A Thesis on THE INFLUENCE OF CHICK BENETTO’S INTRA PERSONAL CONFLICTS ON HIS PERSONAL LIFE AS REFLECTED IN MITCH ALBOM’S FOR ONE MORE DAY

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PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  THE INFLUENCE OF CHICK BENETTO’S INTRAPERSONAL CONFLICTS ON HIS PERSONAL LIFE AS REFLECTED

   IN MITCH ALBOM’S FOR ONE MORE DAY A THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  By: Dian Prawesti

  031214062

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

  

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2009

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  

THE INFLUENCE OF CHICK BENETTO’S INTRAPERSONAL

CONFLICTS ON HIS PERSONAL LIFE AS REFLECTED

  

IN MITCH ALBOM’S FOR ONE MORE DAY

A THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

  By: Dian Prawesti

  031214062

  

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION

FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA

2009

PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

  A Thesis on THE INFLUENCE OF CHICK BENETTO’S INTRA PERSONAL CONFLICTS ON HIS PERSONAL LIFE AS REFLECTED

  IN MITCH ALBOM’S FOR ONE MORE DAY

  By Dian Prawesti

  Student Number: 031214062 Approved by

  Major sponsor Drs. Bambang Hendarto Y, M.Hum. January 15, 2009

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A Thesis on

THE INFLUENCE OF CHICK BENETTO’S INTRAPERSONAL

CONFLICTS ON HIS PERSONAL LIFE AS REFLECTED

  

IN MITCH ALBOM’S FOR ONE MORE DAY

  By Dian Prawesti

  Student Number: 031214062 Defended before the Board of Examiners on 30 January 2009 and Declared Acceptable

  

Board of Examiners

  Chairperson : A. Hardi Prasetyo, S.Pd., M.A. ……………………… Secretary : Made Frida Yulia, S.Pd., M.Pd. …………………….... Member : Drs. Bambang Hendarto Y, M.Hum. ……………………… Member : P. Kuswandono, S.Pd., M.Ed. ……………………… Member : Yohana Veniranda, S.Pd., M.Hum. ………………………

  Yogyakarta,

  30 January 2009 Faculty of Teachers Training and Education Sanata Dharma University Dean, Drs. Tarsisius Sarkim, M.Ed., Ph.D.

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T ime is not measured

by the years that you live

but by the deeds that you do

and the joy that you give

and each day as it comes

brings a chance to each one

to love to the fullest,

leaving nothing undone

that would brighten the life

or lighten the load

of some weary traveler

lost on life’s road.

  

S o, what does it matter

how long we may live.

  

If as long as we live we unselfishly give

H elen S teiner Rice I dedicate this thesis to my beloved father and mother.

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STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

  I honestly declare that this thesis, which I wrote, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should.

  Yogyakarta, January 15, 2009 The Writer

  Dian Prawesti 031214062

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  In this page, I would like to thank those who have so kindly given me favors in finishing every part of my thesis. First of all, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to my Dear God, Allah SWT, who gives me the never-ending blessings of life and love. His grace and guidance enable me to pass through every single moment in my life.

  My sincere gratitude goes to my sole sponsor, Drs. L. Bambang

  

Hendarto Yuliwarsono, M. Hum. who has generously spared his precious time

  to guide me in writing this thesis. I am deeply grateful for his significant suggestion, advice, assistance, and criticism from time to time in every part of my study during the completion of my thesis. I am also deeply indebted to Pak

  

Paulus Kuswandono, S.Pd. M.Ed who has generously supported me through his

  advices and willingness to listen to my problems in finishing this thesis. I owe a great deal to all members of lecturing staff of the English Department of Sanata Dharma University who have enriched and educated me with their knowledge, and to secretariat staff and librarians of Sanata Dharma University who have given me their service.

  My deepest gratitude is mostly addressed to my beloved parents, Agus

  

Rachmadi and Sri Handayani for their everlasting prayer and support

  throughout my life and for giving me sincere support. I thank them for giving me hopes whenever I meet my desperation days. My deeply love also goes to my lovely sister and brother, Nurindah Maharani and Adi Nugroho who have

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  shared their spirit, stories, jokes and amusing moments with me. I would like to say that I love them with all my heart.

  My special thanks go to my “othie”, Tiyo for giving me his affection and care which always comfort me. I thank him for all of the lessons I have never thought before and for opening my eyes and my mind to be better than I was. It is a God’s plan to meet him in my life and hopefully our dream is also a part of His beautiful plan.

  My sweet thanks go to my lovely friends, Melon, Prima and Tiara for sharing all of the stories, laughter and cries in my good time and bad time and who stay the same today, yesterday and forever more. Our friendship is the most precious thing that I have ever had. I would also like to thank Adjie and family for the support and nice memories that we have ever had, my PBI 03 friends and classmates, Ema, Hepi, Eti, Tyas, Lukas, Dudung, Cipok, Ndut, Si Bhe,

  

Puntet, Fendy, Bendot, Ji’I, Tony for the friendship, support and knowledge

  given to me and for the beaut iful moment that we have during my study, and my Tunggorono 1B family Bapak and Ibu Wasno, Dian, Poppy, Bertin, Detha,

  

Ira, Lia, Avi, Mba Sinta, Mela, Lena, Prima, Desi, Rina for the cheerful jokes

  and amusing times we passed throughout the days that could release me a bit from my hard days.

  My special appreciation also goes to Dra. Sri Joeliantini who has taught me many useful things, given attention and encouraged me to finish my study and do my best in whatever I do. My deepest thanks also go to ALPHA’S CREW,

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Lala, Ms. Eva, Evalia, Mik Yen, Cik Lit, Ditul, Heni, Mbak Indah, Mbak

Desi, Mbak Tul, Mbak Ajeng for sharing the beautiful days with me.

  At last, I thank everybody who has touched my life or inspired me in some ways whose names I cannot mention here one by one. I love them all and I am grateful to have them in my life. God bless them.

  Dian Prawesti

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

  Page

  TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………….. i

APPROVAL PAGES….…………………………………………………. ii

DEDICATION PAGE…..……………………………………………….. iv

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY………………………… v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..……………………………………………. vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS.……………………………………………….. vii

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………… xi

ABSTRAK……………………………………………………….………... xii

  CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study……………………………………………….

  1 B. Objectives of the Study…………………………………………………

  5 C. Problem Formulation…………………………………………………...

  5 D. Benefits of the Study…………………………………………………...

  5 E. Definition of Terms……...……….……………………………………..

  6 CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  A. Review of Related Theories………………………………………….…

  8

  1. Character…………………………………………………………..…

  8

  a. Definition of Character……………………………………………

  8 b. Kinds of Character ………………………………………………..

  9 2. Characterization………………………………………………….......

  10

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  a. Meaning of Characterization………………...…………………...

  10 b. Methods of Characterization……………………………………..

  10 3. Approaches……………………………………………………….….

  12 4. Conflict…………………………………………………………...….

  13

  5. Family…………………………………………………………..……

  16

  a. Definition of Family………………………………………………

  16

  b. Kinds of Family...…………………………………………………

  17

  c. Conflicts in Family………...……...………………………………

  18 6. Family Relationship………………………………………………….

  21 B. Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………

  22 CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study……………………………………………………..

  24 B. Approach of the Study………………………………………………….

  25 C. Method of the Study…………...………………………………………..

  26 CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS A.

  27 The Description of Chick Benetto……………………………………..

  1.

  28 Obedient………………………………………………...………….

  2.

  30 Selfish……………………………………………………..……….

  3.

  32 Ambitious………………………………………………………….

  4.

  33 Wishy-washy……………………………………………………… B.

  35 Chick Benetto’s Intrapersonal Conflicts……….………………………

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  1.

  37 Laughing with his mother………………………………………….

  2.

  38 Accepting his father’s return……………………………………… 3.

  40 Going back to campus with his father……………………………..

  4.

  42 Continuing his study or playing baseball………………………….

  5.

  45 Meeting his father………………………………………………….

  C.

  48 The Influence of Chick’s Intrapersonal Conflicts on His Personal Life 1.

  48 Chick’s personal life before he gets married……………………… 2.

  54 Chick’s personal life after he gets married………………………...

  CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions……………………………………………………..............

  60 B. Suggestions……………………………………………………….…….

  62 1. Suggestion for Future Researchers…………………………………..

  63

  2. Suggestion for Teaching- Learning Activity…………………………

  63 The Implementation in Teaching Speaking………………………….

  64 REFERENCES....………………………………………………………...

  66 APPENDICES A. Summary of For One More Day………………………………………..

  68 B. The Biography of Mitch Albom……….……………………………….

  69 C. Lesson Plan for Teaching Speaking…………………………………….

  71 D. Material…………………………………………………………….…...

  74

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  ABSTRACT

Prawesti, Dian. 2009. The Influence of Benetto’s Intrapersonal Conflicts on his

  Personal Life as Reflected in Mitch Albom’s For One More Day. Yogyakarta:

  

English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and

Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata

Dharma University.

  This study discusses Mitch Albom’s novel entitled For One More Day. The novel tells about the life of a son who experiences conflict in his relationship with his parents especially with his father. This study discusses the major character’s characteristics and the intrapersonal conflicts he faces.

  There are two main problems which are formulated in this study related to the major character: (1) How is Chick Benetto described in the story? (2) How do Chick Benetto’s intrapersonal conflicts influence his personal life?

  This study employs a library research method. There are two kinds of data sources used in this study: primary and secondary sources. The primary source is the novel For One More Day which becomes the object of the study. The secondary data sources are some books on literature and psychology and some sources from the internet which provide information related to the study.

  This study applies the theory of character, theory of characterization, theory of conflict and theory of psychology. Those theories are used to analyze the characteristics of the main character and the intrapersona l conflict experienced by the main character. As the study concerns human behavior, the psychological approach is also applied.

  Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that Chick Benetto is an obedient, selfish, ambitious and a wishy-washy person. Further, the analysis shows that Chick Benetto faces five major intrapersonal conflicts. The first is when Chick wants to laugh with his mother but his father does not participate in their action. The second is when his father returns to his life and he appears in Chick’s baseball game. The third is when his father wants to take him to campus. The fourth is when his father asks him to focus in baseball. The fifth is when his father calls in his mother’s birthday to ask him to play in the Old Timers Game. To solve his intrapersonal conflicts, Chick applies some strategies like soothing, avoidance and competition. Chick’s intrapersonal conflicts give bad effects to Chick which later ruins his personal life.

  At last, this thesis provides some suggestions for future researchers who would like to study the novel further using other approaches with some other topics. There are also some suggestions for English instructors in implementing For One More Day in speaking classes.

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ABSTRAK

Prawesti, Dian. 2009. The Influence of Benetto’s Intrapersonal Conflicts on his

  Personal Life as Reflected in Mitch Albom’s For One More Day. Yogyakarta:

  

Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan

Seni. Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan. Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Yogyakarta.

  Studi ini membahas novel karya Mitch Albom yang berjudul For One More Day. Novel ini menceritakan tentang kehidupan seorang anak laki- laki yang mengalami konflik dalam hubungannya dengan orangtuanya khususnya ayahnya.

  Studi ini membahas karakteristik tokoh utama dan intrapersonal konflik yang dihadapinya.

  Ada dua permasalahan yang dirumuskan di studi ini berkaitan dengan karakter tokoh utama: (1) Bagaimana Chick Benetto dideskripsikan di dalam cerita? (2) Bagaimana intrapersonal konflik yang dialami oleh Chick Benetto mempengaruhi kehidupan pribadinya?

  Studi ini menggunakan studi pustaka. Ada dua macam sumber data yang digunakan di studi ini: sumber primer dan sekunder. Sumber primer adalah novel For One More Day yang menjadi obyek studi. Sumber-sumber data sekunder adalah beberapa buku sastra dan psikologi dan beberapa sumber dari internet yang menyediakan informasi yang berhubungan dengan studi.

  Studi ini menerapkan teori tokoh, teori penokohan, teori konflik dan teori psikolo gi. Teori- teori tersebut digunakan untuk menganalisa karakteristik tokoh utama dan intrapersonal konflik yang dialami oleh tokoh utama. Karena studi ini berkaitan dengan tingkah laku manusia, maka pendekatan psikologi juga diterapkan.

  Sesuai dengan analisa, dapat disimpulkan bahwa Chick Benetto adalah seseorang yang patuh, egois, ambisius dan plin-plan. Lebih lanjut lagi, analisa menunjukkan bahwa Chick Benetto menghadapi lima intrapersonal konflik utama. Yang pertama adalah ketika Chick ingin tertawa bersama ibunya tetapi ayahnya tidak ikut serta dalam aksi mereka. Yang kedua adalah ketika ayahnya kembali ke hidupnya. Yang ketiga adalah ketika ayahnya ingin mengantarnya ke kampus. Yang keempat adalah ketika ayahnya memintanya untuk memusatkan konsentrasinya ke baseball. Yang kelima adalah ketika ayahnya menelfon di hari ulang tahun ibunya dan memintanya untuk bermain di Old Timer Game. Untuk memecahkan intrapersonal konfliknya, Chick menerapkan beberapa strategi seperti soothing, avoidance dan competition. Intrapersonal konflik yang dialami Chick memberikan efek buruk yang pada akhirnya menghancurkan kehidupan pribadi Chick.

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  Pada akhirnya, skripsi ini menyediakan beberapa saran untuk peneliti selanjutnya yang ingin mempelajari novel lebih lanjut menggunakan beberapa pendekatan dengan beberapa topik yang lain. Ada juga beberapa saran untuk instruktur Bahasa Inggris dalam mengimplementasikan For One More Day dalam kelas-kelas berbicara.

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of five parts. The first part is background of the study,

  the second part describes the objectives of the study, the third part is problem formulation, the fourth part describes the benefits of the study, and the fifth part is definition of terms.

A. Background of the Study

  Life is a gift from God which is owned by all living things in this world. In their life people can decide whether they want to be good or bad. When it comes to choices of life, it becomes people’s personal matter or we can say personal life. There are a lot of things which can influence people’s personal life; for instance, their family and the conflicts which they experience in their life. Those two things have a big role in determining someone’s personal life.

  Family is a place for children to begin everything in this world. They start to learn, to love, and to be loved in the family. A child can grow up as a wise, mature, affectionate, and loveable person if he lives in an affectionate family. Instead, he can be a rude and cruel person if he grows up in a family in which there is lack of affection or love and no sense of appreciation on others in the family.

  This case usually happens because children see their parents as a model that they have to imitate. They have a figure of a father who has a big responsibility for leading the family, taking important decisions for the family, and maintaining the

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  secure feeling for the family. It builds up images about a father, who is firm, responsible, discipline and tactful. Meanwhile, a mother has the other characteristics, which are caring, loving, and affectionate. Both parents complete each other and a child should have both models to imitate in their personal life.

  However, it is common for children to have closer relationship to his mother or his father. They tend to choose the one whom they feel more comfortable with, the one who loves them more than the other one and the one who can still stay by their sides whether they have done the best thing or the worst thing. Somehow, in this case, there is a difference between mother’s love and father’s love.

  Pieper says that maternal love does not have to be “earned” and there is nothing anyone can do to lose it (115). A father, on the contrary, tends to set conditions; his love has to be earned. A mother loves her children unconditionally because it relates to her deepest longings of children. The time when the mother is pregnant also makes the relationship between the mother and children even stronger. This makes a mother easy to express her affection to the children, while a father, as a man, tends to be clumsy in expressing his love and emotion even to his children. In Personality Development, Hurlock says that if a man feels that overt expressions of affection for his children, especially his sons, are unmasculine, the children are likely to interpret this to mean lack of interest or love (Hurlock 358). By this kind of condition, family is the first place for children to learn some patterns about love, affection, loyalty in their personal life as well as conflict.

  Human life and conflicts are inseparable. People must have their own conflicts in life since sometimes what they want is not something that they expect to

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  be. According to Redman in A Second Book of Play conflict is the struggle between two opposing forces, ideas, or beliefs, which are the basis of the plot (Redman 363).

  There are two kinds of conflicts, external and internal conflicts. External conflict refers to a struggle between the protagonist and an outside force, for example conflicts that occur between a person and his family. Meanwhile, internal conflict refers to a struggle within the heart and mind of the protagonist, for example conflict that happen in a son’s heart whether he has to obey his mother’s rule or his father’s rule. The conflict is resolved when one force, usually the protagonist, succeeds or fails in overcoming the opposing force. Conflicts have a significant role in someone’s personal life because s/he can learn something by experiencing conflicts in her/his life.

  Novels, poems, and dramas are some examples of literary works that portray such personal life experiences. Novel is one of the literary works that sets up the readers to the situation which might happen in the real life. Novel consists of some elements to build the story, such as plot, character and characterization, setting, theme, and conflicts. Conflicts can make the story of the novel more interesting. Besides, we can gain the moral lessons and life experiences through conflicts.

  For One More Day by Mitch Albom (2006) is an example of novel that depicts such conflicts which might happen in everyone’s personal life. It is a novel which tells us about intra-personal conflicts experienced by a son who is always forced to choose whether he wants to stay in his daddy’s side or his mommy’s side by his father. Chick Benetto, the major character in this novel, is the oldest and the only son in the family. He decides to be a daddy’s boy in his early age. He imitates

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  most of his father actions and habits. He follows his father’s decisions for him although sometimes he realizes that his mother’s decisions are much better for him.

  Even, he sometimes feels that he betrays his father if he does something nicely to his own mother.

  As he grows up, his father leaves the family without any reasons that Chick and his sister can understand. While the father is away, Chick’s mother tries hard to fill up the missing parts. She tries to make everything perfect for her beloved children. She tries to complete everything without letting the children know what actually happens and what their father has done to the family. Until one time in Chick’s adulthood when he is almost successful in living without his father’s presence anymore his father comes back into his life. He ruins Chick’s life by giving some difficult choices for Chick to choose. Once, Chick fails to make a good decision and because of it he is depressed. In that time, his father also leaves him and Chick has just realized that he has made a big mistake in his life. Those conflicts and events which happen to Chick influence his personal life.

  This novel is interesting to discuss since the conflicts represented in the story are quite fundamental and might happen in everyone’s personal life. The conflicts in this novel also show the examples of parental love and relationship in the family.

B. Objectives of the Study

  There are two objectives in this study. The first objective of the study is to reveal the description of the main character, Chick Benetto, in Albom’s For One

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  More Day. The second objective is to find out the influence of Chick Benetto’s intra personal conflicts on his personal life.

C. Problem Formulation

  To analyze the novel, the study focuses on two problems: 1. How is Chick Benetto described in the story? 2.

  How do Chick Benetto’s intra-personal conflicts influence his personal life? D.

   Benefits of the Study

  Some benefits can be obtained from this study. There are three groups of people who can get benefits of this study. They are people in general, the students of English Department and the writer.

  For the people in general, hopefully this study can enrich their knowledge on literature. Since the story is closely related to daily life and it can happen in any families, it is hoped that the people in general can gain the moral lessons and apply them in their daily life.

  For the students of English Department, this study can be a guidance for those who want to conduct study on literature. It can provide examples of analyzing some aspects in a novel. It can also give them a reference to conduct teaching learning activities using a novel as one of the media.

  For the writer, this study expands her knowledge and understanding on literary works and their aspects. The writer also obtains the moral lessons implied in

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  the nove l especially family relationship which are beneficial and valuable in the real life.

E. Definition of Terms

  This section deals with the important terms used in this study to avoid any misunderstanding when reading this study. The terms are described as fo llows:

  1. Conflict According to Redman’s A Second Book of Plays, conflict is defined as the struggle between two opposing forces, ideas, or beliefs, which is the basis of the plot. There are two kinds of conflict, external or inter-personal conflict and internal or intra-personal conflict (Redman 363). Conflicts always exist in human life since everyone has his/her own ideas, wants, and idealism.

  2. Intra-personal Conflict According to Redman’s A Second Book of Plays, internal or intra-personal conflict refers to a struggle within the heart and mind of the protagonist (Redman 363). In this study, intra-personal conflict refers to the conflicts faced by Chick Benetto whenever he meets and interacts with his father.

  3. Parental Relationship In Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, parental means relating to a parent or parents (841). Relationship is described as the state of being related by birth or marriage (986). Parental relationship in this study refers to the parents and son relationship.

  4. Character

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  According to Stanton’s An Introduction to Fiction, characters are individuals who appear in the story and to refer to the mixture of interest, desires, emotions and moral principles that makes up each of individual (Stanton 17). In this study, characters are the persons who play the role in the story.

5. Personal Life

  As cited from http://www.brainyquote.com/words.html, personal means relating to an individual, his character, conduct, mo tives, or private affairs, in an invidious and offensive manner; as, personal reflection or remarks. While life is defined as a certain way or manner of living with respect to conditions, circumstances, character, conduct, occupation, etc,; hence, human affairs; also, lives, considered collectively, as a distinct class or type; as, low life; a good or evil life, etc. In this study, personal life refers to Chick’s way of life influenced by the conditions, circumstances and conflicts happen in his life.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter consists of two main parts. The first part is review of related

  theories which includes theory of character, characterization, critical approach, conflicts, family and family relationship. The second part is theoretical framework.

A. Review of Related Theories

  This part includes the theories applied in conducting the study. The theories are the theory of character, characterization, critical approach, conflicts, family and family relationship.

1. Character

  In this part, the definition of character and the kinds of character are discussed.

a. Definition of Character

  Nobody in this world is the same; there must be some differences that make each person unique. Those differences on character make people look different from each other. Since novel is a portrait of human life, character plays an important role in a novel that helps the reader obtain better understanding of the story. By reading the names of the characters in the novel and reading the comments by the author, we can picture them in our mind about how they look like, what they do in the story and how they are related to each other.

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  According to Stanton’s in An Introduction to Fiction, characters are individuals who appear in the story and to refer to the mixture of interest, desires, emotions and moral principles that makes up each of individual (Stanton 17). While Forster’s in Aspects of the Novel, defines character as a number of word masses roughly description about himself which includes names and sex, plausible gestures, language and behavior (Forster 31).

b. Kinds of Character

  Perrine in Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense, divides the characters into static and dynamic. A static character is a person who does not experience the changes throughout the story although he faces many problems in his life. He only makes little changes during his life. On the other hand, a dynamic character is a person who develops the character a lot through problems in his life (Perrine 71).

  Henkle in Reading the Novel, divides character into two, major character and secondary character. A major character is the most important and complex character in the novel. Secondary characters are people in the novel who perform more limited function. Their role in the story is less complex and less interesting (Henkle 89).

  Forster in Aspects of the Novel, classifies characters into flat and round characters. A flat character can be expressed in one sentence. This character can be easily recognized whenever he comes in. A flat character is also easily remembered by the reader afterwards. This character is not changed by circumstances. While a round character cannot be summed up in a single phrase. This character often experiences changes, so the readers cannot remember this character easily (Forster 46).

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2. Characterization a. Meaning of Characterization

  In a story, one character has a different personality from another. Even twins are not merely the same. There must be some particular personalities that can differentiate one from another. In a literary work, the way to understand each character better is through characterization. According to Redman’s A Second Book of Plays, characterization is the development of a character through what he says and does and through what other characters say about him (Redman 363). Through characterization, the author of a literary work uses some methods to portray the character in the story.

b. Methods of Characterization

  According to Murphy in Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students there are nine methods which can describe how an author conveys the characters and the personalities in the story so that the readers can understand them (161-173). They are as follows. 1)

  Personal Description The author describes a person’s appearance and clothes. The readers can get the details image, for example the skin, hair, eyes, and face in an accurate description

  (Murphy 161). 2)

  Characters as seen by another character The author describes the character through the eyes and opinions of another.

  The reader gets it, as it were, a reflected image (Murphy 162).

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  3) Speech

  The author can give us an insight into the character of one of the persons in the book through what that person says. Whenever a person speaks, whenever he is in conversation with another, whenever he puts forward an opinion, he is giving us some clues to his character (Murphy 164).

  4) Past life

  By letting the reader learn something about a person’s past life the author can give us a clue to events that have helped to shape a person’s character. This can be done by direct comment by the author, through the person’s thoughts, through his conversation or through the medium of another person (Murphy 166).

  5) Conversation of others

  The author gives us clues to a person’s character through the conversations of other people and the things they say about him (Murphy 167).

  6) Reactions

  The author gives us a clue to a person’s character by letting us know how that person reacts to various situations and events (Murphy 168).

  7) Direct Comment

  The author describes or comments on a person’s character directly (Murphy 170).

  8) Thought

  The author gives us direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about. In this respect, he is able to do what we cannot do in real life. he can tell us what different people are thinking (Murphy 171).

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  9) Mannerism

  The author describes a person’s mannerism, habits and idiosyncrasies which may also tell us something about his character (Murphy 173).

  By implementing those methods, it can help the readers to portray the characters in the novel as a real person. Therefore, the readers can have better insight in understanding the novel. In this study, not all of the methods are used to analyze the main character. It is adjusted to the need of the analysis. Since the character in this study mostly shows his characters through his habits and manners therefore only mannerism is used in this study.

3. Critical Approach

  Reading and understanding the story of a novel offers some benefits for us. It can give us more knowledge, pleasure and also increase our imagination. Moreover we also have a good understand ing about the symbols and are able to gain the messages from the story. Therefore, to understand the story deeper, we need to analyze it from different point of views or different approaches. According to Rorhberger and Woods Jr in Reading and Writing about Literature (Rorhberger and Woods Jr 3), there are five approaches that can be used to analyze a work of literature.

  The first is the formalist approach, which investigates the work of literature itself (Rorhberger and Woods Jr 6). The second is the biographical approach, which focuses on the author’s personality, life and development to understand the social structure or way of life of the author so that the readers can draw conclusions and

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  understand the story better (Rorhberger and Woods 8). The third is the socio cultural historical approach, which investigates place, or society that is reflected in the literary work (Rorhberger and Woods 9). The fourth is the mythopoeic approach, which emphasizes the universal patterns of human behavior and thought underlying work (Rorhberger and Woods 11). The last is the psychological approach, which reflects life and representation of human motivation and behavior. This approach involves the effort to locate and demonstrates certain recurrent patterns, and brings us to analyze the novel from human being’s psychological point of view.

  Psychological approach analyzes a novel based on a theory of psychology. This analysis describes the character not only the appearance but deeper in the personality psychologically (Rorhberger and Woods 13).

  This study concerns human motivation and behavior. Therefore, psychological approach is applied since it helps the writer analyze the character in the novel deeper through psychological point of view.

4. Conflicts

  Since each person is different from another, conflicts always exist in human life. Each person in this world has a different way of thinking in facing a problem.

  Hence, in a relationship with others, a person might have some differences which can lead him to a certain conflict.

  In a story, conflicts usually appear when there is a problem and the main character or the characters decide what to do about them. Redman in A Second Book of Plays defines a conflict as a struggle between two opposing forces, ideas or

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  believes, which is the basis of plot. There are two kinds of conflict, external and internal conflict. External conflict refers to a struggle between the protagonist and an outside force, while internal conflict refers to struggle within the heart and mind of the protagonist (Redman 363). Redman suggests that we have to analyze the character’s attitude toward the problem and the situation in the story so that the conflict between the characters will be clearly identified (Redman viii). The problem in the story is often followed by some actions of the characters. The characters’ reaction toward the problem will indicate that conflicts are happening. Conflicts are resolved when the character succeeds or fails in defeating the opposing force.

  In Understanding Social Psychology Worchel and Cooper define conflicts into interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts. Interpersonal conflict is a conflict between two or more persons (Worchel and Cooper 462). While intrapersonal conflict is a conflict experienced by an individual when s/he is making a choice between two or more alternatives (Worchel and Cooper 458). Lewin and Miller states that intrapersonal conflict can be classified into four types. They are approach- approach, avoidance-avoidance, approach-avoidance, and double approach- avoidance conflicts (qtd. in Worchel and Cooper 461).

  The approach-approach conflict is the simplest type of intrapersonal conflict. It happens when the individual is motivated to approach two positive goals but can attain only one. For example, a child has to choose between toys or candies. Both of them are his favorite but he can only own one of them.

  The avoidance-avoidance conflict is a conflict which occurs when the individual must choose between two equally unattractive goals. For example, a

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  worker who must decide to continue the job that he does not like or loose the income to support his family.

  The approach-avoidance conflict is a conflict which involves only one goal which has both attractive and unattractive qualities associa ted with it. The individual’s own desire to both obtain the goal and escape from it traps him in conflict. For example, a boy who has been taught by his parents not to smoke, but his friends are smokers and they influence him to smoke, he experiences the conflict whether to follow his friends or not.

  The double approach-avoidance conflict is a conflict which involves a person in choosing between two goals, each of which has positive and negative aspects. For example, a college student has to choose whether to focus on the study or to have a side-job while finishing the study. In this case, the first goal is focusing on the study.

  The positive aspect is s/he can finish the study in the college on time while the negative aspect is by the time s/he finishes the study, s/he does not have any job experiences. The second goal is having a side-job while finishing the study. The positive aspect is when s/he finishes the study in the college s/he has already got job experiences which can support her/his career later on. The negative aspect is s/he might finish the study late since s/he has to divide the time to work and to study at the same time.

  In this study, the main character mostly experiences approach-avoidance and double approach-avoidance conflicts since he always has one or two goals which include both positive and negative aspects in it.

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5. Family

  This part presents the definition of family, kinds of family and conflicts in family.

a. Definition of Family

  Family is a very well-known term among people. However, finding the precise definition of family is not easy. According to Cheal’s Sociology of Family Life, family is any group which consists of people in intimate relationships which are believed to endure over time and across generations (Cheal 4). Flandrin states that the definition of family is relative to the social and cultural environments of people who think about families and who talk about families, as they go about their daily lives (qtd. in Cheal 4).

  People can define what family is based on their own perception since everyone must have different point of view. In Communication in Family Relationship, Fitzpatrick and Noller offer three approaches to help defining the family. The first is family structure approach, which uses biological and legal connections to define family. In this approach, shared genetics, marriage, adoption and shared house can connect the family members (Fitzpatrick and Noller 2). The second is psychosocial task approach. This approach focuses on the description of family function and the fulfillment of certain tasks in family life. The certain tasks are, for example, mutual need fulfillment, nurturance and children development through the role of the parents in the family (Fitzpatrick and Noller 5). The third is transactional process approach, which focuses on the intimacy of the family and how the members of the family interact to each other (Fitzpatrick and Noller 6). Using

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  this approach, Reiss and Wamboltd define family as a group of intimates who generate a sense of home and group identity, complete with strong ties of loyalty and emotion, and an experience of history and a future (Fitzpatrick and Noller 6).

b. Kinds of Family

  The kinds of family can be differentiated into two main divisions, namely nuclear family and extended family. Cheal in Sociology of Family Life, defines nuclear family as a small group consisting of a wife and a husband who live together, as well as the children. While extended family is a large group containing more than one couple or more than one parent-child, whose members are linked by descend ties. Therefore, extended family typically involving three generations of family members (Cheal 159).

  Miller in Family Communication, classifies eleven kinds of family structure based on the wide diversity of family structure (Miller 2). They are as follows.

  1) The two-parents and natural children

  This family consists of father, mother and their natural children. This is the traditional pattern of family which still makes up the greater percentage of family units today. 2)

  The blended In this family, children live with two parents but only one of whom is their natural father or mother.

  3) A couple who does not want children

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  This family only consists of husband and wife without any children. 4)

  Grandparents who take care of grandchildren This family consists of grandparents who live with their grandchildren since the parents are unable to take care of their own children.

  5) Single parents

  In this family, children only live with the father or the mother. The most common reason of this condition is the death of a spouse.

  6) The divorced, custodial parent In this family, the divorced-parent has the main care of the children.

  7) The divorced, non custodial parent

  In this family, the divorced-parent has the care of the children only a minimal part of the time.

  8) The unmarried mother and child This family only consists of the unmarried mother and the child.

  9) The unmarried, adoptive parent and child

  This family consists of unmarried couple and adoptive child. The main reason of this condition is the couple decides not to get married but they want to take care of a child. 10)

  The widowed In this case, a couple is divorced and they do not have any child with them.

c. Conflicts in Family

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  Since family members have a frequent and intense close contact, which can lead them to annoyance and irritability, conflict cannot be separated from family life.

  Conflict usually occurs when family members disagree about the events and situations in their family lives. According to Fitzpatrick and Noller in Communication in Family Relationship, there are three main aspects of conflicts in a family. They are kinds of conflict, causes of conflict, and family conflict resolution (Fitzpatrick and Noller 99).

1) Kinds of Conflict in Family

  Generally, conflicts in families can be divided into content issues and relationship issues. In Communication in Family Relationship as cited by Fitzpatrick and Noller, it is described that less satisfied couples have more conflicts than the more satisfied couples do. In content issues, the conflicts commonly occur in the areas of finance, family members, concerns about health and fitness, feelings about relationship, religious beliefs, plan for the future, feelings about personal appearances, competences, and things that lead to anger or depression.

  Though the areas of conflict between parents and adolescents are about day- to-day living in the family, the conflicts tend to be about minor matters like dress and social life. Other topics include personal hygiene, disobedience, schoolwork, social activities, friendships, chores, and fights with siblings. Adolescents argue about different topics with mothers and fathers. Argument with mothers tends to be about clothes, friendships and manners. Conflicts with fathers are about money, use of leisure time and attitudes toward school.

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  While the nature of the relationship issues is about the relationship itself. It can be in the form of principle about the right in making up decisions for the family, the feeling of being loved more or less than the other members, and the sharing time with other family members. In a brief description, the issues are likely in the field of love, trust, autonomy, and openness (Fitzpatrick and Noller 102).

  2) Causes of Conflict in Family

  The causes of conflict in family life may be varied. Money, love, friendship, and choices are only some examples of issues which may lead family members into conflicts. Generally, conflicts exist because family members perceive a difference between them. This difference becomes problems and gives impact to some members of the family (Fitzpatrick and Noller 99).

  3) Family Conflict Resolution

  Blake and Mouton, Pruitt and Rubin, and Rusbult are some experts who have proposed their models of conflicts resolution. In this section, the model of conflicts resolution proposed by Blake and Mouton will be discussed further since they are more applicable in making crisis decisions related to faithfulness and loyalty to the family in every condition.

  Blake and Mouton propose four responses to conflicts in the family. They are avoidance, competition, soothing and solving. Avoidance is seen as a lack of concern for either the self or the relationship and involves physically or emotionally retreating from the situation or being unwilling to talk about the situation.

  Competition is seen as putting one’s own concerns above those relationships and is characterized by minimal concern for others’ feelings. Soothing is seen as putting

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  concern for relationships above one’s own concerns and perhaps denying or ignoring those concerns in the interests of preventing open conflict and covering up differences. Solving is seen as balancing concerns for relationships with concern about one’s own interests. Schaap states that problem solving involves “the open and direct expression of feelings, exploring the causes of the conflict, clarifying misunderstandings and looking for a solution that is satisfying to both partners” (qtd. in Fitzpatrick and Noller 106).

6. Family Relationship

  The quality of the relationship in the family determines the output of the family members. In this case, parents have a big role in leading the relationship, whether it can give good or bad effects to the family members, especially their children. Bishop states the proof from the observation in the personality patterns of college students that when parents reject, their adolescent children are reported to be glum, suspicious, timid, insecure, anxious, introverted and tense. When they are loving, their children become extroverted, warm, conscientious, composed and happy. When they are neglectful, their children become serious, retiring, aloof, and anxious (qtd. in Hurlock 352).

  Parents have to be a great team in maintaining the family relationship. They have to be able to fill up each other’s roles since children regard them as the models to imitate. Ideal family consists of a father, a mothe r and children. Through this kind of formation and a good teamwork, a high quality of family relationship can be achieved easily. However, in the real life, things cannot always run perfectly. If there

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  is an absence of one parent due to divorce, death or any other causes, it can influence the relationship between the family members.

  For instance, in Personality Development, Hurlock states that if the father’s absence is due to divorce or desertion, it will be a source of embarrassment. The father’s absence from home can psychologically damage the boys more than the girls, because of the lack of a source of masculine identification for the boys. This condition also brings effect to the mother. Since the leaving of the father creates extra burden of work and responsibility for the mother, she tends to compensate their loneliness by attaching themselves emotionally to their elder sons (Hurlock 377).

B. Theoretical Framework In conducting the study, the writer uses some theories to analyze the novel.

  This section explains some theories used in this study and the reasons why those theories are needed in this study.

  The first theory is the theory of character and characterization. The theory of character proposed by Perrine, Henkle, and Forster will help the writer determine the major character and minor characters in the story. The theory of characterization is also needed to guide the writer in analyzing how the main character is described by the author in the story. In this study, the writer applies the theory of characterization proposed by Murphy. This theory offers some methods which can be used to find out Chick Benetto’s characters and how his personality is portrayed in the novel. However, mannerism is the only method which will be used in analyzing Chick Beneto’s characters since it suits to the need of this study.

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  The second theory is the theory of psychology. It includes the theory of conflict, family, and family relationship. The theory of conflicts proposed by Worchel and Cooper and Blake and Mouton help the writer analyze the conflicts especially the intrapersonal conflicts experienced by the main character, Chick Benetto. The theory of conflicts help the writer notify kinds of conflicts experienced by the main character and the resolution taken by the main character to resolve his conflicts in the story. The theory of family and family relationship proposed by Cheal, Miller, Fitzpatrick and Noller, and Hurlock help the writer define the main character’s kinds of family and analyze the influence of the main character’s intra personal conflicts in his personal life.

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter is divided into three parts namely object of the study, approaches

  and method of the study. Object of the study contains a brief description about the novel and the story. The approaches explain the approach used in this study. The last part, method of the study, explains the steps in conducting this study.

A. Object of the Study The object of this study is Mitch Albom’s novel entitled For One More Day.

  It was published in 2006 by Hyperion in American version and by Sphere in British version. It has 197 pages and is divided into 4 main chapters with some sub-chapters.

  Each sub-chapter conveys its own part as a set of the whole story. For One More Day is the third novel written by Mitch Albom, besides the other two novels.

  This novel tells us mainly about the relationship between a son, Chick Benetto, and his parents. Chick starts to experience conflicts in the family from his childhood. His father always asks him to choose whether he wants to be a mama’s boy or a daddy’s boy. He decides to be a daddy’s boy. He stands up for his father most of the time but he rarely does that to his mother who loves him very much.

  Until one day, at his age of 11, his father leaves the family without any reasons that he can understand. Chick loses the figure of somebody to follow. Since his father’s leaving, his mother tries to stay strong raising the family alone. Starting at the age of

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  11, Chick begins to build his resentment to his father unknowingly. At the same time, his mother takes care of the family bravely. She gives her best to make her children happy. However, for some reasons, Chick remains unsatisfied with all of her efforts. He is even ashamed of his mother and resents his incomplete family. Chick spends much of his life chasing the elusive love of his father. However, decades later when his mother dies, Chick has just realized his big mistakes. His resentment turns to regret and haunts him for the rest of his life. It leads him to depression and alcoholism, which later ruins his life. He leaves his own family and one day he decides to take his own life. In his unconsciousness, he meets his mother and spends a day with her again. It changes everything.

  B. Approaches of the Study

  This study focuses on Chick’s intrapersonal conflicts which influence his personal life. Conflict is a part of psychological aspects. Thus, the psychological approach is applied in accordance to the topic of the study.

  In addition, psychological approach reflects life and represents human motivation and behavior which is suitable to analyze the influence of intra-personal conflicts in someone’s personal life. This approach helps the writer to obtain deeper understanding and description of the character’s thought, motivation and behavior in the story.

  C. Method of the Study

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  Some steps were employed in conducting this study. The first step was reading the novel For One More Day many times to gain better understanding about the content of the story. While reading, some important notes of the story were taken for the analysis. The notes included each aspect of the story (setting, character, theme, plot, conflicts, and point of view). Afterward, two problems were formulated to be discussed further to analyze the intra-personal conflicts experienced by the main character.

  The second step was trying to collect some references and theories related to the object of the study. Since the object of the study was a literary work, in form of novel, literature theories were applied. In this study, psychological references were also reviewed to gain more knowledge about family relationship. Besides, internet sources were also accessed to obtain some information related to this study.

  The third step was analyzing the novel. The novel was analyzed in order to answer the two questions formulated in the problem formulation. The last step was making a conclusion, it includes the result of the analysis and the suggestions. The suggestions were for reference of the future research on the same novel and for improving teaching learning process in the future by using this novel as teaching material.

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CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter presents the discussion of the answers formulated in the problem

  formulation. The discussion is divided into two parts. The first part is about the description of the main character, Chick Benetto. The second part discusses the intrapersonal conflict experienced by Chick Benetto.

A. The Description of Chick Benetto

  According to Henkle in Reading the Novel, there are two kinds of characters; major character and secondary character. A major character is the most important and complex character in the novel, while a secondary character is a person in the novel who performs more limited function (Henkle 89). In Mitch Albom’s For One More Day, Chick Benetto is the major character. He takes an important role in the story. He becomes the center of attention in the story. Thus, we can say that Chick Benetto is the most important character because the whole story tells about his life experiences.

  Forster in Aspects of the Novel, divides characters into flat and round characters. A flat character is defined as a simple character. This character can be easily recognized whenever he comes in. This character is not changed by circumstances. While a round character is more complex and often experiences changes (Forster 46). In the story, Chick Benetto is portrayed as a round character.

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  He experiences some important changes in his lifetime. During his life, Chick is always in the middle of his father’s and his mother’s demand. Furthermore, he is always forced to choose and fulfill one of them. For instance, when he decides to focus on his study in the college based on his mother’s demand, his father comes back into his life and suddenly changes his mind about formal education. He drops out from school and tries to pursue his dream to be a professional baseball player.

  Murphy in Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students proposes nine methods which can describe how an author conveys the characters and the personalities in the story so that the readers can understand them. They are personal description, characters as seen by others, speech, past life, conversation of others, reactions, direct comment, thoughts and mannerism (Murphy 161-173). However, in this study only mannerism is applied since it suits to the need of the character’s analysis. Chick is described as:

1. Obedient

  Chick is an obedient person. It can be seen from his manner. There are some evidences that show Chick’s obedience to his parents. Even since he is a kid, he is willing to do some unpleasant things which other kids will prefer not to. It can be seen from Chick’s manner and habits below.

  I carried a baseball glove because he loved baseball, and I took every hardball he threw, even the ones that stung my hands so badly I thought I would scream…. When school was out, I would run to his liquor store on Kraft Avenue and stay until dinnertime, playing with empty boxes in the storeroom, waiting for him to finish. We would ride home together in his blue Buick sedan, and sometimes we would sit in the driveway as he smoked his Chesterfields and listened to the radio news (Albom 21).

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  Generally, kids will prefer to do something which they like to do with their friends and they will choose the activities which may not hurt them. In contrary, Chick chooses to practice baseball although every hardball that his father throws always hurts him. Chick likes baseball just because his father loves baseball. He is also willing to play alone in the storeroom until evening only to wait for his father to ride home together (Albom 21). Common children do not like to play alone. They will be happier if they have a lot of friends to play with. However, although his father is not attentive to him, Chick still always stays in his father’s side. When his father asks him to set his career to be a baseball player, Chick also really wants to make it come true. His desire to accomplish his father’s demand can be seen from this quotation below.

  He said I could make the major leagues one day if I had “a plan”, and if I “stuck to the plan.” And so, from the time I was seven years old, I scanned the newspaper for the box scores of my future employers. I kept a glove at my father’s liquor store in case he could steal a few minutes and throw to me in the parking lot. I even wore cleats to Sunday mass sometimes, because we left for American Legion game right after the final hymn. When they referred to the church as “God’s house”, I worried that the Lord did not appreciate my spikes digging into his floors. I tried standing on my toes once but my father whispered, “What the hell are you doing?” and I lowered myself quickly (Albom 31).

  From the quotation, it is stated how Chick really believes in what his father says about plan. Chick also tries to work out the plan with his mind as a little kid at that time. He is always ready to practice baseball anytime and anywhere.

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  Chick also believes in what his mother says. His mother concerns more to educational things. Since she does not have any good chances to continue her study further, she keeps on supporting Chick to have better education than she has. His mother always tells him that he is smart and being smart is a privilege. Thus, his mother asks him to read one book every week and every week Chick always goes to the library to choose one book that he likes and reads it (Albom 33). Chick always believes in what his parents tell him and he always tries to fulfill what his parents want him to do.

2. Selfish

  Chick is a selfish person. It can be seen from his manner. Since he was a child, Chick wants to be a professional baseball player and he tries hard to pursue his dream. He practices hard, joins baseball clubs and competitions. Chick always seeks for opportunities in which he can develop his ability and career in playing baseball.

  Once he plays for The Pirates to replace the backup catcher and they successfully reach the World Series although they do not win the game (Albom 139).

  However, he does not stop playing baseball. He also keeps on looking for the opportunities. Even when his wife is pregnant, Chick takes her all over the country from minor- league city to minor- league city. They hire apartment in Portland, Jacksonville, Albuquerque, Fayetteville, and Omaha. His wife has three different doctors during her pregnancy (Albom 141).

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  At the end, his daughter, Maria, is born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island without his presence to support his wife (Albom 141). This shows how Chick does not attentive enough to his wife. He is too busy with his ambition to chase his career in a baseball field. If he is not a selfish person, he should have thought about his wife’s condition. Moving from one country to other countries must be very tiring, especially for a pregnant woman who needs to have more time to rest.

  Chick quits baseball not long after his daughter is born. He tries to find a coaching position but he never gets it. So, he works as a salesman but he cannot work at it. Then, Chick attempts to have his own business. He wants to have a sports bar. When he talks about his plan of having sports bar to his family, actua lly his wife and his mother do not really agree with him. However, Chick really insists on having it. From the quotation below, it can be seen how Chick defends his desire.

  “But what do you know about running a restaurant?” my wife says. “It’s a sports bar, I say. We are sitting at our dining room table. My mother is there as well, playing peek-a-boo with little Maria. This is after I’ve quit baseball. A friend wants me to partner in a new business. “But isn’t it hard to run a bar?” Catherine says. “Aren’t there things you have to know about?”

  “He knows that stuff,” I say.

  “What do you think, Mom?” Catherine asks. My mother takes Maria’s hands and flops them up and down. “Would you have to work nights, Charley?”, she asks. “What?” “Nights. Would you have to work nights?” “I’m the investor, Mom. I’m not gonna wait tables.”

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  “It’s a lot of money,” Catherine says. “If you don’t invest money, you can’t make money,” I say. Isn’t there something besides this?” Catherine says. I exhale loudly. In truth, I don’t know what there is. When you play sports, you train yourself not to think too much about anything else. I can’t imagine myself behind a desk. This is a bar. I know about bars. I have already begun a reliance on alcohol as part of my daily existence and secretly there is appeal in having it so handy. Plus, the place has the word “sports” in it (Albom 162).

  Actually, Chick wants to have his own sports bar because he likes drinking alcohol as it is a part of his daily routine last time and now he wants to have it as a part of his business to finance his life and family. His reasons to own a sports bar is mostly to satisfy his ego. Once Chick has his own plan, he will try to pursue it and ignore everything which is not included in his plan. Even though it is his own wife who is worried and is not certain enough with his plan or his mother who worries if his work later will require a lot of time while Chick still has a little daughter and a wife to take care of.

  His selfishness can also be seen when he decides to join the Old Timers Game. It is his mother’s birthday party and he should have had much fun with his family instead of thinking about his father’s offer about the Old Timers Game. When he decides to go, he has to lie to his family. He tells them that he has to fly to meet his client and have a meeting on Sunday, whereas Chick has made an appointment with his mother, wife and daughter to have brunch together on Sunday. Although his mother has asked him to cancel his meeting, Chick insists on going and he cancels his appointment with his family instead. His decision to go disappoints his family (Albom 161).

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3. Ambitious Chick is an ambitious person. If he wants something, he will struggle to get it.

  It can be seen from his manner. When he has finished playing for The Pirates in the World Series, he never stops practicing. Chick really wants to play in the World Series again, and he never stops although he gets an accident in his spring training which injures his knee in anterior, posterior and medial collateral ligaments. This following quotation shows how Chick really misses to have a bright career in baseball.

  You see, I was more alive in those six weeks with the Pirates than I ever felt before or since. The spotlight had made me feel immortal. I missed the huge, carpeted locker room. I missed walking through airports with my teammates, feeling the eyes of the fans as we passed. I missed the crowds in those big stadiums, the flashbulbs, the roaring cheers – the majesty of the whole thing. I missed it bitterly… And so I clung to baseball long after I should have quit. I went from minor- league city to minor- league city, still believing, as athletes often do, that I would be the first to defy the aging process (Albom 141).

  Chick still keeps his ambition although, as an athlete, he is not in his best condition anymore. He still looks for the opportunities by keeping on playing in some games.

  After ten years playing baseball, Chick finally quits from his baseball carrier. He works as a salesman. He never feels happy with his job. Chick does not want to be an ordinary person. He does not want people to forget him easily (Albom 136). He really wants to play baseball another ten years although actually his condition does not enable him to make any achievements in baseball anymore. Yet, Chick still keeps his ambition to play baseball deep inside his heart.

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4. Wishy-washy People should have got self determination to achieve the goal in their life.

  People have to be well-determined once they have certain purpose. However, Chick is a person who has no self determination in his life. His goal always changes based on the one who has stronger influence in his life at that time (Albom 132). This characteristic can be seen from his manner. When his father is leaving, Chick’s mother has bigger influence on him. Chick goes to college and he gets good grades for the subjects. However, when his father suddenly comes back into his life, Chick drops out of college to play minor league baseball.

  I dropped out to play minor league baseball, at my father’s suggestion and to my mother’s everlasting disappointment. I had been offered a spot in the Pittsburgh Pirates’ organization, to play winter ball and hopefully make their minor league roster. My father felt this was the right time. “You can’t get any better playing against college kids,” he said.

  When I first mentioned the idea to my mother, she screamed, “Absolutely not!” It didn’t matter that baseball would pay me. It didn’t matter that the scouts thought I had potential – maybe enough to make it to the major leagues. “Absolutely not!” were her words.

  And I absolutely ignored her. I went to the registrar’s office, told them I was leaving, packed up a duffel bag, and split (Albom 131-132).

  From the quotation, it can be seen that Chick does not have his own life determination. He cannot decide his own choice whether he wants to focus on his study or his baseball career. Once somebody comes and influences his mind, Chick can directly shift his focus. He is an unstable person.

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  That Chick is a wishy-washy person can be seen when Chick finally decides to go and join the Old Timer Game based on his father’s wish. Whereas, his father has left him after his baseball career fades. Chick also has started his new life by opening sports bar. Considering the things that his father has done to him, Chick can just refuse his father. Yet, he lets his father influence him again.

  There are a lot of things I wished I’d asked him. Instead, I said I’d call him back. I hung up the phone. And I let the opportunity my father had “finagled” dance around my head… I tried to focus. I tired to wrap my mother’s birthday party around me. But my father, a thief in many ways, had robbed me of my concentration. Before the paper plates were tossed, I was down in the basement, on the phone, booking the last plane out (Albom 160).

  If Chick has his own principal, he will not let his father influence him easily. He would have refused his father’s wish and continued his life peacefully. Moreover, his father never gives him any appreciation and affection to him, even his father has hurt him and family by leaving them. However, in fact, Chick decides to go to fulfill his father’s wish again. His father has succeeded in controlling Chick’s life again.

B. Chick Benetto’s Intrapersonal Conflicts

  Since each person in this world has his/her own thought, feeling and opinion toward something, conflict always exists. Human life and conflict cannot be separated. Conflicts always exist when there is something undesirable happens. External factors and internal factors can trigger conflicts to arise. Thus, Redman in A Second Book of Play divides conflict into external conflict and internal conflict. An external conflict or interpersonal conflict is defined as a struggle between the major

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  character and an outside force and an internal conflict or intrapersonal conflict is a struggle in the heart and mind of major character (Redman 363).

  Furthermore, in Understanding Social Psychology, Worchel and Cooper divide conflict into interpersonal and intrapersonal conflicts. Interpersonal conflict is a conflict between two or more persons (Worchel and Cooper 462). On the other hand, intrapersonal conflict is a conflict experienced by an individual when making a choice between two or more alternatives (Worchel and Cooper 458).

  In Mitch Albom’s For One More Day, the main character in the story, Chick Benetto, experiences conflicts throughout the story. Conflicts that he faces are mostly intrapersonal conflicts. Chick Benetto’s intrapersonal conflicts in the story are interesting to discuss because it represents conflicts that might happen in the real family life. Thus, we can learn the values and reflect them in our own life.

  For One More Day is a novel which tells a story about a family life and its conflicts seeing from a son’s point of view. In real life, the society already has people based on their gender. It also happens in a family life. Commonly, a boy should be daddy’s boy and a girl sho uld be mama’s girl. It means that, a boy should follow his father and a girl should follow her mother to imitate in the way they behave. It is considered embarrassing for boys if they tend to have a closer relationship with their mother. However, those two figures, mom and dad, cannot be separated. They complete each other and children need both of them to be the models. Yet, this social construction requires the children to stick on one out of two

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  sides, mother or father. It might cause an intrapersonal conflict when the children are forced to choose one of their parents whether they like it or not.

  In Mitch Albom’s For One More Day, Chick Benetto, as the main character in the story, experiences intrapersonal conflict. As a son in a family, Chick longs for having an ideal role fulfillment of their parents. In other words, he needs to have both parents work together, cooperate well without asking him to choose one of them. In fact, the things that have happened in Chick’s family is not as he wishes. His father always forces him to choose whether he wants to be a daddy’s boy or mama’s boy, which means that if he chooses to be a daddy’s boy he has to stay by his daddy’s side and stands up for him every time and on the other way round. Since Chick chooses to be a daddy’s boy, he never has any chance to decide his own choices in his life. His father always haunts him with his ambition to make Chick follow his way as a professional baseball player and dictate Chick’s life whether Chick likes it or not. Considering his own choice to be a daddy’s boy, makes Chick always be under his father’s pressure. Analyzing the intrapersonal conflicts experienced by Chick, it can be concluded that the only categorized cause of his intrapersonal conflicts is because Chick never has his own choice in his life and it makes him depressed under his father’s pressure.

  There are some events which show how Chick experiences his intrapersonal conflict when he has to choose to accomplish his father’s will or his own will. The further discussion is as follows.

1. Laughing with his mother

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  Since Chick has chosen to be a “daddy’s boy”, he tries to be consistent with his choice and its consequences. He always tries to make his father happy and proud of him and he always tries to avoid the things that his father does not like. His father and his mother always have different arguments in deciding anyt hing related to the family’s sake and it often puts Chick in conflict whether he has to follow his father’s opinion or his mother’s. Even in a small case like laughing when Chick listens to his mother singing, Chick feels it is like a betrayal to his father since his father does not participate in their actions.

  This was when my dad was still in the picture. He’d be reading his newspaper and she would walk over to him and drum on his shoulder, singing “this could be the start of something big”, and, of course, he wouldn’t even look up. Then she’d come over to me and make like she was playing drumstick on my chest as she sang along. I wanted to laugh – especially when she said “fig” – but since my father wasn’t participating, laughter felt like a betrayal (Albom 46).

  This conflict belongs to the approach-avoidance conflict as Chick has his own desire to both obtain the goal and escape from it. As explained by Worchel and Cooper, approach-avoidance conflict is a conflict which involves only one goal which has both attractive and unattractive qualities associated with it (461). Chick’s goal is to get his father’s love. However, the things that he has to do to gain his father’s love are the things that he wants to avoid sometimes. Actually, Chick never really wants to choose between his mother and father since he needs and loves both of them. However, his father always forces him to choose and it depresses him with his own choice. The reason why Chick chooses his father because he feels that he never truly has his father’s love, so he tries to get it by doing whatever his father’s

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  wants him to do, even though Chick often does not enjoy it and it often makes him in conflict with his heart(Albom 33). To solve this conflict, Chick applies soothing.

  Blake and Mouton explain that soothing is putting concern for relationship above one’s own concerns and perhaps denying or ignoring those concerns in the interests of preventing open conflict and covering up differences (qtd. in Fitzpatrick and Noller 106). Here, Chick does not want to betray his father. Chick concerns more to his father. Thus, he tries not to laugh with his mother although he does it at last because he cannot stand when his mother tickles him.

2. Accepting his father’s return

  His father leaves Chick without any reasons that he and his sister can understand. He leaves the family when Chick is eleven years old. After his father’s leaving, Chick loses the figure of his role model. He misses his father badly. He tries to swallow and receive the facts that his father has left and he will never come back again. However, after 8 years, his father comes back into his life and Chick can do nothing when he has his father in front of him. Whereas, during his father’s leaving, he always dreams of the situation in which he can meet his father, only both of them, doing the guy’s thing and having the guy’s talk.

  I used to dream about finding my father. I dreamed he moved to the next town over, and one day I would ride my bike to his house and knock on his door and he would tell me it was all just a big mistake. And the two of us would ride home together; me on the front, my dad pedaling hard behind, and my mother would run out the door and burst into happy tears (Albom 111).

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  Chick’s imagination shows how he really misses his father’s presence. Even he tries to find his father’s figure by playing baseball because he can picture his father on the baseball field and in every movement that he makes. Until one day, his father comes back for real in Chick’s first college game, watching him playing in the front row of the seats so that he can monitor his form.

  I will never forget that day. It was a windy afternoon and the sky was a gunmetal color, threatening rain. I walked to the plate. I don’t usually look at the seats, but for whatever reason, I did. And there he was. His hair was graying at the temples and his shoulders seemed smaller, his waist a bit wider, as if he had sunk down on himself, but otherwise, he looked the same. If he was uncomfortable, he didn’t show it. I’m not sure I’d recognize my father’s “uncomfortable” look, anyhow. He nodded at me. Everything seemed to freeze. Eight years. Eight whole years. I felt my lip tremble. I remember a voice in my head saying, Don’t you

  dare, Chick. Don’t you cry, you bastard, don’t cry (Albom113).

  From that situation it can be seen how much he misses his father and how he feels after he finds him again at last. Facing this situation, Chick actually can choose how to react. He can stop the game, approach his father and release his burden by showing his father about his feeling. He can also continue the game, ignore his father and act as if nothing happens. At that time, Chick experiences the double approach- avoidance conflict. According to Worchel and Cooper, the double approach- avoidance is a conflict which involves a person in choosing between two goals, each of which has positive and negative aspects (Worchel and Cooper 461). In this case, Chick is situated to choose between two goals and each of which has positive and negative aspects. He can choose to cry to relieve his burden and feeling about his father or to stay strong. If he cries, at least he can reduce the burden of his feeling but

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  he will disregard his father’s rule that boy should never cry. On the contrary, if he tries to stay strong and tough, his father will never know how he feels to him and he will still have the burden inside his heart. The following quotation shows how he ends the conflict.

  I looked at my feet. I forced them to move. I kept my eyes on them all the way into the batter’s box. And I smacked the first pitch over the left- field wall (Albom 113).

  Chick chooses not to show his feeling to his father by pretending to stay strong and continue the game. Therefore, it can be concluded that Chick applies avoidance to solve the conflict. According to Blake and Mouton, avoidance is seen as lack of concern for either the self or the relationship and involves physically or emotionally retreating from the situation or being unwilling to talk about the situation (qtd. in Fitzpatrick and Noller 106).

3. Going back to the campus with his father

  After Chick’s father leaves the family, Chick, his mother and his sister have to adjust their life with the new family formation. Sometimes the adjustment time causes misery, especially for Chick.

  The first time I heard the word “divorcee” was after an American Le gion baseball game. The coaches were throwing bats in the back of a station wagon, and one of the fathers form the other team picked up my bat by mistake. I ran over and said, “That one’s mine.” “It is?” he said, rolling it in his palm. “Yeah. I brought it with me on my bike.” He could have doubted that, since most kids came with their dads. “OK,” he said, handing it over. Then he squinted and said, “You’re the divorcee’s kid, right?” I looked back, wordless. Divorcee? It sounded exotic, I did not think my mother that way. The men used to ask, “You’re Len Benetto’s kid, right?” and I not sure which

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  bothered me more, being the son of this new word, or no longer being the son of the old ones (Albom 67).

  Chick has to get accustomed to his new nickname “divorcee kid ” although he never likes to be called that way. Chick also has bigger responsibility to look after his mother and his sister since he is the only man left in the family.

  Therefore, the first time Chick meets his father again, he has a mixture of feeling that haunts him since his father’s leaving. Chick misses his father but he also feels disappointed with him. Unfortunately, Chick cannot release his feeling to his father although he has met the father in the baseball field several times. After several games that Chick plays and his father’s presences in the game to watch him, his father finally waits him by the team bus and offers him a ride back to his campus.

  Chick experiences conflict at that time; it can be seen from this quotation.

  These are the first words he says: “Ask your coach if I can drive you back to campus.” I could do anything at this moment. I could spit. I could tell him to go to hell. I could ignore him, the way he ignored us. I could say something about my mother (Albom 119).

  In this time, the conflict experienced by Chick belongs to the double approach-avoidance. According to Worchel and Cooper, double approach-avoidance conflict is a conflict which involves a person in choosing between two goals, each of which has positive and negative aspects (Worchel and Cooper 461). Chick has to choose whether he has to be nice to his father and ignore his feeling or shows him what he truly feels. The first choice, that is being nice to his father, has positive and negative aspects. The positive aspect is Chick can have a chance to win his father’s

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  heart while the negative aspect is he cannot release his burden of what he feels about his father’s deed to his family. It means that he also ignores his family’s feeling if he treats his father nicely. The second choice, that is showing his father about what he truly feels, also has positive and negative aspects. The positive aspect is Chick can release his burden and get relieved from what he feels. The negative aspect is his father will ignore him again since he does not regard his father anymore. This following quotation shows how he ends the conflict.

  Instead, I do what he asks me to do. I seek permission to skip the bus ride home. He is respecting the authority of my coach, I am respecting the authority of my father, and this is how the world makes sense, all of us behaving like men (Albom 119).

  To solve this conflict, Chick applies avoidance as the conflict resolution. Blake and Mouton explain avoidance as lack of concern for either the self or the relationship and involves physically or emotionally retreating from the situation or being unwilling to talk about the situation (qtd. in Fitzpatrick and Noller 106). Thus, Chick chooses to avoid the goal that is revealing what he truly feels when his father leaves the family. Instead, he follows his father’s command and ignores his feeling again. Chick is willing to follow his father command because deep in his heart, he is afraid of loosing his father again, so Chick tries to get his father’s heart on him.

4. Continuing his study or playing baseball

  Since his father’s leaving, unconsciously, Chick shifts his “role” from ‘daddy’s boy’ into ‘mama’s boy’. Thereafter, he tries to fulfill his mother’s demands

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  although he still has the passion to pursue his father’s. Playing baseball is his father’s passion while studying in the college is his mother’s passion. He keeps on changing the focus of his life between them.

  So, year after year, I pulled on new team uniform – red socks, gray pants, blue tops, yellow caps – and each one felt like I was dressing for a visit. I split my adolescence between the pulpy smell of books, which was my mother’s passion, and the leathery smell of baseball gloves, which was my father’s (Albom 112).

  Chick keeps on playing baseball because when he plays the game he can picture the father and it can cure him from his lost. However, he also wants to follow his mother’s wish because since his father has gone, his mother always tries to fill up the missing part with her love. He always stays between them and it makes him weak. He does not even have his own self-determination. Thus, when his father suddenly comes back into his life and asks him to focus on baseball again, he experiences interna l conflict whether he should continue his study in the college and make his mother proud of him or follow his father’s command.

  In his second year in the college, he has taken part in several tournaments which include some potentials baseball recruiters based on his father’s urging. Until one day, there is a talent-seeker who comes to them after the game and offers Chick to join their club. His father supports Chick and directly sets the plan for him.

  However, at that time Chick is still confused whether he has to follow his father’s plan or his mother’s.

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  I nodded obediently. My mind was racing. “What about school?” He scratched his chin. “What about it?”. I flashed on my mother’s face, walking me through the library. I tried not to think about it. “The St. Louis Caaardinals,” my father drawled, long and slow. He ground his shoe into the grass. Then he actually grinned. I felt so proud I got goose bumps. He asked if I wanted a beer and I said yeah, and we went and had one together, as men do (Albom 123).

  At that time, Chick feels that he will be able to obtain his father’s love again with his achievement in baseball, but he also thinks about his mother. Chick still regards his mother, so he calls his mother to tell her about his meeting with his father.

  “Dad came to a game.” I was on the pay phone in the dorm. This was well after my father’s first visit, but it had taken me that long to find the courage to tell her. “Oh,” my mother finally said. “By himself,”I quickly added. For some reason, that seemed important. “Did you tell your sister?” “No.” Another long silence. “Don’t let anything affect your studying, Charley.” “I won’t.” “That’s the most important thing.” “I know.” “An education is everything, Charley. An education is how you’ll make something of yourself.” I kept waiting for more. I kept waiting for some horrible story about some horrible thing. I kept waiting the way the children of divorce wait, for evidence to tip my scales, a tilt in the floor that made me choose one side over the other (Albom 124).

  In this situation, Chick experiences double approach-avoidance in which he has to approach or avoid a goal which has positive and negative aspects in it. Like Worchel and Cooper state the theory of double approach-avoidance conflict as a conflict which involves a person in choosing between two goals, each of which has positive and negative aspects (Worchel and Cooper 461). Chick can choose to follow his father’s command and pursue his dream to be a professional baseball player. On the other hand, he can also choose to ignore his father, considering his deed to the

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  family, and continue his life as a mamma’s boy and follow his mother’s command. However, for both choices he has the same consequence that will make him disappointed with his choice. This following quotation shows how Chick solves the conflict.

  I dropped out to play minor league baseball, at my father’s suggestion and to my mother’s everlasting disappointment. I had been offered a spot in the Pittsburgh Pirates’ organization, to play winter ball and hopefully make their minor league roster. My father felt this was the right time. “You can’t get any better playing against college kids,” he said… When I first mentioned the idea to my mother, she screamed, “Absolutely not!” It didn’t matter that baseball would pay me. It didn’t matter that the scouts thought I had potential

  • – maybe enough to make it to the major leagues. “Absolutely not!” were her words. And I absolutely ignored her (Albom 131-132). Blake and Mouton mention competition as one of conflict resolution; it is seen as putting one’s own concerns above those relationships and is characterized by minimal concern for others’ feelings (qtd. in Fitzpatrick and Noller 106). Chick applies competition as the conflict resolution in this problem. He decides to follow his father’s command and ignore his mother. Chasing his father’s love by his achievement is something that he really wants to do. Since he never gets his father’s love purely, at the same time he has already got his mother’s love without any condition set up by his mother. Chick has his own theory about his parents’ love.

  If my mother said it, I believe it. She wasn’t easy on me, don’t get me wrong. She smacked me. She scolded me. She punished me. But she loved me. She really did. She loved me falling off a swing set. She loved me stepping on her floors with muddy shoes. She loved me through vomit and snot and bloody knees. She loved me coming and going, at my worst and my best. She had a bottomless well of love for me. Her only flaw was that she didn’t make me work for it. You see, here’s my theory: Kids chase the love that eludes them, and for me, that was my father’s love. He kept it tucked away, like papers in a briefcase. And I kept trying to get in there (Albom 33).

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  From the quotation, it can be seen how his mother loves Chick very much and Chick knows that. Although he knows that his mother has more pure love for him, Chick still puts his father’s command as the first priority in his life. Chick does it on purpose. He really wants to get his father’s love and he is willing to sacrifice his mother for that. He ignores his mother and he treats his mother badly by making her very disappointed with his decision of leaving the college.

5. Meeting his father

  His father leaves him again as Chick’s baseball career fades. After everything that Chick has done to get his father’s love and attention to him, his father does not even appreciate it. Even, when Chick struggles to find a job, his father does not offer him a job although he has two liquor stores. His father completely leaves him after Chick loses his baseball career. After that, Chick starts his new life by opening a sports bar. Until one day, on his mother’s birthday he calls Chick and asks him to play again in the Old Timers Game. This time, Chick regrets that he picks up the phone.

  If I had my life to do over again, I would have let it ring. At first I didn’t answer. I was stunned. Although my mother’s phone number had never changed, it was hard to believe my father was calling it. His departure form this house had been so sudden and destructive, hearing his voice seemed like a man walking back into a burning building (Albom 156).

  As soon as he knows that it is his father who is calling, Chick can guess where the conversation will be. He knows his father very well. His father will not contact him if he does not have intention related to baseball world.

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  I knew where this was going. I knew it immediately. The only person who had a harder time giving up my baseball career than me was my father (Albom 159).

  His father forces him to play in Old Timers Game, his father keeps on insisting him since he still has the ambition to make Chick as a professional baseball player or at least Chick works in the work field which is related to baseball. Chick is already tired to be the victim of his father’s ambition. When his father leaves him after he loses his baseball career, Chick has just realized that his father never appreciates his achievements and even his efforts. Chick tries to state his arguments for not joining Old Timers Game like what his father wants. However, his father is a good debater. He can always win the debate with his own ways. He always knows how to force his son to chase his ambition. It traps Chick in a conflict.

  The conflict belongs to double approach-avoidance conflict; Worchel and Cooper explain that double approach-avoidance conflict is a conflict which involves a person in choosing between two goals, each of which has positive and negative aspects (Worchel and Cooper 461). Chick can choose to ignore his father’s wish and do what he really wants to do without any dictations from his father although the consequence is that he will never get his father’s love like what he always dreams of. On the contrary, Chick can also choose to take part and join the Old Timers Game to pursue his father’s ambition but if he does that, he never has self-determination and his father will always dictate his life. The following quotation shows how he ends the conflict.

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  There are a lot of things I wished I’d asked him. Instead, I said I’d call him back. I hung up the phone. And I let the opportunity my father had “finagled” dance around my head… I tried to focus. I tired to wrap my mother’s birthday party around me. But my father, a thief in many ways, had robbed me of my concentration. Before the paper plates were tossed, I was down in the basement, on the phone, booking the last plane out… I had to lie to everyone there. It wasn’t hard. I wore a pager for work, and I called it from downstairs phone, then went upstairs quickly. When the pager went off in front of Chaterine, I acted annoyed, grumbling about them “bothering me on a Saturday.”… I faked the return phone call. Faked my dismay. Faked a story about having to fly to a client who could only do the meeting on a Sunday, and wasn’t it awful? (Albom 160-161). To end the conflict, Chick applies competition. Blake and Mouton explain competition as putting one’s own concerns above those relationships and is characterized by minimal concern for others’ feelings (qtd. in Fitzpatrick and Noller 106). Chick chooses to join the Old Timers game. Once again, Chick ignores his family’s feeling who wants to spare the time with him and Chick also ignores his own feeling. Chick is willing to do his father’s command because deep in his heart, Chick is still longing for his father’s love and he still wants to try to get it.

C. The influence of Chick’s intrapersonal conflicts on his personal life The intrapersonal conflicts experienced by Chick influence his personal life.

  In his lifetime, Chick always tries to get his father’s love by doing everything that his father wants. Although sometimes Chick’s effort in making his father proud of him makes him sacrifice his own life determination. Even, his father seems never appreciate Chick’s efforts and achievement. His father always wants more and more from his son. Once Chick makes him disappointed, his father will leave him and ignore him again. His father’s love is such a very difficult thing to obtain for Chick.

  Thus, when Chick feels that he has done everything for his father and his father still leaves him, he just realizes that all his sacrifices are just useless. Furthermore, the

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  influence of intrapersonal conflicts experienced by Chick is more clearly seen in his life before and after he gets married.

1. Chick’s personal life before he gets married

  Before Chick gets married, he lives with his parents and his sister. Based on the kind of family, Chick’s family can be identified as a nuclear family. As stated in Cheal’s Sociology of Family Life, nuclear family is a small group consisting of a wife and a husband who live together, as well as the children (Cheal 159). When Chick’s family still has a complete formation of family members, it can also be classified as the two-parents and natural children based on the wide diversity of family structure. Miller in Family Communication states that the two-parents and natural children is a family which consists of a father, a mother and their natural children (Miller 2).

  It is described in the novel that as a son of the family, Chick’s father always forces him to choose whether he wants to be a daddy’s boy or a mama’s boy. Based on Chick’s consideration about life’s assignment that girls should follow their mother and boys should follow their father, Chick chooses to be a daddy’s boy (Albom 21).

  Chick obeys what his father wants him to do. Since his father loves baseball very much, he always wants Chick to follow his path as a professiona l baseball player. He traines Chick baseball since Chick is a little kid and although every hardball that he throws may hurt Chick (Albom 21). He is very ambitious in making Chick like what he wants. Chick, since he has chosen to be a daddy’s boy, follows his father’s command although sometimes it is overwhelming.

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  And when it came to me, the only thing I had to worship was baseball. He was pitching to me before I could walk. He gave me a wooden bat before my mother let me use scissors. He said I could make the major leagues one day if I had “a plan”, and if I “stuck to the plan”….

  And so, from the time I was seven years old, I scanned the newspaper for the box scores of my future employers. I kept a glove at my father’s liquor store in case he could steal a few minutes and throw me in the parking lot. I even wore cleats to Sunday mass sometimes, because we left for American Legion games right after the final hymn (Albom 31).

  Chick always tries to give his best to his father, although his father often ignores him and his achievement. His father never shows any appreciation to Chick’s achievement. He keeps on a planning higher target for Chick to achieve instead. However, Chick has another reason of why he should behave like a slave to his father. Chick thinks that he never truly has his father’s love in his life. He finds it difficult to get his father’s love. Chick has his own theory about his father’s love.

  You see, here’s my theory: Kids chase the love that eludes them, and for me, that was my father’s love. He kept it tucked away, like papers in a briefcase. And I kept trying to get in there (Albom 33).

  For that reason, Chick is always willing to obey his father’s command since his father never shows him the love that he needs as a son.

  Different from what his father has done to him, Chick’s mother always showers him with love. Chick also loves his mother very much and he never doubts of his mother’s love to him. His mother has a very different perception of some things about life with his father, like kids, food, and religion (Albom 30). It often makes them argue in front of their children, but Chick always believes what his

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  mother says to him because he knows that his mother loves him and always wants the best for him. It can be seen from the quotation below.

  Still, I can say I adored my mother, in the way that boys adore their mothers while taking them for granted. She made that easy. For one thing, she was funny. She didn’t mind smearing ice cream on her face for a laugh. She did odd vo ices, like Popeye the Sailor Man, or Louis Armstrong croaking, “If ya ain’t got it in ya, ya can’t blow it out.” She tickled me and she let me tickle her back, squeezing her elbows in as she laughed. She tucked me in every night, rubbing my hair and saying, “Give your mother a kiss.” She told me I was smart and that being smart was a privilege, and she insisted that I read one book every week, and she took me to the library to make sure this happened. She dressed too flashy sometimes, and she sang along with our music, which bothered me. But there was never, not for a moment, a question of trust between us. If my mother said it, I believe it.

  She wasn’t easy on me, don’t get me wrong. She smacked me. She scolded me. She punished me. But she loved me. She really did. She loved me falling off a swing set. She loved me stepping on her floors with muddy shoes. She loved me though vomit and snot and bloody knees. She loved me coming and going, at my worst and at my best. She had a bottomless well of love for me.

  Her only flaw was that she didn’t make me work for it (Albom 32- 33).

  Chick’s mother always wants to improve Chick to be better. He wants Chick to be smart because she believes that being smart is a privilege. For her, college and books can give Chick a brighter future than play baseball (Albom 32). Chick never doubts of his mother, he always believes in what she says. Only, since Chick has chosen to be a daddy’s boy, his priority in his life is his father. He concerns more to his father’s plans and commands to him than his mother’s. Chick puts his mother in the second

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  place in his life. His father’s action also makes Chick always think that his mother is not part of “the plan” of his future.

  Sometimes I would peek at her from inside the dugout, and she’d be looking off over the horizon. But when I came to bat, she clapped and yelled, “Yaaay, Charley!” and I guess that’s all I cared about. My father, who coached every team I played on up to the day he split, once caught me looking her way and hollered, “Eyes on the ball, Chick! There’s nothing up there that’s gonna help you!”

  Mom, I guess, wasn’t part of “the plan.” (Albom 32) However, although Chick sometimes ignores his mother and pays more attention to his father, his mother’s love always stays the same. She loves Chick in his best and worst time. She always has sincere love for her son, Chick. With that kind of situation in his family, as a kid, Chick always feels that he stays in between.

  He often experiences dilemma of whom to follow. He always fulfills his father’s wishes but his father never shows him any affection. On the contrary, Chick often ignores his mother because of his father but his mother always gives excessive love for him even without his request.

  When Chick’s mother knows that his husband has another wife, they get quarreled and his father leaves the family. Chick only knows that his parents get divorced but he never knows the reasons behind. Although Chick often finds them arguing about children or work but he never thought that they will get divorced (Albom 58). Like what stated in Communication in Family Relationship, Fitzpatrick and Noller mention that there are two kinds of conflicts in family (Fitzpatrick and Noller 102). They are content issues and relationship issues. In Chick’s parents’ case,

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  the conflict belongs to relationship issues because the problem which leads to conflict is about love. His father has another wife and it leads him into conflict with his wife. At last, to resolve the problem, Chick’s father decides to go because Chick’s mother also wants him to go. Here, Chick’s parents apply solving to end the conflict.

  Since the leaving of his father, there are only three of them as the family members and no more four. His family structure also changes into the divorced, a custodial parent. Miller defines the divorced, custodial parent family as a type of family in which the divorced-parent has the main care of the children (Miller 2).

  Here, Chick and his sister stay with his mother. His mother tries hard to carry out the family tasks alone. She becomes a single fighter. She works hard to finance the family life. She really wants to make Chick and his sister happy without letting them know what his father has done to the family. She tries to cover everything and maintain the fa mily condition, so that Chick and his sister will not feel different.

  Though, being a divorcee who lives in a small town is not easy, people do not know what has happened to the family but they judge those who are still around.

  Neighbors start to close the relationship because they think that Chick’s mother is a threat for their family (Albom 74). As a divorcee’s kid, Chick also feels the effect.

  At his age of eleven, he is the only man in the family and he feels obligated to guard his mother from any men who have certain intention to his mother (Albom 67).

  Chick never feels happy with the new condition in his family. Moreover, when his

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  mother gets fired from her job as a nurse and works in beauty parlor, Chick quarrels with his mother.

  “You smoke! You’re a hypocrite!” “Don’t use that word!” “Why not, Mom? You always want me to use big words in a sentence.

  There’s a sentence. You smoke. I can’t. My mother is a hypocrite!” I am moving as I yell this, and the moving seems to give me strength, confidence, as if she can’t hit me. This is after she has taken a job at the beauty parlor, and instead of her nursing whites, she wears fashionable clothes to work – like the pedal pushers and turquoise blouse she is wearing now. These clothes show off her figure. I hate them.

  “I am taking these away,” she yells, grabbing the cigarettes. “And you are not going out, mister! “I don’t care!” I glare at her. “And why do you have to dress like that?

  You make me sick!” “I what?” Now she is on me, slapping my face. “I WHAT? I make you” – slap! – “sick? I make” – slap! – “you SICK?” – slap! – “Is that what you” – slap! – “said?” – slap, slap! – “Is it? Is that what you THINK OF ME?”

  “No! No!” I yell. “Stop it!” I cover my head and duck away. I run down the stairs and out the garage. I stay away until well past dark. When I finally come home, her bedroom door is closed and I think I hear her crying. I go to my room. The cigarettes are still there. I light one up and start crying myself (Albom 85, 86). Chick does not realize the great things that his mother has done for the family after his father leaves them. Chick forgets about his mother’s sacrifice for the children. He still longs for his father. It damages him psychologically. As stated in Hurlock’s Personality Development, father’s absence due to divorce or desertion creates embarrassment and it can psychologically damage the boys more than the girls, because of the lack of a source of masculine identification for the boys

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  (Hurlock 377). Chick really loses his father’s figure. After his father’s leaving, he is often bothered with his own status of being the son of his mother or no longer being the son of the old ones (Albom 67).

  Thus, from that moment, Chick becomes a mama’s boy. He goes to college to obtain good education. He gets good grades which make his mother feel very proud of him. However, deep inside his heart, Chick still misses his father. He keeps playing baseball in his college because when he plays baseball, he can picture his father in his mind. Until one day, his father comes back into his life, Chick decides to leave the college to pursue his father’s love by playing baseball professionally in a team. His decision hurts his mother very badly.

2. Chick’s personal life after he gets married

  Chick meets Chaterine, his wife, in the college, when he is singing his mother’s favorite song which can grab her attention. Soon after that moment, Chick gets married and he develops his own family. He has Maria as his only daughter. Seeing from the family structure which consists of Chick, his wife and his daughter, it also belongs to nuclear family and the two-parents and natural children. It has the same structure as his previous family before he gets married.

  As a father, Chick is very attentive to his daughter. He tries to be the best father that his daughter can have. Chick learns from his own life. In Hurlock’s Personality Development, Bishop states that when parents neglect their children, they will develop as a serious, retiring, aloof, and anxious people (352). Chick’s father neglects him, so Chick grows up as an anxious person who always tries to get his father’s love in his life. Chick has experienced it in his life and he does not want his

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  daughter to experience it as well. However, Chick’s life deals more with sport since his father forms it that way. It influences the way he takes care of his daughter. Chick loves her but he wants to form her to be a little bit the same as him. He wants to make his little girl be a sporty girl.

  I found my greatest joy in her. I tried to be a decent father. I tried to pay attention to the little things. I wiped the ketchup off her face after French fries. I sat beside her at her small desk, pencil in hand, helping her do math problems. I sent her back upstairs when, as an eleven- year-old, she came down wearing a halter top. And I was always quick to throw her a ball or to take her to the local YMCA for swimming lessons, happy to keep her a tomboy as long as possible (Albom 155). It is a part of his ego as a father, whether Chick realizes it or not. He feels happy if his daughter has similar things like him. Parents always have certain influence in their children’s life. It is normal as long as they do not dominate their children life and let the children develop the mselves.

  Although Chick already has his own family to take care of, he still often thinks of his father. He still has the ambition to chase his father’s love.

  Unfortunately, his father really knows Chick’s weakness about this. Chick’s father is like a gho st. He comes whenever he likes to force Chick to do what he wants. Chick never has courage to refuse his father’s command. Moreover, since he has chosen to be a daddy’s boy, he feels obligated to fulfill all of his father’s wishes.

  One day, Chick makes a very bad decision which later changes his whole life extremely worse. After he quits from his baseball carrier, his father also disappears along with Chick’s carrier. Yet, in his mother’s seventy-ninth birthday party, Chick receives a phone call from his father unexpectedly. His father forces him to join Old

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  Timers Game. They have an intense conversation on the phone in which Chick tries hard to refuse his father’s offer, yet his father has stronger power to force him.

  There are a lot of things I wished I’d asked him. Instead, I said I’d call him back. I hung up the phone. And let the opportunity my father had “finagled” dance around my head.

  I thought about it as my mother sliced her vanilla layer cake and put each piece on a paper plate. I thought about it as she opened her presents. I thought about it as Catherine, Maria and I posed around her for a photo – Maria now covered in purple eye shadow – and my mom’s friend Edith held up the camera and said, “One, two… uch, wait, this thing, I can never figure it out.”

  And even as we stood there forcing our smiles, I was picturing my swing. I tried to focus. I tried to wrap my mother’s birthday party around me. But my father, a thief in many ways, had robbed me of my concentration. Before the paper plates were tossed, I was down in the basement, on the phone, booking the last plane out (Albom 160).

  Chick decides to join the Old Timers Game. He has to lie to everyone at home that he has to go on a meeting on Sunday. He cancels his appointment to have brunch with family. Chick really insists on going although his family wants him to stay (Albom 161). Here, Chick experiences intrapersonal conflict and he applies competition to solve the conflict. In Fitzpatrick and Noller’s Communication in Family Relationship, Blake and Mouton explain competition as putting one’s own concerns above those relationships and is characterized by minimal concern for others’ feelings (Fitzpatrick and Noller 106). Chick concerns more on his father, so he decides to fulfill his father’s wish. Chick never knows that it will be the last moment he meets his mother. The mother passes away when he is playing in Old Timers Game. The game itself is worth nothing but shame. There is no meaningful achievement that Chick can get from the game. He loses his mother instead. Chick has just realized how his mother has backed his life up and how he really needs his

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  mother in his life. Chick never forgives himself of lying to his mother and speaking to her on anger in the last day he spends the time with his mother.

  After the funeral, I go so drunk I passed out on our couch. And something changed. One day can bend your life, and that day seemed to bend mine inexorably downward. My mother had been all over me as a kid – advice, criticism, the whole smothering mothering thing. There were times I wished she would leave me alone.

  But then she did. She died. No more visits, no more phone calls. And without even realizing it, I began to drift, as if my roots had been pulled, as if I were floating down some side branch of a river. Mothers support certain illusions about their children, and one of my illusions was that I liked who I was, because she did. When she passed away, so did that idea.

  The truth is, I didn’t like who I was at all. In my mind, I still pictured myself a promising, young athlete. But I was no longer young and I was no longer an athlete. I was a middle-aged salesman. My promise had long since passed (Albom 4).

  He regrets of missing the last moment because of his decision to fulfill his father’s wish. That day gives big influence in the rest of Chick’s life. He loses his self-confidence. A year after his mother dies, he makes the dumbest mistake that he has ever done financially. He invests most of his savings in a now-worthless stock fund. He is bankrupt soon after his colleague transfers his money to her own bank account and brings it away. Chick gets very stressful and he drinks more and more.

  Later on, his habit of drinking makes him lose his two sales jobs. It makes his condition even worse. He keeps on drinking, he sleeps badly and he eats badly.

  Money becomes a problem in his family. Chick and his wife often argue about it. Here, as cited by Fitzpatrick and Noller in Communication in Family Relationship, Chick’s family conflict can be classified as content issues since the problem which causes the conflict is about financial problem that can lead to anger or depression.

  Chick applies avoidance to resolve the conflict. He chooses to keep his own problem and misery. As time goes by, his wife gets tired of Chick’s misery and she leaves

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  Chick. She brings their daughter along with her. Chick’s marriage collapses (Albom 5).

  He lives alone with his meaningless life. Until one day, he receives a brief letter from his daughter. It tells him about her wedding. His daughter does not invite him and even inform him before about her wedding. His daughter sends him the letter a few weeks after the wedding. Chick feels that he has become too great and embarrassment to risk at a family function because of his drinking, depression, and generally bad behavior (Albom 6). Chick thinks that his life is just useless and he decides to kill himself.

  Chick experiences the intrapersonal conflicts and gains its effects in his personal life. They are like a series of events which happen continuously and the effects remain in Chick’s life bit by bit until it comes to the peak. His adoration to his father makes him behave unkindly to his mother and his family. He does not treat his family well. He always puts his mother on the second position. He often disappoints his mother by following what his father wants him to do and ignores his mother.

  Chasing his father’s love is the first priority in his life, like what Chick states in his theory about love. Chick has just realized his mistakes after his mother passes away.

  Years later, after her death, I made list of Times My Mother Stood Up for Me and Times I Did Not Stand Up for My Mother. It was sad, the imbalance of it all. Why do kids assume so much from one parent and hold the other to a lower, looser standard?

  Maybe it’s like my old man said: You can be a mama’s boy or a daddy’s boy, but you can’t be both. So you cling to the one you think you might lose (Albom 33, 34).

  His father has made him put his mother and her unconditional love on the second place in his life. Chick has just realized that he has made a wrong choice in his life.

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  Being a daddy’s boy is a big mistake in his life. His father always neglects him so Chick has an anxiety to get his father’s love. As quoted in Hurlock’s Personality Development, Bishop states that when children are neglectful, they become serious, retiring, aloof, and anxious (352). His father has made Chick busy chasing his love so that Chick ruins his personal life. Chick ignores his mother. He disappoints his mother which later leads Chick into depression and it makes his wife and his children leave him. His own family is also collapsed. In this way, Chick finds that he and his father are just the same (Albom 186).

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter consists of two sections. The first describes conclusions that

  present the answers to the questions stated in the problem formulation. The second are suggestions for the future researchers and for teaching- learning activities.

A. Conclusions

  Based on the analysis, Chick Benetto is portrayed as an obedient, selfish, ambitious and wishy-washy person. Those characteristics mostly can be seen from the character’s manner. Chick Benetto is an obedient person. He will do what his parents want him to do. For example, when he is still a little kid his father has trained him baseball and Chick has already accustomed to catching every hardball that his father throws. Chick is also willing to wait for his father everyday after school playing alone in the store room while his father is working. When his father asks him to set his career as a baseball player, Chick also really tries to accomplish it. When his mother insists him to read a book regularly once a week to make him smart, he does it.

  However, Chick is also a selfish person. He brings his pregnant wife, moving all over the country from minor- league city to minor-league city to chase his career as a baseball player. When his first daughter is born, Chick is not there to support his wife in delivering the baby. Chick also insists on running a sports bar although his

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  wife and his mother do not really agree with his choice of having his own business because of some considerations. His selfishness can also be seen when he decides to go and join Old Timers Game although he has an appointment with his family before and he has to tell a lie to his family because of that.

  Chick is also an ambitious person. His dream of being a professional baseball player is very big. Thus, he tries hard to pursue it. Chick does not stop although he and his team do not win in the World Series. Chick also does not stop practicing and playing baseball although he gets knee injury. He still also keeps his ambition to play baseball longer although his condition does not enable him to make any achievements. Besides, Chick also has got another job to do. Chick has a big ambition to get what he wants in his life.

  From his manner, it can also be seen that Chick is a wishy-washy person. His focus of life always changes based on the one who has stronger influence in his life at that time. For example, when his father is leaving, Chick’s mother has big influence on him. He follows his mother’s wish, he go es to college to study and he gets good grades. However, when his father suddenly comes back into his life and asks him to play baseball again, Chick drops out of college to play minor league baseball. Then, after everything that his father has done to him and his family, Chick still gets influenced to his father’s urge to fulfill his wish to play in the Old Timers Game.

  The analysis also shows five major intrapersonal conflicts that Chick Benetto has experienced. First, he faces an intrapersonal conflict in the form of an approach- avoidance when he wants to laugh with his mother but his father does not participate

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  in their action. To resolve this conflict, Chick chooses soothing. He tries not to laugh with his mother to appreciate his father. Second, Chick faces a double approach- avoidance conflict when his father returns to his life and he appears in Chick’s baseball game. In this conflict, Chick solves it by applying avoidance. He hides his feeling to his father and pretends to stay strong. Third, he experiences another double approach-avoidance conflict when his father wants to take him to campus. Chick solves the conflict by applying avoidance. He avoids revealing what he truly feels when his father leaves the family. Fourth, Chick faces double approach-avoidance conflict when his father asks him to focus on baseball. Chick applies competition to resolve the problem. He decides to follow his father’s command to focus on baseball and leave the college. Fifth, he faces another double approach-avoidance conflict when his father calls him on his mother’s birthday to ask him to play in the Old Timers Game. This conflict resolved when Chick chooses to approach the goal which is joining the Old Timers Game. In this case, Chick applies competition as the conflict resolution.

  The intrapersonal conflicts that happen in Chick’s life influence his personal life. Because of his adoration to his father, he always puts his mother and his family in the second priority in his life. Whereas, they are the ones who always give Chick their unconditional love. Until Chick loses his mother and his family, he has just realized that he has chosen the wrong choice and it ruins his personal life.

B. Suggestions

  This section consists of two parts. The first part is suggestion for future researchers who want to conduct studies on the same novel. The second is

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  suggestions for English teaching- learning activities using the novel For One More Day.

  1. Suggestion for Future Researchers

  For One More Day is an interesting novel to read and analyze because it portrays a picture of a family life and its conflict. It tells about the life of a son in facing the problems happen in the family. It describes how he is always forced to choose whether he wants to be a “daddy’s boy” or a “mama’s boy” by his father.

  This novel also describes how a son tries to find the ways to solve his intrapersonal conflict and how he struggles to get the love that he thinks he never has in his life.

  This study only focuses on the major character in the story, Chick Benetto, his characteristics, his family and his intrapersonal conflicts. Therefore, future researchers may conduct studies on Chick Benetto’s interpersonal conflicts or Chick Benetto’s love towards his parents. They may also analyze other characters in the story such as, Chick’s father or Chick’s mother, and other things such as maternal or paternal love seen in the story.

  2. Suggestion for Teaching-Learning Activities

  Novels, poems, dramas and short stories are some examples of literary work that portray human life experiences. Novel is one of the literary works that sets up the readers to the situation which might happen in the real life. By reading a novel, we do not only get the enjoyment but also the moral lesson and values implied in it.

  Reading a novel can also help us to improve our English skill. We can enrich our knowledge by reading a lot of novels. Considering the benefits of reading a novel, we can also use a novel as a source of teaching learning activities.

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  Literary work like a novel is an authentic material that can be used to teach English. Using literary work as a material in teaching English offers some advantages. First, we can learn a lot of vocabularies and language style, and how to use them properly based on the context given from the native writer. Second, the ideas of literary work are usually taken from the real life experiences. Thus, we can take the moral values through someone’s life experiences and apply them in our life. In reading literary work, each person might have different perception and opinion toward the story which can lead them into discussion about the literary work.

  Through the discussion about the literary work, it can help us to improve our speaking ability.

  In the implementation of teaching- learning activity, I focus on speaking in a form of debate activity. The further explanations are presented as follows.

  The Implementation in Teaching Speaking

  Among the four skills, speaking is one of the language skills tha t the students have to master in learning a new language. In performing a good and clear communication, the students need to practice using the target language actively. To encourage the students to speak actively, we have to be able to provide an interesting material which can stimulate their idea to think critically. When the students have already had their own ideas about the topic given, it will challenge them to share their ideas and opinions with others.

  Mitch Albom’s novel entitled For One More Day is suitable to be used as the material in a speaking class, especially in a debate. The novel contains psychology ideas which are debatable. Debatable things can encourage the students to share and

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  defend their opinions. It stimulates them to have critical thought and provides them opportunity to practice speaking in the target language. Some procedures that can be applied by the teacher in the debate activity are: 1.

  The teacher distributes the literary text completed with the problem for the debate a week before the class. Then, s/he asks the students to comprehend the text and explore their ideas and opinion about the problem given.

  2. Before the debate starts, the teacher explains briefly about the problem to be discussed and the background of the proble m.

  3. The teacher explains the rule of the debate to the students.

  4. The teacher divides the class into two groups. One is the pro group and the other is con group. The pro group is the group who stands for the related issue, while the con group is the group that is against the issue. The teacher gives some necessary instructions and then he assigns the groups to prepare their logical arguments and opinion.

  5. The teacher starts the debate by giving the first turn to the pro side to share their arguments and opinion for about five minutes.

  6. The next turn is given to con group for about five minutes.

  7. The pro have to argue the con’s arguments and the con also have to argue the pro’s argument by presenting their logical reasoning and also defending their opinion.

  8. Teacher stops the debate after a period of time and makes sure that each group has taken the same opportunity in debating.

  9. To close the debate, each group has to conclude their ideas.

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REFERENCES

Albom, Mitch. For One More Day. London: Sphere, 2006.

  Cheal, David. Sociology of Family Life. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Forster. E. M. Aspects of the Novel. New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 1978. Henkle, Roger B. Reading the Novel. New York: Harper and Row, Publisher, 1977. Hurlock, E. B. Personality Development. New York; McGraw Hill Book, 1974. Miller, Maureen. Family Communication. New York: Paulist Press, 1980.

Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English

Novel for Overseas Students. London: George Alle n and Unwin Ltd, 1972.

  

Noller, Patricia, and Marry Anne Fitzpatrick. Communication in Family Relationship.

  Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1993.

Perrine, Laurence. Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense. New York: Harcourt Brace

Jovanovich, Inc, 1974.

  Pieper, Josef. About Love. Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press.1974. Redman, Crosby E. A Second Book of Plays. New York : Mac Millan Company, 1964.

Rorhberger, Mary, and Samuel H. Woods Jr. Reading and Writing about Literature. New

York: Random House Inc, 1971.

  

Stanton, Robert. An Introduction to Fiction. London: Holt, Richard and Winston, Inc, 1965.

Worchel, Stephen and Joel Cooper. Understanding Social Psychology. New York, Dorsey

Press, Ltd, 1979.

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  The Internet Source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_One_More_Day. Accessed on Thursday, 8 January 2009 at

08.00 p.m.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitch_Albom. Accessed on Thursday, 8 January 2009 at 08.00

p.m.

  http://thecelebritycafe.com/books/full_review/1309.html. Accessed on Sunday, 3 August 2008 at 07.00 p.m. http://www.brainyquote.com/words/li/life184840.html. Accessed on Thursday, 8 January 2009 at 08.30 p.m. http://www.brainyquote.com/words/pe/personal201581.html. Accessed on Thursday, 8 January 2009 at 08.30 p.m.

  

APPENDICES

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  Appendix A

SUMMARY OF FOR ONE MORE DAY

  This novel tells us mainly about the relationship between a son, Chick Benetto, and his parents. Chick experiences conflicts in the family since he is a child.

  His father always asks him to choose whether he wants to be a mama’s boy or a daddy’s boy. He decides to be a daddy’s boy. He stands up for his father most of the time but he rarely does that to his mother who loves him very much. Until one day, at his age of 11, his father leaves the family without any reasons that he can understand.

  Chick loses the figure of somebody to follow. Since his father’s leaving, his mother tries to stay strong raising the family alone. Starting at the age of 11, Chick begins to build his resentment to his father unknowingly. Otherwise, in the same time, his mother takes care of the family bravely. She gives her best to make her children happy. However, for some reasons, Chick remains unsatisfied with all her efforts. He is even ashamed of his mother and resents his incomplete family. Chick spends much of his life chasing the elusive love of his father. However, decades later when his mother dies, Chick has just realized his big mistakes. His resentment turns to regret and haunts him for the rest of his life. It leads him to depression and alcoholism, which later ruins his life. He leaves his own family and one day he decides to take his own life. In his unconsciousness, he meets his mother and spends a day with her again. It changes everything.

  Adapted from: http://thecelebritycafe.com/books/full_review/1309.html. Accessed on Sunday, 3 August 2008 at 07.00 p.m.

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  Appendix B

BIOGRAPHY OF MITCH ALBOM

  Mitchell David Albom was born on May 23, 1958 in Passaic, New Jersey to Rhoda and Ira Albom. Albom went on to Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts to earn a bachelor’s degree in sociology. Pursuing his dream to become a musician, he worked after graduation for several years in nightclubs in the US and Europe. He discovered an aptitude for writing and eventually returned to graduate school, earning a Masters degree from Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism, followed by an MBA from Columbia University’s Graduate School of Business.

  Mitch Albom has written seven other books, including the bestseller, Tuesdays With Morrie (1997). His other works include Live Albom I (1987), Live Albom II (1990), Live Albom III (1992), Live Albom IV (1995), “BO” (1989), which is the autobiography of former University of Michigan football coach Bo Schembechler, and Fab Five. The Five People You Meet in Heaven was published in 2003 and For One More Day was published in 2006.

  Aside from writing novels, Albom has also been deemed the #1 Sports Columnist in the Nation by the sports editors of America. He has received over 100 writing awards from National Sportswriters and Broadcasters Associations, Headliners Club as well as many others. His work has also appeared in publications such as Sports Illustrated, GQ Magazine, The New York Times, USA Today, and TV Guide.

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  Albom appears regularly on ESPN's The Sports Reporters (airs Sunday mornings from the ESPN Zone in Times Square at 10 a.m. EST) and SportsCenter.

  He has also made appearances on Costas Now, The Oprah Winfrey Show, The Today

  

Show, CBS’s The Early Show, ABC’s Good Morning America, Dr. Phil , and Larry

King Live . Now, Mitch lives with his wife, Janine, in Michigan.

  Adapted from:

  

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitch_Albom. Accessed on Thursday, 8 January 2009 at 08.00

p.m.

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  Defending their opinion orally with proper reasons to convince their opponents in good English.

  The students discuss the motion given by Students’s speaking performance

  −

  The students make a group consisting of three students.

  −

  The students answer the pre – speaking questions from the teacher related to the story.

  −

  The students read the story given a week before the debate.

  −

  Lesson Plan (Teaching Speaking)

  Subject : English Topic : Parental Love Level : 5

  Expressing their ideas orally in a debate based on a story or a motion given.

  −

  Performing a debate to achieve speaking fluency and improve their speaking skill by stating and defending opinions with logical reasons in accordance with a written passage given.

  −

  Learning Experiences Form of Evaluation

  Basic Competence Achievement Indicators

  semester of the English Education Study Program Students Material : Page 27-34 of For One More Day Time : 2 x 50 minutes

  th

  −

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  the teacher in groups.

  

  The students debate by stating, defending, and arguing their ideas and friend’s ideas.

  

  The students conclude their ideas and the debate.

  Pre – Speaking Questions: 1.

  What do you know about parental love? 2. Do you think that mother’s love and father’s love are different? State your reasons.

  Motions for debate:

The pro group: You are the group that agrees with the statement that mother’s love

  and father’s love is different. Mother’s love is unconditional; it will always remain for her children’s best or worst time. However, father’s love is conditional. Father tends to set cond itions to love his children. The children should fulfill certain wishes from the father before they get his love. State and defend your arguments based on the story.

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The con group: You are the group that does not agree with the statement that

  mother’s love and father’s love is different. Actually, mother’s love and father’s love is just the same. What makes it seems to be different is only the way parents show their love to their children. State and defend your arguments based on the story.

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