellyn confidently foresaw" p. 64). as well as several similarity in specific the general tone of the two poems, parallels ("Byron and Shelley," 1917, pp. 312-13); and Douglas Bush

  and the of as adherents of the "rebellious

  Prometheus linked Shelley Byron or rather of the Promethean

  humanitarian" than the aesthetic development Prometheus of he

  theme, with Byron's hero "the Shelley's lines;


would have he would never have re-

  uttered the curse against Jupiter, tracted it" 78-79).

  (Mythology, 1937, pp. assertion

  on the The

  of Byron's influence strongest poem, however, has G. Wilson who held that "the

  come from unnamed

  Knight, parent was, cited influence from clearly, Knight Prometheus, Childe very Byron."

  and and

  to be, in Manfred, respects,

  Harold's Pilgrimage, held Jupiter many in

  "a Arimanes" the last

  precise duplication of although the "ethical


  in are the black

  and white

  complexities of Manfred Shelley replaced

  by bad

  of a with a final dis- opposition Jupiter against a

  good Prometheus,

  solution of drama ... in written after his

  an un-Byronic lyric mysticism immediate influence


had waned." Act was thus most

  strongly influenced, the

  "Promethean stanzas" in Childe

  especially by (see

  Harold's Pilgrimage to Act I . It in Critical was on the preliminary note basis of these

  Notes) stanzas that held to be the "unnamed


Knight Byron parent" of

Unbound: . . .

  and others

  to house his in a

  Shelley of implored [Byron] genius great poem traditional sort.

  But he was

  to aim at some instinctively

  impelled thing higher;

  in literature

  him had taken flesh and on had become and blood, poetry Introduction

  79 is alive; and that was

  everyone him threateningly why always offering advice, trying

  to the bottle. In these

  into the Promethean stanzas get Djinn back Byron had,

  as never out in off before, thrown the his

  before spoken person, mask, and come



  a confessed Titan. was most public suggest that Shelley deeply disturbed,

  as instinctively, the

  and, purposely or proceeded quickly as possible to bottle up

  in his

  dreaded substance once more own and magnificent highly respectable


  and that was After


fiction: that, home. all, our culture has no

only, proper for the reality [Byron, 1952, pp. 257-59].

  place with Colder 'n


  to Calderon led Salvador de

  Finally, Shelley's interest in


  the two writers. to

  He Prometheus Un- compare concluded, with respect was to man"

  bound, that Shelley, like Calderon, "too deeply obsessed with


  in write of men, that there was, despite the charges of deficiency

  it. no lack of as a

human interest, knew what man's

  Calderon, priest,


  destiny was, . . in . on was and his was born of

  Shelley, the dark,

  the contrary preoccupation . . find in . doubt and to like Shake-

  Thus, unable anxiety. serenity resignation

  faith like his

speare, or peace in Calderon, Shelley spent short years hovering

  over the future of his dreams his


  when hope sustained the wings of imagina-

  failed his and the world's tion, or, when own

  him, wailing over misery hope


  and wrong" (Shelley Calderon, 1920, p. 24). to

  Elizabeth Ebeling extended the inquiry, with particular attention Prometheus the and offered a

  Unbound and more detailed


  Magico She found both universal-

  comparison. writers alike in vastness, intensity, lack of strict and stern to a adherence


  fixed idea,

  comedy, dogmatism,

  taste for and fantastic theme and weird execution, scenery, unearthiness of

  and the salvation of as theme man and

  ("Shelley tinged with revolution she that


Calderon with Christian felt

  love, Yet, as artists,


  Calderon the Catholic often took precedence over Calderon the poet;

  and differed from other "thesis" whereas was first,

  Shelley always the poet writers because of his his was

  Platonism, because revolutionary dogma result because the

  he was

  of a passionate love of humanity, and a great

  66 and ,

  artist ("Sources," 1931, p. 73) enduring

  65 last is

  The an echo of

  interesting Carlyle's description, in "Characteristics" (1831):

  inarticulate "Hear the earth with inarticulate wail; like the

  filling infinite,

  a Shelley of forsaken infants'* 's,

  III, 31). grief and weeping (Essay

  66 in in a

  Interest Prometheus was focused 1897 in comparative analyses of the story

  editors Lore. offered the of Poet an


  idea in teaching English" by presented


  elaborate under plan (with detailed study suggestions) the following headings: study


  The and Their Inter-

  Origin of the Prometheus Myth; The Greek Prometheus of the


  in Aeschylus; Aspects of the Myth pretation; The Development Myth

  Classic Observable in the Form of Prome-

  Influences Shelley's by

  Brought Out Shelley;

  for Samson theus; Cosmic Elements Prometheus; Grounds

  Identifying the

  in Shelley's

  with the Samson the Lack

  Agonistes Prometheus Myth; of Correspondence of Milton's with the

  Prometheus Cain and Prometheus;





  are con- to the ideas of Prometheus Unbound

  As the critical


  Helene it will well to in mind


  sidered, be three pertinent statements.

  Richter wrote: em-


to be influenced

essentially by the English Shelley's philosophy appears

  with and and materialists, Christianity, the French by Plato, Spinoza,

  piricists latter in his and that of the years,

  youthful the influence of the former appearing

  eclectic as of an who in his The influence of

  more Godwin, maturity. strongly

  into in all theorems

his work ideas of the which come

  question incorporates in

  his life. of the is

  reference However, in spite

  to Shelley, . . . of perceptible throughout fact borrows from

  thoughts of older spirits, the great supply that Shelley . . . each of

  so assimilates that has received [the

  he which he completely that derived and

  ideas] attains an individual original configuration. Shelley's


  his and his

  love; an individual

  gets through unifying of nature, beauty,



  freedom concept of through the emphasis of self-mastery true independence,


  and of self -reform as the means to realization; his belief in immortality through

  so it to

  the of the with nature. And not union dead seems permissible speak only

  influences on the well-read but of a world-view poet,

  of philosophical uncommonly of

  own 1902, p. 435].

  Shelley's ["Shelleys Weltanschauung," J. Macmillan commented: Brown

  wine of the world into the old bottles of had to the new modern



  to his with the nobler creed of love

  Greek literature. ... He had utter sympathy

  in with

  and came he had to


  speak out the protests of the pity that French

  sceptics against the perversions of the Deity introduced by that system; to

  he had to lament had devastated the earth and the tyrannies that speak against


all to to had to

  had the new he governments; he give voice passion of democracy;

  side ideal world of the to find in

  with the of the noble-

  spirit man; he had beauty for

  ness of the material world of nature. ... the

  [It was] a

  problem impossible

  is But the made

  greatest genius of which humanity capable. Shelley problem

easier than it his .

  solutions \Study, 12-13] was by the visionary character of 1905, pp.

  And Bennett Weaver was

  pointed out that Shelley Because of his one of the deepest scholars poets.

  among English amazing facility his his

  and quick conception, retentiveness,


among the tongues, strong his ability


  which he knew, he held ideas of in an assimilation imagine that

  many many men

his in

  which made them own. we have found that for him which Consequently we and to become sought, Shelley scholarship has tended a record of overemphasis

  Poets, [Romantic 1950, p. 171].

  Considerations Allegorical to


  has, overemphasis referred by Weaver however, not necessarily led the to allegorical


  interpretations of the poem, and frequently


  Byron's Lucifer Considered The Contrast in the Doctrine of a Hebraic Prometheus; Evil

  Elements of the Held by Shelley and Byron; The

  Myth Emphasized by Goethe;

  Part of in Hermes and The Treatment of the

  Aeschylus, Goethe, Shelley;

  Myth by

  Lowell and The

  Longfellow; Characterization of the Heroes of Aeschylus, Shelley, and The Idea of in

  Goethe, Milton Byron; God the Exerted Poems; The Influence by


  the Feminine the Element; Artistry Poems; The Poems. Introduction

  81 it

been used in critical discussions has

word been used

  allegory has loosely, I. as a substitute for called

  what N. White

  "the general representative value of all as to real

  "a of

  great art" opposed

  machinery definite parallel

  set himself to values." White show nowhere mentioned an that the poet for tent the did Mrs. identifica- that the allegorical in (nor Shelley),

  poem left difficult

  tions of a few the


  characters actually

  problems untouched,

  that the could to be attributed allegorical


  and as the recognized indisputable fact that the


. . poem a whole does represent the


  There no confusion here; the con- struggle of humanity against oppression. when

  critics have tried to

  elaborate the fusion appears only subsequent meaning out of the an mechanism for it His

  Man poem by working allegorical


  Own Allegorist," 174-80].

  1925, pp.

  was the first to clarification Nor White

  of the question of



  In with Vida


  allegory. Shelley's

  comparing poem Faerie Queene, Scudder latter was an

  with "the connection agreed that while the allegory, . . .

  between than essential," Prometheus


  and meaning arbitrary rather


  was a "no in Unbound some minor myth,

  painful invention, unless vision these have flashed the inner details; figures

  upon of the poet in per-

  fect and result form. ... An is the unity of soul allegory of experience; a of intuition" ; and William J. Alexander

  (Edition, 1892, xi-xii)

  myth, pp. was "not to inter-

  be solved agreed that the poem a puzzle ingenious

  by nor must the allegory be forced, especially in details.


  The poem

is a for to cer-

much more medium with

  the expression of emotions regard for

  an of a statement

  tain great subjects than expedient the systematic


  (Edition, 1898, p. 319), Similarly, dberry philosophy" George argued in

  who and

  against those Shelley giving precise


went beyond Mrs. Shelley

  to the characters:

  meaning this sort in his

  conscious of seems too un- [That] Shelley had any logic poem

  to be asserted. is of his

  certain The drama an emanation imagination, working out his nearer to the of and convictions in a form music deepest sentiments power

  it is

  than language ever before achieved; the presence of the inexpres- haunted by

  all its

sible its most and in moods and motions

  in the heart of transcendent imagery;


is far from the domain in discerned

  which the prose of articulated thought

  veil The even were intellectual skeleton, in case,

  through a any of figured phrase.

  it theories

is the soul of the Certain of

  not Shelley, as to discoverable, poem.

  are verse; but

  they control only instinctively, present in the philosophical problems, and and

  scene, act

  not deliberate thought, the structure of character, event, by 1901, 621].

  Edition, p.

  [Cambridge in could


  noted and Panthea

  in turn, that only

  Traugott Bohme, from classical and The

  allegorical figures suggestion be found. mythology, as the he inasmuch held, must not be so considered, elements of nature, real abstract on

  "the sensualizes calling the strongest allegory something by forces

  In of the literarisches Nachleben, 1911, 309). (Spensers p.

  fancy" and Panthea was on the level of

  indeed, Bonnie's treatment of Asia effect,

  Frederick Prescott also held allegory. "representative value" rather than



  to as an the that "it is treat Shelley's drama allegory," for "all


  as to all


be true the but

  recognized poem, taken together ascriptions may . . . in criti-

  Partial are inexhaustive. indeed be assigned


meanings may

  "it is error to select one of these

  but an

  cism," manifestly meanings and


fix it as the ; Melviri


  Myth, 1927, p. 123)

  meaning" (Poetry upon

  " idealized and

  is so so re-

  Solve commented: Prometheus Unbound highly

  life is not essential to the

  the conditions of that the moral lesson

  mote from

  critics of the and is, in fact, so well piece, disguised that the

  enjoyment its have differed as to

  Poetry, 1927, widely interpretation" (Theory of should too, Shelley's

  Kurtz, suggested that symbolism p. 28). Benjamin

  it "towards

  for was which

  not be taken

literally, idealizing vision

  a poetic the meliorist believes



(Introduction, 1933, p. xliv).

  society may

  it is as as has been made.

  The matter

  actually scarcely important in of

  words the certain characteristics own

  Shelley's poem, his ascription to his as the of such action contains, certain personages, poem


  that he was not unaware


  clearly of the "representative value" of Guthrie "So elastic

  which as William noted White wrote; and,

  significantly: so its are its indefinable must


  conceptions, pivotal terms," that the


  for In every age (Poet Prophets, 1897, any event, be reinterpreted p. 199).


it if kinder to assume was no the

is, else,

  that Shelley allegorist, in


  of he was as bad an the term, than that (which allegorist

  narrower meaning he



Olwen Campbell thought "though a deeply philosophical poet

  different the as the


  [Shelley Unromantics, 1924, p. 204]) quite a thing"


critics' failure to in indicate.

on a the would

  agree single meaning


  Adverse General Grounds

  Opinion on its it has The

  opposition to Shelley's ideas (and despite vigor principal

  felt been stemmed from those who

  a minority opinion) that the poet held


an erroneous view of attacks on the or

mankind; and

  political, religious, this.

  moral out of As Melvin Solve

  has aspects of the poem have grown


  could solve the

  "No meta-

  in Shelley's expressed the difficulty: day

  it was this Yet

  physical puzzle of Prometheus. imaginative penetration of to

  which demanded


  working according the laws of thought, Shelley

  67 For as to Shelley's

  a suggested "basic approach" meaning expressed in the

  poem see F.

itself, With Giithrie's statement the the

  on Appendix compare inscription

  monument erected the citizens in with transla-

  1894 Shelley by of Viareggio (as given, P. B.

  tion, in Roe, Last Phase, 1953, "A Cuor p. 239): Shelley, de Cuori, nel in in il


  meditava annegato questo mare, arso lido, lungo questo quale


  Prometeo una cui Liherato, pagina postreme in ogni generazione avrebbe segnato

  drowned lacrime, (To P. corcordium,

  la redenzione sua. in 1822 in la lotta, le

  B. Shelley,

this sea, cremated on this shore, which he meditated Prometheus a last

  along Unbound,

  its its its

  which and page in each generation has discovered conflict, tears, redemption.)"

  68 In this



  of the Introduction only the broader aspects of interpretation For be considered. of characters see Personae in

  Dramatis the

  specific identifications Critical Introduction


  critics" of the and Francis Mason noted

  Poetry, 1927, (Theory of p. 190);

  was the

  that, "according to Shelley's quite valid philosophy, imagination in

  which should dreams and be

  only vehicle the gulf [between reality] . . . and traversed we of his perceive the utter fallacy

  condemning poetry its author did

  because " not achieve a pragmatical philosophy instead of a (Shelley Criticism, 7-8).

  poem" 1929, pp.

  set the tone. wild

  The The was "a

  early reviews poet accused of taking

  view of the latent

  future fortunes of the human race"

  powers and (London


  D, Item A with Magazine, 1820; I).

  Appendix second reviewer agreed

  the ideal but, of "peaceful triumph of goodness over power"

  on an assump-


  be made,

  frequently objected to Shelley's belief that the goal could


  realized in an that are instant, men now inhabitants of an earthly para- that all restraint and that man- dise,

  down, and

  authority should be cast as kind should be left to unsubdued

  (London- the guidance of passion yet Critical see in


  Magazine, 1820; Appendix

  D, item IV). Leigh Hunt, to true of the areas which defending Shelley's descriptions as they applied, to

  admitted was draw

  that the poet "too apt descriptions of the state of

  mankind without on his canvas" see

  sufficient light ("Letters";

  Appendix D item ; 5 and Andre

  XII) one might more justly, Delrieu suggested that with the The

  but Dream

  irony, call ("Po6tes modernes,"


poem of Happiness

  1843, p. 196),

  Swinburne the was


  poem "spoilt" by the "infusion of philanthropic

  " views and of the ; doctrinaire

  'progress (Letters, 1865, 28) species' p.

  and Dowden wrote: Edward

  a one-sided and ideas are abstractions made from

  Shelley's . .

  imperfect view of


facts . existence. is no

  which human ignores the true conditions of Humanity


virtue. It is a weak and

  chained Titan of indomitable which trembling thing, yet,


  and at weakness, traversed or overcome, through error grow strong

  may 1886, 11,263].


  added: a child-like

  Paul Elmer More "With

  credulity almost inconceivable

  is and he mankind

  inherently accepted the current doctrine that naturally virtuous, only the deliverance from some outwardly applied op-


  to to its essential

  back spring perfection" ("Shelley," 1910, p. 7).


  mankind: Nor share the view of

  poet's willing to

  was George Santayana is too festival -like, too much of a mere

  culmination, Shelley's earthly paradise ...

  it to to cries aloud and meta-

  not be


fugitive: be translated into a changeless

  but the realm of which mind

  to Shelley's could be nothing

  physical heaven, . . real It Platonic ideas. . constitution of nature. was

  [He] did not understand the tears . . .

  all woven of rainbows and

  hidden from him a cloud, by shifting bright

  its in his as it is in

  the mechanism


[and] of nature, pictures only

  depths, [remains] shadowiest of the ["Revolutionary Principles," 1913, pp. 167-69]. backgrounds disliked of "and

  some views,

  Similarly, T. S. Eliot Shelley's "positively" that of the in which de-

  He hampers enjoyment poems they occur." my

  as "ideas which whole assimi- scribed these views and never


  84 and

  the lated, visible in catchwords of creeds outworn, tyrants priests,


  with such reiteration. And the


  parts of a poem Shelley employed


  the and The

  can contaminate whole" Keats," 1933, pp. 91-92).

  ("Shelley in held that reductio absurdum was Van who

  ad reached Henry Dyke, life to

  "no real relation to the of the Prometheus Unbound had man, nor

  conflict and the true dramatic between theme, the duty. passion Imagine in effect arrival of our United actual of the of one

  States; the

  Demogorgon all and the and sudden

  legislature disappearance of the governor the judges


all of all churches and the of




  the policemen; the

  I fear


  Would not" ("Knight

  prisons. Golden Age promptly begin? .

  70 be E. W".

  To this, an M.

  Errant," 1929, p. 221) adequate answer might

  it is to ridicule the millenarianism

  statement: easy Tillyard's


  if his for is no mere

  of but what human betterment echo a Shelley, passion his of the of but hidden age the oblique expression of a primal joy


  in all of and

  1948, us?" (Poetry Direct Oblique, p. 50).

  and note was struck more

  serious, fresher, Fortunately, a by Stephen

  Spender: are inevitable. world in lives he treats as his- failures The which he

  Shelley's past

  in is

  he the future where men where there

  are free,

tory: imagines himself equality

slaves In his

  between the where there are no or ... one sexes, tyrants. poetry

  refer to "notices which and are over injustice

  that the symbols tyranny -simplified,

  in historic

  the of a which


  because they are seen perspective Shelley invented


  and himself ["Keats Shelley," 1937, p. 584]. Ellsworth Barnard asked:

  And Is not the true Prometheus significance (as Christ)

  of the story of of the story of

  like theirs?

  can come a that perfect purity only through an agony and triumph

  as last lines

  Does not much in the of the And can there ever

  Shelley say poem?


  be salvation, on a such terms, [Edition, 1944, whole society? p. 89].


  Opinion on and Moral Grounds

  Political, Religious, In addition at

  and to,

  typical times supplementing, the foregoing objec- views of listed

  mankind be those that were critical

  tions to Shelley's may as reflected of the and moral in Prome- political, religious, views of the poet


  has More been new and more

  recently, Eliot

  brought "to a sympathetic apprecia- Preface (1952. tion" of Shelley by Leone Vivante's English Poetry by Eliot, p. x).


  have been raised Trent: is as


  Similar objections by "the solution proposed ...

  if it

  and ineffectual as had in the heated brain of a maniac" impossible been generated

  of Shelley," 1899, p. 86); V. Scudder: "man, Shelley depicts him, ("Apropos than amiable brute"

  as is ...

  for his aesthetic instincts, an (Edition,

  scarcely higher, except 1892, was no a "in a continual state but dreamer of

  p. xxxix); A. Symons: Shelley visionary, Elliott:

  hallucination" (Romantic Movement, 1909,

  p. 270); G. R. really

  Shelley "never

  human nature because

  he was so sure that he apprehended the mysterious duality of

  it. He the conceited

  the comprehended was mastered by comprehension emanating from enormous modern

  xiii). Introduction


  theus Unbound. At these areas as times, of thought were grouped together,

  when an saw theme as

  the overthrow of early reviewer Shelley's religion,

  and called the of mixture


  government, and poem a "pestiferous

and s


  blasphemy, sensuality" (Blackwood

  Magazine, 1820; see that is item And another reviewer "no man

  Appendix D, III). argued

  to the and first effect world wild of justified in giving crude notions, the . . .


which would be the of all and that


  existing institutions,"

  "atheism is

  with Shelley a principle" (Dublin Magazine, 1820; see .

  Ap- item



  pendix With reference to the views as as we have seen

  such, political Symons, for above, accounted the early adverse reaction pointing out that


  readers charioted in the clouds of


  in Shelley's day "saw Godwin . . .

  and still looked as Unbound worth


  poetry fearing" ("Shelley," .

  far fears


How we have come from such be

  1907, 347) p. suggested

  may by

  " Tinker's

  more recent comment: sets Trometheus Unbound' Chauncey

  forth no is to doctrine that of much radical thinkers today. . . . . . . importance to

  We but lend a ear the inarticulate

  ignore the 'message' ready


music" But even the turn of the

Once More," 1941,

  ("Shelley p. 92). by

  found the not Newsom

  Sidney political philosophy dangerous,



its chief defect

and from his

merely "impracticable, ignorance of

  springs Salvador de

  1907, too, humanity" (Edition, p. xxxi).

  Madariaga, thought


  on the

  that Shelley erred philosophy "implicitly resting his political to that the of intellectual has but shine on a light knowledge

  assumption for his to be evil.

man soul of It overlooks the that

  purified possibility in direction result


one even

  coincide with, or in, regres-

  development may

  in sion another direction" and And William

  (Shelley Calderdn, 1920, p. 25).

  Butler Yeats wrote: of God in the

  Shelley the political revolutionary expected miracle, the

  Kingdom first . . .

  an like some is Christian of the twinkling of eye century. Shelley


terrified of the Last like a Victorian indicates he

child [as Demogorgon

  Day his ? was his was constructed

  ... is] Shelley not a mystic, of thought

  system by

  after the logical to satisfy desire, not a symbolical revelation received

  faculty .

  all desire

  ["Prometheus," 1933, p. 366] suspension of to Prometheus has been

  Unbound more

  frequently Religious opposition to with


  expressed. early writer objected the "extraordinary profanity

  which introduces the most

  (Gentleman'' s [Shelley] sacred subject"


  while felt that the

  1848 ; see

  D, item another zine, [1823]

  XIV); Appendix and Prometheus showed not feel

  choice mode of treating that Shelley did

  is wiser and Reverence is nobler than rebellion"

  "that Faith than doubt, as cited the

  Robert Chambers Examiner, 1839,

  (Christian p. 149). poem evidence of



  Shelley's 357); daring scepticism (Cyclopedia, 1844,


  wrote that




  is to total extinction of evil, and

  through the progress perfectionment predict the


  of the human race. is to into the of the world. are of

  Man God We



  and showers consummate


  provided the necessity of divine sunshine opinion, ...

  But Of the be conceded.

  Shelley's theory seems very hopeless. lyrics,

  growth and and and theories, we dramas, have had enough; poetic dreams, philosophic we want one of who and what the master-word Him


  "spake with authority,


  not the scribes" ["Prometheus," 1855, p. 435].

  0' misconstrued true

  William had

  that Shelley Christianity,

  Conor argued

  as in

  found the

  suffering Christ, Prometheus and assuming hap- freeing


  for Conor him. Not thought, but "the willingness of piness happiness, 0' to his to was the

  each man surrender

  happiness" propensity monopolize of a

  and this

  answer, suffering for all" ("Prome- "requires the example god

  But J. Slater him

  theus," 1882, his religious bias to carry p. 35). permitted farther. "saw

  even To him man weak,

  suffering, Shelley oppressed, and, to its man's attributed

  not true cause, fall, he

  of things referring this state


it to Under the influence of Calvinistic

the merciful Creator. good and an

  ideas ... he became a atheist" hater of God, a misotheist rather than insisted

  1884, however,

  ("Prometheus," p. 384). George Bernard Shaw, and on the basic atheism ;

  poet's ("Shaming the Devil," 1892, pp. 249-50)

  Richard Hutton wrote:

  In this fine no over


  Shelley in puts personal power Jupiter. Tyranny


  but the

  as that is

  he will; a breath, represents personal power dethrones tyranny


all will is

  ... To can a shadow, nothing. Shelley obstructive; the only being he is rich loveliness . . . the radiant of feminine and even for her

  really worship spirit for feels desire of the

  he not moth worship, but "the the star" ["Shelley," 1888, p. 184]. in


Vida her found the un-

  Scudder, turn, religious aspects of the poem

  She admitted that revolt from was

  Shelley's satisfactory.

  Christianity like of and felt that he his time, was, typical Spinoza, actually God-intoxi- his cated: "His reason but and the

  might deny, imagination believed; was nature"

  (Edition, imagination Shelley's 1892, the very centre of also "lack of definiteness in


but she found a the

  p. xxii); any religious of the evil its scien-

  poem," and ignored thought that the interpretation of tific as far

  also the and truer

  "imperfect development, but aspect deeper evil as she found no outlook toward no

  Sin"; and aspect of immortality,


  xxxix). More recognition of the Divine (p. emphatically,


  M. Eunice Mousel held that it is . , .

to maintain that to

Shelley's stimulates

  impossible poetry spiritual higher

  it is

  attainment. More


  not merely the anticlimactic description of an its moral that thus ob- earthly paradise, purpose of allegory, but the deeper trudes the Unbound is upon reader the impression that Prometheus

  forced, strategic-



  remote from human truth" ["Falsetto

  ally, a conclusion utterly

  Shelley," 605-6]. 1936, pp. as late as even Hoxie in


And, 1949, N. Fairchild could see the re-

  finally, in of a which "the ligious only "cult of pride" Introduction

  87 is its

mind of man liberated from dark delusions the of



  by man"

  (Religious Trends^ p. 350). with to have been those the

  Equally religious

  important objections poem

  reviewer the Lonsdale

  based on moral The in grounds.

  Magazine (1820)

  felt us "to act con-


  that Shelley

  was tempting the passions upon and to soothe of and overwhelm the our

  sulting the reason, finest feelings . . . vanish the nature [for] of our nature are to beneath the very decencies

  wand of this licentious REFORMER" item


  D, magic Appendix V).

  But it was in her to in note the who, 1839, inadver-

  Mrs. Shelley


  later critics statement: "The tently misled many by her frequently




  of Shelley's theory of the destiny of the




  evil inherent in

  not the of the but an accident

  was, that creation, . . . system that be mankind had to


might expelled. Shelley believed that only

  should be will that there no and there would none"

  evil, be


  Appendix on this issue will be indicated but the in-

  C). Shelley's true position later,

  its and use Dowden

  fluence of Mrs. statement, Shelley's ("To

  by represent is evil as external ... human

  to falsify the true conception of progress" set to the


  in [Shelley, 1886, 264]) a pattern that continued reappear decades that followed.

  Frederic Myers, that Shelley believed in


  a of

  sudden evil, wrote that


  destinies is

  the knot of human cut and not unravelled; the arbitrary catastrophes


  of an and chaotic human affairs improvised mythology bring about a change

  in or

  no on moral moral on which struggle achievement, every



  real in effected human affairs must but

  depend, apparently by the simple change


  of and in the removal kings, whom race,

  priests of the persons, that to say, its

  embodied instincts of reverence and of however mistakenly, has hitherto 352]. order ["Shelley," 1880, p.


  not have Mathilde Blind,

  profited regretting that Shelley could by

  Darwin which have revolutionised the modern con-

  great generalisations of called Prometheus

  life," Unbound Human-

  "the Passion-Play of ception of in

  found in it crude and the manner in

  undigested ity" but "something .

  evil. . . which tries to of The

  solve the the poet problem good and principle

  is hurled

  of evil incarnated in down or

  down," and

  simply topples Jupiter

  "if worked this theme with historic would

  he had out more

  realism" Shelley the race "as barbarous

  have shown human a semi-brutal, emerging from and to moral and mental

  condition, higher stages of continually progressing

  D. View

  ("Shelley's of Nature," 1888, pp. 44-46). Charles


  his Greek moral law:

  Warner based

argument on an interpretation of the

faith ... is the inexorable nature of the moral

  Greek Now, the key-note of the

  this law

  of omnipotent sweep though Prome- law, the Hebraic conception of the it.

  In the Prometheus theus Un-

  light to humanity, he could not escape


  for for

  bound Law, Faith, Christianity, Custom, Super- of Shelley, Zeus stands

  for for human the

  mind; Prometheus

  stition, Wrong, every tyranny over the all

  Universal dissolves law and leaves man free. A Love which magnificent poetic



  to it basis has it in conceivable

  But what does lead? What any conception! system

  lies human nature? That

  of revelation, for

  ethics, anarchy.

  philosophy, or way


It clearer moral law

  would seem had no conception of the inexorable that Shelley had of the inexorable law of Love of Jesus of Nazareth he of ^Eschylus than p. 305].

  ["Shelley," 1887, Leslie his


  in his turn, to history: Stephen, appeal

  all itself in the course of If the which

  has slowly evolved complex organisation

  is and

  which civilisation, order, coherence,


  co-operation the expression of

  different to be set as an the

  in the life, is down unmitigated evil, departments of .

  all . . fruit becomes unintelligible. [Shelley]

  of downright imposture, history

  evil is

  and which cannot be content with the intimate mixture of good presented

  in it

  the world as

  we know ["Godwin and Shelley," 1879, pp. 381-82]. life desired was to be like the


A. E. Randall, "the

  [Shelley] . . . Anglican Whatever he

  God, 'without body, parts or passions'.

  conception of will and evil will.

  touched he

  simplified into good a simple contest of



  Unbound' a concluded Trometheus sciomachy by a miracle" (quoted found a

  Current But Arthur Glutton-Brock Literature, 1912, pp. 226-27). different basis for the of view:




  To him was knew Shelley nothing about wickedness. an arbitrary mystery.

  to it his

  Therefore he was overthrown. In

  as arbitrarily

  quite content represent

  life must

  view of happen, sooner or later, to simple, passionate something change . . nature of . Since conceived of evil as the he man

  things. by a super-

  imposed on . .

  a was for his deliverance. .

  natural tyranny, supernatural revolution necessary


  central idea of "Prometheus" that the world sick of an The


  organic has in and a miracle been But can only be cured by expressed many religions.

  this disease is result of a celestial not

  the notion that the and that tyranny man


in suffers it is

alone, from and

  the universe, to Shelley, but everything peculiar . . .

  result of his extreme idealism. for


  itself [His] passion . . . perfection expressed also another idea and excellences of this life

  in are that the highest beauties .

  state . . it is



being. [For]

  prophetic of a nobler through the universality of

  infinite all it

  and the which imperfection, variety in the quality of things implies,

  to the better to

  that we with the worse, and aim at are continually led compare and the better Poet,

  [Man 1909, pp. 199-200, 210-11],

  Glutton-Brock noted that

  Again . conflict evil

  a between a man and an man would be too concrete

  for [Shelley] . . . good

  Prometheus and evil will; and simply they are utterly

  Jupiter are good and unrelated to of the facts of life as them so we know unrelated that he cannot any even them into conflict or describe the at last bring means by which one triumphs

  other. whole causeless All

  over the The drama is that

  we know is, Prometheus to

  wishes well and ill; the universe, Prometheus Jupiter therefore Jupiter persecutes .

  until his fall . .

  causes after something happens which [immediately which] comes the

  xiv-xv], millennium [Introduction, 1911, pp.

  in vision


And saw the of released from all evil

  Irving Babbitt

  "a humanity

  without" the "true of the Rousseauist" artificially imposed from religion

  and Romanticism, 1919, (Rousseau p. 137).

  variation on the moral theme was offered

  A by Aldous Huxley: Introduction


  was the Following Rousseau, the romantics imagined that exclusive passion "natural" of

  mode virtue and reasonableness were the "natural" love, just as

  men's social behaviour. rid will for- forms of Get of and and men be

  kings, priests-

  ever remained good and happy; poor Shelley's faith in this palpable nonsense to . . unshaken the end. He believed also . that to rid of social you had only get


  and erroneous to Grand

  make the . . . failed to see mythology Passion universally

  chronic he that the Grand the

  [but] Passion

  was produced by


  that themselves to the as opposed sexual impulse, just the deep lake


  the dam produced by that bars the passage of the stream ["Fashions in Love,"

  1929, p. 138].

  Cousins To which James H. replied: saw restraints as the critic the use of the of law quite

  Shelley as clearly as pro- vokers and intensifiers of the creative forces limit of life; but he did not the Grand

  Passion to sex. is Love, in the universe. Sexual

  to Shelley,

  the integrating power


is its and is it is

  when integration only one of only justifiable phases, governed . by spiritual integration [Work

  Promethean, 1933, pp. 38-39] R. felt

  Elliott, in a "sense of frustration" reading the

  But George poem,


  from a cause: at to for our

  The once universal to appeals our yearning sympathy and

  poem to human These two sentiments, perfection. when stimulated, tend

  yearning for

to in other.


  But diverge develop themselves competition with each Shelley will do so.


  not have them From the first, he them keeps winding and fusing in a stream of undifferentiated emotion. . . . more and

  single [He]

  gether merges

  Asia. If had been

  more the of ... Prometheus and these two characters

  qualities ethical their made the of elevation vehicles, respectively, and wide sympathy,

  eventual reunion could a fine have won human and

  significance, suggesting



  that fullness of life as which the human spirit greatest potentiality. . . are The as a . recognizes

  [But] the two not married, but whole frustrates merged.


  and of on a music

  repels our poetic sense by attempting the the spheres single ["Solitude 17-18].

  string of Shelley" 1929, pp.


  Opinion on and Grounds

  Moral, Political, Religious, Scientific are of which comments criticism, the foregoing

  Countering the adverse

  have either have been the views of those who


  approved the opin- and to evaluate the ideas on which

  to clarify ions of Shelley or sought fre- based. writers have tended

  Prometheus Unbound was Again, these a to read their own interests into the quently or prejudices poem, and of the wide attitudes will, it is hoped, suggest the range of interpre-


  different fields of tation as well as the balance the interest, which,

  among have been

  moral, as before, political, religious, concerned primarily with

  and more recently scientific readings.


  first we find one

  to the favorable

  Turning political interpretations,

  in the area Shaw earliest in this suggestions coming from George Bernard to have

  Shaw is de-

  Society. reported a discussion period of the Shelley as one who scribed


  90 as it is a and can convince bad;

  had detestation of government, you government

  this. to a state to of it, Now,

  yet support in spite every one looks you are compelled

  in be in which men would

  be necessary of society which no government would the Promethean

  restraint; in this

  moral, &c., without theory you get you have



  a tyrant you created yourself

  121-22], [Comments, 1886, pp.

  who wrote that "the anarchist

  This view was Clarke, amplified by Helen of an individual-

  would an into the millennium humanity

  imperfect plunge as the natural outcome society. Shelley represents such a society


  has of a state wherein


  reached the point of perfect


  Miss Clarke individual control"



("Prometheus Myth," p. 104).

in its as "the aristocratic idea with all it the evil to be combated brings train ... and its foster of brothers, egotism of expediency

  tyranny and and

  lying p. 142). hypocrisy" ("Sketch," 1892,

  first But it was Vida Scudder who treated the

  political implications of as a of the She fully. defended Shelley spokesman his age, against


  his those who would stress ethereal dreamlike "To quality: only express to the democratic idea act was the work in brief, historic of France; express


  in art was the of eternal work

  Shelley alone of this period,


  ideal Revolution she the of the of the and of the demo-

  felt, saw

  fully light

  and Prometheus

  cratic ideal, Unbound was, therefore,

  in reflection of alike new

  the perfect symbolic the conceptions of the democracy,

  in their shall find it

their and weakness. the Revolution


  strength vague where

  in its

  was the Revolution was that intellectual where crude, is, vague, crude

  it its shall find the revolution was that in we where is,

  great great, philosophy;

  spiritual ideal.

  But Miss Scudder also

  ideal recognized that Shelley's description of the

  Prometheus and Asia were

  state, after united, was "weak, sentimental, . . .

  For a re- empty, guilty of that worst of aesthetic sins, prettiness. had (Edition, xvii-xx,

  generate Shelley .


humanity, no message" 1892, pp.

  xxxviii) Miss Scudder's was and with little variation analysis frequently echoed, J.


  D. J. Philo W. Alexander, W. (by Dawson, MacDonald, Buck, and

  but an was William Butler

  others), exception the poetic description of

  who considered Prometheus "a sacred book" with a certain

  Yeats, Unbound the sacred books of the world: place


  was so much more than the of it

  liberty Political Justice that [Shelley's] liberty

  one with was Intellectual and ... was so much

  Beauty, the regeneration he foresaw more dreamers it have foreseen, that could than the regeneration many political not in its come till the hours bore "Time to his in perfection grave eternity" ["Philosophy of Shelley's Poetry," 1900, pp. 81-82].




  have re-read his Prometheus Unbound for the first for time

  years, in many

  the woods the Echte

  of Drim-da-rod,

  hills, and sometimes I have looked


  where last battle towards Slieve-nan-Orr, of the world the country people say the Introduction till


  shall when lift

  a a and the thousand be fought the third day, priest shall chalice,

  And I think faith this years of peace begin.

  mysterious song utters a as simple


  and as ancient the faith in a form suited to a new of those country people, age, that will with Blake that the is understand "an intellectual fountain,"

  Holy Spirit and that the kinds and are its degrees of beauty the images of authority .

  71 [pp. 94-95]

  in the of


  Miss Scudder,


George Woodberry, spirit that "Shelley

was whom the

  literary was the poet through expression of the Revolution for felt to

  and be

  "the poured,"


  the poet the Titanic quality

  it contained

  the Promethean which security of victory felt, too, suffering



was the heart of mankind as he his saw in

  surveying Europe day." In "the Revolution a its

  Prometheus therefore, as moral reached . . .


  a and

  [for] it is the world of art, of the

  height centre, in


  in that of the idea of


  greatest centurythe power

  humanity" ("Titan Myth," 67-68).

  1905, pp.


Arthur tried to toward

  In 1911 Glutton-Brock correct the trend political wrote: "I tried to that the

  He have show interpretations of the poem. is


  it is emotion Prometheus not concerned with for

  expressed politics,

  it as not even concerned world

  with the world except that regards the afflicted

  was un-

  with a disease that can be cured only a miracle." Shelley


  like he that it was sense alone that made held, in "moral Milton, Shelley's concern himself with and in his heart was

  him he with

  impatient politics; . . . this life that made a moral sense necessary. [Also] the imperfection of

  he was most he in his when

  inspired forgot politics altogether longing for a xvii-xviii). nobler state of being" (Introduction, pp. laid


  interesting reversal of the usual charges of radicalism against

  was made J, who that in the of view noted "the

  Kooistra, light Shelley by

  'the to which State is the of Coleridge Kant, according

  adopted from 'to and to be free have mas-

  of social reason,' means organised expression

  " in unsocial a reaction- tered some instinct,' Shelley was, respects,


  in citizen to be "a not the of a

  man denizen of the world,

  ary holding State" ; and Alfred

  1916, 218) Noyes expressed a similar ("Prometheus," p.


  in pointing out that Shelley's rebellion has had in with that false kind of rebellion which become "smart"


  nothing .

  Press. . .

  and "fashionable" and is His rebellion patronized by the reactionary

  in this of the world which of terms has



  very the general against way


  come to called "rebellion." ... His task was be interpenetrate the granite mass light of the soul ["Poet of Light," 1924, p. 38]. of things with the issue still held to

  Philo broadened the

  Buck somewhat, but a basically he wrote: when

  political interpretation


  Prometheus Unbound thus is a the The combination of Shelley's faiths;


  and science over nature, in the in the of the human

  intelligence triumph


71 Unbound on Donald Weeks's

  For the influence of Prometheus Yeats's poetry see

  See Idea in LXIII Yeats's [1948], 281-92).

  "Image and (PMLA, Second Coming"



also Bartlett's influence on The

  Shelley" Dynasts.


  92 in

  brotherhood to over human and the of of human error, power power triumph

  in world of fact

  Idea as the the

  to find itself at last fully expressed

  triumphantly and circumstance.


  Read becomes Every-

  fairly obvious. Prometheus, like Jupiter,

  thus the plot man, power only the Titan has chosen the true way, while the tyrant has sought


  in false ideas. For "natural" benevolence, and hence physical weakness, has chosen the motives

  Prometheus has who bondage by Jupiter been put into

  rest of the forces

  and the that keep of power, of hate, oppression, superstition

  state in to This of

  the "natural" the and

man theological.

subjection political

  is classes the

  the war of the which under sought a solution mutual antagonism

  like at first

  watchwords of the But the Jacobins Prometheus French Revolution. was blind his And moreover and pronounced awful curse against usurping power.

  is without his

all this from Asia, whom

  he Nature, being during period separated

  is at his side

  But lone and two virtues, Ideas, who he has Panthea, incomplete.

  in his

  never forsake darkest horror, sisters and who feed him ministers of Nature,

  his his relation his faculties and lead to the of true self and

  immortal him righjt vision

  it in all after to the world. Or as man

  one might say prose divested of imagery, aeons of and effort or true and

  science, of Nature, suffering gains knowledge love. is his full Prometheus

  awakes Now ready again sympathetic imagination,

  shall to take his be final and

  ["Goethe Shelley," place in the world, a place that

  1932, p. 92]. to find

  Neil was the "central of

  Kenneth Cameron, in turn, thought"

  as to be the same Ruines^thsit of Shelley's that of Volney's Les


  to from the of the French bringing hope a disconsolate generation example to

  and he was

  Revolution" Source of Islam," 1941, p. 205);



  narrow the still he

  more, argued: political approach


  Prometheus The struggle of the struggle of the leader of humanity specifically the peoples of post-war against the despotic state (Jupiter) specifically

  Europe rule Alliance. the of the In this is assisted the struggle humanity by



forces of historical evolution human love

  by the strength of (Demogorgon) and and these forces mankind


  Aided by overthrows the despotic comradeship


  state , and advances into the new order


  Philosophy," 1942,

  p. 464]

72 Carlos Baker's criticism was

  pertinent: "[While Cameron] assumes a particularized


  each of the and is antagonists, he symbolic political meaning major protagonists broaden

  to this until his the

  compelled ... meaning in effect, interpretation becomes, . . .


  moral some ornamentation. Because interpretation with political politics


  was a one concede the that he had in mind a branch of ethics, view



is that the more

  Shelley , . .

  What or general political idea. proves ...

  Cameron's argument

  traditional ethical is less

  interpretation probably the correct one" (Shelley's Major

  to Poetry, A similar conclusion, without reference

  1948, pp. 283-85). Cameron, was



  A. M. 1947 admitted to


  by "plenteous over-flowing" be-

D. Hughes,

  tween the conflict in the state and conflict in soul: the "As representation of poem's


on, the cause of takes its in outer circle

  an of the vast time goes political justice place


  of evil, life and for him is his which the centre own soul" good and death, of


  should 1951 still (Nascent Mind, pp. 205, 248). be noted that while by Cameron,


  a added: it is


  "But that "the play ... essentially political drama," not only a ... its moves on several still drama; he held that

  political allegory levels,"

  although around the central core of the revolution of the other concepts "revolve meaning with now now another"


  society one aspect (Edition, p. xxi). Earlier, R. Rutland had W.

  difficult social Introduction

  93 To this, Herbert Grierson and J.

  in the thought of


  of Shelley," 1924, p.


  To James H.




  but neither was he an

  was an impartation of the essence of the Supreme Being.


  Shelley, in very truth, "God


  Love." But this theism of Shelley was

  universal, not localised in

  history or geography or limited





  [1838, p. 657] .


  To this nature he



  as to

  a rock

  Gradually the opinion developed that in

  He was not an orthodox

  Prometheus Unbound Shelley's real religious views were given but


  difficult to define, for, as Ernest

  Kirtlan expressed

  it: "He

  lived, not in time,

  but in eternity.

  personality; and in a time of almost deeper spiritual darkness than our own, the vision of the supreme


  in time, is

  enthusiast, and very probably deceived himself sometimes into thinking that he was interested


  as to

  write a treatise on the

  political opinions of

  Beethoven from the score of the Sinfonia Eroica. Shelley was an extreme



  Unbound . . . would be to go on a wild goose chase, and about




  political when

  he was


  interested in the ethical" (Swinburne, 1931,


  in Prometheus

  called atheism


  [Work Promethean, 1933, p. 59].

  Few, however, have gone

  as far as Ellsworth Barnard,


  held that

  Prometheus Unbound


  not be adumbrated

  evidences of the belief of "the real

  Shelley" in an and


  problems that




  compelled by the same necessity that controls nature at




  as has disfigured

  the history of Christianity and wrecked the promise of the

  French Revolution. The agent of the revolution ...



  (History, 1944, p.

  Defenses and interpretations of Shelley's religious views, frequently im- pinging


  on moral


  have been more numerous than

  those dealing with political ideas; and, just as opposition to the poet's religious position depended on the degree of fundamentalism represented




  such a disaster of anarchy and mutual slaughter



  not brought about by the


  acknowledging Cameron's



  that the deliverance of mankind


  action of


  Prometheus and Asia, though they are




  the guidance of wisdom and


  without which the revolution

  so here the degree of liberalism has usually

  the accept- ability of the beliefs for

  Man himself, so far as he is



  II, 387).


  years later a writer in

  Frasers Magazine more moderately

  suggested that Shelley followed Aeschylus in making Prome- theus rebellious

  against the idea of Deity

  the affected scorn and real malignity of

  itself, but


  to that law of nature

  by which man, in

  all his efforts

  at improvement

  is compelled into submission. . . .



  which the poet stood.



  of the


  charges against



  the poet

  defending was, of course, that of atheism,


  and as

  early as

  1828 Henry Crabb Robinson

  declared that "his

  supposed Atheism is

  a mere metaphysical crotchet, in

  which he was

  p. 81).


  94 . . .

  of active

  partially Spirit Good, unchanging and all-pervading . . . in this opposed and

  a recalcitrant of Evil somewhere frustrated

  Spirit [And] process

  by created there are which Spirit

  self-conscious beings, partake of the nature of the . . .

  I to owe their existence. This have

  of Good which contended, they Spirit,

  called does (as

  a personal God. Finally, Shelley assumes legitimately be

  may are

  the contradictions that thinker) that


  every- every above and beyond . . .


  which where the principle manifested world, there stands a unifying present but the existence of which man's whole the human mind cannot comprehend, . nature demands that he assume 1937,

  [Shelley's Religion, p. 96]


  he A

second attempt to justify Shelley's religious position held that

it God not the of the was of the Jews, God

  rebelled against God, against the ; or that the delusions world or the heart" (Boston Quarterly, 1840, p. 331)

  and the evils were his

  attendant thereon, the objects of of theocracy,

  Kineton M. Rossetti,

  Similarly, (W. "Study," 1886, p. 72). antipathy for could write that "assailed such

  Parkes Prometheus, so long spirits by

  at last rises this of the of evil evil,

  employed by god proudly from among



he has succeeded

  ruins of that sham and which overthrowing, Religion

  and he

  love" ("Shel- replaces with the true Religion of universal tolerance F.

  H. it


  Faith," 1891, Gile, was dogmatism that Shelley ley's p. 213). opposed:

  Thus, while perhaps unconsciously retaining the essence of the Christian spirit,


  Christian the he looked upon dogmatism and conventionality tyrannic


set his

  and from thralldom. Nor was he Jove, about delivering man

  ^schylean . . .

  far the true Christian contained a [for] solvent [Love]

  very wrong spirit magic

  all . . , if mistake

  of and And made oppression suppressive tyranny. Shelley any

  it in ideal but in

  was not the aimed at manner the impulsive, impatient, youthful

  in his

  he set about which reforms ["Prometheus," 1908, pp. 432-33].

  To Edward was in of

  Shelley revolt "against the tyranny

  Chapman, and theories of atone- mechanical

  ecclesiasticisms; mythologies against

  if as to deliver one which would ment, pleases, represent Christ coming and

man from a fierce Prometheus Unbound "sets forth


God," but

  savage the

  which sacrifice of Christ made however

  to Shelley's heart, the appeal

  have been to it in he

  unwilling express terms of conventional piety"


  with D.

  Account Arthur M.

  (Literature in Religion, 1910, pp. 124-25). For as

  was God of the and

  historical religions,"

  Hughes, Jupiter "the personal and such and the -stone of

  "the prototype support of earthly tyrants key the 1910, And,

  man's misery" (Edition, p. 172). finally, summarizing

  of S.

  statement James Thomson was much

  representative of of the opin- ion in this area:

  real life is

  The human that men have been ruled not God tragedy of by but by an

  is who a creation of their

  Being really own impersonal minds, yet very potent.


  The civilization the dialectic of self-torture illusions man's which history of by

  is to his intellectual

  he own and


  compelled spin out of spiritual nature. God,

  is is

  the Deus and is of Love, Absconditus, who the of false

  symbol must come from theology, occupies the vacant throne [and man's] unbinding within of love of the releasing power 1945,

  Spirit Jupiter, . . . Introduction

  95 felt


Other critics have that there was evidence of Biblical

  significant the

  R. Pickett Scott cited the the first

  Hebrew in

  parallels in feeling poem.

  and the

two Book of Job the influence

  acts, an indication of in particular, as balanced the


which Greek drama: on buf-

  in Shelley's "Job, his dunghill, in all feted is, Froude the exact counter-

  Satan, essentials, as out,


  points chained to rock. . . .


Prometheus the Each holds fast his

  part of integrity as

  and no effort of cruel

  a possession out of reach of the tormentor, enemy,


  to snatch it either." or false friend, able from

  Also, each Scott noted, believes that in

  "Prometheus endures that

  justice will conquer: knowing

  and that Fate

  Fate brings justice, cannot be escaped

  even by Olympian

  his Jove. Job endures that who and

  knowing God, loves righteousness is

  hates iniquity, All- Just, 1878,

  All-PatientAlmighty" (Place Shelley, of


  And the Hebrew he Bennett Weaver,

  pp. 21-22). noting that gathers

  all into one and all into

  love one Titan personification, Jupiter,

  tyranny Prometheus"

  added: form, Shelley^ 1932, 110), (Understanding of p.

  "There is which for the had modern

  in [Job] suffering certainly a quality

  73 charm" 146).

  poet a strong (p. as manifested in

  Prometheus Unbound some, the religion of Shelley


was more as a form of rather than of

  happily conceived of pantheism


  Delrieu was the to this theme as he em-


  Christianity. develop faith in

  on "a new the the blind of

  faith, Shelley's stress phasized


  nature, the doctrine of 1843, ("Po&tes modernes," p. 189).




Edouard Schur6 wrote later: "We have not

  Shelley a pantheist to to because he adheres indicate view from a system, but the point of sees his to see in

  which he and the

  the world,

  tendency varied spectacles

  It is a faith and it is incarnate in of evolution a universal Prome- spirit.

  and J.

  A. theus Unbound"

  778); ("Po&te panthfiste," 1877, p. Symonds similar view: expressed a

  essential was that the universe is

  The creed thought of Shelley's penetrated,


real a called the

vitalized, made which he sometimes of Nature,

  by spirit, Spirit


  but is as more than that which which Life, as gives always conceived actuality


  To adore with

  to Life, and Love and clasp

lastly as Beauty. this spirit, to


to blend with it, is, man.

  and Therefore,

  affection, he thought, the object of is destinies. final with Asia the consummation of human

  the union of Prometheus

  terrified realities

  Love was law Un Shelley recognized. by the grim of pain the only he held fast to if could crime revealed in nature and the belief that, and

  we society,

if be

  we could but what we the world but the core of be,

  pierce to things, might in .

  both attain to their eternal love and man would

  1878, p. 1231



  Vida noted that

  Scudder, too, the best description of

  pantheism was

  as did who attitude

  (Edition, 1892, James Thomson, Shelley's p. xxiii), that



  heroes and the lack of action in

  G. two the passivity of the Woodberry compared and

  A. Maurois the two stories called Shelley's ("Titan 1905, p. 80);

  Myth," poem "a drama on the Book of Job" (Arid, 1924, p. 242).



  96 is Pantheistic. The Good

  the pervading idea of the most prominent and poem

  at last the and

  which is, Titan Prometheus, indeed, typified in

  spirit, triumphs, faith this deliverer is from men

  not in a but no in man; required . . . is Infinite Soul, or worship of

  who would The an One be saved. poem apotheosis of the all one all masks of

  and the same in man, and

  things, self-subsisting, informing

  and slime beast, and worm, and [Studies, 1896, 286].


plant, p.

felt "had assimilated the


  that Shelley

  M. D. Hughes

  Similarly, as the idea that all Nature is under the same groaning oppression

  mystic it is sustained the human

  (Edition, 1910,

  spirit, just as by same power"

"His God is Nature

  J. vitalised, one with man,

  169). Kooistra agreed: in his Kooistra

  from evils that beset


  him, sharing joy."


  was not and was not becom-


  argued despite Stopford Brooke, Shelley

  a the time of Prometheus

  Unbound change

  ing a Christian (although by evident in his attitude toward but was an

  was Christ)

  agnostic probably . a related


  as to Finally, in immortality ("Prometheus," 1916, pp. 218-19)

  Barrell for as

  but without

  vein, suggested arguing pantheism such, Joseph that idealism were the two

  "ultra-Wordsworthianism" and

  principal at this "In cult of wild elements in the work time: nature poet's Shelley the

  Whereas the nature that

  reaches a extreme. Wordsworth describes logical at least of in is

  is home

  usually the a solitary shepherd, Shelley a nature to

  which man and from which he draws

  only contributes nothing pictured

  and (Shelley p. 132).

  aesthetic pleasure" Thought, 1947, far criticism the of religious largest dealing with the


By body emphasis

  to that the is in Prometheus show Unbound., however, has sought poem a to illuminated the of or of love common

  Christianity, spirit by spirit




both Christ and writer 1840 stated that



Thus an anonymous

all his

  of Christ animated the "the

  Christianity, in struggle against spirit

  form under which he saw it"

  A, M. corrupt (Boston Quarterly, p. 331).


Gannett found Prometheus with

Unbound "permeated through and through



  of true Christianity" ("Shelley's Morality," 1888, p. 104), spirit in a letter to October


  11, Vere, Jane Shelley dated 1882,

  Aubrey Lady

  offered a extended and

  more more

  penetrating analysis:

  in who

  frequency Religious Ideas recur with a singular the poetry of one yet too


in a

common denunciation. But

  often includes Religion & Tyranny they are

  as if "unuttered

  charm into a by some or midnight spell," presented, changed form the Converse of that in which A Religion presents them. great world-wide a of are his

  Love announced in to be Deliverance, &

  Reign poetry; hut they are


made Science, from below


  ours through not Faith; through Discovery, not not ...

  I convinced that in his

  from above. am Ideas he was

  intellectually, &


  often much nearer than . . he suspected the very doctrines that he denounced.

  If I favorite Ideas

  did not recognize in Shelley's a something essentially . op-


  some of the Conclusions with which he had in posed rashly associated them, &

  74 called basis J.

  H. Cousins on the of him, Prometheus Unbound, "transcendentalist

  as as

  well ; and basis of (Work Promethean, 1933, later, on the Adonais pantheist" p. 54)

  xliii his

  bear Cousins atheist

  etc.), was neither

  ("He doth part" concluded that Shelley


  nor but believed after death pantheist, the retention of individuality (pp. 64-65).


  97 his for

  must have which made answer "Mesh Aspirations Humanity a something of if

  flesh bone of bone" had been & my only Christianity my

  rightly presented

  to if it

  him discerned was for

  I still & not have admired

  by him these things might



  but should have felt for not him that made have genius;


  sympathy which

  his into name a stone seat amid that Ilex over his wood which

  carved deep

  • hung

  at last home Genius is in It sees

  some Spezia. respects unfortunate. great Truths


  a sort

  & of

  very rapidly by Inspiration, early not a gradual process of reason-

  On the other it is

  As a ing. particularly slow in reaching maturity of judgement.


  catches hold of it their understands consequence, Principles long before right

  is as to it as to in Ideas, but weak which distorts so application. It strong Facts, fit them in with its far

  more than common


  preconceptions. Genius, place discovers it therefore that even

  & when most

  needs Humility, right was wrong has to retrieve.

  much Much that was said in Mab" is retrieved also, &

  "Queen .

  is . .

  in confession that the whole "Prometheus Unbound," where plain made

  all nature exist

  man's nobler made a Creator- Universe, & were but because they by


  I to

  allude the of

  [Il.iv]. Some replies "Demogorgon" years more might . . .

  have wondrous works of Prometheus were given us a poem confessing that the

  Gifts to

  the Man of One of the Titan was but a


  Greek Type [Abinger Reel 15].


  On the same Brooke wrote of the

  theme, Stopford poem:

  is of

  no more embodiment the noblest doctrine of Jesus . . . to [There] magnificent even the of the world the cause of truth by faithful suffering in . . is . redemption and love. The character of Prometheus built on the character of partly

  Christ. His moral towards is

  mankind, and Jupiter, the position position towards of Christ towards

  cruci- who suffering man, and

  towards the powers of the world,

  fied not and

  Jesus because he would nor

  yield to their their priestcraft,


  their for their own over the bodies and souls

  power, exercised back up advantage of men. The means of means of Jesus

  Prometheus are the but nothing enduring

  love. His is Love

  the of perfect triumph triumph ["Interpretation of Christianity," ,


  1902, p. 376]

  John Platonism and

  Christianity in finding Bailey stressed the blend of the

  poem all his Platonic and Christian hatred of

  and fervent expression of one prolonged of is Platonic but has been and his faith, which not kinds of wrong, always

  it is Christian, that which

  prevents our seeing that the world only our blindness


live is infinite and and and

  in which we one of the type promise of beauty delight

  is ;

  another which and eternal ["Prometheus," 1923,

  p. 128] invisible, spiritual,

75 M. choice because Christ

  Pratesi saw Prometheus had been

  Similarly, as Shelley's to tool the as a the new who has made the and saw man

  of the oppressors, poem hymn

  evil the Christlike of the redeemer Prome-

  and through martyrdom conquered slavery was "not theus W. Revell: Prometheus' revolt

  ("LTdea 42, 81); religiosa," 1903, pp. and the revolt of Jesus against the oppressive irreligious anarchy, any more than

  H. Gile:

  ecclesiasticism of his ("Prometheus," 1907, p. 423); F.

  day was anarchy"


  was "a Christian before Christ," In postulating a savior (Prometheus) Aeschylus a was "a and

  fuller spiritual

  Shelley prophet of the higher Christian truth redemption"

F. The as is "almost

  Prescott: ("Prometheus," 1908,

  as sig- p. 435); myth expanded his

  mankind as and


nificant for crucifixion itself" (Poetic Mind,

  the story of Christ 62-63).




  synthesize the two tendencies; or


  he does,

  it is at

  the expense of

  Radical- ism, not of his religiosity.

  He never



in Prometheus

Unbound ...

  the earthly millen- nium


  reached through



  uncommon religiosity.

  aegis of eternal love. It is

  varied the theme:



  (Work Prome-

  thean, 1933, pp.

  28, 39-40).

  William Cherubim

  What is original in

  with a very



  the spectacle of extremist Radicalism operating at



  in direct conflict

  death but under the

  the Snake and the Garden



  ojie with his age


  time" (Shelley arid

  Thought, 1947, pp. 158-59) .


  Meldrum considered the substitution of



  Christ "foolish," and found the


  "a magnificent statement of faith" (Classical Background, 1948,

  p. 161) ;


  G. R. Hamilton felt Trometheus

  and in this he was "at


  again, after all

  "essential Shelley"

  ["Triumph of

  Life," 1942, p. 569].

  This conflict

  was stated

  to a different purpose by

  Joseph Barrell, to whom the

  was fundamentally

  the poet returned to this emotionalism, to a Christian rather than a

  emotional rather than intellect- ual,

  and who felt that

  at the end of

  both Queen Mob and


  Un- bound

  anything so foolish as a cessation of all struggle for liberation until love has

  does not, of course,

  Introduction while



  Platonism led

  Shelley to in- tellectual bewilderment and moral chaos." But she


  that "Shelley, the atheist, blasted nineteenth century Christianity.

  Had Augustine been

  he would have

  and moral


  him." She

  also held that "if [Shelley]


  'suckled in another creed'

  [than that of Godwin] he might have produced a City

  security; a

  Augustine to intellect- ual sanity

  rather than Prometheus


  Bennett Weaver,


  we have

  seen above, believed that "Shelley


  conscious that Jesus stood between him and Plato, adding the spacious infinitude of the uttermost genius to the best thoughts of the

  (Understanding of Shelley, 1932, p.

  corrected Platonism led


  Sister Anna Mercedes was also

  concerned with Platonic- Christian

  relationships as she

  compared St. Augustine and Shelley:


  of God

  Unbound. Two




  "The hope

  of the world, to Shelley,

  was not the dawn of emotions, but the dawn of mind"; and


  freedom is

  unattainable while the higher

  are inoperative;


  and that law can- not be

  set aside until love


  the active principle in

  all life's affairs." But he


  pointed out the general teaching of the poem:

  Cousins sought to correct a possible misreading.

  virtues of Shelley

  Augustine? . . . The Beauty ever ancient and ever new lured him

  stand out, and these are touchstones of

  Christianity: unworldliness and self-sacrifice." Sister Mercedes concluded:

  The tremendous, intuitive, twisted intellect of Shelley glimpsed half-blindedly the outlines of our vast supernatural




  might he not have been under the system of faith of St.

  as it had few others,

  James H.

  and we who, from our


  look back on him, can


  nothing but regret that he did not

  find his way

  ["Two Paths," 1944, pp. 326-28].

76 E.



  in this of certain connection should be noted the recent



  critics the Christian elements in the


  to (jualify

  poem. Joseph

  for his that Beach,

  Prometheus Unbound

  example, defended


  naturalism of represented the culmination of Shelley's

  ("and this in spite which it is

  the mystical platonism with there associated") writing:


  The faith in human this


  upon planet takes the place of the Christian


  doctrine of the of and whole

  man the scheme An

  of redemption. earthly mil- lennium The takes the place of the Christian heaven. operation of destiny form in


  mythical of necessity bringing about earthly millennium, takes the and the atonement. ... In a certain sense Prometheus providence place of divine

  as it is is

  the savior of to be observed that he man; but takes the place of Christ

  as his . man own savior

  himself acting ["Shelley's Naturalism," 1936, pp. 231-32] has stressed the


More Read humanistic character of

  recently Herbert love:

  Shelley's concept of

  secret also as

  That which he declared the he

  love, of morals,

  regarded the guiding he was more


principle of the universe. Again, following Plato, and, particularly,

detail his is to

  Dante. In the of he nearer to Dante than

  much Plato,


  as atheist

  a confessed want to this Power" but he did not "unseen with ee identify therefore it

  He an awful throne ... in the gives wise heart," a divine agency. it its to fold over the world

  from which healing wings. This universal love springs



is and humanistic character

clearly defiantly ["Optimistic Philosopher,"

1950, p. 378].


  But P. "however BL that, much

  theologians Butter suggested may

  it is

  the and man of grace himself,

  importance the powerlessness of by

  to a free act of the will

  must be

  co-operate with grace." agreed that there

  an act in and Prometheus thus,

  repenting performs such "congruous with . . . forces the Christian idea himself.

  [brings] into play beyond

  The poem is than more

  Shelley himself nearly compatible with Christian theology

  perhaps intended or con-

  Idols., 1954, realised" (Shelley's p. 171).

  on moral Unbound based

  primarily Interpretations of Prometheus


  siderations have been most widespread and,

  probably rightly so,

  for and political religious meaningful. Although, purposes of emphasis, the

  it clear

  will have been that

  have been they

  approaches segregated above, to or stemmed from the broader moral

  have in most instances related

  also been of a large poet's thought; but there has body aspects of the this latter. concerned with the


  Before outlining opinion narrowly

  it be well to consider two


  however, points of view, stemming

  opinion, note to the that have attracted

  from Mrs. much



  largely to do two of critical attention. These have with aspects of the problem to tradition. the Christian

  is a noble idea of self-sacrifice which owes much


  life; a national front

  tradition That remained powerful below the surface of English


  was formed French atheism which, longer than Napoleon, appeared against

  1950, threaten our shores" (Tradition,


  suggested: There were two aspects ...

  Glutton- Brock,




  others) although, in

  1902, Stopford




  which [the poet] conceived humanity.

  There was


  an actual humanity which submitted

  to evil,

  did evil and

  suffered for it. There

  was secondly an



  humanity contained in the actual, which did no wrong, which was itself sinless, but which suffered from the

  helped rather

  Richter it


  that Shelley considered evil a necessary factor in the


  of the

  human race, for men were children who needed

  the rod,

  and evil

  than harmed them.


  Prometheus was thus converted by

  evil into a stronger,


  elevated character (Shelley,

  1898, p.

  414). This interpretation of

  Shelley's belief in evil as external prevailed (in



  evil in

  1892, p. xxi],

  central prob- lem was

  Wflcox, in a study ("Present Values," 1957) that appeared too

  late for

  detailed inclusion


  the present work, commented:



  to deal with

  (Julian, VI, 228).

  good and


  on a cosmic


  while recognizing that the problem of evil

  is unanswerable. , . . Prometheus Unbound is a

  tremendous feat of the modifying imagination, an effort to say what is perhaps beyond statement" (p.


  Stewart C.

  in an unconnected state"

  the actual humanity and suffered for its sake. . . . This was Prometheus


  ["Poetry of Shelley," p.


  gave the quotation


as from

  the Essay on Christianity.

  It is from

  On the Punishment


  VI, 187) . There is, however, a comparable sentence in the Essay on


  Christianity: "Good and



  in so

  intimate an union that few


  of human affairs can be affirmed to contain


  of the

  To Helene


  Introduction evil:


  suggestion that Shelley believed evil to


  external was given strong support

  when it was

  accepted by Edward Dowden


and used

  to illustrate the "philosophical errors" of the


  Appendix C).

  Words," 1896,

  p. 99). Henry Salt


  to correct the interpretation:


  delights to

  personify the Manichsean doctrine of a good and an

  evil spirit


  there would be none" (see

  shall do him

  stated in her note that the poet believed that

  (1) the degree of its


  and (2)

  the degree of

  its permanence and ease of


  Mrs. Shelley


  "evil is

  evil, and


  inherent in the


  of the creation, but an accident that

  might be


  and that "mankind had

  only to will that there should be no

  ... but we

  gross injustice


  This conception determines the whole form of the




  and when these

  institutions shall

  be shattered, the nature of man, pure, virtuous,

  loving, will

  instantly restore the Age of Gold.


  got there

  in the Prometheus Unbound. Shallow though



  seems to-day,


  served a necessary purpose.


  roused men from the lethargy of despair, and inspired them with faith in man's control over

  his own

  we are

  in institu- tions, how it





  suppose him unaware of the subtle mixture of the two elements in the human mind



  his own words, of "that inter

  texture of good and

  evil with which Nature

  seems to have clothed every form of individual existence"

  (Shelley's Principles,

  p. 72) ,


  77 Vida Scudder, however, accepted Mrs.

  Shelley's statement


  explained: To the Revolution

  evil is

  a pure

  accident, an external fact.


77 Salt, in error,


  101 Johanna view

  Similarly, that Shelley be-

  Gutteling could not accept the evil to lieved be the of external, Power"


  tyranny some malignant and Melvin that concluded

  (Hellenic Influence, 1922, p. 95); Solve, too, Prometheus is


  truly a drama. have We

  psychological, a metaphysical, . between the forces of . .

  evil in the mind of man. For

  here the struggle good and and the purposes of drama, Jupiter the other characters are given objective repre- from the of the Titan of sentation apart figure mind . . . yet they are within the man. had been driven his fruitless efforts to reform

  [Shelley] finally

  Perhaps by

  to follow the brutal advice of

  the world, an to reform his own early reviewer

  breast. If five or six as

  could this


  persons, or many profit by introspective be to it would welcome dramatization they

  [Theory of Poetry, 1927, pp. 90-91].


  Solve's Melvin position given strong support by Rader's penetrating

  which to

  he, in turn, the view analysis, in objected "that Shelley


  evil as externalistic and his entire temporary: that grasp of the problem

  was weak."

  later This, Rader was true the held, of the early

  poems, but

works and the mature view was evident in


  partially negated especially distinction was Prometheus a was made between evil that

  Unbound, where

  "ineradicable and that which was objectively "subjective


grounded" and

is radical

but latter evil so that even

The "mind-created

  deeply based." the consciousness of time be altered before man can

  must fundamentally

be but evil meas-

  subjective was, nevertheless, "in large altogether freed";

  all all

  ure to be minds freed from hatred, ("Theory escaped by superstition" of


  too, Evil," 25-32). Carl Grabo, this position.

  1930, pp. supported felt that Prometheus reversed that mind


  Shelley's earlier belief


was but a function of matter. man's will free the

Now became through

  his in himself of love over and evil because hate, the world,

  triumph thought


  was was transformed. evil as external evil, The existence of man, Grabo was denied 168).

  concluded, (Interpretation, 1935, p. Douglas Bush concurred: The main conflict ... is that evil in the of mind man, but, in a between good and

  sees also an external conflict be-

  manner more in accord with the Shelley myth,

  as it with their roles reversed and he shifts from God and Satan

  tween, were,

  to in somewhat

  one the other a disconcerting way [Mythology, conception

  1937, p. 154]. like

  Ellsworth refute those

  Barnard would Edward Dowden,

  Similarly, who,

  and Vida Solomon Scudder, Crane

  Brailsford, Brinton, Gingerich,


  the built evil to be


  the "misconception" that Shelley considered


  institutions: "What we have in of Prometheus Unbound, really

  outgrowth its effort to and above a drama of the individual human soul, all else, is

  free itself within and without"

  from the evil Religion, 1937,

  (Shelley's wrote: in turn, pp. 121-22). Carlos Baker,

  is real Prometheus the of

  The advance [in Unbound] development philosophical

  result is the of

  the idea that evil any means entirely,

  largely, though not by self-- if act of willed spiritual

  and that were able, by an

  man spiritual blindness,


  102 his and at some hour inheritance of hate to overcome superstition,

  reform, great

  limits to what he could think and

  there would be almost no do [SheUefs Major Poetry, 6-7].

  1948, pp. force which in another "the now


  of that repressive Or, way,


  tortures lead to rebirth of the the human mind" would

  manacles and power

  intellectual of "his of love and to realization tremendous

  might . at time shake . . off potential of and Mind any these agonies

  spiritual pleasure. may be which the

  if the inward conditions of that mind can made

  right," after to to where before "it has had return it,

  (Asia) will

  harmonizing power remain (pp. 112-14).

  content with imperfect degrees of love"

  and broadened this Most

  has re-emphasized recently, Stephen Spender

  "believed that


  that, while the Shelley of Queen interpretation, holding

  is which

  external human institutions, evil an men

  burden imposed on by

  time of Prometheus be the Unbound


  external change,"

  removed by an by

  had looked far into the heart of and saw


  deeper the corruption of Shelley . . .

  for to evil means intended view thai

  turns the good. His early power which divided into and the enslaved was and

  priests on the one hand,

  society tyrants towards view of the war freedom on the other, into a

  strugglers tragic


  evil in heart

  the human between good and (Shelley, 1952, p. 7).

  on this inner conflict from An came W.

  sidelight interesting

  Joseph in the was nature

  Beach's suggestion that

  poem human represented by and of


  (1) Prometheus, "the inventive

  figures: progressive powers "the backward selfish


man"; (2) drag of interest, tradi-

  Jupiter, personal

  and the and Asia,

  tion, (3) of love," the established authority";


  that could to this break the deadlock between the two.

  power According is in state of

  "life unbalance or and we view, a perpetual instability,

  all if it were not for

  living at should hardly be conscious of our die struggle

  on fails

we which favor of an ideal

  carry against reality, to satisfy us, in to effort"


  state, challenges us (Romantic View, 1944, pp. 116-18).

  Frank Lea offered another variation on the theme. as He saw Prometheus and

  "the imagination defying reason" (Romantic Revolution, 1945, 112) p. felt "the basic in that Prometheus

  Unbound is

  experience comprehended the rebirth of true

  Reason than the mere

  [rather or faculty], . reasoning imagination" (p.


  narrower limitation of this that

A has been which has focused




  Macmillan Brown

  the autobiographical suggestion of the

  poem. Thus



  was he had sat at the feet of Godwin ... not merely because not merely because nature ideal he loved the ... he had by not merely because so deeply sympathised with the

  French most because had

  fully he suffered

  Revolution, but perhaps from the fetters keenly around the of which government and society hind . . . . spirit man, was . .

  What down the

  [Prometheus] but Shelley himself pinioned by law and despotisms of opinion? [Study, 172-73].

  1905, pp.

  And Stovall wrote:



  was individualistic rather than is

  [Shelley's] this fact

  philosophy socialistic; . . .

  in his idealistic of social reform

  where we observe one or two palpable poems of heroic

  personalities and

  dimensions leading directing the masses or accomplish-



  sacrifice. These leaders or redeemers of

  ing regeneration by supreme

  likeness to

  always bear a remarkable to that character humanity

  Shelley or strove to and . which he [Desire exemplify Restraint,

  1931, p. 237] that

  Stovall added we ex-

  "misunderstand in he

  Shelley supposing that

  man because he it .

  believed pected the perfection of

  merely possible" (p. 245)


  With this "Prome- Benjamin Kurtz was

  general agreement, writing that theus is

  is Unbound of but this self -culture

  a great self-culture;

  poem and

  dramatically conceived, unintentionally disguised, as a regenera-


  tion it

  and he that "own moral

  of society"; represented Shelley's


  victory over failure, pain, despair" (Pursuit of Death, 1933, pp. 157- ,

78 This led to

  58) Kurtz's interpretation of the


  Benevolence is the true character of man. To this Godwinian he teaching,

  in first is

  the his own un- adds, Act, the lesson of adventuring: that benevolence chained and for

  suffering, hatred, the wicked,

  by by repentance of scorn by pity

  love. adds vision, he

  by unfailing fidelity to the higher and by In the second Act, the Platonic dream that this is visitations redeemed innate beauty from decay by and outer world of the Idea, or an into

  Reality, of Beauty; imagines



  and to find in has resulted Another, much Prometheus narrower, attempt Shelley from to methods This was, the application of psychiatric the reading of the poem. a to as

  critic, referred Andrew

  by by Lang early as perhaps, anticipated Cambridge

  felt that the revealed in after life a cave who "a in

  1885, hankering

  poem Shelley Man"

  doubtless an from Cave unconsciously inherited (Lang, "Letters," p. 8).


  Moore in Titan's the

  Later, T. V. saw, Jupiter, Shelley's "final victory over triumph over his and was and unmerciful to

  own father who drove him from home



since Moore held:

  the end." Prometheus was "This But, purified of hate, probably

  his hate for his and

  means father

  finally conquered or forgave

  that Shelley outgrew Even more extreme and

  him the , did" (Study of Character 1922, pp. 28-31).

  wrongs he based his more was who unorthodox

  Arthur Wormhoudt, minutely detailed the study of


  Kenneth the of Edmund in the words of

  Bergler, a psychoanalyst who,

  study on mankind as to frustra- Neil ills of sexual

  Cameron, due, not "apparently envisages the


  but to

  XXIX [1950], 108). A tion,

  problems encountered breast feeding" (PQ,

  as suffice

  here: "[In Aeschylus], Prometheus, the oedipal son,

  typical passage may is But the

  of the is and normal father, forgiven. usurps the privileges punished, repents was seem- did not His hatred of the father course of oedipal justice appeal to Shelley.

  It of much demanded overthrow

  ingly stronger than that of Aeschylus. the complete

  for this

  and the Prometheus concomitant exoneration of crime against the


  father. This exoneration is

  accomplished by overlaying the positive oedipus complex son hatred for the father the

  represses his

  with a negative oedipus complex whereby

  in to demonstrate his love in the most

  and the mother's place in order puts himself and manner. But both the

  positive negative oedipus complexes are themselves

  passive son mother. This conflict

  conflict between the and the

  only defenses against the deeper concluded:


also And Wormhoudt

Lover, 1949,

  expressed" (Demon p. 88). Shelley has

  is to Prome- final result this

  "The of the complicated action of great permit the

  poem to the lesser

  thean Shelley accept the guilt for crime of the negative oedipus relation


  masochistic attachment and two the pregenital escape that of greater crimes

  rebellion mother and (p. 108). positive oedipal father"

  Introduction 104-

  this innate the destruction of the horrors of injustice,

  conformity with beauty by

  is a in avers that which

  and hatred. he Life, Then, the third Act, intemperance,

  since his called for death become veil had better be

  of Death, has long

  this spirit, called


  all what he and other men have death,



  symbol imperfection, . tri-

  divine. , . the is visitation of the Thus, at last, in

  the true life, the greatest

  is life,

  of benevolence falsely called a per- over the ugliness that and beauty



  fect is achieved. The emotional

  moral character harmony of that character,

  all into the in natural overflows lyrics things,

  a sympathetic harmony, or peace, . . . of Prometheus is in what has of the fourth Act. fact a story of

  The unbinding each of count- some

  ideal perfection, to

  actually happened, in degree short of the


  what has never

  less individual men. But a story of

  the perfecting of society

  is until there a

  of what biological perhaps never can change happen happened, nature of in the fundamental man. unrealized one not then, in movement, be warranted, detecting ... a by

  May himself,

  the poet away from the preoccupation with the perfection of society



  [pp. 187-89]

  the perfecting of the individual a too -literal

  from Another but

  erroneous, (resulting widespread, opinion in a sudden and revolution- that Shelley believed reading of the poem) was hinted at the of in man's condition. John Todhunter fallacy


  ary as this should considered

  view in be

  suggesting that the poem an example (Study, 1880, 156); of evolutionary rather than revolutionary thought p. direct in "the license of

  but Salt was more used Henry stating that Shelley

  into brief a revolution which

  must have

  a poet, by concentrating compass for its little his


  a long period accomplishment, suspecting that critics would to the of a literal belief attribute him almost incredible folly the sudden in

  1892, Later, extirpation of evil" (Shelley's Principles, p. 68).

  and linked

  Archibald Prometheus Unbound

  Strong re-emphasized the point

  Hellas as that

  and poems

  contain the actual of that if which must be which, indeed, symbol may yet be

  its be

  man's and frustrations, on the an


  whole despite imperfections for his kind. one an increased love of means of upward Time, the only making . . order . its

  new aeons between and fruition:

  achieving the interposes conception

  it is and for this at it . rails

  cause that Shelley 1921, surely so fiercely [Studies, p. 65] called the "a in which the of


  Gertrude Slaughter poem myth poet's

  is as in mankind one fated

  the regeneration of represented accomplished to

  is as in

  hour, what conceived of symbolize

  happening the long process of and Melvin

  the ages" ("Shelley," 1922, 77); p. Rader, noting that "the liberation . . . of does

  man [for, not approach swiftly although Shelley's] works he advocated a most

  are prophetic of revolution, gradual reform," cited as

  "Yet slow and

  the morn evidence the following: dawned gradual


  Mob and in-

  of love" (Queen

  IX.38); [liberal-mindedness, forebearance,

  and dependence are! to be produced by resolute perseverance


  and and and

  hope, long-suffering long-believing courage, the systematic efforts of intellect and

  men to The Revolt

  of generations of virtue" (Preface

  overthrow of the of of "[the does not to


  seem be Introduction

  105 one


  thought relating to

  the moral significance of the



may note that the most

  obvious feature, the

  "benevolent opposition of


  to the oppressive

  atrocious rule of Jupiter" (Monthly Review, 1821; see Appendix D,




  VII), has, of course,


  basic; but from the beginning the subtleties of

  Shelley's treatment

  have been

  pointed out:

  of critical

  to the general

  us Virtue,

  its set-

  seemed too



  suddenly achieved, "it is largely the fault of

  Shelley's original fable


and the timelessness and

  spacelessness of

  ting. ... It

  To return now



  be a c

  slow, gradual, silent change,' as

  he had earlier made

  clear in the Preface to

  [The Revolt of Islam]" (Shelley,


  "He has drawn


  if die


  of her

  prime and is

  united with her





  of the human race (see

  C) .



  general stress, in her note


  in Shelley's Preface,

  on the idealized

  Shelley's beliefs has, however, as

  we have seen, been



  whereupon Nature resumes

  as she is, but as she should be

  item VIII).



  affliction, and

  impatient of unauthorized tyranny"' (London-

  Inquisitor, 1821; see



  Mrs, Shelley offered only the broadest interpretation of the meaning of the


  poem: Humanity is freed by



  the tortures of Evil,


  or suffered, after the Primal Power of the world drives

  Evil from his



  thought that,

  of the easiest. But the generous


  "Any sudden attempt

  at universal suffrage

  would produce an immature attempt

  at a Republic" (A Philosophical

  View of

  Reform; Julian,

  VII, 43). But Rader noted that in "it is our will


  the Vote; Julian,

  thus enchains us to permitted

  ill," etc.


  and Maddalo

  161-91), the poet


  to the

  same effect as did Mrs.

  VI, 68);

  (A Proposal for Putting Reform to


  come] before the public mind, through

  few are not the less held to tend with all their efforts

  towards it"

  (to Hunt,

  May 1,

  1820; Julian, X, 164);

  "[reform should




  grada- tions of



  have arrived

  at the

  maturity which can

  dis- regard these symbols of



  apparent contra- diction,

  I. White

  to pass

  all at

  once, bring about,


  a single


  of her wand as it were, the salvation of

  mankind. She has



  a series of educative experiences before she

  can redeem Humanity," and "when the emotions and the human

  understanding are equally


  fully developed, educated and harmoniously blended together . . .

  man becomes

  perfect" (Studies, 1936, pp. 135-36).

  And N.

  Reason, Asia does not,

  the action of Asia: "Unlike


  to time" and, "intoxicated

  thought, could be reconciled


  recognition of Shelley's accept- ance of Spinoza's belief

  "that the mind,

  by conceiving existence sub

  specie aeternitatis,

  can be liberated from bondage



  Eternity . . . could anticipate


  ideally dwell in the age of dawn."


  of Evil," 1930, pp.


  Amiyakumar Sen

  based his explanation

II, 124-25).



  79 and


  To Arthur sufferings

  Clive, represented "the



repeated. its

  of Freedom of the


  night of

  unconquerable spirit through

  annihilation of

  overthrow and and

  tribulation suppression, the ultimate


  that Evil to 1874,

  One" created things" ("Prometheus,"

  "the joy of ; and ideal of human excellence 423) Clive added: "Shelley has raised the p. of us hate the so far as almost to make word

  'progress' and grow weary to have been so dis- 'civilization' whose results

  meagre and

  the present

  up it is

  to in his scarce fit breathe

  We are atmosphere, but good heartening. felt

  that "the for us to that it exists" Edward Dowden, too,

  know (p. 437). and of the

  to conceive

  more truly possibili- more nobly poem has helped us ties of man's of


  life, its endurance, pitying sympathy,

  possibilities heroic

  Words," 1896,

  aspiration, joy, freedom, love" ("Last


  sentiments' the

  But J. Slater, who saw

  Shelley's "characteristic p. 99).

  and an

  evil of fatalism, doubts of immortality, philanthropy,


  in to the could not marriage accept the

  "unsavoury" opposition poem, left

it God

  out ("Let us love each other be- poet's philanthropy because cause there is no God to and dwindled down "into the kind-heart- love us") edness of the 1884, 386-92).

  everyday Englishman" ("Prometheus," pp.

  In Rossetti's lectures

  W. M. three more

  before the Shelley Society a critic was offered. detailed of the The

  study poem interpreted the poet's

  as follows:

  meaning as and is and self-exist-

  The eternal

  Heaven, Earth, Universe (spoken of Light)

  it creator. we

  had no


ing: The primary powers of the Universe, or (as say)

may its

  Of and these

  spiritual functions, are Love, Fate, Occasion, Chance, Change.

  no and no can end. the

  origin be predicated, nor yet Of Man,

  beginning any

  earliest is called in the when Time became a factor the world.

  Saturnian Age, age

  in that Men

  and therefore

  age, intellectually

  being undeveloped, lived a natural

  so far a like Mind life, animals, or indeed like plants. Human

  happy Ultimately was Prometheus came and was evolved, or, mythically speaking, into being, united to as in wife. first acts

  man and One of the of

  Nature, the espousals of

  to in his to Human Mind was create a God own wisdom

  image: he assigned Jupiter

  to World to him

  that the Vicissitude of the and ascribed the dominion of


  Heaven, only that The stipulating mere had

  should be free free in will man and in act.


  animal happiness, or natural conformity, of lapsed with the birth of mind Mind: under which the of had

  man established,

  the theocracy everything went amiss. The


  natural operations of the Vicissitude of the World, such want, and

  toil, disease, became when as

  the grievously oppressive they were regarded of Omniscient decree the of mankind was a theatre of

  Omnipotence; and spirit To all and this human dismal cravings chafings. catastrophe of well-being the of it

  Mind Man numerous and noble but sank beneath the supplied palliatives;

  Still stern theocratic Prometheus was bound and tortured.

  sway the potential

79 Carl Grabo

  qualified this in his late verse some-

  recently view, however: "Shelley times still an depicts ideal society, as in but the Utopia of Prometheus Unbound, against

  this ideal of it

  which he dreams he as is with a terrible

  now and .

  presents the world

  realism. . . ideal for

  The which he strove became uncompromising society in his eyes,

  as his


  human to

  be achieved knowledge nature grew, increasingly remote, something order of mankind" a new only by (Shelley's Eccentricities,


  • united

  many he has fallen or is

  confidence, so

  he gave Jupiter (government, anthropomorphic God, moral

  codes) power which turned to violence against

  man. For


  is still on

  his throne, although for


  to give


  see clearly

  from what

  the soul of


  according to our

  Shelley, needs to be delivered."

  In the final analysis,



  felt, it was not Asia or Demogorgon, but

  about its own

  "; after which


  "the shell ... of that liberty

  which is

  a condition of true virtue, must be blown,

  and its note of prophecy must




  and (7) he must

  live with Asia in the

  " 'cavern' of science."

  Man, according

  to Guthrie's reading,





  the attitude of Prometheus himself,

  custom from his body"; (5)

he needs "to be

  of the cardinal ideas inherited


  to the


  of convention, custom, institutions, laws,

  and all

  the arbitrary organization of society



  between man and



  eighteenth-century thought.

  The fall

  of Jupiter thus represented, for


  the abolition of

  human which was


  key, for it typified the dis- cordance

  which made, and



  always make,

  salva- tion possible:


  finality of the


  as a fact [Shelley] doubted,

  the principle thereof

  was the important

  he trusted.

  It could, in case of need,


  applied again

  and again" (pp. 182-202). To George Woodberry,

  also, the separation of

  Prometheus from

  Asia during the reign of Jupiter

  united again with 'nature'

  fetters of evil


  Human Mind will be re

  career of boundless pro-

  gression, in

  which even the planet which

  man inhabits will participate.

  The theocracy, with

  all its attendant evils, will vanish into

  nothingness; the


  mind to launch the world of man upon a

  Nature in indissoluble and boundless concord; and only chance and death and mutability



  dispute with


  the future of his globe ["Study," 1886,

  pp. 71-72].

  To William

  Guthrie, "the

  new career a


  to nature, separated, reunited,"

  mind at this



  for the multiform

  and monstrous evil remained


  the human mind itself

  it remains in the human

  moment When the mind shall finally

  conspire with the

  have rejected the delusions (such Shelley considered them) of theocracy, and


  have purged

  itself of the

  dark passions of hatred and revenge, then

  will the moment

  of emancipation be sounding. Eternity

  itself will

  mind of man, married

  was the theme of "the whole poem"

  break the

  is not "God," and

  that, for the liberation and perfection of the soul of

  man, (1) man

  needs to


  that vindictive passion miscalled the desire for just retribution"; (2)


  needs to learn that he "who reigns"

  that "all things are subject


  but eternal Love"; (3) he


  "an external power ...

  an incarnation of the eternal


  to de- throne objective evil"; (4)


he needs "Hercules




  (Poet Prophets, 1897, p. 163) ;

  could thus be

  and he approved

  Shelley's choice of the Prometheus story, for in so choosing the poet could, because of the antiquity of the myth, avoid

  "any shock

  to religious preconceptions


  associations." Jupiter

  and Prometheus

  made to



  whatever he


  without any


  danger of arousing bigoted opposition" (p. 152).



  to be followed the of love, with man





and with

  in this

  and nature once more accord, doubly

  accord presented


  as Prometheus and the drama the regeneration of the the marriage of

  Edition, 1901,

  (Cambridge p. 621). This interpre-

  in millennial happiness Allen R. who tation was that the separation

  Benham, argued

  amplified by in a curious dramatic form of

  Asia was "a of Prometheus and . . . ideal state of existence presentation that man can reach an the [Rousseau] doctrine


  cited the called Return to and he

  was the Nature," Essay on by what

  this: to

  show what

  Christianity Shelley thought Rousseau meant by

  the his to immense

  Rousseau did not mean

  certainly persuade population of their all arts of life their habitations and to abandon the [J destroy temples

  country addressed the most and become the inhabitants of the woods. He enlightened of

  to them to set the of his and endeavoured

  persuade example a pure compatriots,



  life, conceptions of the

  simple by placing in the strongest point of view

  as it is with the vices of sensu-

  calamitous and diseased aspect which, overgrown and is exhibited

  selfishness, civilized society [Julian, VI, 247-48]. ality by fell when Prometheus rather than


  pitied concluded that Jupiter defied, suggesting

  is a function of the to use a mathematical

  term, that morality, sympathy and . . . that

  latter in The was difficulty with the reign of Jupiter

  turn of imagination. hence his was his was restricted,


  kept unrefined, imagination sympathies narrow, and a real human was were society impossible ["Interpretation," 1923, p. 120].

  till "had

  To Walter

  Raleigh, Shelley hope creates / learned 'To hope,

  its it and if From own wreck

  the thing contemplates'; the tyrant that


is he will

mankind be

  Reality, oppresses immitigable a rebel against in fairer and no desire the name of that less immortal of

  Reality power, the of his the heart." The believed, "not in this or gist teaching, Raleigh lay that in means that he on

  but the insists

  held out of future good,



  for its realization"

  And J. Macmillan ("Shelley," 1902, pp. 291-93).



Brown saw "To the

  as Shelley's bring thought and love together . . .

  by it

  aid of and he liberty in Titanic,


[Demogorgon] has accomplished

  almost Arthur M.

  D. 1905, superhuman mould" (Study., p. 20).


  the issue

  broadened somewhat in his He

  reading. agreed that in Shelley's

80 Helene Richter had held that

  dream of the millennium was the reverse


  of Rousseau's: to but not a return an a

  earlier state, ,

  continuous progress (Shelley 1898, p. 422).

  81 it is to

  With that


  Raleigh's position interesting compare of George H. Clarke, held that Prometheus "offers method for Unbound no sure the renovation of it

  life, but all with the assurance

  and and that impresses us reality of renovation,"

  "the energy and enthusiasm of its and more

  his belief, its spirit were

  power" important than the

  his belief:

  matter of mankind,

  "Shelley's though given fluctuating place in a vast is not . .

  Nature .

  • organization,

  by any means a mechanicized conception [for Shelley's]


  were on of Love and eyes habitually the great principles Wisdom and



so realized

  abstractions which became and in his


  keenly glowingly thought that of

  their inherent could entertain

  he no doubt"

  activity (Edition, Introduction 109

  view the human mind was its own

  oppressed by creation, the "personal of the had


God and lost touch with Intellectual

  historical religions," reunion with Intellectual

  A enable the mind to Beauty.

  Beauty would

  held, would not dream behold the glory of nature. But, Hughes

  "Shelley to sort of a return for of primitive innocence,"


  "the very systems a


which man the and are the earnest

  testify to striving for light, oppress better." of Thus the

  something to . .

  salvation and sound is a in virtue. . hard-won

  way knowledge by

  progress the into Prometheus Prometheus the Mind of so, at

  Titan merges Man; and a yet we in farther remove, the Mind of Man there is the perceive that

  implicit, as is all the

  whole the

  implicit in -force," as part, generative energy, the "father in

  Todhunter it, Nature 1910, (Edition, pp. 172-74). expresses in

  To the to drama seems

  Charles Herford, "everything support the faith most is of even here the

  Shelley's exalted hours, that love,

  and now,

  substance of and evil a things, . . as if phantasmal shadow." Even Jupiter "speaks in

  and the

  he, too, were a lover of Asia," lovely

  Fury images

  to suffer "what she N.


  1915, White appears inflicts" (History, p. 66). the in its

  found poem not only consistent philosophy but moderate: "Surely

  faith is the that there an

  is human

  spark within the inextinguishable spirit as

  belief, when neither is

  intellectually as respectable the contrary capable

  II, of absolute proof by the ordinary laws of reason" (Shelley, 1940, 125). full was of the White

  pointed out that the feeling, stemming from

  poem shadow

  Plato and mind was of the Eternal Mind Berkeley, that the only a


is of that is he the

  the mind man Moreover, held, ("It invincible").



  "own disillusion and life,"

  Shelley's disappointment yet the expressed based a

  more new

  poet "reasserted strongly than ever

  an optimism upon

  that evil while reality could recognize fully the strength of philosophy of not for it a

  it was ever because rested

  invincible, perceiving that


  distortion concluded: of truth" Edward (II, 135-37).


  The moral of differ from

  Shelley's so radically

  play does not ... that of Aeschylus


as attains a limited from his nature

Man freedom

  by eradicating Shelley imagined.

  love. es- its worse elements and the will is The

  of God, which being guided by

  for achievement sential difference is allots to man

  that Shelley a higher capacity

  limits the

  within the Greek an

  poet, opti-

  of necessity than that envisaged by not be mistic or

  justified by events [Shores of Darkness,

  hope which may may 215].

  1941, p.

  Andre" read the as new one and

  Maurois "a

  presentation of the only

  poem war of Free theme of his war of the

  Spirit against Matter, the genius: the

  (Ariel, 1924, p. 248); against the

  and Cecil Bowra saw Man World" M.

  "in the of four of


  Shelley's beliefs:

  poem's principal ideas as reflections it its "matter

  the end evil is because breeds own (2) opposite";

  conquered is . . . is alive

  exist" nature no less does not and reality

  "spirit the only "evil is than and subdued

  man has, like him, a soul"; (3)

  through love";


  110 is

  "love and evil doomed"


and when reason are united, (Romantic

(4) Imagination, 1949, pp. 110-14).


  additional interpretative approach, recently expanded, has dealt as in with As

  1867, France,

  Odysse Barot

  Shelley's interest in science. early of to Lucretius in forces


  capturing the language of the likened Shelley


  science (Henri Peyre, the universe, the high truths of philosophy

  et la John Todhunter

  France, 1935, 279). Later, in England, Shelley p. to in an man's

  found Prometheus Unbound

  evolutionary perfect-

  approach was father-force, felt, ibility. Prometheus, he "the divine imagination, the its and re-creates the universe which creates by marriage with the divine

  Asia." Hence Prometheus was freed of or mother suffering idea, -force, i.


  Asia evil could ?

  when became

  not bear her beauty, so transfigured that "to the divine idea birth to the old

  "when world" was ready which gave

  "the ever- to a To this was

  new one more

  perfect." Todhunter, give birth in of


renewed drama creation, which, acted a million times a second, eludes

we call chemical and

  our vision in what which, the mysteries of affinity, millions of the utmost minds" ages, baffles range of our extending over

  II Todhunter was Thus, thought, Shelley

  (Study, 1880, p. 141). by Act

  an as of our most "almost evolutionist modern

  as clearly any philosophers,"

  "a and of

  but transcendental evolutionist of the Hegelian type," his Spirit a blind force but an vital the

  Nature was not Mind. Moreover,

  intensely to was not a dead but effort to realize creation

  Shelley plan "the perpetual

  an there were "certain

  ideal"; for nodal

  • points in this


  when the real and ideal one." become

  golden ages, process of evolution in the cosmic


  harmony, which yet

  then, represented "the discord results in overcome and resolved" higher (pp. 156-57).

  harmony when made of in this field until Alfred

  Little, however, was Shelley's interest in "was,

  North Whitehead, 1925, declared that science in fact,

  part of the structure of his his

  main poetry through. mind, permeating through and

  If had been born a hundred

  later, Shelley years . . . the twentieth century

  would have seen a chemists* can Newton among he]

  [But simply


make of the doctrine of which is fundamental


  nothing secondary

  to retains its

  For nature its

  [science's] Shelley, concepts. beauty and the colour" and Modern

  (Science World, pp. 123-24). to

  Whitehead's consider

Promptly accepting challenge Shelley's scientific

  built Carl Grabo use of scientific

  background, the story of the poet's its materialistic

  deterministic to the reconciliation

  and thought from phase

  of science

  with Platonism in Prometheus Unbound. Grabo traced the in-

  of the fluence of

  thought Erasmus Darwin, Herschel, Newton, and Davy on to

  attention between the poet, with special the relationship the theory of Beccaria use of

  and electrical the


  phenomena; but he admitted

  dual of are scien-

  both symbolism passages, pointing out that many "they tific and neo-Platonic in their

  Poets, 1930, xi), Introduction 111

  and that "scientific thought very quickly verges upon mysticism

H. Cousins wrote of Adonais

  82 And

  our minds. In Prometheus Unbound Shelley




  discovery with the struggle

  for human liberty (Shelley, 1952, p. 29) ,

  so the tides of opinion

  conscious and

  have ebbed and flowed about the coves and

  promontories of thought that form the world of Shelley's poem.




  be added, however, that

  significant in


  group of

  modern poetry further in [Prometheus

  to elec- tricity

  was a commonplace in Shelley's time ["Shelley and Sympathy," 1950, p. 200].

  Stephen Spender

  sided with these writers:

  In certain

  respects, Shelley developed

  Unbound} than

  the enormously extended knowledge of the universe gained by


  has gone since.

  For one aim of modern poetry



  to make



  in his verse" (p. 102).

  abstruse and imaginative theories with regard

  Prometheus Unbound that


  develops, more particularly in the


  of this drama,



  to the Creation' is to

  Nor is it clear that Mrs.

  be applied



  the kind of theory which Mr.

  Grabo dis- cusses" (Edition, 1944, p. 178).


  Douglas Bush

  Shelley's statement in her note on

  or that the use in his poetry of the informa- tion which he had earlier acquired was more than incidental.

  has been seriously challenged, N.

  II, 578). Ellsworth


  "is limited to

  the imagery and does not extend to the general philosophy of the poem.


  it is

  largely the result of remembered, rather than current, reading" (Shelley, 1940,

  Barnard commented: "It is true that Shelley


  in his

  youth was greatly attracted by sensational or striking


  experiments and theories; but the records of his later

  life offer

  practically no evidence that he remained

  of sympathy

  is much more plausible. The comparison

  synonymous with sym- pathy, the idea

  union of Prometheus and Asia



  these studies,


  W. Beach

  suggested that the


  in the

  "not merely humanity's

  espousal of love"

  but also "man's


  with nature

  as explored

  Critical Notes of the present edition.

  be found

  interpreted by science" ("Shelley's

  can be found data which make


  did Grabo insist that his parallels indicated sources, only that, "if in

  some one

  or several of the scientific investigators


  theorists of the time

  Shelley's scientific conceptions as set forth in

  the principal parallels there presented will

  Prometheus fully intelligible, that fact suffices for purposes of interpretation"

  (p. 86) .

  Grabo's detailed interpretation of Prometheus

  Unbound appeared

  five years later,



  Naturalism," 1936, p. 241) ; or, as James




  Prometheus Unbound,

  where, with

  Prometheus and Asia,

it was

refined, universalized, and

  paralleled throughout by an equation of love with electromagnetic

  attraction. To



  Helen but


  a blending of Platonic love with the ideas of modern astronomy makes


  seem a rather far-fetched conceit. But if we constantly remember


that, for Shelley,


  in cruder form than in

  in Rosalind and




  was "in

  fact stating the clearest science

  [of evolution] , but stating




  motif he found also

  wing" (Work Promethean., 1933, pp. 54-55).

  Roy Male

  amplified the

  approach by relating it

  to the doctrine of



82 It should

I. White was convinced that the scientific

  Introduction 112 for of

  In it is work only a challenging respects a great poem,

  poem. many

  art invites and bears without diminution the

  touched range

  with greatness

  all criticism

  outlined. But must


  finally intensity of interpretation here as to art and in well the work of itself, concluded, the survey just give way

  it will clear that the chosen Matthew

  as in be figure to follow, by the pages to for his is

  Arnold sonnet not when

  applied inept

  on Shakespeare Unbound: Prometheus

  For the loftiest hill That to stars uncrowns his the majesty,

  in his the sea,

  Planting steadfast footsteps the of heavens heaven his dwelling-place,


  his base

  but the cloudy border of

  Spares the foiled To searching of mortality. vision


scientific data to do with the of the of

  and validity images has nothing poet's . . . and a But

  life, that, to many readers, remains dubious. Shelley himself supplies

  good a his scientific in which scientific know-

  comment on

  Utopia when, speaking of the



  life, says: 'Man, having

  ledge has circumscribed the imagination, the poetry of "

  slave' and

  enslaved the elements, remains himself a (Science English Poetry, 1950, pp. 1034). did not believe that science was uncommon. Carlos Baker

  He Shelley's interest in this was for

  was "an amateur," but

  intelligent "hardly a reason supposing that he into modern

  developed a pioneer of (Shelley's Major might have physical science" -, commented on Whitehead: the shoemaker

  287). "To 1948, p. Poetry Graham Hough

  is like leather: the to unscientific observer

  there but critic, nothing literary give that

  his is more scientist in a to

  than the moment notice how due, likely literary perhaps and science. The were fragmentary capricious Shelley's important dealings with of truth in this is that see a substratum about he does not of thinking


way Shelley

  dualism material and each is between life; same and

  spiritual one aspect of the reality;

  can the rejuvenation of the one only be accomplished (though not by any process other.

  in scientific the Thus the

  terms) by parallel expressible regeneration of the cosmic natural of Prometheus is inessential to and not it, an additional imagery lyrical

  it is as is sometimes said: a vital

  rhapsodizing, part of the whole imaginative concept"

  Poets, (Romantic 1953, p. 138).

  The most was that of Charles G. Hoffman: "The penetrating statement, however,


  claim that a poet expounding, such-and-such a

  specific doctrine, philosophic or

  leads to over and

  scientific, -simplification;

  the very process of creation the techniques of the its not the

  medium demand of a own kind of emotional truth and poem logical discourse. . . . scientific had a definite and

  or empirical truth of or philosophic Shelley of his is keen and Nature not the Nature of scientific

  interest in science, yet the . . .


  his interest 'scientific':

  materialism. in science was his Furthermore, not purely and for science moralistic humanitarian concern human saw in the to answer progress and the for advances in welfare.

  human He did use of some scientific facts

  make hope

  as a basis for some his

  of but his imagery, the large part of by necessity and by imagery choice traditional comes from and romantic sources" ("Whitehead's Philosophy of Nature," 1952, pp. 261-62). Shelley's

Prometheus Unbound

  1 .


Explanatory Note

is first


TEXT THAT of the edition of 1820 and it


  has (see above, p. xvii), to errors with verbal exactness, even and

  been reproduced typographical have

  numbers and manuscript page follow the edition. been format

  references obvious misreadings. Line

  supplied. Running heads of the present

  have been to

  limited editions, draft ab- Variant readings the principal

  and the


  E been

  stracts, manuscript. This has previously


  to as Rolls ferred B but material now

  (for Bodleian), with the Shelley- to collection it to a


added the seems advisable draw clearer distinction

  I between have therefore


  parts of the Bodleian holdings. (the


  for this


  Bodleian catalogue item) for Shelley's final


  of the copy poem.

  Because of the

  nature of the draft materials, only confusion


  in could result their inclusion the Variant Read- detailed

  from attempting

  abstracted here. Full have, therefore, been ings or Textual Notes. They will be found in A. transcriptions Appendix

  In the Textual all from unless

  Notes E manuscript readings are specific-

  materials. brackets as draft ally identified as Square part of manuscript deletions brackets in readings indicate the poet; shaped these readings


  editorial in other indicate comment. Text of works parallel passages the line been has been

  critic) (where reference only has given by supplied. titles in most refer-

  In these notes short of critical works have been used ences. as the

  For notes which follow the line order of the in



  in and can thus articles or Freeman's be dissertation)

  Zupitza-Schick critic's located reference is to the editor's or


  easily, only; other items as have been identified. those in introductions, etc.)

  (such Variant readings to for are from of the references Free-

  Freeman edition poem;

  the published to the dissertation. References to

  man in the Textual Notes are Woodberry

  in the to the Edition unless otherwise Textual Notes are

  Centenary indicated.

  sacrificed for


  In the Textual Notes, also,

  grammatical nicety has

  • See also xvn-xx for full details of textual procedure.



  116 Explanatory Note in Thus commas and have fidelity to the manuscript. periods punctuation or letters in

  not been omitted when follow the words, numbers,

  they do to allowed the been prevent confusion. original. Adequate spacing has




  Stage Direction for full and identi-

  Draft A MSS

  Dr MSS

  (See Appendix transcriptions fications)


  Bodleian E.3 extant of the


E MSS E.I, E.2, (Shelley's poem)


  edition (1839)

  M Mrs. Shelley


  edition (1839)

  M Mrs. Shelley second

  the first American Fs

  G. G. Foster edition (1845; edition)

  William Michael Rossetti R edition (1870) Fo Forman

  edition (1876)

  Harry Buxton



  R Rossetti

  edition (1878)

  Edward Dowden D edition (1890)



  Fo Forman

  edition (1892) edition (1892)

  W George Woodberry

  H Thomas Hutchinson edition (1904)



  H Hutchinson

  edition (1905)

  A Richard Ackermann

  edition (1908)

  L Charles D. Locock

  edition (1911) edition J Julian

  (Roger Peck; 1927)


Ingpen and Walter

  Fr Freeman and Carl Grabo


  edition (1942) Joseph



  For the above have been for Dr), variant readings (except given. editions adhere

  The one or

  closely to another of the foregoing, following

  but where deviations have been found have

  been indicated significant they in the

  Blind (1829), (1839), (1872),

  Textual Notes: Galignani


  Scott Scudder Dickin- (1873), (1874), (1892), Alexander



  son (1898), Edition Dole Koszul

  (1901), (1905),

  Woodberry Cambridge Frowde Herford

  (1907), (1910), (1910), (1922).


  in indicates that all editions so in-

  Hyphenation the variant readings

H-Fr means

  cluded give the reading (e.g., that Hutchinson, Ackermann, ; Locock, Julian, and Freeman while followed a agree)

  hyphenation by

  indicates all that square bracket except those bracketed give the reading

  all editions that from Mrs. (e.g.,

  M-Fr[Fo] means Shelley's to Freeman's,


  on Forman, Where editor alters a

  except agree the reading). a given in a second the is edition indicated a bracket reading

  change by shaped 5

  2 (e.g. R R otherwise the two

  Speak! M >); J<Speak: editions agree. PROMETHEUS UNBOUND A LYRICAL DRAMA









  Greek THE

  tragic writers, in selecting as their subject their

  any portion of national history or mythology,

  in their it treatment of a certain arbitrary


  discretion. conceived themselves

  They by no means

  to adhere to the to

  bound common [5]

  interpretation or in as in title imitate their rivals


  story predecessors.

  Such a to system would have amounted a resignation of

  their those claims to which preference over competitors


  story incited the composition. Agamemnonian with

  was exhibited on the Athenian theatre as [10] many

  as variations dramas. I to a similar licence. The



have presumed

"Prometheus the

  Unbound" of

  • ^Eschylus


  his reconciliation victim as of Jupiter with the price of to his the disclosure of [15] the danger threatened


  V his with Thetis.

  14 the consummation of

  [E.1 ] marriage by

  1 writers 9 sic E


E < >

Agamemnonian their

  2 of 10 the Greek theatre Dr of the history or mythology

  thier sic

  12 license


  3 E E nation, < >

  13 4-5 felt Dr "Prometheus unbound" themselves obliged of ^Eschy-



5 M lus,

  to his

  6 15-16 the of in title, & E


story, as M Empire Heaven by

  7 Such would have been no more Dr marriage a plan than Dr E


  the resignation


Preface omitted in

  Cuningham and

  full draft of these lines and relevant unused

  1-47 For a Shelley's transcription of A. from unless

  see All below are E MS specifically

  Appendix readings passages, draft.

  identified as from the

  6 as in

  [th] title it different was

  9 Violet written with

  period. Zupitza probably

  pen above thought Unbound was written, on passage the page before the Prometheus

  mark 13 Quotation spacing unique throughout 1820.



  120 Preface

  30 & the endurance E and the endur- 41-42 interest

  39-40 ambition

  & revenge & injustice ings &

  the endurance

  Dr fable


E which

  Dr envy revenge,

  & E which E

  Satan engenders





  41 perpetually




  hero of 32-33 quaking before






  24 the thought

  Dr 35 judgment,


  25 comparison


  should so challenge

  36 Satan E courage & majesty

  so powerful

  E challenge,


  26 But


  truth E 37 &

  & E

  29-30 the


  his perfidious &


  E etical

  31 15


  sentence with (undeleted) : Nor can I imagine how such a scene could ever have excited any thing but disappointment

  < sic

  >on the st





  unfavourable comparison I challenged

  opens with


  of him

  39 A caret directs to envy above the


  40 A

  caret directs to a desire

  for above the line.

  28 In the draft Shelley followed



  from the draft, then according

  interfere E

  Running heads:


  punctuated, small roman

  capitals in 1820.


  this view


  24-25 Draft at first: the consideration of



  18-19 Draft at first:

  & Hercules by the

  permission of Jupiter


  Prometheus from

  the vulture & the chains.

  character than Satan, because

  po- 20 model

  Thetis, according to this view of the subject,

  Prometheus, would

  catas- trophe so feeble as that of reconciling the Champion witih. the Oppressor of

  mankind. The moral

  interest of the fable,

  which is

  so powerfully sustained by the sufferings

  and endurance



  But, in truth,

  [30] [E.1


  r ] annihilated if we

  could conceive of




  his high language

  I was averse from a

  an attempt would challenge might [25] well abate.

  quailing before his successful



  given in marriage to

  Peleus, and Prometheus, by the permis- sion of Jupiter, delivered from his captivity by

  Her- cules. Had

  I framed my


  on this

  I should [20] have done no more than have attempted


  to restore the lost


  of ^Eschylus;

  an ambition, which, if my

  preference to this mode of treating the subject


  incited me to cherish, the recollection of the high



  and perfidious adversary.

  is I think a more

  Dr language,


  a desire for personal aggrandisement, which, in [4] the Hero of Paradise Lost, interfere with the interest.




  view Dr subject

  E successful adversary.

  & E

  exempt from

  18 Pelias, <

  sic >& Prometheus E his perfidious

  & successful


  19 Jupiter


  Hercules. E 33-36


  the taints of ambition, envy, revenge,

  susceptible of being described as



  only imaginary being resembling in


any degree Prometheus,



  and Prometheus is,



  judgement, a

  poetical cha-

  he is


  racter than Satan, because, in addition to courage,



  and firm and

  patient opposition to


  potent force,

17 Shelley copied

  121 Preface character of in

  The Satan the mind a

  engenders per-


which us to

  leads his faults nicious casuistry


  with his and to excuse the because the


  wrongs, latter exceed all measure. In the

  minds of those who [45]


  15 fiction

  [E.1 ] with a

  consider that magnificent religious feel- it worse.

  But Prometheus

  engenders ing something as it of


  were, the type of the highest perfection

  and intellectual moral

  nature, impelled

  by the purest and the to

  truest motives the best and noblest ends.


  This was

  Poem written the mountainous



  of the ruins Baths of Caracalla,

  among the flowery and thickets

  glades, of odoriferous blossoming trees, in its

  which are extended ever


  winding upon

immense and in the


  platforms dizzy arches suspended


  The of the effect of

  bright blue Rome, and



  awakening that divinest climate,

  the vigorous spring

  and the new life with which it drenches the



even to were this

  intoxication, the inspiration of drama.





  be found,

  imagery which have employed

  in have been drawn from

  [E.1 16*] instances, to

many the opera-

  tions of the or from those external actions

  human mind,

  This is in

  unusual by which they are expressed.



  although [65] poetry, Dante and Shakspeare

  E M & ever-winding

  44 wrongs Dr

  55 46 & E read that magnificent

  47 56 & E

  EM feeling,

  Fs L

  49& E

  57 E R A of spring M


  50& found E &E trees 62 instances

  53 & E E E 2 E 54 <extended E

  R R >

  65 Poetry; & extending Shakespeare then in inserted character

  42 from the E The


  Shelley copied Satan engenders of with line. above the


  in pencil

  first: leads us to his in return his

  43-44 Draft at excuse for faults



  15V opens with magnificent were written with finer smaller 51-73 lines letters,

  These probably at another pen and

  as line a later

  time inasmuch 74 on begins page.


  51 out of above [among] upon

  stretched caret after out directs

  are A 54 [has] out [am]

  Shelley wrote which upon

  line. out to in ever darker ink above the Then, in labyrinths in pencil, stretched

  winding after directs to the line.

  is and are above

  deleted extended in pencil a penciled caret was a start on

  Zupitza suggested that [am] among 56 ahove [air]

  sJcy for will Then There

  61 above The imagery which I have [There befound] Zupitza read


  16 the The bottom 62 one-third, following singularity opens with operations

  is <sic>of line 73, blank.




  due, E

  Dr no paragraph

  E .,



  Dr minds, E 75 writing

  have modified Dr 87 & E

  > E


  & E

  and, indeed, M 88 they were produced.

  Dr 78 popular


  89 have


  74 One word in candour on the manner

  < sic

  78-81 any one contemporary with such 90 imitate,



  themselves or 71 and

  it sfrom<c>E


  (since others

  that their language Dr


  himself, E

  84 thier


  72 me)


  me), M 83 of




  singular tity < sk > E

  form, Dr E form while Fs


  E of the



  thier The e

  and i are formed




  dot rests between the two

  90 Draft

  other instances

  at first: those whom




  to imitate Shelley,

  without de-

  leting, wrote the received reading ahove the draft line.



front at this point, their in this as in


  passages, see

  powers is,

  I am sure,

  power[s] , 74-178 For a full



  Shelley's draft of these lines

  and relevant unused


  opens with peculiarity of Note that Shelley had inverted the notebook and was writing from hack

  A. All


  readings helow

  are from E unless specifically identified as

  from the draft 75-78

  my . . .

  mine not in the draft. 86 38


  present day

  the ranks of literature 70 power,




  readers should impute

  this singularity.


  V ] One word is

  due in candour to the degree in which the study of contemporary writings

  may have tingedmy com-

  position, for such has been a topic of censure with re- gard to

  I am






  indeed more de- servedly popular, than mine. It


  willing that

  study of their works, (since a higher merit would probably be denied me,) to which


  and with greater success. But the Greek

  of instances of the same kind:






  other poet,

  poets, as writers to

  [70] and it is the

  whom no resource





  of their contemporaries

  was unknown,

  were in the habitual use of this power;

  impossible that



  Thus a number of

  [85] [E.3

  38 r ] culiarities of their

  own minds

  than to the peculiarity of ; the moral and intellectual condition of the

  minds among

  which they

  have been produced.

  writers possess the form, whilst they


  want the spirit

  of those

  whom, it is

  alleged, they imitate; because the


  67 poet

  E writers as


  are due less to the pe-

  has manifested


  and tone

  inhabits the


  age with such writers as those


  stand in the foremost ranks of our own, can con-


  scientiously assure himself that his language

  of thought



  not have been modified


  the study of the productions of those extraordinary intellects.

  It is

  true, that, not the

  spirit of their genius,

  but the forms in which

70 What looks

  Preface 123

  revision of the draft, which begins with (undeleted) : /


  to have been written before the

  paragraph was completed, inasmuch as line 112 was written around

  it. It was

  probably put in




  undeniably pursuaded <sic>


  98 remains above [ins] , the latter from



of the draft.

  Zupitza read in changed

  to is

  and then deleted. Freeman did not indicate

  its insertion after mind It

  line to


  to the

  except Shakespeare,




  107 the Elizebethan




  sentence of this paragraph was written on the opposite page, with a


  108-9 shook the most oppressive form of the Christian Religion

  to the dust, Dr

  109 &E Religion.


  94 The



  for essentially

  105 to those which have never

  s tarted excellent before perfect

  He also read [ex]

  with the x but half written.

  This is more


  since Shelley



  was written.

  (almost a capital in

  106 In the draft Shelley followed


  sentence with (undeleted) : So much experience warrants; & theory may surmise & imagine more

  Draft at first: We owe, probably

  to the

  Reformation 108 Draft at


  size), with the joined e debatable.



  Appendix A).


  transcription of

  E he

  gave materially and

  in his

  transcription of the draft he gave

  inevitably (the latter, I believe, in error; see



  is [every]

  no reason 103

  institutions [equally] not


  [es] perfect Zupitza read [equally]

  but the a


  if we may

  Dr 104&E

  former is the endowment

  and extent

  which awaken it to

  action perpetually change.


  England were

  divided into


  forty republics, each equal in population

  to Athens, there



is no reason to

suppose but




  not more


  than those of

  the circumstances

  capabilities remains at every period materially the

  would produce

  and comprehensive imagery which distinguishes

  of the age in



  live, and the latter must be the uncommunicated

  lightning of their own

  mind. [

  E.3 37V ] The peculiar style of intense


  mass of


  literature of


  England, has not been, as a general power, the pro- duct of the imitation of

  any particular writer.

  The f E.3

  38 r ]

  Athens, each


  103 -4 institutions similar to those of Athens, would produce

  probably at every period the same,


  96 power


  97 any particular one



  capabilities is

  Dr essentially


  Fr 101 in extent


  population Dr repub

  • - lies

  each aequal

  E &


  102 hut that each Dr

  has not been,

  95-96 distinguishes modern


  the great writers of the golden age of our literature to that fervid awaken- ing of the public

  poets equal to those who



  except Shakspeare)

  have [105]


  V ] never been surpassed.





mind which shook


  to dust the oldest

  and most


  form of the Christian religion.

  We 92&E

  93 thier<sic>E 94 no paragraph

  E &

  mind which overthrew the hierarchy


  Preface to of the

  owe Milton [110]

  the progress and developement let it ever be re- the sacred Milton was,


  spirit: into

  and a

  a bold inquirer

  membered, republican,

  writers of our own

  and The

  morals religion. great to

  have reason we

  are, suppose, the companions age in our

  and forerunners of [115] some unimagined change it. The

  social which cement condition or the opinions


  cloud of is


  collected lightning, discharging

  and institutions and between

  opinions r the equilibrium

  is or to be restored. ] now is about

  [E.336 restoring, art.


is a

As mimetic It creates, [120]

  to imitation, poetry

  it creates but combination and representation. by

  Poetical abstractions are beautiful and new, not are



  they composed had because the portions of

  no in the mind of man or in

  nature, previous existence their because the combination

  but [125]

whole produced by

  has and


  intelligible beautiful analogy with those sources of and with the contem-

  emotion and


  them: is a master-

  one great poet porary condition of

  which another not to

  only piece of nature ought study 110 E

  E & M

  development 120 imitation; Poetry 111 121 E

  E & spirit;


  E E E &

  112 Republican enquirer 113


  them have no

  & 123-24 portions of previ-

  114-15 the forerunners of some Dr ous Dr 114 E

  age, E 124 man,

  suppose M 115 or forerunners E L 125-26 the an

  A whole has intelligible in

  the Dr E condi- Dr E 116 condition, & & analogy


  or the 127-28 E

  tion, M A & One Great Poet thought.


  & &E 129 nature, EM


  We owe start on Paradise Lost

  [Pa] Milton Zupitza conjectured a the . . . 111-13 sacred not in the has instead Chaucer

  draft, which religion (deleted):

  was contemporary with Wickliff .

  113 morals above

  & religion [faiths] . . .

  116-19 The cloud restored in the draft. not above caret after , is caret 116 in & 119 Second after or above

  123 because had above Note that

  [they no previous] the [parts]

  portions [parts] had draft. Shelley written portions in the

  man or nature


  [of] in



  a to their com- 125 whole [which these parts] produced followed by directing by bination line, these those above the . . possibly

  127-37 and with . in not the draft.

  ineffectual : After thought the draft has (unde- it abstracts that is all sensation that

leted) has been imagined, or which

  from the object of




  128 One which to be The over something illegible,

  Zupitza conjectured 129 which another almost written the line. above Preface


  n] He

  in this




  similarity, E


  Hesiod E 130 [He

  might The deleted n was probably a

  & in ano

  false start on m

  132 minor of

  [th] all that

  133 as

  [that he would] exclude [to]


  [would] An illegible letter

  (w?) or pair of

  ther the creations E 141 is

  148 creators

  deleted before


  & E

  137 strained unnatural

  & E A



  146 philosophers



  of external influences which 147 or painters sculptors

  & E




  Dr others, &

  E are in one sense E

  or musicians,



  letters (be?)



  14647 [Men, are] Poets, philosophers or

  the] excite he is

  not one


  but he . . .

  both not in

  the draft. 142

  Second by out of but

  146-49 Poets . . . escape not in the draft



  painters 147


  above or 150 32


  opens with [dent

  distinctions] , similarity.,


  sufficient distinctions] ,

  140 as [modify


  Probably a false start on

  slight mark


  134 35


  opens with contemporary,

  in the [prod]

  writings There



  following the

  [could he accomplish such]



  [prod] Probably, as

  Zupitza suggested, Shelley started

  to write

  productions 135 presumption

  in [all] any

  136 in him

  outward forms Dr



  the nature of others;




  combined product

  of such internal




  and of such external influences

  be strained, unnatural,

  as excite and sustain these powers;

  he is not


  but [140] both.

  Every man's mind is,

  in this respect, modified

  by all

  the objects of nature

  and ineffectual, A



  mirror of all that is lovely in the visible universe, as exclude from his contemplation the beautiful

  must study.

  He might

  as wisely


  as easily


  determine that his mind should no longer

  be the


  in him,

  [E.335 r ] exists in the writings of a great contemporary.


  pretence of doing

  it would be a presumption


  any [135]

  but the greatest; the

  effect, even



  137-38 the joint product Dr

  132 lovely

  a similarity

  between Homer and

  Hesiod, be- [150] 130 must R &

  E 142-43

  by every word




  E 142 & art,





  the effect even




E 143



  r ] There is

  subjection the loftiest do not escape.


  it is the mirror upon which all forms

  word and

  every suggestion


which he



  to act


  his consciousness;

  are reflected,

  From this

  and in which

  they compose

  [145] one form.

  Poets, not otherwise than philosophers, painters, sculptors,


  musicians, are, in


  sense, the creators, and, in another, the creations, of their age.




  and and between tween

  Virgil ^Eschylus Euripides,

  Dante and between

between Petrarch,

  Horace, Fletcher,

  between Dryden and Pope; Shakspeare and


  under which

  each has a generic resemblance distinctions [155]

  If this similarity specific are arranged.


  result am confess be the of imitation, willing to

  I that have imitated.

  to me of acknow- Let this conceded opportunity be

  I a


  have, ledging that Scotch philosopher cha- for

  "a [160]

  terms, reforming the racteristically passion world:" to write and

  what him

  passion incited publish


  his omits had

  he For

  book, to explain. my part with Plato and Lord rather be damned Bacon, than

  it is

  to with Malthus. But a


  go Paley and to

  I mistake dedicate [165]


  my coinpo-

  suppose that direct the enforcement of reform, or

  [E.33F] sitions solely to that

  I in as

  consider them degree containing a



life. Didac-

  reasoned human

  system on the theory of tic is

  abhorrence; poetry nothing can be equally


  in is and well not tedious [170] expressed prose that supere-

  151 161 world."

  What E & &E


  152 E

  & E M

  162 explain For part, part,


  153 163 Fletcher E & E



  E 164 E heaven & M



  154-55 the R < R Dr

  their specific > 166 inforcement of that reform, specific thier sic 157 imitated. inforcement of of 5 ic E

  > E E <

  < >

  take this 167-68 in 158-59 Let me opporuntity of any degree a reasoned system

  life Dr on human Dr

  theory forms of acknowledging

  159-60 169-70

  Dr characteristically calls

  Nothing can equally well be ex- 161-64 to write his does is book he not ex- but tedious Dr can pressed in prose, that

  I shall be

  comfort is, E plain.

  My equally well be expressed

  in 170

  damned Dr E &

  good company 151-52 between and Horace draft. not in the


  153-57 between is the draft deleted in and the remainder of the sentence not Dryden :

  all writers

  a of contemporary epoch. present; instead (undeleted) great a

  154 each has


  generic 155-56 be

  similarity [is] first: / twitted with to this

  158 Draft at am Then

  E: [Concede me] opportunity Let and a caret after to be to above [me] conceded me above the opportunity directing

  line, [who] that

  acknowledging For


  162 explain


  and company deleted: Plato, Lord 163 Following good the draft Shelley wrote

  sic Rousseau

  Bacon, Milton. <

  > r

  166 31


  opens with of reform, [that] [that] inforcement of of reform, The start of a from the new after the reduplication resulted first [that] page

  167 caret after directs to A a line. above the

  127 Preface in verse.

  been sim-

  rogatory purpose has hitherto


  to familiarize ply the highly refined imagination of the select classes of readers


more with beautiful

  poetical until idealisms of moral aware that the i excellence;

  and and and

mind can love, and

  admire, trust, [175] hope, of moral conduct seeds endure, reasoned are principles


  cast the of which the unconscious

  highway upon would

  dust, passenger tramples into although they bear the harvest of his

  I live to Should happiness.



  what is,

  syste- [180] accomplish purpose, that


  to to


what me

  matical history of appear be the genuine elements of not the

  human advocates of

  society, let

  and flatter themselves that

  I injustice superstition

  r ] than model.

  Plato as [E.330 should take /Eschylus rather



  [185] The having spoken of myself with unaffected

  171-73 to familiarize are seeds thrown Dr

  They They are attempts


  Dr life, M

  the imagination of poetical readers

  familiarise E

  M 180-81 systematical

  developement excellence.

  174-75 Until the mind Dr systematic Fs

  2 trust

  175 love admire E R <

  & & & & purpose R >

  hope 180 propose endure to 182 sources of human

  176 our E

  & what end would you

  society of conduct? 183 E moral E 184 model. propose principles &

17.L-73 above

  simply [rather]

  172 familiarize [imagination ofpo] highly 176 [that] reasoned endure, . . unknown draft. After the draft had at first: the . 177-96 which not in the

  the See draft variant reading above.

  life & sic to the on dust.

  passenger tramples < > hungry

  r to

  180-84 31 is almost but written and

  illegible at this point, appears

  havefbeen corrected as follows: that

  is, produce a systematical

  what to to

  me be

  appear of which

  [the principles

  development sources of


  the genuine [elements

  let human not the life],

  should regulate our



  injustice &

  advocates of [despotism] superstition

  flatter I should

  themselves that

  [assure] [Euclid]

  ^Eschylus rather as take


[Euclid] than [^Eschylus]

  Plato model.

  my r . sources I defensible. last lines are on

  30 but believe For our The two of uncertain, and it after

  Freeman read human

  human .society erroneously placed society and of ' let when assure

  not after was crowded in to flatter was changed

  injustice in

  Shepherd. 181 appears



  cannot amuse] attempt

  [if he

  exert them;

  as follows: to



  191-92 These


  possess above


  were made, apparently later, with a different pea.

  be ineffectual

  in this line

  187 The changes

  & minds, by [calumny] misrepre sentation;


  [but] their own

  injure [not] me,

  pies] less than will]



  uncandid [may speak

  who are]

  if his [efforts]



[to a] candid, [mind] &




  195 betray [the spot] his grave The words is

  at a later time.

  of those used above, was employed, probably

  different from either

  a sharp-pointed pen, seemingly



  his [hopes] efforts. Beginning with

  none 194

  no one one was then deleted and no changed

  the punishment of an

  at first

  193 none

  different pen.

  with a


  purpose were substituted, apparently


  none attempt

  sufficient, let

  purpose [attempt] have been

  [ace] unaccomplished

  the consider that they



  amuse and


  sufficient; let

  an unaccomplished purpose have been



  be ineffectual, let the

  bound to exert them: if his attempt


  he is [190J

  instruct others, be they ever so inconsiderable,



  may possess

  talents a person


  their own hearts and minds by misrepresentation.

  me less than

  the uncandid consider that they injure

  and let

  apology with the candid;


  will need


  trouble themselves to

  the dust of oblivion


  & minds,

  that they should be reproduced: with the

  in draft state

  186-88 These lines too are so nearly


  E ineffectual

  191 them;

  unknown E

  195 grave, M 189 amuse or E A 196


  by misrepresentation;





  194 efforts.


  187 me,

  sufficient, E



  186 candid, &

  have been unknown.

  his efforts; the pile they raise will betray his grave which might otherwise [1951

  trembling upon] are written weakly and poorly below the last line of this



  r ]













  Panthea and lone has a

  light mark added

  at the top that


  believe was intended to include Asia as the third of the Oceanides.



  the Hours

  r .

  inserted later.

  Fawns added


  in pencil.

  Dramatis Personae not given in Alexander or Dickinson; given without change from

  1820 in Shepherd.


  The bracket joining


  FURIES. Prometheus


  Jupiter The Earth Mercury Hercules [Panthea]



  Panthea) Oceanides lone


  The Phantasm of Jupiter


  of the Earth The

  D. P. <etc. > on


  of the Hours The Echoes Fawns Furies




  of the Moon. M-Fr Fauns.

  MP-Fr Prometheus

  Unbound/a Lyrical Drama/

  The KIM*


  E-i i8v ] I.








  PRO. of all MONARCH

  Gods and Daemons, and Spirits who worlds

  But One, and

  throng those bright rolling

  I and alone of

  Which Thou

  living things

  Behold with this Earth

  sleepless eyes! regard multitudinous

  Made thou

  slaves, whom [5] with thy for and

  Requitest knee-worship, prayer, praise,

  And and hecatomhs of broken toil, hearts, and

  With fear self -con tempt and barren hope. who am

  Whilst me, foe, eyeless in hate, thy SD Scene A Ravine Pro-

  3 thou



  Night &E

  E lone earth Fs

  metheus Panthea E

  4 E Fr R FT precipice & eyes eyes, Earth, feet.

  E and E &

  prayer 6 prayer praise Fs

  1 all toil

  and demons and Fs

  7 Fs hecatombs

  & E

  gods spirits Fr self

  & Daemons E Daemons

  8 & E

  & Spirits R & barren hope;


  20neFs One R R one, Fr hope: hope;WALFr

  Worlds While Fs hate


  9 me R R

  & rolling r 1. : the scene

  [During Zupitza suggested, morning slowly

  I SD Act On 19 breaks].


  think that the deletion was to clear 19 for the translation of the

  /OTI, correctly, merely as all as

  which is on this editions, as well noted, in page. subsequent a part of Except


  names of characters are and


  (where they are centered normally unpunctuated), as as in the dash. written out in the blank verse well above lyric sections.


  first 1 of Daemons and S of small letters.

  D .

  Spirits at first: . .



At rotting Worlds / Which Thou & living things, regard /

  I alone of


  3 was event multitudinous etc. have noted that a hexameter; in any

  Shelley may

  its line

  a vertical line comma to mark the and inserted he drew between and end, things inverted caret as the received line 4 between the an

  original lines, leaving a space with for Freeman end line and

  read the (see illustration, p. 141). a guide regard facing

  as inverted caret not justify this.

  parentheses, but the context does

  hearts faint did effect-

  6-7 after and and not The commas reproduce praise are quite

  in the illustration

  ively facing p. 141,

  132 Prometheus Unbound

  RW H L Fr

  Fr empire:

  R D H

  empire: Fs

  W L

  17 throne


  oh mighty Fs

  Mighty God!

  despair Fs R

  R 2

  18 Almighty


  Running act heads: ACT I. SCENE I. in 1820.

  10 Hadst in Koszul.

  14 Freeman defended seem inasmuch as "the 'moments'

  are still

  continuing" (Text, p. 42).






  revenge, Fs revenge . . .

  A L revenge. . . .


  12 Three-thousand R





  13 moments,


  14 seem E


  Fr years Fs

  & E



  15 Scorn

  despair [more glorious than thy throne]

  2 >


  unenvied throne



  & blood, are these]

  o Mighty God! the revision


  at the top of

  r . survey* st in Shepherd.


  21 I of Black at first a Freeman conjectured a


  on Bare 23-24 Insertion marks indicate location.

  26 Heaven above


  27 The punctuation

  after seen is uncertain.

  A comma or semicolon is present.



  glorious far

  these are


  mine empire,


  at the bottom of


  r ,

  separated from the Ion translation by a curved line. Forman noted the need



  pronunciation and wondered whether empery might not have been used (the MS showed that

  19V opens with: More


  was not).

  16-17 19V has a

  2 at top center.

  Shelley started

  to number his

  pages, but stopped at


  HOerE &E revenge....


  Hast thou made




  deigned to share the shame


  thine ill tyranny,



not here

  Nailed to this wall of eagle-baffling mountain,

  Black, wintry, dead,

  without herb, Insect, or beast, or

  throne, 0,


  or sound of life.


  r ] Ah me!

  alas, pain, pain ever, for ever!




  Mighty God! Almighty, had

  From thine unenvied


  aye divided by keen pangs Till they



  triumph, to thy scorn,

  O'er mine own misery

  and thy vain revenge. Three thousand

  years of sleep-unsheltered hours,

  And moments


  that which thou surveyest

  years, torture and solitude,

  Scorn and

  despair, these are

  mine empire.

  [E.1 19

  V ] More

  glorious far




  A < scorn,

  hope! yet Fr


  alas! pain,


  ever, R forever!

  W L

  24 hope! yet

  I endure E

  25 Earth Fs


  26 Heaven

  E Fr



  27 seen, the E the Fr calm E


  & E

  scorn Fo

  J Ah

  alas! M



  I endure.

  [E.1 19

  V ]

  I ask the Earth,

  have not the mountains felt?

  I ask

  yon Heaven, the all-beholding Sun, Has it not seen? The

  Sea, in

  or calm,


  [10] [15] [20] [25]

  20 eagle baffling mountain E 21 herb


  22 Insect E Fs life


  Fs Fr

  23 Ah me, alas, pain, pain ever forever!

  E Ah

  The ACT I


  35 Freeman defended

  as over


  else, identified by

  Freeman as In Zupitza noted Heaven's

  in different ink. below[?]

  29-30 These


  with insertion marks, are above and below the added

  lines 23-24.



  on a conjectured


  of the opening His

  in error,

  and because its gives a more


  reference (Text, p.

  43) .

  37 The

  which Zupitza noted

  28 Heaven's above

  [Where thou descendst each night with open eyes

  The upper part of

  and Night, 33 bones,


  bones; R Fr night;


  dot of the semicolon



  it is) may

  he the hottom of a question mark.

  this mark

  be either question mark, semicolon, or comma.


  to be deleted,

  although the deletion


  not firm and


  be an ink


  Freeman read semicolon.




  [shapele] ghastly dream[s], Following 37 are the canceled lines:



  lines, beginning with line 44.




  to be

  the same as that used in the middle of the page, where

  either the

  pen became defective or a coarser pen was used



  44 Freeman noted



  even on



, under a

  word of the Ion translation. He con-



  for And

  yet of this line.

  is in different ink,


  torture, for

  on 20

  a tyrant seldom

  sleeps, Thou never;]

  Possibly descend?

  st Locock read When thou descend* $t

  me as

  a substitute



  never;] is

  r ,



  line 37.

  39 20


  has a centered



  the top.

  36 Shelley's original line count, above wounds 42 genii above


  E Day







  shapeless sights

  come wandering by, The

  ghastly people of the


  of dream,

  Mocking me: and the Earthquake-fiends are charged [E.1

  20 V ] To wrench the rivets


  up [35]

  wounds When

  the rocks split

  and close

  again behind:

  [40] While from

  their loud abysses

  howling throng The

  genii of the storm, urging the rage




  and afflict


  with the spears




  spread below, [E.120

  r ] Have its deaf waves not heard my agony?

  Ah me!

  alas, pain, pain ever, for ever! '

  [30] [E.1

  19 V ] The crawling glaciers pierce




  their moon-freezing chrystals, the bright chains

  Eat with



  cold into

  my bones.

  Heaven's winged hound, polluting from

  thy lips His beak in poison





  44 Day

  alas! pain, pain, ever, R

  30 no punctuation



  alas! Fs


  & E


  E W


  forever E


  42 Genii

  R Storm, R forever!





  crystals; M


  R W A L




  keen hail.



  yet to

  me welcome is day and night,

  28 ever changing Shadow, spread 35 it's own,

  E its

  Fr below E ever changing shadow,



  & E


  me & E

  shadow Fs

  R L



  37 Dream,




  it's E


38 Mocking


  its own train


  Fr heaven! Fs


  48 Locock preferred the




  "Each day and night leads



  'wingless, crawling Hours.'


  55 ah over alas and no inserted above and between ah and


  54 Locock,

  in error,

  read thro 1 Forman conjectured the omission of


  on the

  54 thro wide E Fs H-Fr through M


  of rhythm ("the irregularity of measure


  mountains, Fs

  49 As

  W L priest

  Fs R

  60 Echoes thro E echoes Fs

  53 Disdain? ah no


  pity thee what Echoes



  E Disdain? Fs A

  Fr Ah, W

  61 cataracts Fs

  R spell;


  Fr thee what Ruin Fr Ruin L

  62 Springs






  whom W

  for 57,

  the end of the t crossing.

  59 Once above [Then] mountains on




, for

  lack of space here.

  58 Shelley's line count



  the count before additions were made)

  ink spatter


  at the bottom right corner of the page.

  He carried this


  to text line 498.

  60 21r has a centered 4 at the top.

  Forman noted that through in

  1820 was an ex- ception to Shelley's general practice.

  Dole omitted the hyphen, with a resultant


  then, is an

  unlike Shelley") and sense ("Shelley . , uses Heaven for the empire of the

  felt that


  [as here, at 1.373,




  the heaven

  when he means merely the sky").

  But G.

  H. Clarke

  "the crowding haste of the line accords happily with

  rather than


  meaning." Note that Foster




  1845 had omitted the without comment, possibly a typographical error.

  58 The dot that led


  to read


  L 59 mountains E

  Hours, R L Fr

  Prometheus Unbound


  pity thee. What ruin


  hunt thee undefended

  thro' the wide Heaven!




  soul, cloven to its

  with terror,


  [55] Gape

  like a hell within!


  speak in

  grief, Not

  exultation, for

  I hate no





  made me wise.


  Whether one breaks the hoar

  frost of the

  morn, [45]


  starry, dim,


  slow, the other climbs


  leaden-coloured east; for then they lead

  wingless, crawling hours,

  such a prostrate slave. Disdain!

  one among whom

  As some dark Priest hales the reluctant victim

  Shall drag thee, cruel

  King, to kiss the blood [50]


  these pale feet,


which then

might trample thee

  If they disdained


  then ere misery







  47 East;


  Fs Fr more E Fs Fr

  48 Thier

  < sic

  wingless crawling Hours,

  slow Fr

  58 then,

  E A L

  then; Fr wise the

  E Their A L

  J Fr wingless


  Fr Curse

  E Fr wise: the


  57 Exultation,



  flung the thunder of that spell!


  breathed on thee

  I would recall. Ye Mountains,


  V ] Whose many-

  voiced Echoes,


  the mist

  [60] Of cataracts,



  icy Springs, stagnant with wrinkling frost,

  45 hoar-frost R


  W L


  terror E

  46 Or, R dim and slow Fs &slow

  56 Hell E L Fr

  grief E

  shift in meaning. ACT

  I .



  power Fr slaugter<stc>E slaughter W Fr


  80 had ran

  <sic>mute E mute Fr



  81 Through

  E Fr

  69 world if

  M &


  solitude! E soli-

  71 within, E


  E world!- L if

  79 blood




  77 multitude: R

  66 the swift


  2 Whirlwinds E


  24 Voice from the Springs


  solitude! Fr

  & E oer E



  78 Thunderbolts E M-Fr [Fo A]

  68 thunder

  E Fr own E Fr

  Fr within! A tude: R

  E Fr hate, R

  72 hate

  this line.


  Shelley wrote

  slaugter (sic) has only the downstroke, probably inserted after



  possibly k '


  over something


  'mid above [thro] h of

  the top.

  5 at

  22 V has a centered


  79 78 Shelley's count, precedes

  fears E

  The change appears





  with serenest Air below

  [pure] T of Thou at first a small letter.


  indentation in E see Appendix H.

  have been made at once.

  73 Woodberry noted that an otherwise unidentified Greenwood conjectured me. Speak!

  74 For


  patterns of



  76 Oft E Fr

  135 Which


  thunder, louder


than your own,

made rock

  The orbed

  world! If then



words had


  I am



  so that


  evil wish


  Is dead within; although


  yon hushed

  Of what is

  which the Sun

  vibrated to hear


me, and

  then crept


  thro' India! Thou serenest

  Air, Thro'

  walks burning without

  moveless o'er

  beams! [65]


  ye swift Whirlwinds,




  poised wings

  Hung mute and



memory be

  hate, let them not lose it

  sun Fs beams,

  75 Oe'r<sic>the Earthquakes

  64 through India;

  Thou serenest Air E SD


  8 .*

  Voice, from the Mountains E through M India; thou Fr thou



  73 speak



  stood; E

  W L Fr

  65 Through

  E M



  now! What was that curse?

  trembled in our multitude,




all heard me speak.

  Thrice three hundred thousand years O'er the Earthquake's

  couch we stood: [75]

  Oft, as men convulsed with fears,



  'mid shrieks of slaughter, [8QJ Thro' a city

and a solitude.




  our water,

  We had been stained with

  bitter blood,


  22*] And had run mute,

70 Though



  "Ah, woe is me!"

  such a

  sound before To the Indian waves we bore. 4 A pilot asleep on the howling


  [95] Leaped up from the deck

  in agony,


  V ] And heard, and



  And died

  As at the voice of thine unrest.

  mad as the wild waves be.

  SD 3<?

  Voice from the Air


  90 wonder!


  Fr wonder:








  I had clothed, since Earth

  uprose, Its wastes in colours not their

  own, And


  had my serene repose

  Been cloven by many

  a rending groan. [85]


had soared beneath these mountains

  But never bowed our snowy

  Unresting ages;


nor had


  Nor yon

  volcano's flaming fountains,

  Nor any power above

  or under

  Ever made us mute

  with wonder.



  • Voice E

  E R

  b of bore. over w


  23V has a centered


  count, precedes this line.


  96 95






  Freeman conjectured a

  88 I of flaming originally



  at the top.




  82 clothed E


  ah woe is




  original lines


  and wrote them on 23\ The


  then canceled the

  r ,

  99 at the top of 23

  part of

  lines 97, 98, and

  he in shrank back of line 103. The word is

  mute but Locock held the contrast to soared


  from the Whirlwinds E 94 bore, E

  E Fr

  96 agony


  Fr uprose

  ages; E L


  R SD 2* E SD 4* Voice




  Fs R A 92 unrest E 85 groan


  83 own;

  1 s


  88 Volcano's flaming fountains

  97 &

  as a contrast to


And is


  86 Garnett suggested (to Locock) roared

  above 4*

  SD Voice

  darker, possibly in different ink. Cf. line 106.


  possibly from a dry pen,

  85 And silence below Been

  cried ah woe is

  98 be E

  89 under, R

  2 >

  R<"Ah R

  fountains Fr "Ah!


  me! E

  thunder ACT





  such dread words from Earth to Heaven

  My still



  never riven:

  [100] When its wound was

  closed, there stood

  Darkness o'er the


  like hlood.


  To frozen caves our flight pursuing

  change, leading

  within the mountains

  tongueless [clefts



  of the craggy




  as follows:

  pen above The Earth The lines developed

  A Voice with finer

  adopt it 107-11

  later editors to


  then hollow Cried Misery,




  rather than based on the errata.






  a hell

  Shelley's change of

  felt that Mrs.

  105 Made at first Make 106 Fonnan


  [&] the [startled]

  upstroke 104

  Zupitza read a

  And we

  at first / Actually, accidentally, \pa]k

  the second line was


  darker ink. The comma after Misery

  later, in



  caverns and


  and Freeman

  possible [back]




  the illegible

  Misery! For



  nations heard

  And the pale

  to [all] the winds.

  Climbing the land, howled [it]

  [*] the lashing

  Oceans purple waves,


  Misery! and


  flights in Dickinson.

  to be a t


  [110] SD

  E W

  107 caverns

  riven; W

  100 riven E


  heaven Fs A Voice above The Earth


  99 earth




  3 E SD they pass with a

  Climbing the land, howled to the lashing winds,

  Day E Day L

  the Ocean's purple waves,



  Cried, ' Misery!' then; the hollow Heaven replied, f


  tongueless Caverns of the craggy

  r ] THE EARTH. The



  is a hell to us.


  [105] Though

  us keep silence thus and thus

  102 oer the

  Fr 108 Cried Misery, then

  there appears

  And [died as the



  the before mad was deleted individually before the final crossing.

  the entire passage.

  clearly to delete


  shrank back: for dreams of ruin


  possibly deleted,

  [By such dread words from Earth] wild waves was

  wild waves be 3?

  as the


  winds Fs

  E Cried R SD


  Fs H-Fr us E 110 winds.

  as hell E M

  L 106

  M andRLFr ocean's



  Oceans E 105

  Fr 109 Misery! and the

  Fr 103 shank <c>back E back

  E R

  "Misery!" M replied

  4 E Fr

  the intent

  138 Prometheus

  Unbound And

  the pale nations

  heard it, *



  I hear a sound of



  the voice

23 V ] PRO.


  117 wind! at


  gave forth.

  [0 mother dare thy sons

  [under] Scorn him without whom, by the might of Jove]

  The last half of

  line 113 is also

  on 24

  r .


  (on 23^ :

  wind? Possibly only a dash was intended, since the

  vertical line

  deleting the upper part of the question

  mark and

  forming the exclamation may have been simply a


  ye above [they] 118 agony above







  117 wind!





  me E

  125 with me E Fr alone R

  118 Titan, he E Fr he Fs

  were at

  R L

  checked E Fr checked, M

  112 heard in Scott (probably a typographical


  and, probably independently,


  Scudder and Hutchinson. Hutchinson influenced Koszul, Hughes, and Herford in its use.

  11344 These


  misery] Zupitza conjectured a


  Fs Fr 124






  Now [dimly]



  tempests] deep below, There

  is a mark

  following vapours which

  be a dash

  as follows:

  or a comma. .

  124 Dole shifted the emphasis by dropping the

  comma after

  ye 125

  Locock was tempted


  put the

  first comma a word earlier,


  be either. 121 This line was changed


  word at

  119 your above

  [thier] (sic)

  which was at




  your was

  also another


  It may

  scarcely legible, but

  I believe

  mans 120



  count, precedes

  this line, above [Ye]

  fed above

  $now[ing] which Freeman read as snow[wy] Zupitza and Locock read streams or stream.

  spirit, W ye Fs


  gave forth.

  snow-fed streams,


  agony The

  barrier to


  else all-conquering foe?

  Oh, rock-emhosomed






  V ] Now



  frore vapours, deep below,

  Thro' whose o'ershadowing


  I wandered once

  He who made

  not me, The

  Asia, drinking

  Beneath the fierce omnipotence


Mother, thy


  and thou


  r ] Scorn

  him, without


  all-enduring will

  of Jove,

  wind. Know ye



  23V ]



  and thou had

  vanished, like thin mist

  Unrolled on the



  life from

  & E vanished


  E R W


  voices; W

  & E streams E

  113 forth.

  Mother E

  & E

  122 Thro whose oer-shadowing

  114 him Fs





  115 Jove E



  eyes, E

  Fr 116

  lawns Fs lawns

  voices E L Fr

  her loved eyes; : : ;



  scorns the spirit


  informs ye,

  now To commune with me? me alone, who check' d, [125]


  it, Misery! E it Fs it,










  120 E R

  W L Oh

  rock embos- 112 heard


  , 139

  As one who checks a fiend-drawn


  The falsehood and the force of him who

  reigns with the groans of pining slaves

  Supreme, and

  Fills wildernesses:

  and your dim

  glens liquid



  answer ye not, Why THE not.

  [130] EARTH. Theydare


  I PRO. dares? would

Who hear that curse

again. what an rises


  awful whisper up! 'Tis scarce like sound: it the


  tingles thro' ere it strike.


  hovering lightning tingles,


  thine inorganic voice [135]

  Speak, Spirit!

  126 fiend drawn Fs E charioteer E M-Fr dare not . .

  127 falshood . . . .

  <sic>& E Him E E L

  131 again R again again.

  128&E 132Ha!MFsRA

  E Fr

  129 & wildernesses? E L wild- E Fr sound; 133 sound,

  W ernesses.

  R thro E

  through M 130 Brethren? strike

  still, <not Breth- 134 E R still,

  2 r brethren! E dare E From R 135 >

  R voice, i;en? P They Speak

  127 with

  to have been written over reigns reings at first,

  appears gn ng Divided sic in 1820. lines are E and M. 130 Theydare spaced out in normally

  135-37 Rossetti was not satisfied that the of the with the apparent meaning Spirit


  Earth "art near that Love also it incon- near moving me, and moving me," finding


  would assume that Love was there because with the context, since the reader

  Panthea and lone were. This Rossetti found made inadmissible, "for the statement by


  that he knows and of Love from the Prometheus the presence of the Earth-Spirit

  love to voice' of the former." lov*$t,

  "inorganic Rossetti therefore suggested changing found this inconsistent with lines 113-16. an emendation "too but He then suggested audacious to be intruded into the text":

  From voice,

  Speak, Spirit! . . . thine inorganic . \i that thou near: I art


  only moving

  And cursed I him?

  Jove how

  this and the feeble"

  Swinburne emendation,

  disliked especially

  rejected "abrupt and the sentence at the verse "No emenda- end

  closejpf. (moving near:), stating: conjectural

tion is corrects the

  admissible which of a great poet's text by a loose or faulty phrase

  also more feeble and He the

  substitution of one more found accurate, but prosaic."

  love for lovest not unusual who (a Alexander,

  by writing or printing of point agreed in . . . love's and drew

  "Thou ne'er knew a 80], "Who

  sad satiety" [To Skylark compared


this frail the

  the heart of universe" 369]), to be, meaning

  [Epipsychidion assuming

  felt the scorn of line 114 was

  "That thou art and He near, dost love (me)." moving

  real for to his

  not even "he refuse request in the eyes of Prometheus, says only that

  as their failed to


  Forman though they scorned saviour" ("Notes," pp. 361-62). find

  and and took the "perfectly obvious any obscurity or corruption, perfectly beauti-

  to art near he would

  ful" "thou and /love." Prometheus, be held, meaning moving the voice

  feel "a? thrill of love on

  were hearing the voice of his mother" even though this idea. and he held that lines 147-48 carried on


  Zupitza interpreted the


  Clarke, Swinburne, held thou phrase as meaning,

  like to "And thou art Love." G.

  at line 113 "accuses his mother

  and noted while Prometheus be love, that, the subject of


  nearer and Earth movement of scorning him, [her] dimly compassionate voice an

  4 and he Swinburne


  reassure him, acknowledges her love." Locock, agreed with


  Unbound 140

  I art near know that thou




  love. cursed him?

  And How EARTH. canst thou hear

  THE How


  knowest not Who

  the language of the dead? art a

  PRO. Thou living spirit; as they. speak

  I lest EARTH. dare like Hea-

  THE life, not speak fell

  ven's [140]

  King and to Should link me some

  hear, wheel of pain

  I roll.


  More than one whereon

  torturing Subtle art and and tho' the Gods



  Hear not art more than God

  this voice, thou yet wise and

  hearken now. [145] Being kind: earnestly

  thro' shadows


PRO. brain, like dim,

  Obscurely my

  I and thick. feel

  awful thoughts, rapid


  like in love; Faint,

  one mingled entwining Yet 'tis

  not pleasure.

  THE thou canst not hear: EARTH. No, is

  art and this

  Thou known [150]

  immortal, tongue to die. those who

  Only r ] PRO. And what art

  [E.126 thou, Voice?



  V I [E.125 ] THE EARTH. am the Earth,

  V ] veins,


[E.126 mother; she within stony



  R E

  136 near,


  146 through through


  2 Fs J dim R L E

  137 hear, M A R 139 E

  E Fo thick E spirit D they &

spirit: 147 thoughts rapid

2 Heaven's

  140 heaven's Fs R > thick L Fr

  R< 141 love.

  148 EFr


  142 roll. E L E hear

  E L

  hear; W 149 pleasure

  143& Fs A 150 & E R L

  good; M W &E 151 die thou and, R ... E E

  M gods Fs

  though 144 voice 152

  E R E D Earth E

  god, Fs God, W M-Fr[Fo H]

  E HLFr

  veins E 153 mother, 145 kind kind Fr now E

  & E it



  "immaterial whether we a use of the regard the irregularity merely wrong a not uncommon as

  'person' or an slip in Shelley's

  poems instance of the Shelleyan subjunctive."

  137 130

  Shelley's count, below And

  139 I d above Thou false start on line 140. probably a



  140 Heaven's is on

  26 [fierce] , Ion word.

  King fell partly obscured by an


  his voice in Cuningham.

  148 Or

  What to blot, love.

  be a appears be a period canceling the

  comma may

  144 151 The line in

  Shelley's count, E reads:

  below Only to those die ...

  I Earth who am the


  follows die A ... to insertion for

  indicate Prometheus penciled caret point the speech of and the

  SD The at first who with the in

  what Earth opposite, also in pencil, change

  ink. The Ion translation in is written lines.

  Unbound in of Caracalla. Detail

  the Baths from a Shelley writing Prometheus in

  now Memorial by Joseph Severn, the Keats-Shelley posthumous portait


House, Rome Bodleian MS Shelley E.

  1, Folio

  18 V , 1.1-15.

  The opening

  lines of

  Unbound ACT




  and perhaps more appropriate metaphor," and he compared

  "From the

  earth thou spring-


  t/Like a cloud of


  (To a

  But Freeman very plausibly suggested that this was a

  Locock thought that Shelley must have preferred "the




  avoid the Wordsworthian echo,

  made after

  reading the review that charged Shelley with imitating Wordsworth

  (see Introduction, p. 23),


  reading was perfectly legible,

  Mrs. Shelley neglected

  like a [cloud] From sunrise, [burst]

  157-58 The change,




  was as follows :

  beam When

  thou didst from her bosom,

  leap [Of glory arise] a

  for Prometheus. Since the new


  of keen joy Zupitza felt that, although Shelley's


  use of cloud would lead one


  prefer the

  first version, the

  second was a splendid image

  and that


  R plains

  when lifted was substituted in line 166.

  correction (Text,

  p. 44) .




  first lifted

  and probably changed

  169-76 Shelley

  Freeman assumed by


  wrote the following (but without the

  deletions) :

  26 V : lightning


  Inundation vexed the

  plains [Pestilence fell]


  to be a late



  on 27

  it for the printer (Text, p. 43).





  Tyrant almighty


  r , under an Ion word.


  165 moonlike in pencil.

  Locock gave moonlight in the Examination, but gave the correct alternative

  in his edition. Freeman saw moonlike as more characteristic

  of Shelley, and as giving "in one word a vivid description of the earth

  as it

  would look from another "planet" (Text, p. 43).




  & E inundation Fs


  [165] Was

  us: their inhabitants beheld

  My sphered




  wide Heaven;

  the sea


  see those million worlds


  strange tempest,

  and new fire




  of bright

  snow Shook its

  which burn and roll Around

  thunder chained thee here. Then,

  Heaven's frown;


  To the last fibre of the loftiest tree Whose thin leaves trembled

  in the frozen

  air, [155] Joy

  ran, as blood within a living frame,

  When thou didst from her bosom,

  like a cloud



  pale, until his

  a spirit of keen joy!


  at thy voice her pining sons uplifted Their prostrate

  brows from

  the polluting dust,

  [160] And our almighty Tyrant

  with fierce dread


  portentous hair beneath


  here 169

  160 Thier


  158 glory arise,

  R arise L



  heaven; Fs


  <sic> E

  R W From sunrise, leap; A

  dust E Fr 166 lifted with E

  A & E


  R 168 heaven's R frown, Fs

  162 pale

  E L


  pale, R

  165 moonlike above sphered

  164 us; E Fr us




  vexed the

  plains; 155 air

  E E Fr

  156 frame E

  163 Then

  E W L Fr



  157-58 bosom

  R like a beam/From <Then


  2 > &

  E sunrise,



  Fr like a



& beast & worm


  Unbound 144

  his throne



  And he, Tyrant, supreme

  shall utter of these

  one Of Son, gold.

  burning Call at will [210] all remember. curse which

  The Thine own

  the ghost of Jupiter, ghost, or

  T what Gods ] mightier Hades or or

  [E.129 Typhon,


  Evil, since thy ruin

  all -prolific sons. on

  Have and

  trampled my prostrate sprung,

  1215] and must

  Ask, the revenge they reply: so thro' vacant shades, the

  Of Supreme sweep may

  thro' abandoned

  As wind the

  gate rainy

  Of a fallen palace.

  let not

  PRO. Mother, aught

  be that which evil,


may pass again

me. [220]

  or those of

  lips, aught resembling My arise,


  of Jupiter, appear! IONE. ears: folded o'er mine are wings


  crossed o'er mine are eyes: wings


  Fr shades E 208-9 E L

  R throned/

  Supreme Tyrant 217 E

  On Son E through M

  throned/On burning Gold.

  218 E Fr palace



  evil Fs or 219

  212 E R W Hades, gods Fs


  all Fr Fs 220 me E

  213 evil, E ruin, R



  221 E Jo Jupiter arise


  222 oer mine E ears; 214 E sons E ears, W


  Fr Fr E

  215 Ask& E Ask ears, reply

  E L J Fr

  Fr 223 crossed over So

  eyes, reply.

  Fr L

  E Fr eyes; W

  through EM eyes 216 supreme defended his as follows:

  Freeman choice 208 throned above [on his throne] "Quan-

  it does

  the alteration makes the line short; qualitatively not" (Text, p, 44).


  209 On before [Of]

  201 211 Shelley's count, in the lower right-hand corner of the page.

  as follows:

  This line 212 developed


  Typhon or


  mightier or what [later] Gods Hades, [Osiris] in ink.


  in ink over canceled

  [later] is

pencil; superscribed in pencil,

  mightier 216


  supreme may

  is a vertical line: line followed SD canceled

  221 This by single heavy by an beneath as whirl- sound


  [The of earthquake the driving of Phantasm

  windsThe Ravine & the is split, of Jupiter [appears]

  surrounded dart forth

  rises, clouds which lightning]

  by heavy SD: lone


  line out of an

  223 Freeman felt that the E "makes one" ordinary reading a good



  thro' their silver


  shade appears,

  V ]

And arise,


  [E.130 thro' their lulling plumes


  Shape, a throng of sounds;

  it be ill to no thee


  thou of wounds!


  for sister's

  Near our sweet


  whom, Ever thus we watch and wake.




  The sound of whirlwind underground, and and mountains fire, cloven;



  awful like the sound,

  The shape

  in star Clothed -inwoven. dark purple,

  A [235]

  gold sceptre of pale o'er the slow cloud


  stay steps proud, His veined hand doth hold. Cruel he but calm and looks, strong,

  Like one who not suffers does, wrong. secret


  of this

  world [240] powers strange frail

  a and hither

  Driven me, empty phantom,

  direst storms? unaccustomed sounds

  On What

  V Are on unlike the voice [E.131 ] lips, hovering my talk

  which our race With

  pallid hold ghastly

  Fr thro E Fr 233 E Fs L 224 awful, W

  M appears Shape


  star arise E Fr 234 -inwoven E

  225 E through M purple sounds: sounds. 235

  226 E Fr R R

  W gold, W

  Fs J R L oer E R 227 be, E thee, cloud, W

  236 proud 228 wounds 237 Its His E hold E

  E R


  it Sister's sake E 238 above he looks E E

  229 whom E R E & strong wake Fs E 230 E wake! R 239 suffers, R




E Phantasm E

  240 SD 231 underground

  fire mountains E & & 241 &

  232 Earthquake empty phantom

  fire E Fs Fr 243 E

  cloven, lips Earthquake and cloven!


  224 214 below

  Shelley's count, appears

  225 a above

  [up] rise in

  that the the Prometheus 227 Locock noted medial rime, which "abounds lyrics," is 1.335.

  is a comma." at A

  by single exception "invariably indicated altered to then canceled. and 235 above which had been pale

  pak [proud] it I "when MS

  238 above he Freeman felt, Shelley's think questionably, that gives has cancelled the first" two and he neither, he prefers (Text, p. 44). readings, sounds

  242 232 below

  Shelley's count, as as

  244 of ghosts," meaning merely "phantasmal,

  Rossetti conjectured ghostly


  whereas he felt was nothing a "violent word," hardly suitable since there

  146 Prometheus





  the "polarized meaning of

  "ghostlf as


  in religious parlance." Rossetti


  suggest that the "talk" had "some strong element of horror."


  in R

  2 after

  Mathilde Blind gave the



  in her review.

  252 This line

  But Forman thought that Shelley might


  followed by:

  256 See



  254 me,

  & E


  E within; W

  255 thunder-cloud! E Fr


  cold E

  R W

  Fr looks ! the heaven Fs looks! the heaven R

  looks! W looks, L

  257 above! R Oh, W

  me E


  curse, R




  caves Fs Fr streams E 253 ye dare not speak


  [calm] above [cruel,] An

  indistinguishable blotted word or letters

  (Zupitza suggested [pro]) precedes proud

  [cruel] was

  then underlined (but not the comma), Shelley's usual manner of indicating "stet" This


  was followed by:


  258-61 Insertion marks on both pages indicate the location of these lines.

  on a


  ... yet speak


  speak] above which



  [And looks of firm defiance

  258 proud above


  and though ye weep,

  mood of

  rejoicing know

  That our strong curse cannot be unfulfilled.}

  253 ye dare not speak above [must


be fulfilled]

  Freeman's choice was based on dare not

  as "much more forceful"

  and "in the

  the rest of the passage."

  below looks 257 above [0


  compared 1.130-31 and 184-86 (Text, pp. 41-45).

  256 SD: Panthea

  at first

  lone See above



  Shelley's count,

  E dare not Fr

  & E


  and haunted

  tho' your echoes


  be mute, [250J




  old woods,

  springs, Prophetic caves,

  THE EARTH. Listen!


  isle-surrounding streams,


  32 r ] Rejoice to hear


  yet ye

  cannot speak.

  [E.13F] PHAN.



  empty voice.

  spirit seizes


  In darkness?

  And, proud



  art thou?

  [245] PRO. Tremendous

  Image, as thou art


  inform thine

  He whom thou shadowest forth.

  I am his foe,

  The Titan.


  the words which

  I would


  Although no thought



me and

  252 caves

  249 voice E 250 and though



  R W A


  Him E

  foe E 248 hear







  M mute E R

  251 mountains


  old woods & haunted springs

  E mountains and old -woods FsFr


  Fr 246 image,

  speaks within: It tears

  32 V ] Darkens above.


  as fire tears a thunder-cloud,

  [255] PAN.

  See, how

  he lifts his mighty

  looks, the

  Heaven [E.1


  E Sufferer, L


  speaks! shelter



  r ] PRO.

  I see

  the curse on gestures proud and cold,

  245 and proud Sufferer

2 Fr





  with a calm

  fixed storms E


  E "Fiend, R calm R calm


  Aye E


  262 Fiend


  R fixed

  mind Fr worst!

  R W Omnipotent.


  263 do E 273 Oer E power


  264 tyrant


  R Furies, L

  and humankind, 275 mankind E

  yet speak

  speak . .

  E 268 & fire

  E scroll. Yet


  Oh R<oh R

  2 >


  &E scroll ...

  A Fr scroll ...

  Fs Fr yet speak! W 271 furies Fs Furies

  yet 270




  hail E

  speak oh L yet speak oh Fs

  Lightning and cutting


  W gods

  R etherial tower E

  yet speak


  felt that variants from aetherial

  ("Shelley's choice") were chargeable




  the printer and



(Edition, p.


  and added the up- stroke.



  276 263


  count, in the lower left-hand corner of the page, 277

  Zupitza found


  more bold and poetic than





  & Humankind E


  R tower J L



  277 Its darkness

  E A

  Fr love;

  265 subdue

  power Shelley canceled the downstroke of




  278 & E 266 here E 279 hate E



  firm 275 tower at



  scroll . . .

  I 147



  Gods and Human-kind, One

  only being shalt thou

  not subdue.

  [2651 Rain

  then thy plagues


  rne here, Ghastly disease,

  frenzying fear;

  bid thee do; Foul

  And let

  alternate frost and fire

  Eat into me, and

  be thine




  cutting hail,

  Tyrant both

  inflict I



  And looks of firm


  and calm



  such despair as

  mocks itself

  with smiles, [260]


  All that thou canst

  on a scroll:

  yet speak: Oh, speak!


  32 V ] PHANTASM.



  defy thee! with a calm, fixed



  forms [270] Of



  In darkness over those

  I love: On me and mine



  The utmost torture

  of thy hate; 259 defiance Fs

  R &

  calm hate E 267 disease

  frenzying fear


  E disease

  260 smiles

  E M

  2 Fs R

  J Fr




  V ]


  furies, driving by




  wounding storms.

  Aye, do thy worst.



  art omnipotent.




  ethereal tower. [275] Let thy malignant spirit


  I gave

  thee power,

  And my own will.


  thy swift mischiefs sent



  mankind, from yon


  • pre vailing foe!

  "wavy line" deleting


  think that Shelley converted Lor


  King before deleting.

  283 Freeman felt that world was changed

  to orb What

  he took


  he a


  282 God above

  w is

  the backstroke of the final d


  because the pen was drying.


  he took to be


  change of Z

  to b (to




  strengthening of the d after dipping the pen. world



  Fr Fr

  286 Let

  R 295 thou Fs &





  287 remorse,



  of on is over

  Fs R A J solitude M

  2 solitude!



  Till M infinity

  Fs R Fr

  281 Freeman

  felt, I think incorrectly,




orb) is,

I believe, a


  R 294 this Universe E A this

  the universe, and


  self and



  torturing solitude"), or, preferably, changing

  is to

  are ("Beholding good



  as is

  as art

  the universe, and beholding

  thou, and

  as is


  self-torturing solitude").

  This conjecture was omitted in


  2 ,

  possibly because of Swinburne's blast.

  Swinburne raised a general objection



  infinite as is

  quite clear. 292-95 Rossetti felt that

  'both? is

  these lines

  had "heretofore been printed, with the


  of punctuation," but admitted that punctuation change alone was not enough,


  "either 'is' or 'thou' bewrays the




  grammar; and

  dropped into the

  ("Beholding both good


  place that


  not the best."







  and changing thou to thee

  Universe, worship W


  148 Prometheus Unbound

  thy soul,

  robe of



  And thine Omnipotence

  a crown of pain,

  [290] To

  cling like burning gold


  thy dissolving brain.

  Heap on


  Infinity shall be

  virtue of this



  deeds, then be thou


  beholding good; [E.134

  V ]

  Both infinite as is

  the universe,



  'Till thine


  Who fittest


  thus devote to sleepless agony,


  This undeclining

  head while thou must


  on high. But


  who art the God and

  Lord: 0, thou,

  with thy soul this world of woe,

  Clasp thee, his torturer, like remorse;

  To whom all

  things of Earth

  and Heaven



  In fear and worship:




  curse thee! let a sufferer's curse


  thy self-torturing solitude.

  & worship E

  293 deeds:

  Lord 0, thou Fr

  Lord! R 0, thou curse,





  A M


  A I thou

  R W

  R< deeds, R


  2 >

  deeds; 283 woe

  E W




  R 2 >

  284 earth and heaven Fs R &


  good, Fr 285


  R soul E A



  280 agony



  R A L

  Fr 289 agony


  agony, Fr 281 high

  E 290

  omnipotence Fs


  E Fr

  292 "Heap

  282 But thou E




  R 291 brain!

  R W & Lord

  o thou

  E Lord



  the manner in which Rossetti had distorted Shelley's meaning by punctuation changes, and then referred to I ACT



  An of image calm power



now sittest, let the hour


  thou to


when be

Come, must

  appear thou

  That which art internally.


  And a false and fruitless

  crime [300]

  many fall



  Scorn track thy lagging boundless space time.

  Were these PRO. 0, Parent?



THE EARTH. thine.



  It me: words and

  PRO. are

  vain; doth repent quick Grief for awhile is and so was mine. blind,


  wish no to living [305] thing suffer pain.

  time! Fs time!" E L Power R R

  296 Image W Fs

  298 Come SD the Phantasm vanishes E

  R in-

  299 E R internally internally: 302 o words E R W-Fr

  M E Fr ternally; internally,

  W Q thine E

  parent? Fs

  false Fs

  300 And, R & E crime, M 303

  E vain: Fr

  me; & R

  W A J R W

  304 so was mine E mine Fr

  & time.

  301 thro E & E through M . . which he considered "the false one instance, pointing of of the noblest passages.

  it to I should have and obvious really

  thought impossible meaning mistake the simple of these and the verses which follow; invoked on the


glorious namely, that the curse


  was to do evil and He "Virtutem almighty tyrant behold good." compared look on and because

  may away

  Virtue, videant intabescantiqua relicta [that they pine

  have lost her and held that this

  Satires, 111.37],"

  they "by the application of supreme

  to the

  moral curse oppressor Shelley has transfigured the noble thought of supreme


  one so the Stoic poet into the splendour of an idea too sublime the conception of

  himself. It is to lesser than

much me how [Mr. Rossetti] failed

  utterly inexplicable



to to with this vision of the two

  follow the track of Shelley's


Shelley's thought, eyes

  of the evil deeds the

  infinities of evil;

  wrought by omnipotence and good and good


  both of these infinite God as the world He deeds Himself,


  wrought by

  at as solitude is once the condition and the chastisement of His

  the which torments,


  the har- ... cannot understand Rossetti could] shatter at once

  [how omnipotence. of so and to the sense, and the superb a passage in order patch mony, grammar simple


  the more obvious inter- and

  as forced, unnatural, improbable

  explanation up an


  was and clear, consistent, ("Notes," pp. 391-92). pretation

  2 felt full after solitude in was accidental.

  Forman M

  that the dropping of the stop

  Rossetti's is He


  held, in rejecting

  conjecture, that "Shelley's construction here than it to more often and me both characteristic

  is, elliptical the punctuation seems

  and sufficient for his purpose." His interpretation of the passage agreed with that of Swinburne.


  below 293 280

  Shelley's count, settest is sittest be The i not dotted and resembles a closed e


  may as

  302-5 lines had blank Locock


  pointed out that these generally been printed and he indented appropriately. me: at first

  303 me,


  This line is bends head 305 followed the SD: by [he as in pain]


  Unbound 150



  Oh me,

  Misery, misery at thee.

  That Jove

  length should vanquish

  V and howl Land

  [E.135 J Wail, aloud, Sea, shall Earth's rent heart answer

The ye.


  of the the dead, [310]

  Howl, Spirits living lies fallen and van-

  Your defence


  your quished.


  Lies fallen and vanquished! ECHO.

  SECOND and

  Fallen vanquished! lONE.


  Fear not: but some passing spasm,


  Titan is

  The [315] unvanquished

  thro' the azure chasm

  But where

  see, forked hill

  Of yon and snowy

  slant on the winds

  Trampling high



  feet, golden-sandalled glow

  [320] Under plumes of purple dye,

  ivory, Like rose-ensanguined

  A Shape comes now, on from hand

  Stretching high his right

  to Fs 2<?

  306 me E oh SD Echo E Misery o misery

  RL oh,W 313&E thee! not Fr

  307 thee E R 314 nottis E

  W E

  spasm aloud Land

  308 Sea E R L

  & Sea, R

  spasm, Earths still.

  309 E E 315 R ye ye! R


  310 Howl E & the dead E 316 see thro E

  R spirits through M



L 317 E L

R dead; & hill, R

  W E 319 feet R

  311 defence, Fs R &

  W vanquished R 320 R

  W dye E

  vanquished! st

  321 ivory 312 Lies Fallen 322 now E

1 SD Echo E E

  & E

  vanquished? Fs L Fr

  M R A J



  307 294 the

  Shelley's count, lower left-hand corner of the page.

  Land at first 308 land


  309 in Koszul. st ch of


  312 Echo he over as Freeman The line as follows: Sp suggested. developed

  may Lies


  [Lies &

  un] vanquished?

  the first

  316 at yon 319 sandalled above [un]


  151 A wand.

  serpent -cinctured

  V ] PAN. 'Tis Jove's [E.136

  world-wandering herald, lONE.

  [325] Mercury.

  And who are those with tresses hydra


  iron wings that climb the wind,

  God Whom

  the frowning represses behind, Like vapours steaming

  up an endless crowd [330J

  Clanging loud,


  These are Jove's

  tempest-walking hounds,

  he and Whom blood,

  gluts with groans

  When charioted on

  sulphurous cloud bursts Heaven's bounds.

  He IONE.


  Are from the dead now led, [335]

  they to be fed?

  On new pangs

  Titan looks

  PAN. The

  as ever, firm, not proud.


I life!

  FIRST FURY. Ha! scent


  332 blood 324 wand E on E on

  & A

  groans 325 Tis E blood Fr

  E Herald, R

  Mercury 333



  Herald, cloud, R


  327 wind E Fs 334 heaven's Fs R bounds


  wings, W 335 led 328

  Fr R L

  R E R dead, represses, W W

  ever Fs 330 loud Fs crowd E crowd? L 337 E ever

  R W looks, R st

  hounds E

  1 Furv E Ha

  331 Joves 338 SD E

  in It issues I examined.

  324 Forman. did Zupitza noted cintured not appear in the r


  above 37 there


  325 world-wandering [Heaven-walking] a smudge under indistinct letters seen. which certain can be Freeman thought that they might be

  or do

  and not read these words, world-walking earth-treading or sky-treading in pencil. I

  this was an SD: Enter The Enter comes and the

  believe Mer through fairly well,

  is M part of strongly suggested.


  at first

  326 hydra Hydra

  is that

  hounds No substitute felt 331 Joves given. Zupitza


this looked the 325.

  when he Shelley canceled up and saw parallel in line :

  line as follows

  337 This developed


as ever

[Yes: but] the Titan looks A ft? [though] not proud. t of the to


  changed SD:

  37v opens with the following canceled followed the Furies he


  [Enter by represses Mercury with his wand.]

  deletion lines crossed a short

  Freeman felt (two short horizontal by

  152 Prometheus Unbound



  me but

  look into his eyes!

  THIRD FURY. The hope of torturing him

  smells like a

  heap Of

  • bird after battle.


  can please long

  E Fr hell: Fs Hell!

  342 Hell-


  Fs 339

  E A hounds

  2<? E in

  towers of iron. 338 SD




  The Omnipotent? MER.



  us food and sport

  V ] Should make


  corpses, to a death



  what if the



  delay, Herald! take cheer, Hounds

  r ] FIRST FURY. Barest thou

  Maia soon

34 E

  corpses Fs

  In addition

  are used as follows to complete the revised



  of the entire passage, but parts of


  This would seem a

  Gods and richer and Maia and can

  run down the right side, cutting through



  to the indicated deletions, two light vertical

  please long The Omnipotent?

  where the

  Who can



  the Son of Maia soon Should make us food

  Hell] If

  pauses [Children of

  cheer, [a richer prey] He

  thou delay? take


  Herald of Gods Dares

  lines opposite,

  SD is

  37 V we

  a c

  340 corpses


  have been intended to


  possibly be deleted with a very light line that


  and Sh$


  a false start on


  I believe,

  not repeated: [Children of Hell]

  was at first,


  In these lines t of


  the Son of Maia soon

  Of Hell what if

  Darest thou delay o Herald? take cheer Hounds

  delay] . .



  [Herald of Gods dares



  R W L What R

  Fr 341 Dar'st

  this to

  was merely an offset from the opposite page. Comparison shows


  Take R cheer E slanting

  E L

  Fs Herald?


E herald? 344 iron E

  delay o



  Who L



  SD W E


  Who R


  Who E




  E R Fr

  Fr battle!


  hut even

  are complexly compounded.



  341-44 These

  To a death-bird after battle!

  Of corpses

  like [fresh corpses]

  heap The hope of torturing him smells



  as follows:


  339-40 these

  so there is a lighter, vertical line


  of the meter was in-


  Locock felt that the


  To E



  the deletion.

  SD which confirms

  through the




  153 fire

  And beside the streams of and wail [345] gnash foodless teeth.

  Your arise! and

  Geryon, Gorgon, subtlest fiends

  and of

  Chimaera, thou Sphinx, ministered to Thebes

  Who Heaven's poisoned wine. and more unnatural hate: Unnatural love, ( .138 ] shall task.

  V These perform your FURY.


  [350] Oh, mercy! mercy!

  die with our desire: drive us not back!

  We then in silence.

  MER. Crouch Awful Sufferer

  thee most


  unwilling, unwillingly


  2 Fs hate

  345 E Fo R 349 love E Fr

  • Fr[J] fire, M R & E E


  2 fire.,

  RJ<fireR & wail E hate! > R

  2 s*


  1 Fo L 350 task E SD wail, R D H E W


  2 teeth! teeth!

  346 E Oh! R


..EL R R<0h >


  arise 351 desire desire! teeth! ... E Fs A & E desire;

  Geryon Gorgon W Chimsera sic Sufferer!

  347 thou > 352 silence. E Fs R

  & < E M W


  2 Fs

  A-Fr Fr

  fiends, M R <Sufferer; > Sufferer, W HAL M

  wine wine 348 heaven's E R


  345 are ink this There several on which account for


  part of the page, may

  to be . . If is it intended

  what correct have been to

  fire &


  appears the reading . .

  balance next line. Blind read a after wail a

  teeth! in the comma that word

  making "the allusion is to infernal and noted that the two and substantive, streams, Phlegethon


  the source

  as Inferno, IX).

  Cocytus" ("Shelley." Woodberry Practically all editions this Forman Mrs. have followed felt that left


  reading. reading "without an and Locock added the comma at accusative," thought that she fire gnash a verb under was I believe,

  (she was,

  the impression that wail merely following Galignani

  distinct after wail as it after

  in But E shows no comma does the punctuation of 1829). I

  are I to be

  two below of wail which take Rather, there vertically ink spots gnash

  I cannot

  ink but

  p. 173). feel that, intent, splatter (see illustration, facing regardless of as follows:

  Shelley wrote the passage fire ..

  And & wail

  gnash, beside the streams of .

  foodless teeth! .


  at first love as to love above [hate] but was which word

  349 [hate] This uncertainty

  r at : to use here is note the bottom of

  38 commented on by Shelley's

  ter sentiment

  The contrast would have <sic>if the been complete had been transposed: but wherefore sacrifize<sic>the philosophical monstrous in its is still that love however less



  in * ?

  of honor than hatred whatever


  worthy perhaps

  • if

  The ? with the downstroke an undecipherable word. present combines represents

  in as to It


  of worthy so be nearly hidden. be merely a strengthening of the y

  y may

  word is honor the

  (see illustration, ,

  facing p. 173) though agree with Zupitza that the

  as to dictate horror read


  sense would seem by Locock and Freeman. believe Shelley


if as

  and so Locock's definition of stitt "nevertheless" would not was ironical, being be correct.


  the are 350 Some mathematical computations, apparently unrelated poem, over the lines at this written around and the top of page.

  line in 353 thee

  352 break

  E. above


  and leave them

  living things,

  To thee, and to none else of

  a secret known


  so! there

  Be it not

  to their task. [370]

  People the abyss,

  transfer the sceptre of

  or savage fiends

  V ] Or what more subtle, foul,

  [EJ 39

  them here,

  to lead

  And my commission is

  slow agonies in Hell,

  The powers who scheme

  Which may

  wide Heaven, The fear



  368 is, E here E more.



  > E

  < sic

  357 do more

  E hell; R

  367 hell,

  356 Alas

  of which perplexes the Supreme: Clothe it in words,

  R down E 366 with E

  354 Great

  thy soul in prayer,


  In intercession;


  clasp his throne

  and bid





  hate myself


  day, Smiling reproach.



  heaven seems hell, So thy worn form pursues


  sight Returning, for a season,

  I can do no more: aye from thy




  pity thee,




  execute a doom of new revenge.

  down, To

  the great Father's will driven

  I come, by

  art thou, firm




  the strange


  Torturer arms [365]


Even now


  must teach.




  refuge, long

  [360] But

  From which there is no

  lamps That measure and divide the weary years





  Against the

  vainly wouldst stand forth alone in strife

  Prometheus Unbound

2 W


  after hell

  in Shepherd.

  364 For which

  usual practice.

  to Shelley's

  heaven and hell was an exception

  felt that the failure to capitalize


  be a period



  358 There


  376 prayer




  365 teach even

  365-66 These


  R A L 375 &

  374 Supreme

  40 r .

  opposite, on

  clasp is

  his throne it

  & bid [them gird]

  supreme 375

  at first

  Shelley's count, below them

  as follows:

  [new &] unimagined pains 368 355

  [Even now], with

  Torturer arms the strange might of

  long must teach thy A









  seems Hell, Fo


  E sol L There

  E 371 so ...

  Hell. Fr Heaven L hell

  & E

  Heaven seems 370

  W H

  A Fr



  L and

  Heaven Fs foul and savage


  358 Returning Fr season

  more Fr 369 subtle foul


  E foul

  359 &

  372 thee


  E Fr

  364 taught,


  R M 2 Supreme; R Supreme.

  & E years,


  Fr Supreme;

  E L

  lamps, W 374 Supreme . . .

  362 Omnipotent,

  & E

  E heaven, Fs R

  373 Heaven

  E firm, R



  360 thou firm



  Aye R ACT

  I 155



  386 While Fs trodden E 393 reproach

  E Fs

  388 tyrants recompense

  E tyrant's

  395 Submission R

  W know, E L Fr

  Fs Fo


  D H

  J Tyrant's recompense, try; M

  Fs R A J

  try. W

  382 This line developed from the following:

  He has,

  [& placed

  it in his choice to

  392 misdeed

  R W hair; R

  With but


  E here, R

  389 good


  good, Fr

  383 ages night





  Fr E shame Fr gratitude.

  bestowed E

  R lost

  E R W L

  day, Fr sun R

  391 He Can E shame not gratitude 385 crystal-winged




  be The crown, or trampled refuse of the world

  one law



  Shelley's count,

  below night



  386 trodden at


  trampled Freeman thought the reverse.

  tyrants' sic



  in 1820 391 He added

  to the line.

  392 An insertion



  gratitude indicates

  the location of

  this line, break in Herford.

  the dark world] 384 374

  To be the sun of joy

  itself a glorious

  has; and





in return he chains




  was changed


  & to

  to all life

  7 Slanting strokes then deleted the passage. here at

  first hear On


  r ,



this deletion,


  the following: [To be the

  Sun of gladness

  Fr 382 has, Fr &




  Split my


  skin, or in the


  night [E.1 40^


  chrystal -winged



  round my


  [385] Whilst my

  beloved race is

  trampled down By

  his thought-executing ministers.

  Such is

  the tyrants' recompense:

  whether the Sun



  fiercest and the mightiest.

  like a suppliant in


  gorgeous fane, Let the will kneel within

  thy haughty


  For benefits and meek

  submission tame


  PRO. Evil minds [380]

  here Years, ages, night

  Change good

  to their own nature.

  I gave all



  and in return he




  He who is evil can receive no




  377 And, R fane E ' Tis

  R < tyrant's recompense. '



  2 >

  378 heart;

  Fr heart,

  I cannot

  W tyrant's recompense.

  'Tis just.

  W ty-



  rants < sic


  tyrant's recompense






  for a world bestowed, or a friend

  lost, [390] He can feel

  hate, fear,

  shame; not gratitude:

  [E.I 41

  r ] He but


  for his own misdeed.

  Submission, thou dost


  40 V ]


  to such is



  which breaks With

  bitter stings the light sleep of Revenge.

2 R 390


  4F] PRO.

  yield? Which L

  which E




  399 oer E accept

  Sicilians E sword E R L

  that it must come. 396 word E 398

  I know but this,

  power? [E.1

  E R W

  the period of Jove's

  Thou knowest not

  42 T ]


  Once more answer me:

  to suffer!

  And thou

  might be spared: I to inflict

  that we

  401 Crime

  Fr thrond



  407 now

  [400] [405] [410]

  E hark!

  Fr Hell-hounds



  clamour, E clamour.

  Fear delay!


  R A

  < sic



  409 Behold E heaven

  lours R father's

  frown! R frown



  E M

  402 Omnipotence;

  > E


  lowers under thy Father's frown.

  408 hark

  would he

  Let others flatter

  will not yield.






  Or could


  o'er his crown,



it sits

  Which trembles

  Sicilian's hair -suspended sword,

  captivity, Like the


  death-seal of


  that fatal word,



  Unbound For what


  throned In brief


  Too much avenged by

  fear delay: Behold!

  But hark, the hell-hounds clamour:

  Which since we spake is


nearer now.

  thus, the retributive hour

  V ] Enduring

  wait, [E.1 41


  who err.





on her own




  weep down

  triumphant, will




  secure are they:


2 W

  406 thus E


  and possibly day

  lyears] opposite),




  I find

  emerges from several words written on each other.


  start on

  Insertion marks on both pages indicate the location of these lines.

  alas, etc., through desire or fear.


  come of pain?]


  [Thou canst not count the years

  Thou knowest not the period of Joves power?

  r : ?

  Freeman found dre and conjectured a




  his count.

  seem unrelated to the poem, although they some



  14 These

  for a remainder of

  176 from 190

  half of this line Shelley subtracts

  In the space opposite the

  I take it to


  on they one must

  for it

  on destined But except

  possible start



  be des


  [When sayest thou] the [destined change

  E Fr

  R omnipotence; L

  Fr spared, Fo

  E R L



  410 E



  Fr they

  spared; W


  they; W they, Fr 403 Justice when triumphant


  Fs Fr

  404 Pity not punishment



  405 wait


  inflict, M

  41V : [Thou knowest not when]


  as follows:

  412 This line developed


  409 lowers above

  a changed emphasis.

  Cuningham gave

  The 408 hell-hound clamour in

  398 Like at



  413 come


  412 Joves


  2 J me E me.


  411 once E






  425 gods


  2 Fs while, M


  R W L J <


  Yet R them: Fo

  2 >

  426 joy?

  E 427



  428 Alas


  at Fs thee E


  E L Fr them.




  Fr 416 fear E pause M

  2 &



  eternity, R


  time R 418 age on age

  424 them

  E on



  420 Flags, M

  2 it's E flight

  E M 2 421 shelterless.

  R 423 unreprieved.

  E L

  429 Heaven E Heaven,

  430 serene




  5 I find

  [Then] quite

  legible, as did Zupitza. Possibly fear.

  418 Each age above a deleted


  423 Cuningham, in 1839,


  424 420


  Shelley's count,

  below them

  432 fiends followed by an SD: ([thunder &]

  lightning) sister first


  at left

  margin, then repeated,


  or a word starting with

  or [crin] (and conjectured think or

  E 431 throned . . .

  414 pain! in Scudder. 416

  E Fr throned.

  How R W throned. . .

  How L


  fiends E sister look,


  E RL

  Yet pause,



  above [Then]

  Freeman thought thatp of pause was over some other



  it is the T of [Then] under the letter.

  He also

  thought that [Then] was





  plunge Into Eternity,


  recorded time,

  Even all



  imagine, age



  Seems but a


  and the reluctant mind

  Flags wearily in

  its unending flight,



  sink, dizzy, blind,


  MER. Yet

  has not

  not count thy years to


  r ]


  4F] [E.1

  42^] Mer.


  Thou canst


  I desire or fear.

  of pain? PRO.


  last while Jove




  more, nor

  less Do

  lost, shelterless; Perchance it


  reign; M R W A L J

  IONE. 0, sister, look!

  whose mind sits

  peace serene,


  light in the sun, throned:


  vain is talk! Call

  up the fiends.




  Heaven, Not me,

  157 [415] [420] [425] [430]


  alas, E

  414 pain! RW<pain? R

  2 >


  reign, E Fs



  Pity the self-despising slaves of

  the slow years


  Which thou must spend

  in torture, unreprieved?

  PRO. Perchance no thought can count

  them, yet they pass.


  If thou might's




  the Gods the while


  in voluptuous joy? PRO.


would not

  quit This bleak ravine, these unrepentant pains.

  MER. Alas!

  I wonder at,

  yet pity thee.

  proper spacing, without deletion.

  158 Prometheus Unbound

  sister E eyes, R



  438 dawn


  450 contemplate




  Fs Fr feet


  stare E sympathy




  die-- they come they come



  E Fr 449 While Fs


  1 s .*

  435 & thinealas E thine.



  things that weep,

  and bleed, and live,

  433 Cedar E cedar!



  & E


  Jove. R


  447 thro E through M

  hell Fs R

  437 Child




  2 > Heaven E 448



  sobbing fawn,


  &E f awn E

  444 invokes,


  here; R


  456 weep


  & live E


  weep and 445 Titan. E L forms E bleed and live Fs weep and bleed


  Fr 433


  of yon

  in Cuningham.

  436 Most above [How]

  451 437

  E M &

  R 443SD2*E 3<JE 455


  mistrust 441 wings

  pain &

  fear E die.

  They come, they come,

  R die;

  pain M Fs R A-Fr they come they come


  453 disappointment <sic>


  E &

  E 454&asE and, as

  hate E no punctuation Fr disap-

  442 underneath E



  E SD

  pointment and mistrust R

  I 1 ?


  [455] We

  wood and lake some struck and

  Has cloven to


  the slanted sunlight of the dawn.

  IONE. Dear


  close thy


  over thine eyes Lest

  thou behold and die:




  come [440] Blackening

  the birth of

  day with countless wings, And

  hollow underneath, like death.

  FIRST FURY. Prometheus! SECOND FURY. Immortal

  Titan! THIRD FURY.


  Runs down




  the roots

  yon huge snow-loaded


  How fearfully


  thunder howls behind! MER.


  must obey

  words and


  thine: alas!

  [435] Most

  heavily remorse hangs at




  43 V ]

  PAN. See where the child of Heaven,



  lean dogs pursue Thro'


  [450] And


  and stare in loathsome sympathy.

  [El 44

  V ] FIRST FURY. We are the ministers of












  clinging crime;

  and as



  PRO. He whom some

  so foul thro'

  dreadful voice invokes is here,


  the chained Titan. Horrible forms, [445]

  What and who are




  yet there

  came Phantasms




  From the

  all-miscreative brain of Jove;



  behold such execrable shapes,


  I grow

  Shelley's count, above And I ACT

  159 to our will.

  When them

  the great

  King betrays Oh! fearful in PRO. natures many one name,

  I know and and

  these lakes echoes know ye; darkness and

  The [460] wings.

  the clangour of your

  But selves more

  hideous than your loathed

  why Gather from

  ye in legions

  up the deep? SECOND FURY. knew not


  that: Sisters, rejoice, rejoice! in its

  PRO. Can exult

aught deformity?

SECOND FURY. of lovers



  The beauty [465]

  glad, another: so are we.

  Gazing on one As from the rose which kneels

  the pale priestess for

  To her festal crown of flowers


  V 45 aerial ] The crimson falls,

  [E.1 flushing her cheek,

  So from our victim's destined [470] agony

is our form invests

  The shade which

  us round, as our

  Else we mother are shapeless Night.

  I and his sent

PRO. who here,


  your power, you

  lowest scorn. forth the of

  To Pour cup pain.

  will thee FIRST FURY. Thou thinkest we rend bone

  from [475]



  457 E 471 round E round, round;



  name! Fo

  4580 Oh, Fr W ERWL

  A-Fr Mother

  E A Fr 472 are we E E R

  night Fr Fr

  459 E Mother

  ye, E & &

  here 460 473 & E E Fr

  & E 1 wings! W power power Fr ? scorn.


  2 E that E 474 E scorn. L


  Fury Sisters rejoice pour Fr that that E that;Fs

  RW pain * s


  I E 2<? E E SD hone from hone?



  Fury glad Fury


  another E Fr hone from bone 466 E we, W



  aerial Fs E L

  469 R D-Fr[J]

  at first these those



  The the second 463 be only a period. punctuation rejoice

  may it start think was an exult on


  464 [de] delight Zupitza suggested a anticipa- line.

  tion the next


  delight in

  the 6 be a This and

  468 464 below should be 454,

  Shelley's count, flowers may error in next count.

  there is no the formed 5, since corresponding poorly

  aerial and aerial

  both 469 Forman, noting that occur frequently, defended the former and


  I used know from

  manuscript sources that Shelley that orthography,

  it else" it to to him or

  because commend (Edition, p. 435). any one has a practical value word in this

  In none of the occurrences of the MS, however, did Shelley use "that orthography."


  470 destined at an

  (possibly destiny anticipation of agony).



  form above 472

  Possibly Night

  at first thee

  475 T of Thou Y above




  Prometheus Unbound

  fire from like within?

  And nerve




is as hate is

  PRO. Pain element, thine; my now: I care not.

  Ye rend me SECOND FURY. Dost imagine

  lidless will

  but We

  laugh into thy eyes?



PRO. do, but what suffer,


  weigh not what ye


  evil. Cruel was the Being power which

  else or

  You, so wretched, aught into light.

  V think'st 46 ] THIRD FURY. Thou we will live thro' thee,

  [E.1 one,

  one by and tho' not

  Like animal we can obscure


  will dwell

  The soul which burns within, that we [485]

  Beside like a vain loud multitude

  it, men:

  the self -con tent of wisest



  That we be dread brain, thought beneath thy

  desire round astonished

  And foul thine heart, And blood within |490| thy labyrinthine veins

  like Crawling agony. are thus

  PRO. now;



  I and rule Yet am

  king over myself,

  and The

  conflicting within, torturing throngs rules Hell mutinous.

  As Jove when you grows OF FURIES. CHORUS

  the ends of the from the ends of

  From earth, the earth, |495| thine.

  477 element E thine E R 486 multitude, W



I care not E 487 men E R

  478 now, now; W men; W brain E

  SD 488 E

  2? Fury

  suffer heart E

  480 do Fs E 489 481 E Fr evilcruel E Power E L Fr 491 H L


  agony agony?


  482 E now E now: R <now: R >



  SD 3* E thinkest E 492 E

  483 myself & Fury within E Fr

  E one E 493 E M one &

  through by


  484 E life; R 494 mutinous E and, and though from K

  M 495 Earth,

  though y ends of the Earth 485 within




  thy 482 468

  Shelley's count, below light first a start

  483 Thou at Thin on Thinkest)

  (possibly directs to line.

  484 A caret animal above the

  life I of like first The article a at first v

  486 at a within at first without

  490 above



  thy 491 Rossetti noted that, "this

  "as B. V. [James Thomson] pointed out," . . . is though not however speech forms a taunting interrogation sign the interrogative given

  2 it

  (R in was used in later editions. in previous editions" ). Though not R*, I ACT


  its Where and the its

  the night has grave birth,


Come, come!


  hills who with the of

  shake scream


Oh, ye mirth,



  1 ] When cities sink

  [E.2 in ruin;

  howling and ye Who

  sea, [500] with wingless footsteps trample the close Famine's



  upon Shipwreck and

  Sit on foodless the wreck; chattering with joy

  come! Come, come, Leave and

  the bed, low, cold, red,

  Strewed beneath

  a nation dead; [505]

  Leave as in ashes

  the hatred, Fire is left for future burning:

  It will burst in bloodier flashes

  stir When it,

  ye soon returning:

  Leave the self [510]

  • contempt implanted In


young spirits, sense-enchanted,

  fuel: Misery's yet unkindled


Leave Hell's secrets half unchanted

  the maniac cruel

  To dreamer;

  be with hate

  More can [515]

  than ye with Is he fear.

  Fr 496 birth E


  grave, Fs W


Come E 510 self E

  497 Come, Come, contempt mirth Fr 511 sense-enchanted

  E L E E Fr

  498 R R

  W W spirits


ruin! Fr J


  499 ruin, R ruin, sense enchanted, M sense-inchanted,

  &E .

  512 E Fr 500 Sea E fuel;

  W Hells' secrets half-unchanted

  501 track track R Fr 513 E

  & Famines E W

  Fs half-unchanted

  E Fr A

  502 wreck R hell's secrets, wreck,

  Fs 503 Come Fr <unchanted

  E unchanted, M

  Come, Come,



  red cold Fs unchaunted 504 low cold E M > R


  2 Fr

  hatred Fr L 514 dreamer: L 506 E E dreamer, hatred, M

  Fr 507 E R cruel, R burning burning,

  L Fr

  515 hate, E R burning; W burning:

  it 516

  soon E fear; E 509 returning; returning;

  This error for count error below shake 498 483 Shelley's (in for 484), compensated error text line 59. the earlier carried forward from the

  502 Rossetti was

  V.) to set right by reading 2 "strongly inclined (with B. rhyme

  'wrack'" ).

  (R 508 'Twill in Cuningham.

  first e i which came can-

  511 Either enchanted or inchanted Both and are present; i


  said e not be determined, Locock "deliberately" because "Shelley was changed

  in varies the of this word

  accordance with the adjacent vowel-


  intentionally sounds,"

  2 in to the

  unchaunted sound 513 R

  [He] Leave[s] have been an attempt vary


  above would not be so -chanted repeated. and then retraced

  at with Whether

  516 Shelley wrote fear; The pen was going dry be determined. some other word cannot


  fear dipping the pen, or wrote year over retraced.

  I believe the word was





Come, come, come!

from Hell's wide



We gate

steaming up



  2 And we burthen the ] of the atmosphere, [E.2 toil till here.

  But we come [520]

  vainly ye


  hear the ] Sister, I

  IONE. thunder of new [E.2 3 wings. solid sound

  PAN. These mountains

  quiver with the

  air: their make

  as the tremulous shadows


  black than The night. space within

  my plumes more


  [E.2 2 as call was a car [525]

  Your winged

  whirlwinds fast and


Driven on far;

  It from red gulphs of war. rapt us FURY.


  wide cities, famine-wasted;




Groans half heard, blood untasted;


  conclaves stern and [530] cold,


  2 far come 526 E far.

  Come E & R

  517 Come,


hell's Fs Fs 527 war E

  518 Hells E R gate, war; R

  M gulfs M 2<J Fifth

  J SD E R A L R Fury.

  Fo 528 cities famine -was ted E cities 519 blast D H E atmosphere

  Fr here! -was ted L 520 here E R R famine 521 Sister E SD

  3 E R

  E wings Sixth Fury.

  R E untasted E L Fr

  522 sound, 529 & 523 air- E Fr air; thier SD

  4 W <sic> E E R Seventh Fury. s *


SD E Fourth R 530 R & E

1 Fs L cold

  Fury. conclaves, M Fs L J 525 car, M


  erroneous blast was followed either or 519 Forman's Alexander, and Forman's by

  in Hutchinson's use led to the word and Herford.

  Dole, Koszul, Hughes, Below and deleted is the SD: 520 this line, strokes, with slanting of horrible by groupes<szc>

  [Enter rushing forms; they speak

  as in

  they [rush by] pass chorus] 521-24 lines later. These were added 522 These solid r of at first

  the] and some-

  above [Alas [tremble] quiver above quiver

  else. first first

  These at The solid at as Freeman thing possibly sound suggested.

  523 thier <sic> shadows make below


[look not

  I pray] 525 1$ below Rossetti felt that First "confounds

  [2? of etc.,

  Fury] repetition Fury, them" with those are who have new arrivals. already been speaking, while these and assumed it clear

  Forman have that disagreed that Shelley thought

  "may enough" the etc.

  were First, Second, they speakers of another group. ACT I



It is

interesting that,

  use as early


  But note that Foster anticipated

  use A Fury.


  influence led Koszul and Hughes

  for the SD. Hutchinson's

  both Ackermann and Locock gave simply Fury




  despite the suggestion

  SD: a above


  538 In the

  line 577.

  error to text


  before this line. He carried

  (in error for 516),



  borne E 536 Invincible E 535 515




  as 1845.

  veil! at first veil




  read as born with a

  still be

  covered, the word would

  to be the n is

  the last stroke of what

  is present, since "the stroke ...


clearly visible." If

  rather unformed,

  felt that the letter,


  e is present.

  and the


  SD: ming'd probably mingld (sic; cf.

  fire" just after


  misery" the pen

  comma after

  debatable. Locock felt that, while born would make excellent sense "in connection with the omission of the


  on new Whether borne or born


  Freeman conjectured a

  n or false start on m of misery

  at first

  540 a


  tell E tell, R 540 misery

  539 torn! E L Fr



  Shine on a misery, dire to be borne. [540]

  pale stars of the morn




  It is torn.



Tear the veil!


  yet defies the deepest power of Hell.


  stern of thought;


  the Invincible,

  V ] Which must bend

  [E.2 3

  to speak might break the spell

  & sold E was





  that ye

  I know all

  not: whisper not:


  In which


  and hot,

  the furnace, white




  is bought and

  blood with gold

  531 was bought

  A 537 thought E sold.

  not- L

  veil/: The Furies


  cities E

  Speak not; whisper not; W with burning


  seen a plain covered


  Speak not, whisper not! the background

  in not; M Fs

  divide, &

  Speak ming'd in a strange dance

  Speak not whisper not E

  having 533


  Fr 538 Hell E

  E SD


  SD a


  A Fury. Fs R H

  hot E hot Fr


  532 furnace white


  Fury rushing from the crowd

  R SD a

  5 E Eighth Fury.

  hell. Fs SD



  Joy, joy, joy!


  one remembers, And the future is

  thee, but each

  crowd on

  Past ages


  in dread.

  the present

  embers Gather

  survivors round the



  To a

glow-worm's lamp have

  again, the flames almost




  for the faith


  A-Fr despair

  Prometheus Unbound


  554 Tis E


  & E

  Fr man!


  spread Like a pillow of thorns for thy slumberless head.

  542 wakenedst E


  E scorn!



  E Titan! M

  541 faint

  he kindled: [555]


  553 Hark

  man? Then was kindled within him

  which consume him

  love, doubt, desire,


  perishing waters; a thirst of fierce fever,

  which outran Those

  a thirst

  thou waken' dst for

  [545] One came

  Dost thou boast the clear knowledge

  laugh thee to scorn.





  Dost thou

  for ever.

  forth of gentle

  that outcry of despair! 'Tis his mild and gentle ghost

  truth, peace,


  in the bright air.

  Vomits smoke


  Many a million-peopled

  wide horizon [550]

  and pity. Look! where round the

  Withering up


  outlived him, like swift poison


  4 V ] His


  the sanguine earth;



  E H

2 A

  546 forth, E Fr worth,

  formed n



  stroke was probably intended


  agree that the



  facing p. 173).

  563 head E head!

  562 dark E

  R L


  561 thee E remembers; M


  e (see illus- tration,

  552 This line is followed by:


  the "shadow" as that of Christ.

  think questionably, the possibility of Fast


  Freeman suggested,

  or again; 561


  556 Either

  Piccoli identified

  [Hark] [a shadow passes over the scene

  deleted by a single vertical line.


  heard] The SD


  a piercing shriek







  2 L

  E R


  peace Fs 550



  R W

  549 truth peace

  2 R


  Fr 547 earth, E earth:

  R W


  air E air!

  E A L

  559 dread E 560



  dwindled; Fs


  557 dwindled

  W again, L

  Fs R

  556 again!

  Fr forever.

  R W

  555 kindled E kindled.


  544 waters,

  E waters: Fs fever E

  sire L

  545 Hope love doubt desire E de- ACT


  165 [E.2 5

  V ]


  of bloody



  Whom Love calls

  of linked brothers




  mate; [570]

  forth, her

  And Freedom leads it

  To truth its state





  Springs like

  now: See a disenchanted nation


  [565] Grant a little

  his white and quivering brow.



  day from


  kindred murder kin: 'Tis the vintage-time for death and sin:

  another's. L 580 Titan


  to the MS pfactice.

  with the punctuation an exception


  SD is Semichorus



  started [Hah, agony


  564 This line at


  Fr deep

  E L


  white From

  579 unsuppressed,

  another's. Fs W

  another's! R



  sister, E

  578 Hark


  Fr another's


  572 another's

  depart hut one E

  SD Semichorus 2 E SD

  M R W L J win E

  [Fast] From his [qui]



  & E


  'Tis another's:

  with the latter reinstated by underline in lighter ink.


  580 [seal above


  lines were written with a finer

  The following

  578 lone above [Panthea]

  in weak ink.

  r >



  SD is


  first/rom 567

  to text line



  count (in error for 558), below The He carried


  577 561

  2 .


  was carried into





  572 Note that the typographical error

  delicate in Shepherd.

  disenchanted 569


  571 brothers,

  577 World E world L

  Blood, like new wine, bubbles within:

  unsuppressed is



  573 kin E kin!



  & E



  Titan, as storms tear the deep,

  Of the good

  the heart




  566 now E Fr now.

  V ]

  yet dreadful groan [E.2 6

  sister! what a low


  V ] IONE.


  vanish, except one.


  slaves and tyrants win. [E.2 6 r ] [All the



  struggling world,


  Despair smothers

  [5751 'Till

  R W L

  R W


  Fr 568 desolation E

  570 mate;


  despair Fs

  Till E M

  Fr 576

  state, E dedicate;

  575 within E Fr within; W

  2 >


  [A J] < truth


  Fs 569 Truth

  See how



  now: L 574 Tis E vintage time M

  Death and Sin:


  and Sin;



  R L Death

  E Death and Sin.


  W> &

  R W L<See



  567 See!

  2 Death


  166 Prometheus

  felt that And

  when the foregoing was reassigned

  to lone.

  586 around above


  589 Locock preferred the contrast of

  Tho as did Freeman, who

  might be a transfer from

  lone at

  line 588 (Text, p. 45).

  593 577

  Shelley's count, below those

  594-96 These

  lines were inserted

later and included

in Shelley's count.

  594 an emblem those who do endure below

  [behold hoiv those who

  first, with Panthea written in








  with the

  latter reinstated

  by an underline in lighter ink.


  have been assigned

  blot at the end

  of caves hides




  583 twice above


  Freeman suggested that

  this line may

  do endure] 595 This



  that he intended to delete an

  and what Zupitza took


for a caret

is, I believe, the

  lower part of the semicolon deleted by a short angled mark


  used no other

  carets in this passage). I believe




  a semicolon. The dot of a semicolon is

  The changes in

  this line



  blacker ink.



  clearly present,


  as follows:

  chains, but

  [Wounds] Deep wrongs

  for man.

  [wounds] [&

  des] [Stripes for mankind], &




  heap The punctuation

  which was at

  after scorn is

  debatable. Zupitza read



  directing to

  [wounds] Freeman read a


  scorn E scorn Fs hands; W hands, L

  E hands E hands:

R 595

  Unbound And

  were slowly killed

  death, All horrible,

  and wrought by human


  And some appeared

  the work of

  human hearts, For men


  peopled with thick shapes of




  [590] And other

  sights too foul to

  speak and




  worse fear


  beasts hear the sea



  in inland caves.

  Barest thou observe how the fiends torture

  him? PAN. Alas!


  looked forth twice, but will no more.


  around, the earth below

  didst thou see? PAN.


  woeful sight: a

  youth With

  patient looks nailed to a crucifix.

  [585] IONE.

  What next? PAN. The heaven

  Were wandering by. Let us not tempt


  hlem Fr 588 &

  586 The Heaven around the Earth E 593 forth

  585 crucifix


  592 by

  let E


  let L

  E forth;

  584 woeful sight


  Heaven L Earth


  below, R W 594

  Behold, an emblem E em- 587 death E



  E Fr 591 & live E

  R smiles; W

  looking forth: those groans are grief enough.

  scorn, and chains,



  r ] FURY. Behold an emblem:

  those who do endure

  Deep wrongs


  man, and

  but heap [595]

  Alas, E twice E more E 590 & E smiles.

  581 caves! Fs


R 589 Tho some E A-Fr

  hearts E 582 Dar'st


  2 hearts.

  M 2


  [des] I ACT


  themselves and him.

  Thousandfold torment on

  V ] PRO. Remit

  [E.2 7 the anguish of that lighted stare; Close those that

  wan let thorn-wounded brow lips; it tears!

  Stream not

  with blood; mingles with thy

  fix in

  those tortured orbs and [600] Fix, death, peace sick

  So throes shake not that

  crucifix, thy

  So those pale fingers play not with gore.



  horrible! will not 0,


Thy name speak,

  I I It hath become a curse.

  see see,

  and the The wise, the mild, the [605J

  lofty, just, slaves hate for

  Whom like to thee,

  being thy

  hunted foul lies from their heart's Some home, by

  An home;

  early-chosen, late-lamented ounces

  As hooded the driven hind;

  cling to to in cells:

  Some linked unwholesome [610]


  I Some Hear not the multitude laugh loud? in

  fire: realms Impaled lingering and mighty



  feet, like

  by my sea-uprooted Whose sons are in kneaded down common blood the red of their own homes.


  light burning


  V 1 FURY. Blood thou canst fire; and and canst [E.2 8 see, hear groans; behind.

  Worse remain

  unheard, unseen, things,

  PRO. Worse?

  heart terror survives

  FURY. In each human

  The the Thousand-fold E E 605 wise the mild the

  596 & lofty & a darkness floats across the E Fs

  SD lofty

  slowly just scene 606 thee E

  E stare E 607 hearts E



  598 Fr 608 home, M W home,

2 E E L R

  M lips lips:

  Fr blood Fr 610 ceUs E 599 E L ceUs; R W blood, they loud?

  611 hear E L Fr E

  <c>tears! J R A W

  600 Fix fix E E R fire;

  • death death 612

  & W isles feet E

  601 crucifix E 613 E homes E 602 R 615


  gore gore!

  E E E E

  603 E Fr E 616 see & &


  groans thy speak

  speak W speak; Fr groans: Fs

  M 2 L J R W groans:

  E L

curse! 617 M

  604 R no punctuation things W darkness

  In the and above SD: [flo] [shadow]

  596 [Heap] Thousand-fold floats

  those first

  at 598 [that] lips lips: 600 Fix added before

  [0] fix those first

  602 at thy



I and that

  believe that the ink went 610 Freeman read unwholeesome dry at

  (sic) not retrace the imperfect e exactly.

  Shelley did

  Shelley's below

  615 599 count, burning

  Prometheus Unbound


  ruin it loftiest fear


  has gorged: the to think true:

  would disdain were [620]

  All that they their

  make minds Hypocrisy and custom outworn.

  The fanes of now

  a worship,


  for dare not devise man's estate,

  good They not dare. know not do


  yet they that they barren tears. to [625]


  power, but weep

  good want


  for need them.

  powerful goodness want: worse wise and those who love


The want love; want wisdom;

ill. all to


  best things are thus confused

  and and would be

  rich, are strong just,

  Many But live fellow-men


  their suffering

  among do.

  As if none felt: know not what

  they they are like a cloud of


PRO. words snakes;

Thy winged


  yet pity those they torture

  I And

  V I ] FURY. Thou them? no more! [E.29 pitiest speak [Vanishes.

  PRO. Ah woe! Ah woe! Alas! ever, for ever! [635]

  pain, pain

  I close see clear

  but more

  tearless eyes,




  woe-illumed mind,

  my Thy



  Thou Peace the grave.

  subtle tyrant!


all and


  good: grave hides things beautiful I a and cannot find it

  God there, [640] am

  ravin felt:- L

  619 631 felt- E Fr felt;


  ravine The snakes

  A 632 E R gorged. true. Fr E

  620 633 E A L not

  W yet,


  E Custom

  621 L 634 Exit E ah woe E

  & R SD

  635 E

  R pain,

  622 worship Fs pain pain ever forever? 623

  forever! for

  mans estate E R L ever? Fr

  pain, ever, W tears:

  R E Fr 637 woe-illumined J woe R M R

  625 power them mind. Fr 626 want, R want; E illumined Fs mind E


  Fr is in them: R 638 them; tyrant .... peace the grave .

  love: .

  627 love, E love, Fr E R L

  & R

  Tyrant! Fs tyrant! wisdom: R R L ill grave: grave 628 E 639 E

  & R

  good. W good 629 & E E L Fs E


& rich, God, R &

  640 god

  2 rich

  Fr E L Fr there E R<there 9

  just there, R > there: Fr

  630 fellow men E there. L 619 Forman's

  ravin[e] retention of ruin (without pre-

  comment) undoubtedly vented more before Hutchinson. general acceptance of the change

  best all

  628 And


  A things 633

  61 7 below not

  Shelley's count,

  634 more! ah woe I speak no[t!\ [is me]



  649 emblazonry


  Virtue watchwords Fr they,




  E give.

  L state,





  & fair spirits

  E spirits

  Fs Fr 650 And nations E

  & cried aloud

  E Spirits



  657 Pain and Virtue Fr

  watchwords, Fs H watch



  them; W deceit Fs fear;

  647 speak

  E M


  W L behold: R

  W L Fr

  one E 654


  & E spoil



  648 there Fs Natures sacred

  655 saw E watchwords


  watchwords: R 656 torture Son,






  after defeat directs to Fierce King above

  Fr woes

  "reasonable" (Text, p. 45).


  the meter, but


  do agree with

  Freeman that


  view of the context

  it is

  649 born in Cuningham and Shepherd.


  650 Freeman defended 1820


  "more emphatic," and as not

  likely to

  be the


  of an error in transcription (Text,

  p. 45) . first

  "absolutely necessary"

  not agree with Zupitza that more

  the line, not

  but if so no question

  victory! [to]

  643 The initial s of



  first some

  indistinguishable letter.

  646 Locock said that more was added


later in


  mark was originally placed after

  I do

  thou thou and the question


  are heavier, however. Pos-

  sibly Shelley left a blank between thou and

  the question


  which he

  later filled with


  W fear; E

  R D H L

  ACT I 169

  and love! Suddenly


  nations thronged around,

  and cried



  [E.2 10 T ]


  with one voice, Truth, liberty,

  fierce confusion fell from heaven

  Were borne

  Among them: there was



  and fear: Tyrants

  rushed in,


and did divide the


  This was the

  shadow of the truth I saw.

  [655] THE EARTH.

  aloft in bright emblazonry;

  are there, Nature's sacred watch-words, they

  felt thy torture, son,


  Nor would I seek it: for,


dread revenge.

  This is defeat, fierce king,





  sights with


  thou torturest gird my soul

  With new



  the hour arrives


  they shall be no types of things which are.

  [645] PAN, Alas! what sawest thou? PRO. There are two




  and to

  behold; thou spare me one.




  > E


  Fr King, not victory!


  liberty, and Love!"

  R L

  Liberty, and

  644 endurence,

  < sic

  Love !

  "Truth, liberty and love!"


  645 are E 652 Heaven

  E L Fr

  646 thou more?


  H-Fr woes

  E 653 them there was strife deceit &



  Fs "Truth, victory!

  King! Fs Fierce King, not


  bid ascend those subtle





  and virtue give.



  cheer thy state




  M R

  fair spirits, 641 it. For,


  Fr it;

  W revenge E

  aloud Fr 642 defeat Fierce

  King not victory!

  E 651 voice truth liberty

  & love E


  • words,

  Prometheus Unbound

  170 dim caves of homes are the human

  Whose thought, And who the wind, [660]

  inhabit, as birds wing ether: Its world-surrounding they behold as in a that realm, twilight glass,


  to thee!



  may they speak comfort PAN. where

  Look, sister, of spirits gather, a troop flocks of clouds [665]

  Like weather, in spring's delightful


  in the blue


  IONE. see!

  And more come,

  the winds are

  when dumb,

  Like fountain-vapours

  v lines. ] That the ravine climb in scattered

  [E.2 ll

  up is it the music And, hark?

  of the pines?

  it Is it waterfall?

  Is the lake? the [670] far all.

  'Tis than PAN. sadder, sweeter

  something OF SPIRITS.

  CHORUS From unremembered we


  and be

  guardians Gentle guides

  Of heaven

  • oppressed mortality;

  and sicken

  not, [675]

  And we breathe,

  of human

  The atmosphere thought: it and and Be dim, dank, grey, is it is it

  659 E 670 the water fall? E the thought

  see Fr

  661 It's ether; and E waterfall? R L



  2 ether.

  A Fr 671 sweeter, R<sweeter R R ether; L >

  They W 662 E SD Chorus of of the Mind. R

  glass Spirits

  663 future E Fr thee E 673

  & E

  future; W


  664 Look E E 674 E

  R Spirits gather Heaven-oppressed mortality


  R<heaven- Spring's RL delighful<sic> Heaven-oppressed Mortality. 2 E

  Heaven weather weather R R > oppressed Mortality, -op-

  666 air E Fr see more come E


  pressed mortality! Heaven-oppressed 2 667 dumb

  E Fr

  mortality! M 668 lines E sicken E

  675 & 669 And hark! Fs Fr 677 dim dank dim and

  E R A L & E M W & grey

  hark! Fo dank Fs

  D J R

  And, H no punctuation Fr 659 homes above

  [lairs] 660 There is a clear semicolon after inhabit dot accidental.

  but the was probably

  662 Beyond above [Within] Freeman 664 649 below Look here

  Shelley's count,

  suggested that Shelley paused

  to his line count is as to date, since the number usual, at the

  bring up here rather than, bottom


  line, as

  of A count would 649 the next the page.

  correct Shelleyan give

  may is if

  be intended the number between the two but this is done the next

  (since lines), is error.

  count in .

  669 hark \ Actually

  to false start

  674 have made a on and then to have


  Shelley appears of mortality

  it out

  blotted and started the word at blot. The blotted letter be the edge of the


  than other however.

  m I ACT

  171 Like a storm-extinguished day, Travelled o'er dying gleams;

  by it as all

  Be between [680]

  bright skies and

  Cloudless windless streams,


  serene; Silent, liquid,

  As birds

  the within the wind,


  the fish within the wave,

  As man's own rnind [685]

  the thoughts of thro' all

  Float above the grave;

  V ] make these our We lair,

  [E.2 12 liquid cloudlike

  Voyaging and unpent

  Thro' the boundless element:

  Thence we bear the [690] prophecy

  Which and ends in thee!


  IONE. More one: the air around yet come,

  one by them Looks radiant as the air around a star.



  a battle-trumpet's

  I ' fled hither, fast, fast, fast, [695] Mid the darkness cast. upward

  Fr cloud like

  E R 688 & E

  678 day


  element 679 oer E L 689 Thro E M

  M Through

  gleams: element.

  681 windless streans<szc>E E R


  691 682 & serene E & E


  Silent liquid Fs serene. 692 one one, E one; Fs W

  R by one by star like E E

  683 wind 693 radiant A


  wave, Fs 1? 684 wave E SD E

  Spirit E hither fast fast fast

  686 E 695 E through M grave grave:

2 E cast E cast Fr

  L 696 Mid R M lair

  687 there M-Fr E

  there, E after serene in from

  682 comma Hutchinson (1905) was,

  An its position,


  to a semicolon in the 1933 broken and was corrected printing. type,

  almost certainly


  Float He carried this error 686 671 below count (in error for 667),

  Shelley's text line 745.


  believe that it read

  and Freeman 688

  \fre] [pe] unpent Zupitza queried [pr] for

  was a false start on unpent pent

  line for lone's at line with the

  694 [On] in margin speech. Shelley then restarted the


  have "started out be" the indention.

  Freeman's suggestion that trumpet's may

  first e is I for is untenable. The u clearly do believe that Shelley put a trampled open. for I it e

  and covered which Freeman mistook with a rather high

  full at cast is indefinite in the

  695 Locock (which MS) might suggested that the stop . . .

  to close line 695. "We

  should then get the construction 'mingled be transposed "

  far the warm winds of

  'mid' He mingled away,/'Mid

  (see line 700). compared "and


  and the

  (Rosalind Helen 966-67)

  172 Prometheus Unbound the

  From dust of creeds outworn,

  the banner

  From torn,


  me, onward borne,

  Gathering 'round


  a cry

  There was mingled many Freedom! Hope! Death! Victory!

  Till thro'


  the sky; they

  And one

  sound, above, around,

  One sound

  beneath, around, above,

  Was 'twas the soul of love; [705] moving;

  V 'Twas

  [E.2 13 ] the hope, the prophecy, ends in thee.

  Which and

  begins 703 Fs E

  697 outworn sound L above around

  E M 2 W torn. Fr beneath

  698 torn H 704 R around above E

  E E sound,

  tyrants 705 Fs twas E love

  E borne E

  699 round E

  M moving:

  700 R Fr

  E Love; H

  cry 706 701 Death E "Free- Twas the the E

  Freedom, hope prophecy Hope,

  Fr dom!" "Hope!" "Death!" "Victory!" Fs prophecy "Freedom! 707 E thee E

  R R &


  E E R

  702 thro M through sky sky.

  Hutchinson's torn, in the 1933 698 to torn, was changed reprinting.


  the 705 690 count, Shelley's lower left-hand corner of the page.

  this line is for 2? a

  707 Below the following passage, deleted (except Spirit) single


vertical line and with a vertical line the left of

down the center, down One margin.

  the deleted lines the error was count have erroneously included in Shelley's (or :


  been gratuitous)


  2 Spirit on -star


  leaped the wings of the Earth

  damp it

  As rose the of on steam a slaughtered


  The newt heard not our sleeping tramp

  fire as the of

  wing may pass As silent did we swift [and pass] threaded


  the points of long thick grass [Among]


  hide the green pools of the morass But shook a water-serpents couch

  In a of such

  cleft skull,


  The at the meteors touch widest; snake did seem to in dream

  The see Thrones & dungeons overthrown AVisions unlike his <sic>how own ....

  'Twas the the hope prophecy ends in

  Which & thee]

  begins In line

  5 Freeman read thicks the

  5 is line


  9 merely a slight supposed pen drag. In definite.


we have meteor, the comma The sense, calls

  apparently very of course, being


  meteors effect a lift and the have resulted from of the as

  [meteor's] slight




5 In line to vision then to

  was made. have written and have


  12 Shelley appears converted the v to a



  crowded and added A

  , ** Bodleian MS Shelley Additions c. 4, Folio 6, II.iii.2842.


  Shelley's drafts

  UIT>-1<) K.I 37* I.iii.SO

  / lll.iii.138 K.I ^''


  MSS 2,

  3 Shelley E.1, Debatable readings from Bodleian ACT


  sea; hut



  "The triumphal arch through which

  I march"

  (The Cloud 67).

  He added

  that Between might even mean between arch and

  he felt that commas

  (Alastor 464), and had used

  after Between and cloud

  were "absolutely necessary

  to the sense."

  708 SD: 2


  very light, but


  must have been written over the heavy 3 which

  this identical


  709 708

  But he questioned whether the word should not be Bestrewn


  708-12 Rossetti defended




  making Between reasonable ("the storm did


  between or through the arch of the rainbow").



  omitted the conjecture in R

  2 after

  Blind's con- firmation of Between Forman felt that Between was correct because Shelley used

  it for



  "Between one foliaged


  still dominates.

  Shelley's count, made



  Cambridge Edition

  (1901) without correction.

  717 Barnard felt that the line was

  unintelligible without punctuation, and he adopted

  the commas

  after "beneath and death thus

  making spread parallel with strewn and beneath an adverb,


  was carried






  apposition with fleets 722


  without period

  into his

  notes, but it

  before the above deletion following



  707, precedes this line. 711 Shelley apparently started

  to write the instead of a but

  before crossing the

  t or

  adding the he he put a beside the t stroke.

  712 There is a



  he referred to Between in his

  a comma placed



  after Between

  Begirt was probably a typographical error




  die E die.

  R &


  of death O'er the white waters.

  I heard the

  thunder hoarsely laugh:

  [715] Mighty fleets

were strewn

  like chaff



  beneath a hell

  I alit On

  Each by

  a great ship lightning-split,


  speeded hither



  the sigh

  [720J Of one who

gave an enemy

  His plank, then



  lightning riven in half:

  rapid crowd,

  SD 2? Spirit E crowd E

  V ] And the triumphant storm




  rainbow's arch stood

  on the



  rocked beneath,


  [E.2 14


  dark and

  flee, [710]

  Like a conqueror, swift and proud,




  a captive cloud



  aside to die

  708 rainbows E sea E


  L J

  Fr death,


  Fr proud)

  R 718 Oer E



  712 Between, E Fo D H

  Fr Be- 719

  717 beneath,

  lightning-split E lightning-split; R

  tween, R Begirt W cloud,

  R-Fr[A] 722 plank

  E Fr



  713 shapeless


  E R

  & E


R 714 half E

Fr half.

  Fr laugh. W 710

  R W

  709 rock'd




  2 >

  715 laugh




  EL flee E


  Fr 716 strown Fs

  chaff, R

  711 (Like




  sic in 1820.


  Prometheus Unbound



  sate beside a sage's bed. the red

  And lamp was burning Near the book where he had fed,


  with a Dream of flame,

  When plumes



  pillow hovering came,

  15V ] knew same I it was the

  And [.2

  Which had

  kindled long ago

  and woe; [730]

  Pity, eloquence, the awhile below

  And world

  lustre its made.

  Wore the shade, fleet

  It has me here as


  Desire's feet:



  I it back ere must ride [735] morrow,

  will in sorrow.

  Or wake

  the sage SPIRIT.





  poet's lips slept like

  Dreaming a love-adept

  In the sound his breathing kept; finds he

  Nor seeks nor mortal [740]



on the aerial kisses

But feeds haunt Of wildernesses.

  thought's shapes that will watch from dawn to

  He gloom

  34 E 735 morrow E


  723 bed E 736 sorrow E E L fed. 725 fed fed; R Fr SD 4* E

  E Fr flame E Fs L E

  726 dream R Fr 737 Poets Poet's L R

  W slept,

  came came. Fs 727 E R 738 love adept Fs woe elo-

  & E R 739 kept.

  730 Pity eloquence Fs 740 blisses


  quence shade Fs L Fr 741 aerial

  732 R A made E M-Fr J]

  M [A W 1

  733 borne E ] E M-FrtFo Thought's

  742 thoughts wilderness

  feet Fs

  734 Desires E E

  feet; W

  723 4ft SD:

  3* written heavily over


  724 Koszul a lamp


  725 Rossetti felt that was "a most mean "the slovenly expression" that could

  in fed his

  book or from which he had mind." He would be better, thought that whence

  first wrote it red

  but "where he had read" in view of surmised that Shelley and changed

  line to conciliate it

  in the in with 724, without where necessary making change fed

  sic in 733 lorn 1820. as 4*!* stands

  736 Inasmuch below without change, Zupitza suggested that Shelley


  must have to delete decided on 13 the time 4^ to 3? above. the speech by he changed noted that deletion

  Freeman he could have decided on no later line. than the present

  742 wilderness rather than the riming wildernesses probably resulted from crowding w^rd the ACT


  was d the upstrokes of d and h coincide.


  something else.

  Zupitza suggested d

  It may

  have been a

  If it

  751 737

  He carried this error to the end of the act. bees i[n]


  count, precedes



  The next passage was written with a


  pen, suggesting that he brought


  746 h of heed at

  in the lower left-hand corner of the page.

  to this line and

  & west E 758

  ] 750

  me E voices;

  Fr 751 thee E 757

  love, &

  E love, R Fr sound E

  752 Beholdst E East


  for 726),

  E drowned E

  744 Possibly

  Sun 745 731





  count up

  continued writing


  758 [wor]ds with a light cancel

  Then a comma was


  but the dot of the exclamation is in a

  position to make


  a semicolon. Shelley apparently intended either a

  comma or a semicolon.



  Shelley apparently then decided

  to leave the

  word here and cancel


  in the next line.



  be deleted by a slanting line.

  the upper part of which


  the above

  753 two at first twin This line is followed by: [Sink through the lapses of the yielding

  air? ]

  The present

  lines 754-55 are in heavier ink,

  which Zupitza thought was used

  also for

  deletion. I


  see no evidence of







  have been followed by an exclamation

  2 R W L

  Fr sweet


  [E.2 17

  from the east and west Come,


  two doves



  beloved nest,

  r ] Twin

  sped to succour thee. lONE.

  nurslings of the all-sustaining air


  swift still wings glide




  atmosphere? [755J

  [E.2 16^ And, hark! their sweet, sad voices! 'tis despair

  Behold'st thou not two shapes




Canst thou




  lake -reflected sun illume


  yellow bees in the ivy-bloom, [745]


  16 V ] Nor heed nor see,

  things they be;


  But from

  these create he can

  Forms more

  real than living


  Nurslings of immortality!

  One of these awakened me, [750]

  Mingled with love and then dissolved in sound.

  speak, sister? all

  E And Fs R


  L Fr


  E be: R

  755 atmosphere

  E atmosphere.


  man E


  756 And hark


  sweet sad


  749 immortality!

  EL immortality.

  R tis

  see Fs R W

  E air, R W L

  my words are drowned.

  the ivy-bloom

  IONE. Their



  me voice.

  See how they float



  E f A


  L Fr


  Come M

  2 Come? R

  nest E ivy bloom

  Fs 754


  above [words] .

  176 Prometheus Unbound


  their sustaining wings of skiey grain,

  [760] Orange and azure deepening into

  gold: Their soft smiles light the air like a star's fire.



  shape 766

  these long

  lines down

  with only two doublings, but

  the result is a

  crowded page. 765


  at first

  Scattering may


  have been Scattered at first.

  For a transcription of Shelley's draft of

  this and the next line

  see Appendix

  A. All


  readings below are from

  to get

  [5f? Spirit] Chorus of Spirits Shelley wrote small


  Fs sadness

  o'er till

  braided J pinions


  thou o

  E o'er


  king of Sadness, 766 from thine immortal slumber Dr


  763 SD:

  Fr Sadness, R



  believe that sad was at

  first soft

  but the reverse

  may be true.


  specifically identified as


  describe the darkened wildernesses of


  believe the

  Spirit is meant to

  be speaking of the night over which


  wandered, using

  'night' to


  to be the

  from which the


  of Love was fading." Alexander noted


  conjecture and pointed out that 1820


  punctuated would mean "I continued



  from the draft. 767

  the metaphorical Night caused by


  at first, then a heavy dash was drawn through the



  I am

  inclined to agree with Locock that Shelley uses a capital N ("showing that the 'Night'


  'Love's shadow'



  but the point


  debatable. Forman felt that the





  night "subverts what




  madness, And

  past 'twas fading,


  hollow Ruin


  behind: great sages



  headless patriots,



  pale youths


  perished, unupbraiding,


  in the night.

  I wandered o'er, till





  [E.2 17

  V ]




  wide dominions


  sped, like

  swift cloud that wings the

  his ambrosial tresses : His footsteps paved the world with light;

  wide air's



  planet-crested shape swept hy on lightning-braided pinions,


  Scattering the liquid joy of





  of sadness, [770] 760 grain E Fr tresses.

  E L



  patriots &

  E patriots

  Fs Fr

  SD 5^ Spirit


  perished unupbraiding

  Fr perished 764 wildernesses E Fs



  765 Shape



  W L

  Hast thou beheld the form


  madness E 763 love? D

  762 Thier <5ic>sad E fire E behind;




  & azure, E azure,

  Fr deepning 767 pave Dr light


  Fr light.

  <sic>E A

  deep'ning Fr gold







  E gold! W

  768 ruin


  behind great Sages

  lightning 770 ACT

  I 177

  Turned by

  thy smile the worst

  I saw

  to recollected gladness.



  E as killing (for silent)


  A. All


  readings below are from E unless

  specifically identified as from the draft.

  774 Blind read


  Skylark 80). 772-79

  which was accepted by

  Scott, R

  2 ,

  and Forman (who was followed by Scudder, Alexander, Dickinson, and

  Dole), and not corrected by Zupitza.

  Locock, prompted by a "nocturnal conjecture, later verified," gave


  For a transcription of Shelley's draft of these lines see

  (To a



  R bear,

  Fr <be,


  2 >


  Who E above, M

  R A L J

  lovest but ne'er knew"

  771 Rossetti held that "grammar


  against" Turned and he chose Turn'st rather than Turn'dst for euphony.

  Forman answered that "euphony and truth


  Shelley both 'protest against' turrfst" Ackermann compared



  almost certainly

  E M

  either altered


  was at first some other word.


  see no evidence of this, he above


  with the eofhe

  or over an irrelevant mark on the page.


  Freeman suggested a

  possible change to his but there is

  no dot for an i



  Chorus below


  E: Freeman felt that

  death of


correct. See


  dream inspiring motion

  facing p. 173.

  776 Draft at first: and

  lulled to false repose

  E: Who above


  111 Draft

  at first: And the

  Then: And

  to live the dreamless sleepless




  tramping 779

  Draft at first:

  And wake and dream

  no more Then:

  Loves E be E



  he whom now we greet.

  and call

  the monster, Love,

  And wake, and

  find the



  Pain, as


  Dream visions of



now Love's shadow

  be, [780] 771 Turn'st R gladness

  E 777 &


  E SD 6^

  Spirit E

  aerial joy,


  aerial E

  tender hopes


  a delicate thing:

  It walks not on the


  it floats not on the air, But treads

  with silent footstep,

  and fans with silent wing The

  which in their hearts the best and

  and busy

  gentlest bear;

  [7751 Who,

  soothed to false repose by the fanning plumes above


  the music-stirring



  of its soft


  A & E monster

  Dr & E bear E 780


  E H L J



  Fr Pain,

  L whom we now R

  2 footstep,



  2 D W A &






  775 The soft hopes

  pain, lulling footstep,

  Dr shadow Pain E their



  772 Ah desolation Dr

  Ah sister, E Fr

  Love E

  Ah Sister!




  And die like

  774 But seeks with unfelt footsteps

  early flowers

  when the

  773 For

  it walks Dr Earth E air


  winds that waked them,

  fleet Dr their


  Prometheus Unbound 178

  Following him, destroyingly, Death's white


On steed,

and winged

  the fleetest cannot

  Which flee,

  flower and

  down both weed, Trampling

  V ] Man beast, fair, [785] and and foul and

  [E.2 18 Like a thro' the

  air; tempest horseman


  shalt quell this grim, in heart or limb.

  Woundless though

  this shall be?

  PRO. how know

  ye Spirits! CHORUS.

  In the

  we [790]



  red the

  when snow-storms flee, As buds grow


  beneath, spring gathering


  the elder

  Whose mild winds shake

  brake, the know

  And wandering herdsmen

  will blow:

  That the white- thorn soon [795] and

  Justice, Love, Peace,

  Wisdom, When to increase,

  they struggle to us as soft

  Are winds be To shepherd boys, the prophecy

  ends Which and in thee.



  IONE. the

  Where are

  Spirits fled?

  E him Fr

  781 him Fr L 792 R H L beneath E Fr


R Spring Fs





  782 death's E steed E R Fo E L

  M & 793 shake, elder-brake, M R W flee brake

  783 E Fr flee, L E weed 784 & E 794 herdsman L

  E fair E Fr

  785 beast & 795 blow E L

  & blow) R E air. Fs

  786 thro 796 E Love Fs & E through M no punctuation

  Horseman Fr 787 E L 797 increase E Horseman grim

  E Fr

  788 limb. 799 E Fr shepherd -boys

  789 Fr E

  Spirits R 2 Spirits, shepherd-boys, Fs shepherd-boys

  2 E be

  breathe 790 E L


  shepherd-boys, 791 (As red, 800 & E thee E

  R W flee Fr when snow-storms E L when SD vanish E

  They snow-storms flee 801 Fs

  A J E R spirits

  769 in 784 the Shelley's count, lower left-hand corner of the page.

  is a thickened base t

  789 There on the this which upstroke of Freeman thought

  t over


  resulted from 791 st of storms at first is

  w Freeman felt that the "makes the metre

  limp, unjusti- and fiable, unnecessary" (Text, p. 45).

  Love at first love 796 later in faint ink.

  800 The SD was added 786 801 SD: Where

  [Panthea] lone Shelley's count, below ACT



  Alas! R

  W still- Fr

  813 heart! Fs


  814 Though

  E M

  E L



  grief, M


  R W A L

  815 not . .

  E not. . .

  still alas E still.



  caverns wind

  > E mu te E


  Fr 805 thro E through M

  & E soul EM

  806 through

  E M


  809 who E overflowed E 811 dust

  rollE 807 airborn D H shapes;

  & E

  shapes; Fr

  And R

  808 love,

  & E love, Fr love!

  And R farE



  803 music E R Fr & E 804 reponses

  was rewritten

  below There It is

  possible, as

  Freeman suggested, that the [&]


  agony [&] no


  after being stroked out.

  repon and are above [not] 819 804

  He was inconsist- ent, however, in

  staling elsewhere that


  was written and struck out twice (Text,

  p. 45).



  Shelley's count,

  [though] ses added to

  be E 817 & E man E 818 gulf


  M things . . .

  E R W things. . .

  L things.

  819 agony no solace left E no

  Fr agony


  820 torment, R more E 822 &E things.


  .Fr agony 804

  In ink:

  report (sic)


  [echoes are]


  pencil: ere

  < sic


  [E.2 191

  who, when

my being overflowed,


  vain all

  hope but


  and thou

  art far, Asia!

  Wert like


  a golden chalice to bright

  wine Which else had sunk into

  the thirsty dust.

  All things are

  still: alas! how

  heavily This quiet morning weighs

  yet I feel

  fair these air-born shapes!

  heart; Tho'

  the inspired voice

  179 PANTHEA.


  a sense


  of them, like the

  omnipotence Of music, when

  and lute


  Languish, ere yet the responses are mute,

  Which thro'

  the deep


  labyrinthine soul,

  Like echoes thro' long caverns,

  wind and roll. PRO.

  upon my




  no more. PAN. Hast

  thou forgotten

  one who watches






  and never


  but when The shadow

  of thy spirit

  falls on her? [805] [810] [815] [820]

  802 them;


  V ] Earth can console, Heaven can torment


  should dream I could

  Be what it is my destiny


  sleep with grief


  slumber were denied not.

  I would


  to be,



  saviour and the strength of suffering man,


  sink into the original gulph of things:

  There is no


  and no

2 Fr


  woods and


  And haunted by

  sweet airs and sounds,

  which flow [830]




  invested with fair flowers


  the ether


  her transforming presence,

  which would fade

  If it

  were mingled not


  But now

  Prometheus Unbound

  but the eastern star looks




  all hope was

  vain but love: thou lovest.

  PAN. Deeply

  in truth;


  frozen, like this ravine;

  [825] And

  Asia waits in that far Indian vale


  scene of her sad exile;



  And desolate and

  with thine. Farewell!


  E love; W love thou lovest. . . .

  at lines 59, 498, 535,


  and additions

  for deletions


  addition, he sometimes did and sometimes did not


  being an overcount of five.

  in his 818

  577, 686, and 745), resulting


  at lines 195, 594-96, 707,



  as follows: He made six different errors in

  be summarized




  count for


  below If


  and 827). Following

  833 818

  31 813

  818) 833

  in his

  of the 38 included




  38 798

  Recto additions

  818) 795

  for in his

  15 (16 of the 31 accounted



  5 (overcount error)

  r )


  added lines from E.2

  (includes 3

  826 818

  Shelley Verso totals

  count for the act: Actual



  a comparison of the actual count and

  Shelley's count,


  Fr 825 Deeply


  833 thinefarewell E

  E L

  832 presence





  E sounds R

  herbs E 830 & sounds,

  frozen Fr 829

  824 This


  828 & frozen

  827 exile E L Fr

  vale, RWHFr



  Eastern E L Fr looks wan E wan,



  In truth E truth.

  SD omitted ERWLTr

  line is

  in Shelley's



  was not included


  The deleted

  I believe erroneously.

  rugged once Freeman read oer as eer


  winds, & sounds smooth



  & flowers

  her presence Makes fruits

  The scene of her sad

  followed by: [But the eastern

  as follows:



  827 This

  [is pale]

  824 love thou lovest . . .



  825 Deeply above In

  star is pale]

  deeply] looks wan above


1 Heaven


  SD A

  repose; W


  Fr repose,


  5 repose

  L life Fr

  A life. . .

  R 4heartERFr life . . .

  life E life.

  12 desart E

  3 eyes

  directs to lovely





  11 Earth


  E R

  2 Yes E thought

  E Fr joy, R

  10 genius

  R descended; W

  caret after a

  line, alone added

  above the

  as 10 or at first of 12 Julian gave desart for Mrs.



  distinguish desart


  object was


  have examined. Forman suggested that

  issues I

  in the

  It is desert


Shelley's edition.

  at first

  E R

  after the names of characters.

  of omitting the period

  to his custom

  Asia, contrary

  For the first speech Shelley wrote

  probably because Blind had confirmed the E reading.

  in this detail,

  but Scott did not follow R 1

  M in lonely

  Cun- ingham followed

  finer pen.


  Fr descended!

  8 dream



  Thou comes t

  winds! As suddenly


  Spring! child of


  Cradled in tempests; thou dost

  descended [5]

  learnt repose: thou hast




  haunt the desolated

  memory of a dream. Which now is





  tears throng to the

  which makes Unwonted

  like a thought,


  the blasts of heaven thou hast descended: Yes, like a


  ASIA. From


  as the

  sad because


  2 > Caucasus.


  Fr descended E

  E L

  E winds . . . Fr

  7 winds . .

  alone E


  o Spring

  E wake

  6 tempests



  it hath been

  Fs R<lovely


  Scene Morning a E lonely descended, R

  Act 2.


  The desert of our life.

  the earth, clothing with golden clouds

  As from

  up [10]




  sweet; Like genius, or like joy

7 As

  • light quivers:

  sunlight quivers ;


  R W H L

  25 sunrise quivers

  E Fr

  sunlight quivers.





  sunlight Fs

  D H L

  sunrise A 26 eolian

  E A




  see, R



  M tears

  &E .

  it E Fr it; M


  W it.

  Now R wanes E

  Fr wanes; M Fs



  E air. R air; W air

  24 Tis





  through M

  23 air. .


  ... L

  28 thro E through

  E Fr

  through M

  from lines 15, 17, and

  later, since Shelley's

  count does not include



  it is


  different ink

  Shelley's count.

  indicates the location of line 16.


  16 Shelley's count, below The point 18 widening above


  25 Freeman preferred

  sunrise because the many r repetitions

  in the line



  16 This line was added

  long[-]desired An. insertion mark below come . . .

  29 half-quenched M

  E Fr


  R W





  31 live E 32 art;



  sea, E

  from desert as adjective.

  He felt that the inconsistencies in this to

  he found in Prome- theus Unbound are chargeable


  the printer and to


  who oversaw the printing.


  tains; W A L


  it: now it

  in the orange light of

  widening morn Beyond the purple mountains:

  thro' a

  chasm Of

  wind-divided mist the darker lake




  [E.2 22



  gleams again


  the waves fade,

  and as




  V ] Deep


  in pale

  come! [15J

  Prometheus Unbound This is the season, this the day, the hour;




  shouldst come, sweet sister mine.


  long desired, too long delaying,



  r ] How

  like death -worms the wingless


  crawl! [E.2 21

  V ] The point of


  white star


  Of woven cloud unravel



  sun had climbed The sea; my

  [30] The shadow

  of that soul




  I live, How



  art! the sphered

  heart was sick with hope, before

  in mists of silver dew.


  moun- 13 season this the day the hour, E 14 come

  E Sister


  R mine , ELFr

  15 desired E delaying come , come. . , .

  Fr 19 mountains; through


  Beloved and most beautiful, who wearest


  'Tis lost! and thro'

  |25| The


  peaks of cloudlike

  snow The

  roseate sun




  ^Eolian music of her sea-green

  Like stars half

  plumes Winnowing

  the crimson dawn? PANTHEA ENTERS.

  I feel, I




  which burn

  thro' smiles that fade in tears,

  line itself p. 46).





  The air felt

  printless thy belated plumes.

  PAN. Sister! were faint

  but [35] Pardon, great

  my wings With the a remembered

  delight of dream,

  V As are the noon-tide of

  [E.2 23 ] summer winds

  plumes Satiate flowers. I was

  with sweet wont to sleep


  24 and calm [E.2 ] and awake refreshed

  Peacefully, Before the sacred Titan's and



  thy thro' use and love,

  had made, Unhappy pity, Both love to heart and woe familiar my

  they had grown slept

  I As to thine: erewhile

  V ] Under of old Ocean

  [E.2 23 the glaucous caverns

  Within and dim bowers

  • - of green


  purple moss, lone's soft

  Our young and milky arms


  hair, then, as now, behind dark, moist

  my While and

  cheek were

  my shut eyes pressed within The bosom:

  life-breathing folded depth of her

  I But not as since the wind am made [50] now, . . . . sister! Fs

  36 dream Fr . Erewhile L thine . Fr

  35 E thine noontide E

  37 J] 45 & E moss; E L Fr R Fs-Fr[Fo moss,


  39 calm 46&E

  & calm, FsRW fall

  Fs then as 40 thine E A 47 now E Fr dark moist hair


  41 love Fs

  made E E darkR W through A


  Fr & A Fr


  through M pity pity . bosom . . E L Fr

  42 E


  & heart, R . . . thine. Erewhile E A R

  50 now E R now,

  43 yours

  at first Sister first sister

  Great at 35 great

  t the first d

  36 of at

  lines were

  38-39 These

  originally: with sweet flowers.

  Satiate [I



  exile his

  Before thine & grievous woe]



last is also , the lines written later.

  The on 24 where were part of the present 38 to line.

  38 above the

  as follows:

  41-42 These lines developed had



  ere love, &

  [and by] use pity


  familiar to heart . .


  Both love woe own

  & [had I slept]

  grown mine hearts own

  [my mates]

  is is and deleted 1 slept in pencil.

  through in pencil,

  at first to have and then

  43 have Freeman back had thought that had was changed

  I find this. / to had but no evidence of pencil.

slept in

  44 Under above [Within] was


  perspicuous," printed 50-55 Rossetti supposed that passage, "by no means

  as but in R he V." (James Shelley intended, agreed with the suggestion of "B.

2 Thom-

  Is for at line Was "would

  54 son) that simplify the flow of the passage."


  50 as else. Freeman believe But started thought Yet that Shelley something over it. is no e under the u and then wrote the B There started not)

  N (anticipating


  Unbound 184

  I fails the music that bear Which beneath

most since dissolved

  Of wordless converse;

  thy rest love

  Into the sense with which talks,



  and Was troubled

  yet sweet; waking

  my and

  Too full of care pain.

  Lift thine ASIA.




  let me

  And read thy dream.

  I have PAN. As said

  I With our sea-sister at his feet slept.

  at our voice

  mountain The mists,

  condensing their the

  Under moon, had flakes,

  spread snowy

  From the keen ice [60] shielding our linked sleep.

  V I not.

  24 two dreams came. remember ] Then One, [E.2 limbs in the other his wound-worn


  pale Fell the

  from Prometheus, and

  azure night

  form Grew

  radiant with the glory of that his fell

  Which lives and voice [65] unchanged within, dim

  Like which makes

  music brain,

  giddy the Faint with intoxication of keen joy:

  " Sister of her whose the world ?? footsteps pave loveliness fair

  With more her, than aught but

  " art lift


Whose on me."

shadow thou [70]

  thine eyes

  I lifted them: the



  o'er that

  Of immortal shape was shadowed from his soft and

  love; which, flowing limbs,


  ted and

  And keen,

  • par lips, faint eyes,

  passion forth like

  Steamed fire; [75] an atmosphere


  52 63 & E

  since, R R


  E R R

  54 & 65 within; & E yet sweet sweet, sweet Fr

  66 E hrain E Fr

  L A

  sweet, dizzy c

  55 E E

  68 Sister E Fr

  & eyes beginning only E;


  56 dream said, M R

2 E Fr Fs and end

  W beginning only M

  69 her E Fs Fr

  L Fr

  70 Sea-sister E me!" Fr

  57 R me! E

  slept E

  71 them E Fr them. The 58 mountain -mists mountain- R

  2 mists, R

  them; W

  flakes E 72 oer E

  59 73 limbs

  60 ...EL Fr which R & E E Fr

  sleep sleep

  Dreams Fs faint

  61 One E R Fr 74 & keen E keen R

  W eyes


  62 E L Fr Steam'd E

  other, his pale,

  51 in

  falls Cuningham. at first reverse.

  woe or the 55 pain i 55 the is dot first 60 below There no on the of


Shelley's count, shielding


  first ei ie then the wrote either or and letters.

  changed 69 more above With and Whose in lines 69-70. SCENE


  II, 185

  in its

  Which me wrapt all-dissolving power, As the warm ether of the morning sun

  ere it drinks cloud of dew.

  some Wraps wandering

  I felt saw not, heard moved onlv

  not, not, thro'

  and blood [80]

  His presence flow mingle my

  Till it became his and his life, mine, grew

  V I ] And was thus absorb' until it

  [E.2 25


  past, like

  And when the sun sinks down,

  the vapours in the drops pines,

  Gathering again upon tremulous

  And [85]

  as they, in the deep night as

  was and

  condensed; being the rays


  I Of could hear thought were slowly gathered,



  voice, accents lingered ere they died

  weak name

  Like footsteps of thy




  26 ] the sounds alone heard



  [90] Among many

  be still


  articulate; tho'

  what might

  I listened none. when sound was

  through the night

  V ] awakened and to

  IONE said me:

  [E.225 then, " to

  Canst thou divine what troubles me

  night? Fr


  84 M E 76 wrapped power pines dew

  78 E E condensed, Fr 86 condensed, & not Fr 79 not heard not moved E and, R not Fs as E

  moved moved R

  88 A Fr not; they died

  far L J moved L E-Fr

  89 E far

  not, only thy name,

  melody Fr

  80 E thro E

  & M melody. name, R W

  through Thy melody;

  90 R sounds,' R R blood, heard,

  life life Fr


  81 E mine E E

  & M


  93 mine. & E

  R me E 1

  2 Fr E

  82 absorbed E 94 to R ] absorbed, M M-FrtFo night to-night?


  and absorbed: L E < R absorbed, R > beginning past tonight? quotes

  L M R end only M

  passed, passed; past,

  R down E

  83 And, R vapours,

  sic in also for in line 80. mv

  79 onlv 1820. Possibly




  81-86 "to show that 'until,' 'was condensed' goes with

  Locock punctuated just c till.' Otherwise either or be taken as both independent

  'was absorbed' goes with might verbs." became 81 76 below count,

  Shelley's first as like at

  83 And [Then]

  84 deleted [OTI the] above [Which Jiang] upon Gathering in pencil in pencil.

  And BS above .[So].

  music . . . but I discovered the correct heard] Locock above [lost melody

  89 far

  is evidence of other letters clear w and there

  A it, being over-

  reading precedes far

  it to

  I Locock written.

  that Shelley wrote weak and changed far probably agree with

  lost is deleted This

  because of where weak II.ii.33, again, in pencil. melody occurs


  was followed by: the sounds, one word, name]


many thy


  r . is on 26

  repeated thy name,

  t in to be a to false mark from

  94 be a What crossing of the may hyphen.

  Hide them within thine hair Panthea thy


  [yet it is*]


  [even so sweet, that it is sweet]

  The received half


  something sweet

  since it is


  opposite, on 26

  for, R

  r ,

  probahly added later.



  word probably ending


  ing but

  I believe




  Freeman suggested.

  air; W



  99 desire-

  E Fr desire. It R sport

  108 thee

  E false sister! E sister! L

  Fr 109 air.



  not oh E 100 inchantment old E inchantment not. Oh! R<not.


  Oh R

  2 > not ...

  Fr L old Fr not. . . L oh

  Fs 101

  slept, R

  110 eyes E Fr soul.



  thine; E thine;

  killing as

  99 thy above

  the J eastern Fs



  the "germ" of the "Life of Life"


lyric at II.v.48-71)


  deleted by a


  firm line down the center of the page, with separate

  deletions as indicated: [[Lift


  eyes [Panthea they pierce they burn!] Panthea



  I am



  melt away


  fire is in my

  heart- Asia

  Thine eyes burn burn!

  At this point the following passage (regarded by Locock

  110 soul, above

  [some] andfalse sister!



  [of thine]





  with the latter underlined to indicate



  the change in line 99.

  [Lift up thine]


  97 Shelley's count, below sustained The without quotation mark.

  106 There


  one small dot before Quivered but

  I believe no

  intended quotation mark. 109 Thou

  speakest, but thy words





  And mingled it





  have stolen my

  spirit as


  slept "

  with thine: for when just

  Thou hast discovered some enchantment






  felt within thy parted lips



  sweet air that sustained


  thy sport, false sister; "

  the warmth [E.2

  I cannot tell

  Prometheus Unbound "



  knew what


  desired before, [95] "

  Nor ever found

  delight to wish in vain. "

  But now

  thee what

  it is


  seek; "

  I know



  sweet, since it is sweet



  to desire;

  me, and

  26 V ] "

  sweet E Fr not: Fs 107

  vain; Fr 105 life-blood

  I may

  read his written soul!


  95 before E 104 The


  me; W

  & E

  96 vain


  E R


  2 Fr faint

  E R

  2 Fr

  97 seek E seek:

  R 106 Quivered E





  eyes, that

  Oh, lift



  the life-blood, for loss of which


  faint, [105] "

  Quivered between our intertwining arms."



  not, for the Eastern star

  grew pale, But

  fled to thee.







  words Are

  as the





  • is





  cannot speak Panthea



  Sleep death annihilation pain! aught





  first line may

  be thy The next two leaves in the MS were torn out, so there


  have been more

  in this

  deleted passage. Ill

  Shelley's count,

  below anni-


  my life

  the preliminary


  115 Contracted in

  E A Fr

  116 long

  E R

  lashes E Fr measureless,

  E L measureless Fr

  117 within orb Fs

  R & E

  E M

  orbs . .

  inwoven E 118 passed? M

  I sink


  perish Asia


  me now they


  It is his spirit in their

  hilation Freeman read this number as 94, but


  114 deep blue

  I find a faint dot above the i


  change resulted from

  Blind's confirmation of moon from E ("Shelley").

  123 This line was included

  in Shelley's



  might be read thou as in Free- man, but

  125 Freeman read both a




  and small

  p for Pavilion



  believe that Shelley

  faint P after dipping the pen. their is


  be read morn The R

  122 As Zupitza noted, the word could

  count before additions



  correct at 111 and the


  can be so read. 112

  that at first

  what 118 111



  the left margin opposite Panthea

  119 beyond above [within]

  After the deletion following


  110 the poet apparently recounted from



  (text line 104),


  this second occurrence of 111

  E Heaven E L


  I 187

  I see a shade, a shape:

  lookest thou as

  if a

  spirit past? ASIA.

  There is

  a change:



  inmost depth


  and line thro' line inwoven. PAN.

  He, arrayed


  In the soft light of his own smiles,


  spread Like radiance

  from the

  cloud-surrounded morn.



  within orb,

  r ] Prometheus, it is thine!


  LE.2 27

  V ] PAN.

  I lift them

  tho' they droop

  beneath the load Of

  that they



  canst thou see



  thine own fairest

  shadow imaged

  there? ASIA. Thine eyes are like the deep, blue, boundless


  Contracted to two circles underneath


  Their long, fine lashes; dark, far, measureless,



  113 there

  125 Pavilion


  moon E morn! R<moon! R

  2 >

  moon. Fo-Fr 123 Prometheus

  it is

  thine E thou Fr


  R yetE

  E L

  121 smiles

  111 them, though

  E M


  R W L

  J 112 express


  Fr express;



  he, Fs



  yet! [E.2

  27 V ]

  Say not

  those smiles that we shall




  that bright pavilion


  E Fr

  beams [125]

  119 change,

  E Fr



  Fs R

  W L

  120 shade a shape

  ther Prometheus Unbound

  188 is Shall build on the world? The dream told. waste is that between us? Its rude hair

  What shape wind that lifts its

  the it, regard

  Roughens Is wild and 'tis air

  quick, yet a thing of


  28 thro' its ] For dew [130] [E.2 grey robe gleams the golden stars not. the

  Whose moon

  has quench' d


Follow! Follow! It dream.

  PAN. is mine other

  It ASIA. disappears.

  PAN. It into now mind. Methought

  passes my sate the buds

  As we here,




  on yon lightning-blasted almond-tree,


  from the When

  white Scythian wilderness with frost:

  Earth A

  forth wrinkling the

  wind swept I all blossoms and the were

  looked, blown down; build oer H-Fr the dream is the flower

  134 methought unfolding

  126 E . .


told E told! . R Fr buds Dr here E Fs R


  flower -enfolding


  127 E 135 trees Dr almond-tree E almond


  129 air, Fs R > almond

  R L tree, R J< almond-tree, &E yet, M

  quick; tree;W

  RWHL E 136 And then white Dr


  130 through from yon 131 E follow! E E wilderness,


M Follow, swift, E

  quenched 137 earth with frost. Fr swept down Dr . . .

  132 dream E L Fr R frost Fr

  E L frost;

  dissappears W Fr 138 E

  <sic>E & down E

  down, 133 E


  methought Methought,

  find felt that oer on I also

  he oer (used 126 Zupitza by Koszul, might Hughes, distinct. Freeman's also in his dissertation. and told^ is

  Herford) quite 128 it, its [&] 129 122 Is count, before


  130 added later. felt that here the word was Locock and of through emphatic, ugh

  thro for to

  used when that Shelley intentionally only pressed space or guard against undue accentuation.

  131 felt that the "as a to be in James Thomson

  Dream, that speaks, Shape ought


  the the and the Echoes" of dramatis personae along with the Phantasm, Spirits, ("Notes," p. 371).

  133-40 draft of these

  A. All see MS

  Shelley's lines,

  For a transcription of Appendix are E unless from the draft. below from readings specifically identified as 133 The draft : / had dreams burst on has (undeleted) of spring/Last night forth

  <etc> it The be a methought

  E: methought below [methou was] m yourJ

  may i

  be there is evidence of

  [methin] but no a dot over the capital, {methou} may

  134 we sate sat

  A above As

  [dream sprin] of in Shepherd.

  at first

  swepth 137 swept 138 The first s to have been an on

  of blossoms appears o (possibly a start

  originally . ACT

  I 189


  But on

  each leaf


  stamped, as the blue bells

  Of Hyacinth tell

  Apollo's written

  grief, [140]






  [150] But on

  the shadows of the




  the purple


  was written FOLLOW, 0, FOLLOW! As

  And there was more which

  they vanished by,

  And on

  each herb,

  from which Heaven's dew had fallen, The



  stamped, as with a withering

  fire, [155]

  139-41 And on each





  words Fill,


  pause by pause,



  forgotten sleep

  With shapes.


  thought among the




  underneath the young grey dawn,



  29 V ] And multitudes of dense white fleecy clouds

  [145] Were wandering

  in thick flocks along the

  As you speak,

  the slow, unwilling wind;

  And the white dew on the new

  bladed grass,

  Just piercing the dark earth,

  mountains Shepherded by

  • bladed

  bell/ Was


  at first


p. 46).

145 dense


  "Shelley evidently preferred


  but chose the former


  choice" between mine and


  142 Freeman found



  finishing, tell


  that Shelley wrote Hyan and then corrected n to






  an n under


  questionable, but there

  Hy is


  the ancient) . the

  an (he conjectured

  first the

  four letters of Hyacinth were at



  151 Locock preferred the

  [of] bells

  MS, "often Shelley's equivalent

  leaf, as on the new


  "since Shelley frequently omitted such pauses at the ends of


  evidence against

  at fire could not be regarded as


  felt that the absence

of a full

  Prometheus Unbound), and he


  assumption with respect


for this

  no evidence

  for a semicolon" (I find

  comma in the


  by because of a thick

  for a semicolon after

  As) "no sentence at all." He argued


  (with as


  Forman and

  "clumsy sen- tence"; that of

  M made a

  with athwart 153-55 Locock thought that the punctuation of 1820 and


  moving might go


so that


  140 Freeman thought that the

  Fr 139 Uue


  Fr 150 not;

  ~l42Fffl pause by pause Fs pause

  E Fs moving A J


  follow! E


  E L

  moving clouds


  151 But,


  follow!" R


  Fr 141 "Oh

  E W L

  E L


  E grief

  140 Apollos


  D silently:




  E L

  139 stamped


  Fr silently.

  silently E

  Dr 149

  ai ai



  2 L fire; W H

  vanished by

  grass E Fr Fo

  148 new-bladed

  fire E Fs fire.


  E R

  155 stamped

  E R wind, Fr

  Fr 147 slow


  W L fallen

  144 dawn E 154 herb E Fr heaven's Fs R 146 mountains, R

  H L

  by; W


  E H-Fr

  2 L

  Fr 153 Follow, o follow as E Follow, 143 shapes . . . methought



  Fr by pause mine Prometheus

  M-L[Fo] hyacinth's





  Fr h follow!"

  R as

  Fo D

  W H L as

  they shapes.-



  190 Unbound it

  arose the shook

  A wind



  their and then

  The music from

  boughs, clinging faint like the farewell of

  Low, sweet, sounds, ghosts,

  heard: ME!


  " I said: on me."

  And then [160]

  Panthea, look

  But in

  the depth of those beloved eyes

  I Still


  r 30 ] ECHO.

  [E.2 follow! Follow,

  V PAN. mock

  29 ] The [E.2 crags, this clear spring morning, our voices

  V ] As were

  [E.2 30 they spirit-tongued.

  ASIA. It is


  being the fine clear list!

  Around What [165J

  crags. sounds! 0, beloved E

  E Fr

  161 of thy Fr 156 pines 162 saw saw

  157 follow, follow. E

  & E

  "follow, sweet faint sounds sounds 158 Low E follow!" R

  Fr Fr E

  E R L



  163 crags Spring morning heard oh, follow, follow, follow me

  159 r Fs L F voices, M R A J


  Fr It's Fs heard "Oh follow, follow, E


  164 spirit-tongued what sounds o list E follow me!" R E 165 crags look Oh

  160 said Panthea on me E said, L


  saidFr me:" R L

  MFsRWLJ is in in

lines." The in Koszui

fire Cumngham;^re.

  punctuation Dickinson; andj^re; and Herford (after Hutchinson). I

at first canceled and converted to

  158 Low Slow Then S was the L Locock /

  final last is

  read a The stroke on the

  I an possible heavy, hut

  farewells question



  thine it thine

  161 those be Freeman was or the thought that reverse, thy out of

  may for is

  not those no downstroke and the evidence in but There is, however,

  y strongly those beloved

  favor of on the word and The pen was running dry the apparent accent d backstroke. be merely part of the

  may r to is

  162 The this line Echo on 30 , finer and with opposite, in part of assigned pen,

  V .

  Echo an insertion on


  mark [ Voice}

  Around was for or Amid his re- but 165 Rossetti thought that a misprint Among


  viewer "thor-


  was by Forman Professor Baynes) held that the original and that "the term is here in

  • -like," used

  being by oughly Shelley undoubtedly Shelley . . . are and means that vital the im-

  sense, around

  a generic presences crags, their material essence and felt and heard on inorganic voices being every side" (Edinburgh

  felt that means some elemental

  454). Forman diffused, Review, 1871, p. Asia "simply . character to those described the Earth" at 1.658-61. . . similar in being by

  Wbodberry that is noted of and around meaning "in the neighborhood "perfectly good English,

  Locock thought that the used by Shelley"; while word meant "moving around" and he


  as 'inchanted eddies echoes.'

  II.ii.41, "where of

  they are described SCENE


  II, 191



  Echoes we: listen!

  cannot We


  As dew

  • stars glisten


  Then away

  Child of

  Ocean! [170]

  ASIA. Hark!


  Spirits speak. liquid responses their aerial

  Of tongues yet sound.

  I PAN. hear.



  0, follow, follow,


  our voice recedeth


  Thro' the caverns hollow,

  Where the forest

  spreadeth; DISTANT)

  (MORE follow, follow!

  0, Thro' the caverns hollow,

  As the floats

song thou pursue,

  the wild bee

  Where never flew, [180]

  Echoes E 175 Thro E hollow

  SD unseen E

  Through M we! Listen! hollow 166 welisten E R Fr R

  2 this forest


E R 176 E Fr

stay, spreadeth

  167 stay 168 R R spreadeth


  171 E More distant omitted Fr Hark SD E SD


  speak! the Fs Fr follow follow Fs

  R L 177 E Oh M

  Spirits, spirits speak!

  172 aerial


  sound E follow, R follow, follow, M-Fr[A]


  follow Fr hear E follow, 173 E hollow hollow. follow E Fs 178 E

  M Through M Mow L follow, R hollow;

  Oh Mow! R<0h Mow, Mow,

2 Fr E L

  179 E

  R > follow, floats, pursue Mow

  180 wild-bee flew 174

  E A L E flew; R

  recedeth, R 166

  SD: [F] Echoes unseen


  167 [As]

  after is

  The dash 169 very faint but, I believe, away present. noted the in from Mrs. 171 above Forman sense resulting

  liquid [aerial] change initiated


comma after Spirits (followed by Cuningham, and by Galig- Shelley's at for aerial also note 1.469

  nani). See

  after hear thier (sic).

  172 Possibly Possibly a period


  175-78 modified the by 175, spreadeth in

  Cuningham meaning giving hollow! in hollow, in 178. and

  176, 176 fainter ink and smaller letters.

  SD in

  note at

  ILL to Locock would 130).

  178 Thro (see "prefer" Thro here ugh added The is faint.


  comma after floats

  very 180 173

  Shelley's count, in the lower right-hand corner of the page.

  Prometheus Unbound 192

  V ] Thro' the noon-tide darkness deep,

  [E.2 31 sleep the odour-breathing


  faint and the waves

  Of flowers,

  night caves,


  the fountain-lighted

  and While [185]

  sweet, our music, wild


  thy gently falling feet, Child of Ocean!

  ASIA. Shall we sound? It pursue the grows more faint distant.


  strain floats PAN. List! the nearer now.



  In the world unknown [190] Sleeps a voice unspoken;

  By thy step alone its rest


  be broken; Child of Ocean!

  ASIA. the notes sink [195]

  How upon the ebbing wind!


  0, follow, follow! Fs-Fr 181 E noontide E now E

  Through M

  SD Echo E J] E

  [Fo deep 182 odour E 191 E breathing unspoken 183 Fs L 193 broken E Fr

  M R & E broken, R night-flowers, W

  Fr 184 caves E 194 Ocean E caves; R 185 While the our music wild & sweet 195 wind E music wild and sweet SD Echo E

  E R feet

  186 E 196 follow follow Fs

  E L E M gently-falling

  188 it sound? Fr sound? E L Oh R

  follow, follow, follow, fol- list List

  189 distant E L

  E A low, is

  above deleted There a dot between and


  183 faint in pencil, in pencil. night


  that be an intended hyphen.

  may first

  184 At at


  185 undeleted the our above an altered to with the

  Mocks Mocked d then canceled and the e con- 186 Originally verted to

5 It list the strain

  nearer now added with 189 Originally floats later, strain de-

  It leting

  192 in Koszul.

  that step in steps Cuningham.

  195 In the second issue is with the d! of 1820 the word win out. having dropped The has the d! written in.

  Library of Congress ACT



  thou Parted, to


commingle now;


  Child of



ASIA. Come,

  sweet Panthea, link

  thy hand

  in mine,

  follow, ere the voices fade away.









  On the day when He and


  I 193

  and fountains [200]

  Thro' the caverns hollow, [E.2 32

  V ] As the song

  floats thou pursue,


  the woodland noon-tide

  dew; By

  the forests, lakes,

  Thro' the


  many-folded mountains; To the






  Where the Earth




  & E Thou R

  200 Hutchinson's error

  the lower right-hand corner of the page.




  197 190

  E M



  1 E 204

  was followed hy Hughes and Herford.


  Fr Semi- Chorus of

  E R

  203 spasms


  gulfs, M listening

  and chasms Fs Fr


  on a rock and



  Scene ii follows the last line of


  note at line 63).

  The path

  then drew


  1 after Spirits (Zupitza thought that 1 was in originally).

  Semic before Chorus and


  have written Chorus of Spirits and then, with heavier


  Shelley appears



  speeches were interpolated

  when their



  young fawns etc. added


  by Mountains] intermingled

  SD: A forest [surrounded

  is written with a finer pen.


  2 young fawns are

  chasms E rents

  197 Thro E


  Panthea Fr mine Fs


  hand in mine

  dew E

  Panthea link thine 199 wood land E noontide

  207 Come sweet




  E Fr 206

  D W-L


  floats, E L Fr


  2 now E

  L R

  commingle hollow! R hollow;

  to a

  hollow E 205 Parted E L Fr



  Fr noontide

  noontide dew, R 208


  intermingled with



  202 rents


  pass in

  & Panthea


  & caverns.

  Fr mountains, R rocks


  A forest

  away E

  mountains SD Scene 2.


  201 Thro E Through

  R W H L J Fr


  lakes Fs fountains, M

  thro' which that lovely




  & E forest, H




  and Have

  yew, past, cedar, pine,


  tree that

  And each dark

  ever grew,


  curtained out from Heaven's wide blue;

  V ] Nor sun, nor moon, nor wind, nor rain, [5]

  [E.2 33

  its Can

  interwoven bowers, pierce



Nor some cloud of dew.

  aught, save breeze,

  Drifted along the earth-creeping

  Between the trunks of the hoar trees,

  in flowers

  [10J Hangs each a pearl the pale

  Of laurel, blown anew;

  the green then fades

  And and

  bends, silently,

  frail and fair anemone:


  star of a one

  Or when some many That climbs and wanders thro'


  steep night, the cleft thro' which alone

  Has found fall from


  high those depths

  upon it is

  Ere borne away, away,

  2 of 11 laurel

  & blown anew, R laurel,


  myrtle, pine yew Dr

  E E & E 12 bends & bends Fr Fr silently

  pine yew pine Fs

  13 E

  3 E & anemone. R anemone; W grew

  E blue.

  4 heaven's Fs R blue R when some R

  14 Or, star, 15 climb climb

  5 Nor star nor sun Dr & wander Dr & wander no punctuation Fr nor wind Fs climb and wan-

  E Nor sun nor moon E R

  through steep Night

  E L der A Fr

  6 bowers; R through M night Fs Fs save L

  7 E when Fr dew

  R Night,

  aught Fs

  E Fr

  16 Has found Dr thro E that spot


  8 the breez Dr

  < > through M

  wandering Fs fall breeze E R Fr

  17 from heaven Dr E L upon,

  W trees Fr

  9 E Fr R upon, W 10 i flowers the white Dr a line c of Semic and the of to delete

  C one or the

  touching both the Chorus intending

  other. This line which not have been intended.

  forms the apparent hyphen, may

  C was the deleted line is but the low to it.

  Zupitza thought that the letter, very


  and 5-56 a

  2 For of these lines and relevant

  Shelley's draft

  transcription of


  A. All are unused MS from E unless passages, Appendix readings below specifically identified as the draft. from

  7-8 Draft at first: Save

  Is driven on the earth

  where some cloud of wandering dew /


  <sic> creeping

  7 Freeman read for where when but the spacing confirms where above

  10 pale [faint]

  felt line

  14 that the was "a reminiscence of Wordsworth's Ode" 51:

  Mayor [line

  " But there's a of and should be read "of

  tree, one"]

  many, many, one" ("Shelley's Metre," p. 261).

  15 Draft at first: That walk

  16 above [spot]

  cleft ACT

  II 195


  the swift






  Dr unite; W W noon-day

  noonday: 21 which neer unite

  D J Fr

  R H noon-day.



  light E light



  E M noonday

  glolden<sic> through

  22 For the gloom divine is

  around 26 fails E

  20 It

  29 mates E bosom

  30 Another, R blossom E R Fr


  ground; Fo


  23 ground

  E L Fr


  Dr around E Fr



  E around.

  E M ivy-boughs

  27 through

  around, R H

  scatters lines Dr



Heavens that cannot

  34 r ]

  with bliss or sadness

  [25J When one

  thro' all the broad noon-day,

  Are awake

  the voluptuous nightingales,



  the windless ivy-boughs, Sick with sweet love, droops

  And underneath is the mossy ground. I E

  divine is all around;

  And the gloom

  Like lines of rain that ne'er unite:


  stay, It scatters drops of golden light,

  fails, And thro'

  dying away On its





  stay, R


  E Fs R A L

  24 nightingales


  mate's music-panting




  19 heavens


  the swinging blossom,

  bosom; Another from

  25 thro the broad noonday

2. E

  after stay

  a false start on There with a dry pen.

  have given a stronger pause.


  "clearly a misprint." Most

  the early editions was



  felt that the comma after

  25 Forman

  is, I believe,


  / before There

  be an


  24 What appears

  22 and 23.

  for lines

  a misprint, possibly a printer's inversion of th3 punctuation







  23 It is probable that the semicolon

  Of the last strain,



  almost mute


  and it

  delights offeeling bear /That song

  on high/ The Heaven-upclimUng melody/Till new



  dying song/

  [A] nAnd Draft at first: ivy leaves

  to catch the


  Another on the laurel Uoosom/

  first (abstract):

  30-35 Draft at


  (undeleted) : deep


  28 Draft at


  neer unite

  because "a skeleton of the sentence,

  scatters drops.' Evidently this c


  because he preferred

  after anemone (line 13)


  Rossetti's full



  If is wrong."

  some star has found the cleft . . . It


  (2) when

  some cloud of dew hangs a pearl ... or

  19 Locock, "with some doubts," put a colon


  its interwoven bowers . . .

  syntax: 'Nothing can pierce

  in its

  previously punctuated, demonstrates a flaw



  14-19 "as describing an exception

  fall in lines that

  been influenced by the sound of beams

  21 Draft at first: Which

  in the draft.


  since golden

  slip of the pen,

  have been a

  this may

  as Freeman admitted,


  He may also have


  as Freeman suggested.

  write gleaming


  have started


  [beams] Shelley

  20 Draft at first: It scatters beams E: drops above

  [an] independent construction."

  the general gloom, rather than . . .


(1) where dwell/ Which draw


  with the expression,

  confirmation from E ("Shelley") . In the


  of this confirmation, Forman assumed 1820


  be the misprint, corrected by Mrs. Shelley from the errata of the


  Nor did he

  find difficulty



  "the singing of the nightingale



  to the

  sound of

  many flutes

  reaching the ear from the midst of a lake on whose shores the hearer is stationed."

  Hughes interpreted the meaning

  2 after Blind's

  was omitted in

  "Rising frequent

  a boat or on an island

  the "plausible" suggestion of "a


  His reviewer (Professor Baynes?)


  "lake -surrounded flutes being simply





  Rossetti's note

  the midst of a


  the tranquil expanse of water adding




  sweetness of the notes" (Edinburgh Review, 1871, p.



  as reeds in

  cited lake-resounded

  count for Act



  number for each


  in the lower left-hand corner of the page. Just above


  Shelley adds 241

  to 818 (his

  I) to total 1059

  almost pain /He

  Freeman noted that it would appear from these numbers that Shelley had not yet added any

  lines to

  Act L Either


  or he merely picked up

  his original

  count without rechecking.

  41-42 Draft at first: enchanted



  a lake." Bradley compared

  effect." All

  "When soul

  music floats around" (Queen




  support of


  surrounding ("Notes," p. 29) ; and Locock thought that surrounding gave a "more magical

  others except Shepherd gave


  lake- surrounded

  39 Draft at


  Such melody

  40 Draft at first:

  Titt like that

  aye renewed strain/So

  sweet the




  [E.2 35*] SEMICHORUS I.


  a lake-surrounding

  flute, Sounds overflow the

  listener's brain


  sweet, that joy


  almost pain. [40]

  There those enchanted

  rising there

  eddies play


  echoes, music-tongued,



  32 Of

  its last strain, Dr

  38 lake surrounded



  33 melody

  'Till some new


  Unbound Watching

  to catch the languid close


  the last strain, then lifts on high


  wings of the




  strain of feeling bear

  rush of wings,




and all the woods are

mute; [35]



  is heard

  thro' the dim

  air The


  E Fr

  and lake- surrounding were unintelligible*

  W R draw E

  36 the

  still air Dr



  42 echoes E Fr Echoes music-tongued


  & E

  and, R there,


  41 inchanted

  close above [strain]

  33 weak above


  34 stream at

  first strain

  35 A question mark precedes this line.

  38 Rossetti thought that lake-surrounded was a misprint, but that both


  E L

  M*> & E


  40 sweet Fs


  lake-surrounded E M-Fr

  flute E

  34 Till some new streams Dr



  listeners E

  E M new stream E L Fr



  Fr pain


  35 That song


  Thesong, <sic> M



  L E <The

  • enfolding
  • 241 Shelley's count (he does not



43 Demogorgons mighty law

  have been a misprint

  the next

  lines (see

  Ap- pendix A).

  listed destinied for 1820. It does

  not appear in either




  Woodberry followed by Hutchinson.




  assumed from

  Blind's article

  ("Shelley") that she had found a full stop

  after destined in E


  had said that


  Again he met with

  difficulty in

  is like the truths/ Left melancholy

  A) .

  47 Draft

  at first: By


  48 Draft

  at first:

  And first the


  Then: And


  first there

  comes a sound so low /Which

  like the twilight

  shade around/


  sad yet


  when oer it



  and that Shelley probably included

  to he" a full stop),



  53 There at


  some other word


  starting with Th with the balance illegible.

  Cuningham followed


  with streams (which had been given



  by Galignani) , but Scott differed from



  by giving steams probably

  as a result of Blind's information

  from E ("Shelley").

  54 Draft at first: Which drives


  crossing of the


  issue. There is

  it in his errata.

  Julian gave a

  comma after



  1820, but


  does not appear in either

  some pause at

  is the

  destined in

  Cuningham, Scott, Scudder, Alexander,

  Dickinson, and Dole, emotion,

  in Cuningham.

  52 breathing above

  [steaming] What



  be a deletion of breathing

  this line (see Appendix



  Fs L J <des-


  swift wings

  and feet [55]

  E 50 destined soft


  E A

  Fr law. Fs destined: soft emotion


  44 rapture or strange awe Dr rapture

  them on their

  tined, M

  2 > destined; soft

  emotion R

  2 W

  or deep awe E rapture Fs


  Fr destined. Soft emotion Fo D emo- deep awe,

  A tion,


  path, while they Believe their


  trackless way Dr

  strong with

  By Demogorgon's mighty



  melting rapture, or sweet awe, All spirits

  on that secret way; [45]

  As inland boats are driven to Ocean Down



  mountain-thaw: And first

  wind Which

  there comes a gentle

  sound To those in talk or slumber bound,

  And wakes the destined

  soft emotion, [50]

  Attracts, impels

  them: those who saw Say from

  the breathing earth

  behind There

  steams a plume-uplifting



  Shelley had considerable




  48 a


  low sound Dr 55 & E 49 bound E

  44 In the draft there is an undeleted

  & above or

  45 Draft at first: All


  around by

  E: o of on

  54 Which sweeps


  only partly formed, but

  I do not believe that it

  can be read

  as i

  46 Draft

  at first: As the





  E W

  E L


  51 them; M


  W H them.

  Those R

  46 ocean Fs


  52 Earth

  Fr 47 mountain-thaw;

  3VP> mountain-thaw.

  E M


  W L


  53 streams


  2 R<steams R

  2 >

  <mountain thaw;

50 Woodberry and Hutchinson

  Prometheus Unbound



  The sweet

  within obey: float their

  And so


  upon way, still loud and

  Until, but sweet, strong.

  V ] The storm of sound is driven [E.2 36 along,

  fleet Sucked and as



  up hurrying

its meet

  billows Behind, gathering to the fatal mountain bear

  And Like clouds air. amid

  the yielding

  r ] FIRST FAUN. Canst where those

  [E.2 37 thou imagine spirits live in delicate music the woods?

  make such [65] WHch haunt within the least


  frequented caves

  and we know these And wilds,

  closest coverts,

  Yet meet tho' we oft:

  never hear them them,

  desire within desire L Fr

  56 E Fr fleet, obey

  61 E L R

  R Behind Fr meet,

  obey. obey; Fs W 57 air


  63 E


  Until still sweet sweet Faun

  58 E R

  64 S DP* E

  lest J E Fr


  & strong strong

  least-frequented Fs



  59 Fr we E along &


  60 M-J

  68 E M

  & hurrying hurrying: them though oft,E

  though Fr


  A] hurrying; W hurrying

  [W desire if desires

  56 and Locock but the word is the final 5 is Zupitza questioned poorly

  draft first

  formed. the at had: Their desires

  own within,

  However, Possibly

  2 uncertainties.

  59-61 Rossetti He ) (R interpreted the passage noted the punctuation

  to mean: "and destined their still sweet [the spirits] float until, but

  so they upon way,


  loud and of sound driven As storm strong, the along. they [the spirits] fleet onward,

  its billows

  the sucked [i.e., billows, either of the sound, or up and hurrying, gathering

  else of the wind from as

  mentioned plume -uplifting the breathing earth behind, shortly meet and bear the fatal mountain." The brackets are

  before] behind, [the spirits] to

  RossettFs. On this he interpretation conjectured: storm of is

  The sound driven along.

  as fleet,

  Sucked up and hurrying they


its billows

  Behind meet, gathering


  Forman after from thought that Mrs. Shelley supplied the colon hurrying Shelley's errata.

  moved the comma from behind

  Dickinson, in addition,

  (line 61) to fleet (probably on basis of Rossetti's .

  the But Locock note)

  felt that, despite many

  schemes of punctua-

  still be to tion, "it doubt whether is to be taken with the may open 'sucked up' 'spirits'

  'storm.' later editions

  or the " Most have a colon). a strong pause at hurrying (usually


this line. air

  63 264 Below is an insertion to

  Shelley's mark indicate

  count, precedes the location of the balance of

  this scene, which was written an later, as


  r r . also has insertion

  37 an two beginning at the top of 37 mark and


  young female] Fauns Fauns at first Fawns *


  64 SD with


  Faun added

  later. For a of lines originally 1

  possibly intended

  for this

  context see A.

  Appendix 66 least above [moist

  & 7710557] II ACT


  199 Where

  they hide themselves?

  may SECOND FAUN. 'Tis hard to tell:

  I have heard those more |70J

  skilled in spirits say,


which the enchantment of the

The sun


  Sucks from faint water-flowers that

  the pale


  of clear and

  The lakes


  oozy bottom Are where such dwell and float

  the pavilions

  and Under |75J

  the green golden

  atmosphere Which noon-tide kindles thro' the woven

  leaves; these and the

  And when burst, air,

  thin fiery

  The which domes,

  they breathed within those lucent

  Ascends to flow like meteors thro'

  the night, ride on and rein their them, [80]

  They headlong speed,

  their fire

  And bow and

  crests, glide in burning the waters of the earth

  Under again.

  FAUN. If such have others other FIRST live thus,

  lives, d

  tell E Fr E

  69SD2 .<szc>FaunE E leaves

  Fs-L[Fo] through M tell. the thin

  tell; R & E R

  77 And, fiery air

  W E air

  70 Fr say 71 bubbles E domes above lucid homes E which enchantment 78 lucent



  J domes Fr E E

  72 water-flowers, L Fr


  79 through

  73 E

  80 E on them Fr on &


  reign pools They Fr 81 crests

  74 dwell, E dwell, L thier<sic> & E

  & burning


  82 Earth Earth Fr

  75 E

  & again st

  noontide E noontide


  1 E other lives

  76 Which the SD E Fr

  d . later.

  69 SD

  2 <sc>with Faun added originally

  71 which enchantment first was given by Galignani.


  72 is a water but

  I was intended

  There between and believe that dot only flowers




  Shelley's hyphens are frequently diminished.

  after directs to tide above the line.

  A caret noon [the]

  76 Zupitza read, erroneously,


  78 homes above The be Shining Zupitza thought that might striving or shining

  if to But is

  and wondered the words

  II.iii.5, on

  36V opposite.

  Shining could belong

  is for lucid homes and

  and an alternate probably almost certainly the word, the phrase

  lucent line.

  domes the end of the

  (neither deleted) at close to is followed which

  In E is the mark

  79 by a slight night very margin and may

  as a or have been intended comma.


  may as follows:

  80-81 lines These developed

  in fire

  ride on &

  [it & *]


  their & it]

  [its} headlong speed, glide [with

  They reign

  crests And bow thier<sc>


  • I find

  it do not is and Freeman [then] practically illegible. Zupitza read them is to I believe the word letters to

  and, contrary support Freeman, Zupitza, enough

  the deleted. clear dot [their] A shows above it, headlong

  suggesting a poorly written in Cuningham. or

  82 Under below [It] [If]

  [If Into] Zupitza read




  200 Unbound

  blossoms or within the bells

  Under pink r

  or folded violets 38 ] Of flowers, [85] [E.2 meadow deep, their

  Or on when die,

  they dying odours,

  dew? Or on

  the sunlight of the sphered

  we SECOND more which FAUN. Aye, may


well divine.


  we would come,

  But, should stay speak, noontide find his

  And thwart Silenus [90] undrawn,

  goats to and


  sing those wise lovely songs

  grudge and and Chaos Of and old,

  fate, chance, God,


and the chained Titan's woful

And Love, dooms, and the earth he shall be loosed, make

  And how


  One brotherhood: which [95]

  delightful strains

  fate chance fate

  84 92 & God, & E blossoms, R &

  2 flowers and chaos old Fs

  85 flowers meadow- R > and chance and God

  R < W fate

meadow Fs L E and H L and

  • flowers, Fate, Chance, R W


  2 die die? chance Fr

  86 odours R E

  M in


  87 Or E Fo-Fr 93 love E love Fs Love



  88 SD

  24 Fr Titans doom E

  E more, EL W M


  divine. doom. Fs-Fr

  more;Fr divineE R divine;Fr M doom, Earth

  89 But Fs L J Fr 94 make E E

  E try to & M W


  E w? come 95 brotherhood- E Fr E

  brotherhood; speak, 90 undrawn E Fr

  W strains,

  91 lovelv E

  & in ink over is

violets above deleted

pencil [in the violets heart]

  85 folded deep in pencil.

  at first do not.

  86 Freeman have been thier

  I thought that they (sic). may

  Blind corrected Rossetti with Or in

  87 generally.

  ("Shelley"). This has been followed

  2 in ink over is

  88 divine above Rossetti ) whether

  pencil [imagine]

  (R questioned be than more which should not more

  (see Critical but Mayor disagreed Notes). it

  89 be and


try offers difficulty. stay altered to try

  Zupitza thought that might been Locock had an s thought that se (he seek) Clearly, conjectured altered to try has extended is is not been crossed, and the but the other letter upward and legible,

  y clear. I is it

  do not believe that the word but whatever the intention eventuated




  in try (see illustration, [the]

  facing p. 173)


  90 Rossetti referred emendation" of "swart" Shepherd's "conjectural Silenus,

  I is

  "wh. am sure (Garnett, wrong" Letters, p. 46).

  91 This line was


  followed by: Our

  solitary solitary & which charm

  [Which twilights, cheer our lonesome] To silence . . the unenvying nightingales


  above [lonesome] in Which cheer and lonesome are deleted in


solitary pencil. both

  and in

  ink, our pencil ink only.

  half -inch is line

  in ink;

  blank space by over Freeman was written

  92 A followed 93-95 then follow in ink traced

  pencil. held that the penciled solitary first, but he

  gave no evidence. No insertion used to marks are lines 92-95. indicate the placement of 93 after

  Forman doom in was thought that the period M a misprint, "probably

  in s

  the taken out."

  when was followed comma

  dropped Cuningham M, but generally a has been as in



  chasm, Whence


  Like a volcano's

  mighty portal,


  Of Demogorgon, and

  us to the realm

  PAN. Hither the sound has borne



  36 V ] SCENE III.



  silence the unen vying nightingales.

  and which charm To

  solitary twilights,

  II Our



  • breathing

  vapour is hurled up Which

  12 thou Earth!


  14 work

  E still, R

  E R L Fr still

  13 Spirit

  W L Fr




  thou beest E And,

  & if


  II.ii.63 on

  Fr Magnificent:




  "Evoe! Evoe!" Fs 11 power!

  Fr 9 loud E Fr loud "Evoe! Evoe!" R

  & uplift E uplift


  R L

  8 intoxication, E


  lif e Fs

  Fr Scene iii follows



  support Freeman's

  the oracular


  the dot 14 should be above

  intensified to form

  be a faulty pen stroke with the lower part


  upper dot of the colon and

  since a faint vertical line leads into the

  11 The reading may be Magnificent!



  clear dot would

  36 V , having been a continuation of the act before the interpolation of the speeches of the two Fauns.

  but a


  Zupitza thought possibly



  at first


  etc. to the SD of scene iL 1 to

  used to add 2 young fauns

  later, apparently with the same pen

  Panthea added

  SD Asia &


  Fs joy


  uplift, Like JVfenads

  glorious art thou, Earth!



  Fit throne for such a Power!

  V ] ASIA.

  [E.2 37

  contagion to the world.

  The voice which is

  Evoe! Evoe!

  cry loud,