The influence of parents` abuse on Anson`s personality development as seen in Dean Koontz`s The Husband - USD Repository
THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ ABUSE ON ANSON’S PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT AS SEEN IN DEAN KOONTZ’S THE HUSBAND
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
By Berlina Budi Utami
Student Number: 051214093
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ ABUSE ON ANSON’S PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT AS SEEN IN DEAN KOONTZ’S THE HUSBAND
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education
By Berlina Budi Utami
Student Number: 051214093
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION
SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY
I honestly declare that this thesis, which I have written, does not contain the work or parts of the work of other people, except those cited in the quotations and the references, as a scientific paper should.
Yogyakarta, September 25, 2009 The Writer
Berlina Budi Utami 051214093 Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known to God; And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus
This thesis is devoted especially to my beloved family and those who haveintroduced me to the wonderful life
LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN
PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS
Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswi Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Berlina Budi Utami
Nomor Mahasiswi : 051214093 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul:
THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ ABUSE ON ANSON’S PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT AS SEEN IN DEAN KOONTZ’S THE HUSBAND
Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikannya secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis.
Demikian surat pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Yogyakarta, 25 September 2009 Yang menyatakan Berlina Budi Utami 051214093
Utami, Berlina Budi. (2009). The Influence of Parents’ Abuse on Anson’s
Personality Development as Seen in Dean Koontz’s The Husband. Yogyakarta:
English Language Education Study Program, Department of Language and Arts Education, Faculty of Teachers Training and Education, Sanata Dharma University.
This study is concerned with the influence of the abusive parents on the minor character in Dean Koontz novel entitled The Husband. The abuses which happen to Anson have shaped his personality development into adulthood. This novel contains many meaningful lessons of life. Moreover, it is interesting to discuss the influence of parents’ abuse on children because it can give some information both to children and parents. Therefore, child abuse can be prevented and reduced.
There are three problems analyzed in this study: (1) How is Anson described in Dean Koontz’s The Husband? (2) What kinds of abuses does Anson experience in Dean Koontz’s The Husband ? (3) What are the influence and the effect of Anson parents’ abuse to Anson’s personality development?
This study used psychological approach in order to analyze child abuse and Anson’s personality development. Library study was also applied in this study. This study used two main sources. The primary source is a novel The Husband written by Dean Koontz. The secondary sources are some books and internet sources related to child abuse and personality development. This study used theory of character and characterization, theory of abuse and theory of personality to answer those problems formulation.
After analyzing the novel, there are three points that can be concluded. First, Anson is described as a person who has round character. He is obedient, smart, kind, masculine and ambitious. Second, there are two kinds of abuses which happen to Anson, namely physical and psychological abuse. Third, parents’ abuses influence Anson’s personality development. The abuses which have happened to him change him to be more ambitious and leave psychological scars on Anson’s life. Abuses happen to him affect his ambition to get the freedom. It makes him evil, arrogant, self-loving, and self-pitying. Moreover, he brings his heart to kill his parents to take revenge the bad treatment in his childhood.
This study is expected to add some information for the future researches who analyze the same novel or topic. Besides, this study is suggested for English teacher. This novel is proposed for the implementation of literary works in teaching learning activity, as one of materials to teach Intensive Reading I in English Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University. Keywords: character, personality, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and psychological approach.
Utami, Berlina Budi. (2009). The Influence of Parents’ Abuse on Anson’s
Personality Development as Seen in Dean Koontz’s The Husband. Yogyakarta:
Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan, Universitas Sanata Dharma.
Studi ini menganalisa pengaruh kekerasan dari orangtua pada tokoh pendukung dalam novel The Husband karya Dean Koontz. Kekerasan yang terjadi pada Anson membentuk perkembangan kepribadian ketika dewasa. Novel ini mempunyai banyak pelajaran hidup yang berarti. Selain itu, pengaruh dari kekerasan orangtua pada perkembangan kepribadian, menarik untuk dibahas karena bisa memberi informasi bagi anak-anak dan orangtua. Sehingga kekerasan pada anak dapat dicegah dan dikurangi.
Ada tiga pokok bahasan yang dibahas dalam studi ini : (1) Bagaimana Anson dideskripsikan dalam The Husband karya Dean Koontz? (2) Jenis kekerasan apa saja yang dialami oleh Anson dalam The Husband karya Dean Koontz? (3) Apa pengaruh dan dampak kekerasan dari orangtua pada perkembangan kepribadian Anson?
Studi ini menggunakan pendekatan psikologi untuk menganalisa kekerasan orangtua dan perkembangan kepribadian Anson. Studi pustaka juga diterapkan dalam studi ini. Studi ini menggunakan dua sumber. Sumber utama adalah novel The Husband karya Dean Koontz. Sumber pendukung adalah buku-buku dan sumber internet yang terkait dengan kekerasan anak dan perkembangan kepribadian. Untuk menjawab permasalahan-permasalahan diatas, studi ini menggunakan teori karakter, teori kekerasan, dan teori kepribadian.
Setelah menganalisa novel tersebut, ada tiga hal yang bisa disimpulkan. Pertama, Anson dideskripsikan sebagai tokoh bulat. Dia patuh, pintar, baik, maskulin dan ambisius. Kedua, ada dua jenis kekerasan yang terjadi pada Anson yaitu kekerasan fisik dan psikologi. Ketiga, kekerasan dari orangtua mempengaruhi perkembangan kepribadian Anson. Kekerasan yang dialami Anson merubahnya menjadi lebih ambisius dan meninggalkan bekas luka psikologis dalam kehidupan Anson. Kekerasan yang terjadi pada masa kecilnya mempengaruhi ambisinya untuk mendapatkan kebebasan. Hal ini membuatnya jahat, angkuh, cinta diri, dan mengasihi diri. Bahkan, dia tega membunuh orangtuanya sebagai balas dendam atas perlakuan buruk mereka pada masa kecilnya.
Studi ini diharapkan bisa menambah informasi bagi peneliti-peneliti berikutnya yang menganalisa novel atau topik yang sama. Disamping itu, novel ini diusulkan sebagai penerapan karya sastra dalam kegiatan pembelajaran sebagai salah satu bahan untuk mengajar Intensive Reading I di Program Studi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Kata kunci: karakter, kepribadian, kekerasan fisik, kekerasan psikologis, dan
I would like to express my greatest gratitude to my savior, Jesus Christ. His unlimited love and his sacrifice are the best gift in my life. I could accomplish my thesis because of His blessing and grace. Thanks for His chance that I could finish it.
My deepest appreciation goes to my major sponsor, V. Tripihatmini, S.Pd.,
M.Hum., M.A. who has guided and helped me in giving suggestion, correction,
feedback, and advice. I thank her for devoting her time and her effort to improve my thesis.
My gratitude goes to all lecturers and PBI staff. They have given me a chance to study and guided me until the end of my study in Sanata Dharma University.
My sincere gratitude goes to my beloved parents FX. Suyoto and Sayekti, my sister Atin Kristiyaningrum and my brother in-law Wisnu Widjajayanto who always support and love me. I also give my gratitude to Handita Adhi who always gives me love, prayer, and motivation.
My special gratitude goes to Rindang Kurniasari, Room Mawardi
Yohanes, Nancy Paula, Patrice, Chandra, and Andreas Aris Ardianto who have
helped me in giving suggestion and correction to my thesis. My next gratitude goes to my friends, Gregoria Antris Dewanti and Arum Kusumawardhani for their kindness and beautiful smile for me.
I would like to express my appreciation to my classmates Gregoria Mayang
Dwiandhesti, Andreas Indra Pangarsa, Yb Agung, Anasthasia Erlita Putri,
Maria Stefani Taju, Koko Adityanto, and all managers in Golden Compass
Rinanti Nur Oktapuri, Dinar Ratnasari, Kris Widiastoto, and Intan who have
taught me about friendship, loyalty, and team work. My gratitude also goes to Dedy Agung Kris who always supports and cares to me.
I would like to express my gratitude to all people who have helped me in accomplishing my thesis.
Berlina Budi Utami
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page TITLE PAGE ..……………………………………………………………... i
APPROVAL PAGES ………………………………………………………. ii STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY …………………………… iv
PAGE OF DEDICATION …………………………………………………. v
LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI
UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS ……………….……………………. vi
ABSTRACT ……………………..…………………………………………. vii
ABSTRAK ….………………………………………………………………… viii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……….……………………………………….. ix TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………... ... xi LIST OF APPENDICES ………...………………………………………… xiv
CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ………………………………... 1 B. Problem Formulation ………….…………………...…….. 6 C. Objectives of the Study …………………………..………. 6 D. Benefits of the Study ……………………………………… 7 E. Definition of Terms ….…………………………………… 8
CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Review of Related Theories…………….…………….... 10
1. Critical Approach……………………………...... 10 2. Theory Character and Characterization…………..
3. Kinds of Abuses………………………………… 16
4. Theory of Personality ……………………………
21 B. Theoretical Framework………………………………….. 27
CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study ………..………………………………. 29 B. Approach of the Study……………………………………. 30 C. Method of the Study ………………………………………. 31 CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS A. The Personality of Anson…………………………………... 33
1. Obedient ……………………………………………… 34
2. Smart ……………………………………………..….. 35
3. Kind ….. ……..………………………………………. 37
4. Masculine …………………………………………….. 38
5. Ambitious.…………………………………………….. 39 6. Hard Worker ……...…………………………………...
B. The Abuses of Anson’s Parents …………………………... 40
1. The Background of Anson’s Parents Abuse Him…… 41 2. The Kinds of the Parental Abuse toward Anson……..
43 C. The Influence of Child Abuse to Anson’s Personality Development…………………………………...
1. Anson’s Personality Development……………………… 50
2. The Factors Influence Anson’s Personality Development ……………………………......... 58
CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions …………………………………………………. 60 B. Suggestions
1. Suggestion to Future Researchers ……………………… 63
2. Suggestion for Teaching Intensive Reading I Using Literary Work ……………………………….......... 64
REFERENCES ……………….………………………………………................. 66 APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………… 68
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 Cover of The Husband …………………………………… 68 APPENDIX 2 Summary of The Husband ………………………………. 69 APPENDIX 3 Biography of Dean Koontz ……………………………… 72 APPENDIX 4 Lesson Plan for Teaching Intensive Reading I ……………. 74 APPENDIX 5 Learning Material for Teaching Intensive Reading I ……… 77 APPENDIX 6 Reading Passage …………………………………………… 79
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter consists of five parts. First, the background of the study
discusses the important topic. Second, the problem formulation mentions the main problems that will be analyzed. Third, the objectives of the study explain the aims of this study. The next part is the benefits of the study. The last part is the definition of terms. It describes several terms significantly related to the topic of this study.
A. Background of the Study There are many problems related to the children personality development.
Abuse is one of problems which often happens to children. It can happen in a family, especially in the process of rearing child. According to Crosson Cynthia and Tower, “the parents-child relationship, they contend, is the basis on which a child’s emotional growth depends. Only when parents fail to nurture that child’s growth in the most minimal way should intervention be considered” (40).
In the family, especially in early age, children build their self-concepts. In this period, they begin to build their character, emotion, and further to develop personality. The children build their personality by grasping the information and knowledge around them and put it in their mind. If the information has a good value, usually their concept of life and the personality development will be good. However, if the children put the bad experience in their mind, it will usually build bad personality development in their adulthood.
According to Craig, “two of the strongest influences on a child’s personality development arise from his relationships with siblings, peers and from his parents’ attitudes toward child-rearing” (394). Therefore, child’s experience is one of factors which can influence personality development. Parental abuse is one of children problems which can be found around us. The example of parental abuse is parents who ask their children with rude words and they sometimes force their children to follow parents’ instruction or parents’ expectation. Therefore, children lose their freedom to build their own imagination and to enjoy their childhood.
The story of the novel is usually the reflection of human life . Therefore, the atmosphere and the plot of the story in the novel are created as natural as possible. The problems in the novel are also close with the human life. The phenomenon about child’s problems especially abuse also happens in Indonesia.
Lombok is one of beautiful islands in Indonesia. Behind its beauty, it hides the issue of child abuse. Melati (not her real name), eight years old, lives there with her family. One day her mother notices that Melati does not walk correctly and bringing her to the health clinic. The doctors find that she is bleeding, and after an internal exam, it becomes clear that she has been sexually abused (http://indonesiabuse.html). Abuse, which happens to Melati, is only one of the examples of child abuse done by adult. This case indicates that child abuse can happen every time and everywhere, therefore this case needs more attention and prevention.
Sexual abuse, which happens to Melati, is only one of examples of the kinds of child abuses. The kinds of child abuses and the effects should be known in order to decrease and solve the problem of child abuse gradually . There are many kinds of child abuses. Those are physical, emotional or psychological abuse, and sexual abuse. Some factors can change the personality and this study concerns to examine parents’ abuse as one of the factors which can change the personality as seen in Dean Koontz’s The Husband.
This study will discuss about parents’ abuse which happens to Anson in Dean Koontz’s The Husband. Koontz is one of America’s authors of thrillers and The Husband is one of the fiction novels written by him. Generally, this novel tells about love, criminals and thriller which happen to Holly, Mitch Rafferty’s wife, the main character of this novel. However, this study will concern about Anson’s abuse experience in the childhood which has relationship with Anson personality development and the cause of kidnap case happened to Mitch, Anson’s brother and Holly.
Anson is the oldest child of his siblings. He has one brother named Mitch, twenty eight and three sisters named Connie, thirty one , Megan, twenty nine, who has highest IQ, and Portia, the youngest sister. His parents, Dr. Daniel and Katherine Rafferty are both doctors of behavioral psychology at UCI (University of California Irvine-ed). His father always emphasizes about self-sufficient. His parents use learning room as a tool for child rearing. The parents use learning room to isolate them from the society. It is like a home schooling, but it is stricter. As a mother, Kathy has no firm opinions in the rearing child. However, she wants to prove the method used by her husband. In other words, Anson’s parents use their children for their experiment of learning room in the rearing child.
Daniel and Kathy also ask Anson to play the shame game. He should be naked twenty-four hours for seven days while his families remain clothed. His parents make him not have sensibility and shame . It appears in the novel that the parents think that modesty is related to diffidence, and diffidence is related to shyness. Shyness is a synonym for timidity. Anson is clever. Anson’s score is always close to Megan’s score. However, he feels so depressed, he does not like the child-rearing system applied by his parents.
According to his parents’ opinion, fantasy is a doorway to superstition. Therefore, his parents never permit him to read fairy tale. Anson dreams of one day owning a sailing yacht. Anson begins to dream of sailing because his parents suffer motion sickness and aversion to the sea. He wants to free himself from his parents and he thinks that the sea is the place in which he can get his freedom and no one can drive him. As the oldest, Anson always tries to give motivation to his siblings through the childhood.
His parents always force him to have confidence and to follow their expectation, because he is the oldest child in his family. The parents expect that Anson can give good example to his siblings. However, in adult, his personality has changed. His ambition to get his freedom influences him to do such kind of criminality. The worst action is that he drops the dime on his own brother just to prove he that is the hardest and strongest and brings his heart to kill his parents. He takes revenge for bad treatment of parents’ abuse in his childhood.
The writer chooses this novel because there are many aspects which can be dug out. This novel does not only tell about love and criminal conflicts but also tells that childhood experience can effect the personality development. The parental abuse is described in this novel especially which happens to Anson. In the novel, he is described as a character who has been abused by his parents in his childhood. Child abuse is not always physical or sexual abuse but it can be physical abuse, which is followed by psychological abuse, as seen in Anson’s experience. In his childhood, he is an obedient child. Anson always tries to fulfill his parents’ expectation. He becomes parents’ favorite son because of his achievement. However, his personality has changed. He does everything to reach his dream. He collects a lot of money and even does such kind of criminality to be free from his parents. Referring to Anson’s experience, this study focuses on Anson’s character described in the story, the kinds of abuses happen to him, and the influence of parents’ abuse to Anson’s personality development.
The phenomenon about parental abuse and its effects are the interesting topics to be analyzed. These topics are closer with our life and often happen to the children. One possible reason why children behave or have bad personality is their experiences which happened in their childhood especially in early year, as stated by Craig above. In the early year, children begin to build self-concept. Some children are happy with their childhood. However, the others who have bad experience during their childhood do not feel happy, as happens to Anson, one of minor characters in Dean Koontz’s The Husband.
As one of students of English Education Study Program, who concerns about children and education, the writer wants to know about parents’ abuse and its effects for children personality development in order to protect the children and avoid parents’ abuse to happen. The writer tries to discuss this novel from psychological aspect.
B. Problem Formulation
Related to the background of the study, this study is going to answer three problems. Those are:
1. How is Anson described in Dean Koontz’s The Husband?
2. What kinds of abuses does Anson experience in Dean Koontz’s The
Husband ? 3.
What are the influence and the effect of Anson parents’ abuse to Anson’s personality development?
C. Objectives of the Study
This part states the purpose of the study undertaken in relation to the research questions. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective is to describe Anson’s character in the novel, the second is to find out the kinds of abuses which influence to Anson. The third one is to know the influence and the effect of parents’ abuse done by his parents to Anson’s personality development.
Having found the answer of those problems, this study is expected to give the information about child abuse to the readers of this thesis. Therefore, the child abuse can be prevented and can be solved.
D. Benefits of the Study
There are four benefits of this study. They are for the English Education Study Program in Sanata Dharma University, for the other researchers, for the readers, and for the writer. The first is for the English Education Study Program in Sanata Dharma University. This study is expected to describe the Anson’s personality in the novel clearly and to implement literary work such as novel in teaching learning activity like in Intensive Reading I.
The second is for the other researchers, especially the students of English Education Study Program. By reading this thesis, the students will find out the types and the influence of abuses as seen in Dean Koontz’s The Husband. Further, this study can be used as the reference for the researchers who will analyze the same topic or same novel. This study is expected to add some information for the next researches.
The third is for the readers of this thesis. Generally, this study aims to give some information about abuses and know the effects of parents’ abuse to the children personality development. The last is for the writer. This novel inspires some lessons of life and enriches the writer about the information related to parents’ abuse so that child abuse can be avoided.
E. Definition of Terms
This part presents several terms and the definitions dealt with what the writer needs to discuss in this thesis. The aim of this part is to avoid misconception and misinterpretation. Those terms are:
According to Horace B. English and Champney English, “influence is part-cause of an event or condition that which has effect on an even” (108). In this study, the word “influence” refers to the Anson’s experience in his childhood which causes his bad personality development.
According to Crosson and Tower, “Abuse refers to the use or treatment of something (a person, item, substance, concept, or vocabulary) that is harmful” (10). In this study, abuse is focused on physical and psychological abuse done by Anson’s parents.
Allport as cited in Hurlock states that Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical system that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of people. Personality types are distinguished from personality traits, which come in different levels or degree (462).
Ernest R. Hilgard states “Personality is the characteristic patterns of behavior and modes of thinking that determine a person’s adjustment to the environment” (383). In this study, the word “personality” refers to the Anson’s characterization in the novel as the result of his early year experience factor
According to Horace B. English and Champney English, “effect is a phenomenon or event that in variably follows a certain other phenomenon and never occurs except in such sequence” (170). In this study, the word “effect” refers to the result of the rearing method applied by Anson’s parents to Anson’s personality development.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter is divided into two main divisions. The first part is the review
of related theories. These are the theories which are relevant with the study. The second one is theoretical framework. It explains the contribution on each theory in solving the problems.
A. Review of Related Theories
The review of related theories consists of the theory of literary approach, theory of character and characterization, theory of abuse, and theory of personality. The review of related theories reviews the theories applied in conducting the study.
1. Critical Approach
According to Rohrberger and Woods the critical approach is divided into five approaches to analyze a work of literature. Those are “formalist approach, biographical approach, sociocultural-historical approach, mythopoeic approach, psychological approach” (6). The first one is the formalist approach, “this approach concerns with demonstrating the harmonious involvement of all the parts to the whole and with pointing out how meaning is derived from structure and how matters of technique determine structure” (6). The formalist approach is
11 not necessary to study the author’s life, the social background and the psychological aspects, or any sources related to the work.
The second approach is the biographical approach, “this approach asserts the necessity for an appreciation of the ideas and personality of the author to an understanding of the literary object” (8). Therefore, it puts an emphasize on the author’s life and background to get a good understanding about literary works because sometimes the literary work produced by the authors is based on their life experiences. However, the reader cannot judge any moral value of the writing based on the life of the writer.
The third one is the sociocultural-historical approach, “it investigates the social milieu in which a work was created and which it necessarily reflects” (9).
Establishing the validity of the text is evidence to support the readers in analyzing a work of literature. Literary works can be a portrait of events at a certain moment in time.
The fourth one is the mythopoeic approach, “it seeks to discover certain universally recurrent pattern of human thought, which they believe find expression in significant works of art” (11). The universally recurrent patterns are those that found first expression in an ancient myths and folk rites. Those are very basic to human thought that they have meaning for all men.
The last one is psychological approach. It involves the effort to locate and to demonstrate certain recurrent patterns. It draws on a different body of knowledge, “one of the most powerful of the conflicts arising from the interplay of parts of the personality occurs early in childhood” (13).
12 Atkinson states that psychoanalytic theories explore the private personality; the unconscious motives that direct behavior, “psychoanalytic theory is also concerned with the way in which personality develops” (395). Both Woods and Atkinson have the similar idea about psychological approach. They emphasize the way personality develops. Since the topics in this study, character, abuse, and personality are parts of psychological knowledge, psychological approach is the proper approach as a base in analyzing this study.
2. Character and Characterization
a. Definition of Character and Characterization
According to Abrams, character can be defined in two. First, “character is the name of literary genre” (23). It usually draws as a short and amusing in prose of a distinctive type of person. Second, “character is the person presented in dramatic of narrative work”(23). This character is interpreted by the reader as being gifted with moral, dispositional and emotional qualities. Those are expressed in what they say the dialogue and by what they do the action. In this study, the second definition is the appropriate definition to define the character of the novel.
Rohrberger and Woods state, “character involves person who acts out in a particular time and place some kind of conflict in a pattern of event” (20). This study needs theory of character because characters have particular personalities and physical attributes that distinguish them from other characters. The process by which an author creates a character in the story is called characterization.
13 According to Abcarian and Klotz, “characterization is the process by which the character is rendered to make them seem real to the reader” (6).
Murphy states “characters and personality are conveyed to the readers to make them understand” (161). Both Abcarian and Murphy have similar idea to conclude the character and characterization in the story. Both of them aim to make the readers understand each character appears in the story. This theory can be used to analyze Anson’s character in Dean Koontz’s The Husband.
b. Types of Characters
Forster, as quoted in Abram’s, divides character in two parts. They are flat and round characters. “A flat character is presented without much individualizing detail and can be fairly adequately described in a single phrase or sentence” (24). A round character is complex in temperament and motivation is represented with subtle particularity. Guth and Rico states, “A flat character is a one-dimensional character, which has a one-tract personality” (70). Flat character is simpler than round character, because a round character has a combination of traits. This character usually undergoes changes in some aspects.
Murphy states that there are nine ways, in which an author attempts to make each character in the story understandable and come alive for the readers.
Those are personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, conversation of others, reaction, direct comment, thought, and mannerism. First is personal description, “the author can describe a person’s appearance and clothes” (161). This way describes the character from the body. It gives the detail
14 information to the readers about the appearance such as hair, scar, and skin.
Therefore, the readers are helped to imagine the character which is pictured in the novel from the body or appearance.
The second is character as seen by another. Instead of describing a character directly, “the author can describe him through the eyes and opinions of another” (162). The author describes one character from another character’s opinion. It describes the impression of one character to the other. In this method, the readers are helped to understand the character in the story from another’s point of view.
The third is speech, “the author can give us an insight into the character of one of the person in the book through what that person’s says” (164). How the person says in the novel can be used as a clue to know the character. The way the person gives opinion can be used to know the character, as seen from their diction to deliver the message or information and how they give comment or suggestion.
The fourth is past life. “by letting the readers learn something about person’s past life, the author can give us a clue to events that have helped to shape a person’s character” (166). The person’s character can be seen from the past life. What happened in the past life and how the past life may influence in building the character. Therefore, the readers can conclude the person’s character from the person’s background in the past.
The fifth is conversation of others, “the author can also give us clues to a person’s character through the conversations of other people and the things they say about him” (167). The attempt to know about person’s character does not
15 always come directly from the author. It can be concluded from the conversation, how people give opinion to someone.
The sixth is reaction. The author can also give us a clue to a person’s character by letting us know how that person reacts to the various situations and events. The people’s character can be seen from not only how they speak but also how they react to something. The reaction indicates their quality, because what they react is the reflection of their mind. The readers can know the person’s character from their reaction.
The seventh is direct comment. “the author can describe or comment on a person’s character directly” (170). The author directly helps the readers to know the character in the novel by giving the information and clue about the person’s character. The author describes each character in the story so that the readers can imagine the description of the character in the way.
The next way is thought, “the author can give us direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about” (171). What the character thinks is the clue of forming the character. Therefore, by knowing the person’s thought the readers can decide his character in the story. The last method is mannerism, “the author can describe a person’s mannerisms, habits or idiosyncrasies which may also tell us something about his character” (173). What the person usually does can reflect his character, for example someone’s character who loves jazz music may be different from the one who loves rock music. Therefore, mannerism can be used to identify the character in the story. Those methods above are the attempts to analyze the character which is described by the author of the story. In this study, those ways
16 can be used in understanding and analyzing Anson’s character in Dean Koontz’s The Husband.
3. Kinds of Abuses
According to Pritchard Colin, there are three kinds of abuses. Those are “physical, emotional or psychological, and sexual abuse” (11). In child abuse cases, there are two main factors those are the abuse and abuser, and the impact of child abuse. Theory of abuse is needed to describe the kinds of abuses and the abuser and the influence of abuse. This theory is needed to identify and categorize the kinds of abuse which happen to Anson.
a. Physical Abuse
Physical abuse is the most obvious abuse, which can be detected and observed. Physical abuse often leaves scar, therefore it is easier to be recorded.
According to there are many forms of physical abuse, such as “frequent or severe hitting, slapping, beating, shaking, punching, kicking” (12)
Crosson and Tower states, “the cause of physical abuse can be categorized in three. Those are the psychodynamic or character-trait models, the interactional models, and the environmental/ sociological/ culturally based models” (97). First is the psychodynamic or character-trait models, both of them attribute the abuse to characteristics of the abusive parents. Second is the interactional models. It considers how the interactions between the victim and the abuser or the dynamics within the family gives rise to an abusive situation. The third is the environmental/
17 sociological/ culturally based models, which focus on the part that the milieu, and stressors within the milieu, plays in the abuse.
Physical abuse is the easiest abuse to be observed and to be taken action to against, because it usually leaves scars. It causes damages and injures the body.
Sometimes in some cases of abuse, discipline is often used as the reason to give punishment. The frequent punishment such as hitting, kicking, or slapping can be categorized as physical abuse because the aim is not to make the children discipline but more to make the children trauma. The punishment which related to body or a treatment which limits the space to move and develop his body can be categorized as physical abuse. The traumatic experience happens to the victim leaves indelible memory. Therefore, in some cases physical abuse has related to the psychological abuse.
b. Psychological Abuse
Garbino et al. as cited in Pritchard Colin states, “the presence of one of these types of emotional abuse is sufficient to cause long-term psychological harm if it is profound and repeated in nature” (12). Psychological abuse is difficult to be observed because it is related to the emotion inside. It cannot be seen physically.
However, sometimes it relates to physical abuse too, if the physical abuse gives long traumatic to the victim.
There are some treatments which can be categorized as psychological abuse “Threats to injure or kill; constant sneering/sarcasm or belittling; throwing
18 away or destroying toys; forbidden to speak or play; scapegoating; favoritism to
siblings; locked in room or confined space” Crosson states, “Emotional or psychological maltreatment underlies all types or neglect” (216). Psychological abuse is more difficult to observe than physical or sexual abuse. Therefore, it is unnoticed or untreated. The effect of emotional abuse can be detected if the victim shares or if the victim demonstrates behavior problems such as anger, depression or maladjustment. Garbarino as cited in Cynthia Crosson and Tower states that today psychological is not an inaccessible event, but rather a pattern of physically destructive behavior that may include rejecting, isolating, terrorizing, ignoring, and corrupting (216)
First is rejecting. When the adult refuses to acknowledge the child’s worth or the legitimacy of the child’s need is the kind of rejecting. Second is isolating.
Isolating is one of the patterns of physical destructive, which can cause psychological abuse. It happens when the adult isolates the child from normal social experiences, prevents the child from forming friendships and makes the child believes that he or she is alone in the world.
Third is terrorizing. It happens when the adult verbally assaults the child, creates a climate of fear, bullies and frightens the child. It makes the child believes that the world is hostile and unsafe. It can make the children afraid and even traumatic. Fourth is ignoring. This is the physical behavior which can make the child feels desperate because of parents’ carelessness. It can happen when the adult blocks the child from having prompt, stifling emotional growth and intellectual development. The last is corrupting. The adult encourages the child to
19 connect in destructive and antisocial behavior, reinforces the deviance and makes the child weak for normal social experience.
Psychologically, this abuse implies rejection or in some manners impedes the development of a child’s positive self-concept. There are some factors which can be the roots of psychological maltreatment. Psychological abuse is difficult to prove or document and thus may go unnoticed because there are many factors, which can influence this abuse.
The children who are abused in their family especially by their parents or adult usually give some reactions and effects especially in their behavior and personality. Children who are abused usually feel that they are isolated, inadequate, unwanted, moreover unloved and face maladjustment.
Crosson Cynthia and Tower state “The children respond to such messages in one of two ways: they fight back, becoming hostile, aggressive, and exhibit behavior problems, or they run their anger inward, becoming self-destructive, depressed, withdrawn, or suicidal” (219). This study focuses on the influence of child abuse on Anson’s experience, which influences his emotion and behavior. Psychological abuse concerns an abuse, which is characterized by a person subjecting or exposing another to behavior. It is psychologically harmful.
O’Hagan cited in Pritchard defines, Psychological abuse as the sustained, repetitive, inappropriate behavior which damages, or substantially reduces, the creative and developmental potential of crucially important mental faculties and mental process of a child; these include intelligence, memory, recognition, perception, attention and moral development (15).
20 Psychological abuse is one of abuses which happens to Anson. His parents do such kinds repetitive and inappropriate behavior which limit his imagination and influence personality development.
c. Sexual Abuse
According to Pritchard Colin there are some actions which are considered as sexual abuse. Those are “interference with and needless touching of child’s genitalia, forcing child to view or touch or sexually manipulate adult, penetration attempted or achieved of genital or anal area, showing or making pornography”
Crosson and Tower states, “sexual abuse refers to the use of a child for the sexual gratification of an adult” (124). There are two types of sexual abuse. Those are intrafamilial abuse and extrafamilial abuse. First is intrafamilial abuse, “it is sexual abuse by a blood relative”(124). They are part of the child’s nuclear family.
It may also encompass members of a child’s extended family such as uncles, aunts, grandfathers, and cousins. The second is extrafamilial abuse. Extrafamilial abuse is done by someone outside of the child’s family.
Every abuse happens to children will give effect. Sexual abuse is one of abuses which often happens to the children. According to Pritchard, sexual abuse gives some effects such as “impaired self-esteem, chronic depression and suicidality, anxiety phobias and post-traumatic stress, runaway and acting-out behavior, sexual terror, sexual promiscuity, eating disorders and various psychosomatic” (20).
4. Theory of Personality
a. Definition of Personality
According to Davidoff , “personality is a summary construct that includes thoughts, motives, emotions, interests, attitudes, abilities and the like” (443).
However, Hjelle states, “a personality theory is descriptive in that it serves to organize human behavior systematically to render it intelligible” (2). This theory provides a meaningful framework for simplifying and integrating all that is known about a related set of events. In this study, theory of personality is needed to understand the meaning of individual differences and to know how personality changes or develops.
As quoted in Atkinson, Freud divides personality structure in three. Those are “Id, Ego, and Superego” (395). The Id consists of the basic biological impulses: the need to eat, drink, eliminate waste, avoid pain and gain sexual pleasure. Unreasoning and irrational are the Id characteristic. A newborn baby is the example of pure Id. The Ego develops as the young child learns to consider the demands of reality. The Ego obeys the reality principles: the gratification of impulses must be delayed until the appropriate environmental conditions are found. The Ego handles the realities of as situation. The Superego is the internalized representation of the value and morals of society as taught to the child by the parents and others. The Superego judges whether an action is right or wrong.
As quoted in Davidoff, Freud says, “in mature, adjusted individuals the Id, Ego and Superego are in balance, though the ego is in command” (445). Though
22 not completely accurate, a popular way of describing maladjustment is to say that adults who gratify all their desires have given in to the Id. People who satisfy none of their desires because of over concern with the reactions of society are dominated by the Ego. However, people who are driven by a Superego over, they lose control to have an insatiable conscience. The interaction of the Id, Ego and Superego are unconscious.
b. Personality Determinant
According to Hurlock there are twelve factors determining one’s personality. Those factors are “early experiences, cultural influences, physique, physical condition, intelligence, emotion, the child name, success and failure, social acceptance, status symbols, school influences, family influences” (471- 479).
The first factor is early experiences, “early childhood experiences and the memory of these experiences are highly influential because children leave an indelible impression on the child’s self-concept” (471). Parents have the main role when children build self-concept, because children spend much time in the family especially with their parents. Early childhood can influence the child’s self- concept, because in this period, the children try to grasp the information surround them.
The second factor is cultural influences, “in every culture, children are subjected to pressure to develop a personality pattern that will conform to the standards set by the culture” (472). Human being is the part of the culture, both of
23 them cannot be separated. Culture can influence the personality, because it forces children to adapt.
The third factor is physique. Directly it determines what the child can or cannot do. Indirectly, it determines how the child feels about his body. The physique can influence the children if they are aware that people regard it as ugly. This factor depends on how good the child can receive the body’s condition (fat, thin, tall, short, blonde, or dark).
The fourth factor is physical condition. This factor is similar with the physique one. Physical condition influences personality directly, like how a person acts or reacts to something. Indirectly, physical condition influences personality through the degree of satisfaction, as when a person compares his physical condition to others. Therefore, the indirect influence gives greater effect than the direct one, because it is hard for people to get satisfy.
The fifth factor is intelligence. It gives direct and indirect effect through human’s personality. Human’s intelligent influences personality directly through the kind of life adjustment the individual makes to the environment around them and himself. Intelligence indirectly gives effect when others make the judgment to someone’s intellectual achievements. Intelligent sometimes makes someone feels inferior if he is not confidence with what he has.
The sixth factor is emotion. The emotion determinant influences in functioning of physical and mental. It is related to the reaction of events which are faced. The seventh factor is the child’s name. It may influence the child who realizes how it affects the attitudes of significant people in his life. “If child’s
24 name elicits unfavorable, the treatment the children receives from others will be less pleasant, and, as a result, he will develop an unfavorable self-concept” (474).
The eighth factor is success and failure. How the child reacts to what he regards as his success and failures will influence his personal and social adjustments and affect his self-concept. The harmful of failure effects come from the child’s realization of the unfavorable evaluations of others as well as from his own self-evaluation. Success leads a good future adjustment. However, it cannot be assumed that the more success the child has, the more favorable the effects on his personality. The achievement can satisfy or not it depends on whether the person is judged as fail by others or only by himself. If the child can survive from his failure, he may become stronger but the opposite he may become more depressed.
The ninth factor is social acceptance. Any social group wants its member to meet its expectation as a standard whether or not the group can accept him.
Social judgment will be the basis for self-evaluation. Children who are accepted in the social group develop self-confidence and poise, by contrast children feel inferior. The tenth factor is status symbols. Status symbols influence one’s social acceptance. Children should be aware of the symbols that are valued by the group.
Directly or indirectly, it can damage child’s personality. Status symbol only affects in the group which judges from symbols of the family possess. The example of status symbol is cloth. Sometimes people judge others from their clothe, whether it is branded or not.
25 The next factor is school influences. In this case, a teacher has main role to students’ development. School is the first opportunity to assess their knowledge and to know the strengths and the weaknesses. However, how great the education institutions’ influences on personality development, is largely determined by the children’s attitudes toward schools and colleagues and toward the value of education. The chances of a child developing a healthy personality will be greatly increased if the teacher is a well-adjusted person.
The last factor is family influence. Family members are the most significant people in the child’s life during the years in which the foundations of his personality are being laid. Children often imitate what the parents or siblings speak and act. It will directly influence the children’s personality development.
However, indirect influence comes from family members who evaluate them. Family background is one of factors of personality development.
According to Berk, there are two dimensions of parenting behavior. Those are “control or demand, and responsiveness or child-centeredness” (605). The first is control or demand. The parents establish standards for what they expect of their children and insist that their youngsters meet those standards. The second dimension is responsiveness or child-centeredness. The parents responsive to their children, they often open discussion and verbal give-and-take. The contrast is they do not responsive to their children social initiatives.
Based on two dimensions above, the parents’ types can be divided into four combinations. Those are “authorative parents, authorian parents, permissive parents, and uninvolved parents” (606). The authorative parents are the parents
26 who control and demand their children. This type of parents has high expectation to their children. Therefore, they enforce the children by using commands and consequences for disobedience. They use a rational, democratic approach to rearing child in which the rights of both parents and children are respected.
The authoritarian parents also control and demand their children. However, they put the value of conformity and obedience that they are unresponsive. This type is biased in favor of parent’s needs, and the children get a little independent self-expression. The third type is permissive parents. They are communicative. However, they avoid asserting their authority of any kind. They are overly tolerant and permit children to make virtually all of their own decision. The last type is the uninvolved parents. This type gives little attention, because they are not only low in control and undemanding but also unresponsive. These differences in child rearing can be the factor of spurring abuse. Therefore, they should be careful in rearing the children because every child has different character. Those determinants are used to analyze how the personality is shaped. It can be concluded that personality determinant can be from others and ourselves and it depends on how the individual is proactive to such kind of situation.
c. Changes in Personality
According to Hurlock “the changes in personality classifies in three major categories; better versus worse, quantitative versus qualitative, slow versus rapid changes” (120–122). The first major category is better versus worse. Personality may change for the better when an individual is able to make adjustments of his
27 personality at the time. However, personality may change for the worse when human fails to make adjustments.
Second is quantitative versus qualitative. In quantitative changes, the characteristics that are already presented are strengthened or weakened. Those may create changes in personal self-concept, whether it is weakened or strengthened. A qualitative change replaces the desirable ones with the undesirable ones or vice versa. Third is slow versus rapid changes. Slow changes happen if a person is barely apparent, while rapid changes are readily apparent to all.
B. Theoretical Framework
The theories that have been stated are very helpful to answer the problem formulation and do the analysis in this study. The writer applies some theories and approach in this study. The writer uses theory of character and characterization to get a deeper understanding of the literary work. Besides, it is used to analyze the Anson’s character which is discussed in this study. Some methods to identify character and characterization proposed by Murphy are used to classify Anson’s character in Dean Koontz’s The Husband. The theory of personality is used to analyze Anson’s personality changes and know the factors of shaping personality.
This theory emphasizes the factors which can influence personality changes.
This study employs the kinds of abuses. It is used to analyze the kind of abuse and the effect of child abuse to Anson’s personality. The writer also uses
28 the psychological approach proposed by Rohrberger and Wood Jr. This approach is used to analyze the novel from psychological perspective.
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter consists of three main parts. The first part is object of the
study. It describes the work to be studied. It mentions briefly, what the work is about generally. The second part is the approach of the study. It presents the approach which is used to analyze the study. The third part is the method of the study. It describes the steps taken in analyzing to report data.
A. Object of the Study
This study analyzes a novel entitled The Husband. It was written by an American writer named Dean Koontz. This novel was published by Bantam Dell, A Division of Random House, Inc. New York, in January 2006. This novel consists of 68 chapters with 415 pages. This book is published in 38 languages.
Dean Koontz’s The Husband is the story of love and thriller.
Generally, this novel tells about the husband, named Mitch Rafferty who tries to save his wife, Holly from the kidnappers. The kidnappers ask Mitch to meet his brother named Anson Rafferty to get the ransom. Mitch always thinks that his brother is a kind person, because in their childhood, Anson always helps and protects his siblings. At the first time, Anson offers to give Mitch the two million dollars ransom amount and promises to save both Holly and Mitch. Then they go to Julian Campbell’s residence, Campbell is Anson’s friend. After arriving at Julian's huge estate, Anson pulls a gun on Mitch. He tells that he will
30 not give the ransom to save neither Mitch nor Holly. Mitch surprises knowing the fact that Anson has trapped him.
Holly is being kidnapped because of Anson. Anson also tries to trap Mitch. He kills his parents by using Mitch’s gardening tools, so that the police think that Mitch is the person who plans this criminality. His ambition makes him do such kind of criminality. He traps his own brother just to prove that he is the hardest and strongest. Anson can deceive many people for a long time. Anson who has been believed as a kind, successful, and low profile person is not more than a bad guy who brings the heart to kill the parents to take revenge for bad treatment in his childhood.
Anson, Mitch and three sisters, Connie, Megan and Portia have had an unusual upbringing. Anson has been brought up to be self-sufficient, depended on no deity and does not have moral code. Daniel and Katherine Rafferty use learning room to educate their children. They make their children to follow their expectation and inhibit children freedom. This kind of rearing child is the kind of psychological abuse and this study focuses on the influence of parents’ abuse on Anson’s personality development.
B. Approach of the Study
This study focuses on three parts. Those are character, parents’ abuse, and personality development. This study needs an approach, which explores them.
Therefore, psychological approach is needed because all of them are part of psychological studies. Psychoanalytic theory also concerns with the way in which
31 personality develops. The approach used in this study is psychological approach, proposed by Rohrberger and Woods, Jr (13-15). Using the psychological approach means that the writer used the psychological theories to analyze the work of literature.
Literature and psychology have close relationship. The problems in the literary work are usually the reflection of human life and some of human’s problems can be identified by using theory of psychology. Therefore, this study is using psychoanalysis to analyze Anson’s personality.
C. Method of the Study
This study was conducted by applying library study. The primary data of this study is The Husband, written by Dean Koontz (2006). There were also some secondary sources. Those were some other sources to support the primary data. The secondary sources were obtained from the books related to the character, child abuse, and personality.
Some of the books were taken from Abcarian’s Literature Reading and Writing The Human Experience Seventh Edition, Abram’s Glossary of Literary Terms, Murphy’s Understanding Unseens: An Introduction to English Poetry and English Novel for Overseas Students. Hurlock’s Child Development, Crosson’s Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect, and Pritchard’s The Child Abusers Research and Controversy. The writer also used Reading and Writing About Literature which was related to the psychology and psychoanalysis proposed by Rohrberger and wood Jr. The secondary sources were not only taken from the
32 books, but it was also taken from internet. It was used to complete the information related to the study.
There were some steps in analyzing this novel. The first step to start this study was reading for several times to gain better understanding of the content of the story, in order to get some ideas to choose the topic for the study. After getting the proper idea, the second step was determining the problem formulation, which was appropriate, related to the topic and then consulting it with the sponsor. After choosing and deciding the topic and problem formulation, the third step was trying to find out the literature books, internet sources, and some theories which related to the study.
The fourth step was determining the approach which would be used to analyze the data. In this study, psychological approach was chosen as the basic approach. Fifth step was applying the theories and analyzing the data in order to find out the answer of the problems formulation. The last step was reporting the result and giving conclusion so that it would be useful for the future researchers.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter presents the analysis of the novel to find out the answer of the
problems formulation mentioned in the first chapter. The first analysis deals with the personality of Anson. The second one is the types Anson’s parents abuses to him. The last is the analysis of the influence of child abuse to Anson’s personality development. Those problems formulation will be answered by using the theories presented in the chapter two.
A. The Personality of Anson
Personality in the story is needed to make the readers understand so that they can differentiate between one character to the others. This study uses theory of character because characters have particular personalities and physical attributes that distinguish them from other characters. Character and personality have the same idea to describe a person in a story.
Character can be categorized in various types. Forster, as quoted in Abram (25), divides character in two parts. They are flat and round characters. Flat character has simpler description than round character. Flat character does not need detail information, however round character has combination characters, which come from many aspects from both inside and outside of the individual.
According to this theory, in Koontz’s The Husband, Anson is categorized as the round character because in this story, Anson’s personality has changed from better to worse. His personality is described as a warm and kind individual in the childhood. However, bad treatment in the childhood has influenced his personality development.
The child rearing method applied in the childhood has destructed him in building self-concept. Murphy states that there are nine ways, in which an author attempts to make each character in the story understandable and come alive for the readers. Those are “personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, conversation of others, reaction, direct comment, thought, mannerism” (161-173). Referring to those methods proposed by Murphy, Anson character in Dean Koontz’s The Husband can be analyzed. The writer is not using all those methods, because there are some methods, which are not appropriate to characterize Anson’s character. The writer applies personal description, character as seen by another, speech, past life, reaction, and direct comment to portray Anson character in Dean Koontz’s The Husband.
1. Obedient In childhood, Anson is the most dutiful child to his parents than his siblings. Therefore, his parents are always proud of him. He is the only one who can prove that rearing-child’s method applied by his parents has fruit success. As the oldest brother he is regarded to give good example to his siblings.
Anson, Mitch’s only brother, at thirty-three the oldest of the siblings, was the most dutiful to Daniel and Kathy. In fairness to Mitch and his sisters, Anson had long been his parents’ favorite, and he had never been rebuffed…. (111)
The author gives direct comment to Anson’s character. He describes Anson as the oldest brother who is the most dutiful child to his parents. The author gives information about Anson’s childhood to build Anson’s personality
Anson always tries to fulfill what his parents expect. He has never against his parents. His parents’ opinion is that the method, which they used to rear the children, is proved as the good method. Anson has never made his parents disappointed to him. “in fairness to Anson, he had earned his status by fulfilling his parents’ expectation. He had proved, as had none of the others, that Daniel’s child-rearing theories could bear fruit” (111).
Compared with his siblings, Anson is described as good son who can make his parents proud of him. He has showed to his parents that he can fulfill their expectation. Moreover, according to his parents, Anson has proved the theories used by his parents give good achievement.
Anson Rafferty is portrayed as a smart student. He is not only intelligent in science but he is also good in physical intelligent. He is a star in the football team in senior high school. However, he is more emphasizing to his brilliant brain, it is seen when he prefers scholarships, which respects to his excellence mind to the football. “top of his class in high school, star quarterback, he declined football scholarships. Instead, he accepted those offered only in respect of the excellence of his mind” (111).
The reaction in making decision points that he bends to improve the knowledge in academic rather than his skill in sport, in this case football. Anson has tried to focus on his education. He was firm to what decision he made. The way he makes decisions indicate his intelligent and his quality.
Anson is good in grasping the knowledge. He has good motivation in studying, therefore he has never fatigued to get more and more knowledge. The academic world is only piece of cake for Anson, therefore he can earn bachelor’s degree in two years, a master’s in one, and a Ph.D. at the age of twenty-three. He succeeds in academic field in his young age.
The academic world was a chicken yard and Anson a fox. He did not merely absorb learning but devoured it with the appetite of an insatiable carnivore. He earned his bachelor’s degree in two years, a master’s in one, and had a Ph.D. at the age of twenty-three. (111) Anson has high IQ, although it is not as high as Megan’s. Megan has the highest IQ among her siblings. However, Anson is good in exploring his capability and his score is not far from Megan. He has proved that he can reach his success although he is not the one who has highest IQ in his family.
Megan had the highest IQ of the Rafferty children, but Anson had always scored a close second to her. Holly’s situation remained as dire now as it had been half an hour ago, but Mitch took comfort in the fact that his brother had joined the fight (139).
Anson’s character is portrayed as a good student. He loves to study. He always gets good achievement in academic world. He has high motivation to enrich himself with knowledge.
Anson is described as a kind and warm brother. Therefore, his siblings love him. His siblings are never jealous with his achievements, the opposite they feel that he is the kind person who fairness becomes favorite in the family. He becomes the favorite son for his parents and favorite brother for his siblings.
Anson was neither resented by his siblings nor in any slightest way alienated from them. On the contrary, if Mitch and his sisters had taken a secret vote for their favorite in the family, all four of their ballots would have been marked for their older brother. (111) In the childhood, Anson guides his siblings to be patient in facing the problems. He always gives support to his siblings by giving them a joke in order to restrain their emotion to his parents’ method in rearing their children. He has done a good job as the oldest brother in guiding his siblings through childhood.
Throughout their childhood, Anson had counseled Mitch and his sisters against anger, urging patience, teaching the value of humor as defense against their father’s unconscious inhumanity. And now Daniel inspired in Mitch nothing but indifference and impatience (113).
Anson is the brother who always helps his siblings. He is the brother who protects his siblings and gives them motivation and spirit in their childhood. His siblings regard him as a brother who can be relied on. They trust to him, because he always guides them and makes them strong when they should face the difficult situation. He is available when his parents carry away their freedom as the children.
Throughout their beleaguered childhood, Anson had been the reliable rope that kept Mitch tethered to a mooring. Always it was Anson who raised the sails of hope when there seemed to be no wind to fill them. To his brother, he owed the peace of mind and the happiness that eventually he had found when at last free of his parents… (125)
Mitch argues that his brother is good instructor. Anson guides him, especially in the difficult situation. Anson’s character is described through Mitch’s opinions as a brother who can make his parents proud.
Through the formative years of Mitch’s life, his brother had been a trustworthy pilot, bringing them through storms, or a wingman flying defense as it was needed. He seemed overreaching now, however, when he promised a safe landing, for surely Holly’s kidnappers controlled this flight (137).
Anson has made good impression to his siblings and his parents. Good character as brother and son has been built in the childhood. His character in his childhood can be seen from his sibling’s point of view.
Physically Anson is characterized as a handsome man. He has good body like a sportsman. He is strong like a bear, he has well built body and dashing appearance. In senior high school, he was the athlete of football team. Compared with Mitch, Anson is more charming and looks masculine.
Although as fit as an athlete, Anson was a different physical type from Mitch: bearish, barrel-chested, bull-necked. That he had been a star quarterback in high school testified to his quickness and agility, for he looked more like a middle linebacker. His handsome, broad, open face seemed always to be anticipating a reason to smile. At the sight of Mitch, he grinned (129-130).
Anson’s masculine character is also reflected to his house decoration. His house style is emphasized on nautical decorative. He loves fairy tale stories, especially pirate’s story and he dreams that one day he can be a pirate. In the nautical decorative, he describes himself as conceited vessels tossed in storms. decorative items. Painting of sailing ships portrayed proud vessels tossed in storms and others making way under radiant skies” (130).
Koontz gives personal description on Anson’s appearance. The author describes Anson’s character from his body and his appearance. Koontz gives detail information about Anson’s face and the body’s shape. Koontz also adds some information related to Anson such as the way Anson decorates his house.
Anson is described as a man who has ambition to free himself especially from his parents. His ambition to get freedom comes from childhood, but he cannot do anything to urge. It is sure that, in his childhood, Anson is obedient, but it is because he is forced by his parents. When he knows that his parents have seasick, he begins to build his dream to sail. Anson dreams to go far away from the shadow of his parents.
From childhood, Anson had believed that perfect freedom could never be found on land, only at sea, under sail. He’d been a fan of pirates yarns, stories of naval battles, and tales of adventure on the bounty. He’d read many of them aloud to Mitch who had sat enthralled for hours. Daniel and Kathy suffered motion sickness in a rowboat on a pond. Their aversion to the sea had been the first thing to inspire Anson’s interest in the nautical life (130-131).
Anson’s past life shapes his character. His dreams in the past give the clues that Anson has big ambition to get his freedom. His past life may influence in building the character. Anson’s background in the past indicates that he is free man actually. Although in contrast, he is an obedient child in the childhood.
6. Hard Worker
Through his conversation between Anson and Mitch, Anson is portrayed as person who is responsible with his job. He is good worker. He is success man.
However, his goal is not popularity or status. He prefers to get freedom to become famous by having his picture in the society pages. His willingness as pirate motivates him to get the freedom in the sea by sailing. Anson’s statement implies that the sailing yacht is a life on the sea.
“I’m good at what I do, and I’ve worked hard.” “I’m sure you’re good at what you do, you’re good at everything you do, but you don’t live like a rich man.” “Don’t want to. Flash and status don’t interest me.” “I know some people with money keep a low profile, but…” “Ideas interest me,” Anson said, “and getting real freedom someday, but not having my picture in the society pages.” (143-144) Through the way Anson gives opinion seems that he is very optimistic. He believes that he will get his freedom. Anson is also described as ambitious person.
This character influences his personality development in the negative way in mature, because he only thinks about how to get his pleasure. A popular way of describing maladjustment is to say that adults who gratify all their desires have given in to the Id.
B. The Abuses of Anson’s Parents
According to Colin, abuse can be categorized in three. Those are “physical, emotional or psychological, and sexual abuse” (11). Based on Anson experience in the childhood, this study will emphasize in psychological abuse and physical abuse. This part discusses two main parts; those are the cause Anson’s
1. The Background of Anson’s Parents Abuse Him Anson is the oldest brother. His parents have high expectation to him.
Moreover, his parents have ambition to generate the proper child rearing system. The child rearing system applied by his parents changes his personality. Therefore, in this novel Anson is portrayed as round character. His character in this story can make the readers surprised. His ambitions to get freedom and his experience in the childhood have changed him. He is warm and kind person. However, his childhood experience has changed his personality development. He can bring himself to do criminality and even brings his heart to hurt his brother and kills his parents.
Berk states that there are four types of parents. Those are “authorative parent, authoritarian parent, permissive parent, and uninvolved parent” (606).
Related to Anson’s experience, his parents can be categorized as the authoritarian parents. In his childhood, Anson’s parents always control and demand him. They have high expectation to their children achievement. In their opinion, learning room is the proper tool to optimize the children’s achievement. However, they limit their children to express and to build their imagination.
His parents, both Daniel and Kathy have good education background. They are the doctors of behavioral psychology. Anson’s father has ambition to generate a method of child rearing. Therefore, he is very strict and has strong view to choose the appropriate method in rearing his children.
Mitch’s Parents were both doctors of behavioral psychology, tenured professors at UCI. Those in their social circle were mostly from what academic types recently had begun to call the human sciences, largely to
Kathy, Anson’s mother does not have resolute attitude, because she only follows her husband, she does not have firm opinion in rearing child and she wants to know whether the method applied by her husband will bear fruit or not. As a mother, she does not try to think about her children development but she more focuses on the method’s result.
As a young man, Dr. Daniel Rafferty had held strong views about proper child-rearing. Kathy had no firm opinions on the subject, but she had been intrigued by Daniel’s unconventional theories and curious to see if they would prove successful. (107)
Educationally, Kathy has good achievement. However, as the mother she does not have sensibility through the children’s need. She is unresponsive to her children. In this novel, she is described as a mother who displays little commitment to her role as caregiver.
For all her academic achievements, Kathy was clueless about the needs of children and the bonds of motherhood. She believed in the cause-and- effect principle of human interaction, the need to reward desired behavior, but the rewards were always materialistic. (114-115)
Family should be the place which provides the foundation in building children’s characteristics. Emotionally, the parents should give emotional support to their children and foster them a sense of commitment. Therefore, the parents have main role in giving attention and giving emotional support to their children.
Abuse happened to Anson is begun by his parents ambition to give proper rearing child method to their children.
2. The Kinds of The Parental Abuse toward Anson
This part discusses about the kinds of abuses which happen to Anson through his childhood. There are two main parts which are discussed. Those are physical and psychological abuse.
a. Physical Abuse
Anson’s parents create learning room as the method in rearing their children. This is the room which is used to make the children focus. It is the room for studying. It is designed as a room for isolation, because it is designed with no noise penetrated from the outside world, dark and silent. Anson’s parents expect that by isolating their children from outside, they will focus in thought and clear in mind. Automatically, the children have no contact with the outside. It is sensory deprivation.
He looked up to the single window of the learning room. When he was eight years old, he had spent twenty consecutive days there, with an interior shutter locked across that window. Sensory deprivation focuses thought, clears the mind. That is the theory behind the dark, silent, empty learning room. (104-105) According to Daniel, learning room is the most proper technique in rearing the children. In his opinion, learning room is not an isolation room to punish, but it is more the method to make the children discipline and focus. Therefore, finally they can reach self-discover. Learning room is designed so that the children cannot see and hear something outside which can destruct their mind. In this room, they learn how to focus to the mind. The way Anson’s parents construct learning room is one of physical abuse which happens to Anson. The body needs space to move and all senses need the space to optimize their ability. The dark and silent room makes those senses dull.
… the black material that upholstered every surface, densely woven and without sheen, soaked up the beam of the flashlight. Modified sensory deprivation. They had said it was a tool for discipline, not a punishment, a method to focus the mind inward toward self- discovery a technique, not a torture. (239) The learning room designed by Anson’s parents has taken Anson’s freedom to see, to listen and to speak. This room has limited the space to get interaction with others. Furthermore, it has relationship with the psychological abuse. The physical abuse happens to Anson is not directly physical contact. In this discussion, physical abuse is the method applied by his parents. This method limits the body movement and the interaction with his society. This is the unforgettable experience, which cannot be erased from his mind. Therefore, in this study, physical abuse happens to Anson gives effect in his psychological adjustment, especially in personality development.
b. Psychological Abuse Anson’s parents use learning room to control or demand their children.
However, his parents do not follow this control with good responsive. Emotionally, they cannot build harmonize relationship between parents and children. Anson is the oldest brother in the family. Therefore, his parents have high expectation that the method of child rearing applied to him gives good achievement. It appears from the novel that Anson is the first child who is used by his parents as an experiment, in order to prove whether the method applied to him
Learning room has isolated and corrupted his normal social experience which reinforces him to be a deviant. Child-rearing method applied by Anson’s parents has abused and destructed his childhood. “He had only lived here but had also been home schooled here from first grade through twelfth. More hours of his life had been spent in this house than out of it” (117).
Anson has spent twelve years to study at home. He has no chance to express his imagination. He is like living in the jail. His house becomes his important place in his childhood. Almost all of the activities he spent there. Daniel has an intention to limit Anson’s space so that Anson can focus his mind in academic world.
Daniel Rafferty always emphasizes on academic world and its achievement. The rational and logical are needed in his theory. He always asks to his children to have confidence and erase shame. In his opinion, the shame is the obstacle to develop life. Shame will influence the mind. The feeling of being shame is the beginning of irrational mind. He argues that people who have rational are the people who are not controlled by shyness. Therefore, to overcome the shyness, he must educate his child.
Mitch’s father believed that shame had no social usefulness, that it was a signature of the superstitious mind, and that a person of reason, living a rational life, must be free of it. He believed, as well as, that the capacity for shame could be expunged by education (126) In childhood, Anson and his siblings spend much time in learning room. Unaware, it makes them accustom to keep silent. Each child in Rafferty family has ever studied in the learning room. Therefore, they are difficult to build designed this room to isolate his children from the outside world. Therefore, together, Anson and Mitch prefer silent to speak too much.
When together, they were comfortable with silence, perhaps because each of them, as a kid, had separately and alone spent much time in the learning room. That chamber was better sound proofed than a radio-station studio. No noise penetrated from the outside world. (157) Anson cannot enjoy his childhood. As a child he has a lot of imagination and curiosity but he cannot express his imagination, because his father always forbids and controls his social contact. Daniel forbids Anson to read such kind of fairy tale, because in Daniel’s opinion this story will destruct the children’s mind and give bad influence to the children development. Daniel forbids Anson to read Charlotte’s Web because this is the story of an animal which can speak.
Rationally, animal cannot speak as a human. Daniel has never thought about the moral value of the story. He just concerns about rationality and education system.
“Remember when I got caught with the copy of Charlotte’s Web?” “You were almost nine. You spent twenty days in the learning room.” Anson quoted Daniel: “’Fantasy is a doorway to superstition.’” “Talking animals, a humble pig, a clever spider” “’A corrupting influence,’” Anson quoted. “’The first step in a life of unreason and irrational beliefs’” (158) The conversation between Anson and his brother indicates that both of them feel that their father has corrupted their childhood. Psychologically, his father has abused Anson. His way in rearing child has attacked Anson’s emotion.
Actually, Anson and his siblings need protection from Child Protective Services. Therefore, they will get the protection from the formal institution. However, they cannot get it, because they cannot prove to this institution. Physically, Daniel has never injured his children, but psychologically Daniel has isolated and corrupted the children from normal social experiences and has prevented the child from forming friendships. Anson cannot prove that his parents have abused him and cannot report it to the Child Protective Services.
Their father saw no mystery in nature, just a green machine. Mitch said, “It would have been better if they hit us.” “Much better. Bruises, broken bones-that’s the kind of things that gets the attention of Child Protective Services.” (158) Garbino and Eckenrode as quoted in Crosson and Tower, “psychological maltreatment is rooted not only in dysfunctional family communication patterns but also the societal pressure impacting on the family” (219). As the parents, Daniel and Kathy Rafferty do not give their children time to share what they want.
Anson’s family has communication problems. Mitch, Anson’s brother, also does not have chance to speak up. Daniel’s children realize that Daniel’s intention and methods are disparity. However, they cannot do anything.
The last explanation resonated with Mitch. He had often thought about what he would say to his parents if the opportunity arose to question the disparity between their intentions and methods, or the cruelty of trying to strip from children their sense of wonder. (158)
Isolation can provide an atmosphere for the type of maltreatment. Anson’s parents not only try to isolate him, but also force him to do the shame game. It has injured him. He has never forgotten this bad treatment from his parents.
“For me, the learning room wasn’t the worst,” Anson said. “What I’ll never scrape out of my mind is the shame game.” Memory flushed Mitch’s face. “’Shame has no social usefulness. It’s a signature of the superstitious mind.’” (162) According to O’Hagan cited in Pritchard defines that inappropriate behavior which often happens to the children can reduce and damage the moral relationship with the repetitive physical abuse which happens to him. Anson’s parents ask him to do the shame game for eleven times. It is inappropriate behavior, which damages the mental process development. This perpetual inappropriate behaviors provide degradation moral development.
“They put me through it eleven times that I remember the last when I was thirteen.” Mitch grimaced. “Man, I remember that one. You were given a full week of it.”(162)
Anson has bad experience in his childhood. His father eliminates his emotion of being shame. He forces Anson to be naked for twenty hours in a week.
His father seizes his privacy. He never permits Anson to have secret, even the most embarrassing and intimate questions. Anson should tell what he thinks and his activities are always monitored by his family. He should restrain his shame feeling when his sister in the lavatory watches him.
“Living naked twenty-four/seven while everyone else in the house remains clothed. Being required to answer in front of everyone the most embarrassing, the most intimate questions about your private thoughts and habits and desires. Being watched by two other family members at every toilet, at least one of them a sister, allowed no smallest private moment…” (162)
Anson begins to plant hatred seed to his parents from childhood. He expresses his hostility in his joke. He begins to have bad intention to his parents, especially his father. He thinks that his father is not reasonable to get anything from his children after he makes bad treatment to him.
“Damn if we’re getting him anything for Father’s Day.” “Not even cologne?” Mitch asked. This was a jokey routine from childhood. “Not even a pot to piss in,” Anson said… (163). Learning room and shame game shape him as a man who has insensitivity. In his childhood he has never learnt about how to love and appreciate each other. He becomes favorite son in the family because of his achievements. Their parents are proud of his intelligent. This is like a reward and not a symbol of love relation ship between parents and children. Anson tries to fulfill his parents’ expectation to get his parents’ attention. His parents only value the children who show the rationality and good achievement in academic world.
“I’m proud of you, Mickey. You beat ’em. It didn’t work with you the way it worked with me.” “The way what work?” “They broke me, Mitch. I have no shame, no capacity for guilt.” From under his sports coat, Anson with drew a pistol. (163) The situation in the learning room is figured out as an isolation room. The child has no contact to the world outside. They spend long time just silent. The more a child stays there the more he will feel under pressure. The room, which is expected to make the children focus, becomes the room which makes them selfish. They make them difficult to socialize with their community. It is because of the limitation of social intercourse.
Sometimes as a child in the learning room, when you have spoken to no one for a long time, nor heard a voice other than your muffled own, and when you have been denied food-though never water-for as much as three days, when for a week or two you have seen no light except for the brief daily interruption when your urine bottles and waste bucket are traded for fresh containers, you reach a point where the silence and the darkness seem not like conditions any longer … (232) Daniel’s ambition and his belief about his theory make his children so depressive. The silence and darkness are the ground of learning room. This place corrupts children’s right, the right to get freedom and to enjoy their childhood. This room makes the children’s sensibility blunt, because the condition, which is created in learning room, forces and presses in the hard condition.
C. The Influence of Child Abuse to Anson’s Personality Development
In the novel, Anson always lives under pressure and he has no joy at all at home. What he gets from his parents is a rearing child method applied by his parents, which makes him oppressed. He has bad experience in his childhood although he has good achievement in academic world. He gets parents’ attention only if he is brilliant and obedient. As the oldest brother, he always tries to guide his siblings. However, his emotion and ambition to get his freedom reach in the climax when he is being adult. His dream to sail and have private ferry make him more ambitious.
This part analyzes how Anson’s personality develops and the factors which influence his personality development. To analyze personality development and the factors which influence it, the writer uses theory of personality. As quoted in Atkinson, Freud divides “personality structure in three, those are Id, Ego, and Superego” (395). Human has all of those structures. Unreasoning and irrational are the Id characteristic, the Ego handles the realities of as situation and the Superego judges whether an action is right or wrong. All those personality structures influence the people adjustment.
1. Anson’s Personality Development
Every parent always tries to give the best for their children. However, sometimes what the parents give is not the same with the children need. Every child has different character. Therefore, the parents cannot apply the same method in rearing child. The parents should not force his idealism to their children.
Anson’s father has obsession to create proper method in rearing child. Anson’s personality gradually changes as the effect of his parents’ abuse in his childhood.
The rationality, which is planted to him when Anson was child, gives bad effect in his adulthood. Anson’s parents have never taught him about moral value in life.
Rationality is always in a man’s self-interest, Daniel says. Therefore, any act that is rational is right and good and admirable. Evil does not exist in Daniel’s philosophy. Stealing, rape, murder of the innocent these and other crimes are merely irrational because they put he who commits them in jeopardy of his freedom (190). When the physical and psychological abuse happen to him, his personality is getting worse as follows:
Anson is known as good brother to his siblings and becomes favorite son in his family through his childhood. However, Daniel’s idealism about rationality makes him do bad behavior. When he says a lie to cover others lies, he does not have sensibility of regret’s feeling. He becomes a liar. When his brother, Mitch Rafferty faces the difficulty in getting the ransom for his wife, Anson lies to Mitch. He says that he is willing to give him money and to promise to save both Mitch and his wife, Holly. “When Mitch looked up from his unsteady hands, Anson said, ‘Nothing will happen to her. I promise you, Mickey. I swear nothing will happen to Holly. Nothing.’” (137) Anson is smart in hiding his lies. In adulthood, his family is still thinking that he is a kind and successful person. However, the fact is contrast to what
Anson has said, Anson is only lying to his brother. He is smart in convincing Mitch. In the end, Anson confesses to Mitch that he will not give his brother two million dollars as the ransom. Even he shows that he does not care with Holly.
“Two million. Truth is,” Anson said almost sadly, without bite or rancor, “I wouldn’t pay two million to ransom you, so Holly was dead the moment she was snatched.” (164)
In adulthood, he always pretends as a good brother. He makes everybody in his family believes that he is kind. Mitch always believes that Anson will help him. Mitch has never known that his brother now is not as kind as when in the childhood. Mitch knows the truth after Anson confesses to Mitch.
“This will almost wipe out my liquidity,” Anson said, “but I’ll still have the equity in the condo.” “Wipe you out. I can’t let that happened.” “If I earned it once, I can earn it again.” “Not that much. Not easily.” (144)
What Anson says to Mitch is his effort to trap his brother. However, his brother has never realized that Anson brings his heart to hurt him. At the first time he said that two million would wipe out his liquidity, in fact it would not. He is richer than what Mitch imagines.
… “Two million wouldn’t wipe me out, bro. the truth is… I’ve got closer to eight.”
From behind the burly bearish charm, a goatish other watched, and Mitch sensed, without fully understanding what he meant, that he and his brother, alone in the room, were in fact not alone (167).
Anson also lies about his sacrifice for his siblings. He says that he always helps his sibling, Connie, Megan and Portia. He convinces Mitch that he always cares and guides his siblings. Anson said that as if he is a meritorious brother.
… “I structured a loan so a portion converts into a tax free gift each year. I don’t want to be repaid. It’s fun to do this. And Megan’s dog-grooming business.” Mitch said, “The restaurant Portia and Frank are opening.” “That, too.” (147) Anson deceives his brother so that Mitch follows him to enter his trap. He has never given his siblings Portia, Connie and Megan money to start their business. Now, Anson is not the brother who can be relied on anymore.
… as if his tongue was so accustomed to the soft tones of deceit that it could not sharpen itself to the occasion. “Just so you won’t feel that you mean less to me than Megan, Connie, and Portia, I should clarify something. I didn’t give them money to start businesses. That was bullshit, bro. I handled you.” (166) Anson is not only a liar but he is also related to criminality. The people who kidnap Holly, are his partners when they were working together. The cause of Holly’s kidnap case is Anson’s deceit. When they work together, Anson takes bigger money than the others do. That makes them angry to Anson. Therefore, they try to attack him by using Holly. They know that it is very difficult to attack him directly, because Anson has main role for some important people in an illegal business. They know that these people will protect Anson.
“The people who kidnapped Holly are the team I put together for one of those jobs. They made a bundle from it, but they found out my take was bigger than I told them, and now they’re greedy.” So Holly had been kidnapped not solely because Anson had enough money to ransom her, but also because-primarily because- Anson had cheated her abductors (165).
Those kidnappers think that Anson will give the ransom to them, because they think that he loves his brother. However, they make wrong prediction. Anson now is selfish. He does not care with Holly, even to Mitch, his only brother. He only focuses on how to get money and how to sail as soon as possible. Anson wants to prove that he is strong. Therefore, he does not surrender to the kidnappers, even he provides strategy to play them.
“But this is the first time I’ve seen a man drop the dime on his own brother just to prove he’s the hardest hardcase around.” “For money,” Mitch corrected. Campbell shook his head. “No. Anson could have asked me to teach these pussies a lesson. They aren’t as tough as they think.”(171). Anson is an arrogant person. He does not want people underestimate him. He does not want his childhood experience happens anymore in his adulthood. His attitude in the childhood is the opposite with what he has done in the adulthood. Anson has been bored to be an obedient child, who has never tried to rebel his parents, although he felt unfair.
The two gunmen never took their eyes off Mitch. “But Anson,” Campbell continued, “he wants to make a statement so no body ever underestimates him again. Indirectly, the statement’s also for my benefit. And I gotta say…I’m impressed.” (172) His childhood experiences cause Anson hates his parents. The rationality theory makes Anson arrogant to his capability. His parents’ ambition takes away his childhood. It makes him focuses only on his capability and his achievement. parents’ expectation. His emotion cannot take anymore. His father idealism makes him stubborn.
Anson’s parents force their idealism to make proper rearing child method. Learning room is the technique chosen by his parents in rearing child. This room has taken his time. Almost his childhood has been spent in that room. He has bad experience in his childhood, not only because of his parents’ ambition, but also because of the bad treatment, which he got when he was child. He cannot enjoy his childhood, he is not happy with it. In adulthood he spends his time to work hard and to get money. Everything he does to get the money, even it belongs to criminality. He has a dream, which should be made in the reality. He tries to find out his freedom, which is to be found in the sea.
c. Self-Loving and Self-Pitying
Psychological abuse happens to Anson makes him a sociopath. The bad treatment and learning room system given by his parents force his emotion to love himself. Anson has social contact problem. This is because ineffective child- rearing and less socialization in the childhood and teens. The isolation in the learning room isolates Anson, and causes maladjustment in his personality development. Therefore, Anson has self-love and self-pity.
Other than rage, the closest thing sociopaths have to human emotions is self-love and self-pity, the only love and only pity of which they are capable. Their extreme self-love is beyond mere rampant egomania. Psychotic self-love includes nothing as worthy as self-respect, but it does encompass a kind of overweening pride. Anson could not feel shame, but his pride had fallen from a high place into a swamp of self-pity. (296)
Anson is proud of his ability. He feels that he is strong and smart. His achievement has made him greedy and over love to himself. Self-love is the way to self-pity. This novel does not tell about Anson’s love story. He is only described as hard worker and has high ambition. He is proud of his achievements and his job.
Unfortunately, his achievement and his intelligent come to the wrong way. Anson’s ambition leads him to the criminality action. His business is related to the illegal business. In the criminality world, he has good position. The certain group will protect him. He has never let someone to underestimate his strength. He has experience in making strategy to rival. After Anson has succeeded in trapping Mitch, Anson begins to play with the kidnappers. To Mitch, Anson said, “When I’m not home to take their call at noon, and when they can’t get you on your cell phone, they’ll know my buttons can’t be pushed. They’ll whack her, dump her, and run.” (167)
Anson has two plans for his brother. First, he does not help his brother to give him money for ransom. Second, he tries to kill Mitch and traps his brother in the criminality situation made by him. Anson uses the situation to take revenge to his parents. He creates the situation as if Mitch is the mastermind of the criminalities happen to both Holly and his parents.
… The brother whom he had thought he knew, had thought he loved, in fact had never existed. Mitch had loved not a real person but instead a sociopath’s performance, a phantom.
Now Anson had sized the moment to take vengeance on Daniel and Kathy, pinning the crimes on his brother, whom he thought would never be found. (242) Anson kills his parents using Mitch’s gardening tolls. He expects if the police find the corpses, they will accuse Mitch. Anson has designed it, so that his position is safe. “Besides, clever Anson had probably salted other evidence in addition to the gardening tools. Finding it would take time, and Mitch had no time to spare” (243)
Daniel and Kathy may be proud of Anson’s achievement in academic world, however they may never imagine that child rearing applied to their son gives bad effect in a long time. Anson is very cruel, in this novel Daniel and Kathy’s death is described very terrified
Daniel’s face, eyes open, was wrenched by terror, but there was clearly puzzlement in it as well. At the penultimate moment, he must have wondered how this could be how Anson, his one success, could be the death of him. (240)
Child-rearing method applied by Anson’s parents makes him does not fear anything and he has an aptitude for misdirection, a talent for disguise, a genius for deception. Anson tortures his parents before he kills them. He not only bounds their hands and ankles but also plugs their mouth. Anson gives vent to his vengeful feeling toward his parents.
Daniel and Kathy lay side by side: she in her pajamas, he in his underwear. Their hands and ankles had been bound with neckties. The knots were cruelly tight, biting the flesh. The bindings between the twists and those between the ankles had been connected with another necktie, drawn taut, to further limit each victim’s movement (239).
The system of rearing child created by Anson’s parents becomes their guilty feeling. His emotion in childhood, forces him to do it. “Tasered, tied, and perhaps following a conversation, Daniel and Kathy had been stabbed. Mitch did not dwell upon the wounds. The weapons were a pair of gardening shears and a hand trowel” (240).
2. The Factors Influence Anson’s Personality Development Hurlock states there are twelve factors determining one’s personality.
Those factors are “early experiences, cultural influences, physique, physical condition, intelligence, emotion, the child name, success and failure, social acceptance, status symbols, school influences, family influences” (471-479). Some of those determinants of personality are used to analyze the factors which possible influence Anson’s personality development. Dean Koontz’s The Husband tells some information about the influence of parents’ abuse to Anson personality development. The parents’ ambition and the method in rearing child in the childhood are the main factors which influence him.
According to Hurlock’s theory, both of those factors can be included in early experiences, emotion, and family influences determinants. Both parents’ ambition and rearing child method applied in Anson’s childhood happen in his early year. Those factors has destructed and influenced Anson’s ambition and his behavior. This bad treatment happens in Anson’s family. Therefore, it can be included in the family influence determinant.
An event or experience may have significant situation, which may influence the personality. This study focuses on Anson’s significant experience in his childhood, which influences his personality development. Anson spent much time at home during his childhood. His parents teach him about rationality and achievement. Due to the fact, Anson’s personality gradually changes. Anson is described as both good son and brother at the beginning of his story. In contrast, he is described as the brother who brings his heart to trap and kill his parents. In childhood, as the oldest brother, Anson is always responsible to guide his siblings and he has never rebelled to his parents.
According to Hurlock “The changes in personality classifies in three major categories; better versus worse, quantitative versus qualitative, slow versus rapid changes” (120–122). Anson’s personality change can be categorized as better versus worse, because Anson fails to make adjustments. Psychological abuse happened in his childhood makes him self-love and self-pity. He fails to build social contact. He becomes more ambitious and arrogant.
The theory of rationality and shame games make him lose his shame feeling, even guilt feeling. His parents have never taught him about moral value of life. They just focus on child-rearing system and the achievement. They have never realized that they have corrupted and isolated their child from normal society. It makes Anson sociopath. As the parents, Daniel and Kathy have never tried to understand what their child needs. They always force Anson to fulfill their expectation. As the parents, Daniel and Kathy do not understand the concept of rearing child.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter presents two major points. Those are conclusions and
suggestions. The conclusions deal with the personality of Anson Rafferty, physical and psychological abuse in the childhood, and the influence of parents’ abuse to Anson personality development. The suggestions consist of the recommendation for further research on this topic and for teaching learning activities which related to literary works.
This part outlines three main parts. Those are the personality of Anson Rafferty in Dean Koontz’s The Husband, the kinds of abuses happens to Anson, and the influence of parents’ abuse to Anson’s personality development.
Anson Rafferty is portrayed as an obedient son. He is the most dutiful to his parents, he never rebels to his parents through his childhood. Through his childhood, Anson becomes favorite boy for both parents and his siblings. The author gives direct comment to Anson’s character. Anson is also described as a smart student from author’s direct comment and Anson’s reaction. He can earn bachelor’s degree in two years, a master’s in one, and a Ph.D. at the age of twenty-three. He succeeds in academic field in his young age. Through personal description, the author gives direct comment and description, Anson is described as masculine man. Anson’s past life shapes his personality. His dreams in the past
61 give the clues that Anson has big ambition to get his freedom. Through his speech, Anson can be characterized as hard worker. Anson’s achievement in the childhood makes his parents proud. Anson always can fulfill his parents’ expectation. Daniel and Kathy think that the rearing child method applied to Anson bear good fruits, in another word they think that have succeed in rearing their child.
There are two kinds of abuses dealt with Anson’s abusive parents. Those are physical and psychological abuse. First is physical abuse. His parents treat their children inappropriately, especially to Anson, because he is the oldest children in his family. Both Daniel and Kathy have high ambition to apply child- rearing method to their children. The learning room has limited Anson’s space to get interact and communicate with others. They force Anson to fulfill their expectation. Daniel Rafferty always emphasizes in rationality and academic achievement.
Second is psychological abuse. Anson parents do not only use learning room to limit Anson’s social contact but also to make the children focus on self- discover. This room has corrupted and isolated Anson from normal adjustment, because he has spent almost his time in the house, especially in learning room.
Anson is unhappy with his life, because he cannot enjoy his childhood. Learning room has made him under pressure.
Kathy as a mother does not have firm opinion and attitude in rearing her children. She wonders whether the method applied by her husband bears fruit or
62 not. Both Daniel and Kathy have good education background. However, they actually do not understand the child-rearing concept.
Anson has bad experience in his childhood. The worst experience that will never be forgotten by Anson is when his parents ask him to play shame game.
They ask him, because Anson is seized to read Web Charlotte. His father does not permit his child to read such imagination story. He limits child’s wondering, because he thinks that it will destruct the rational mind. Those experiences are included in psychological abuse, because it leaves psychological scars on Anson’s life.
Child abuse is one of factors which can influence personality development. Parents’ abuse happened in the childhood influences Anson personality development. Many factors can influence personality changes. Anson personality develops from a person who is kind, warm, and obedient to be arrogant, greedy, selfish, even, he brings his heart to kill his parents. Their ambition and child- rearing system applied in the childhood plays a main role in affecting and developing his personality. This personality changes are classified as a worse, because Anson fails to make adjustments. He becomes sociopath. It is because of ineffective child-rearing and the minimum social contact. He only has self-love and self-pity.
Physical and psychological abuse have changed Anson’s personality. He becomes ambitious to get his freedom. Even he considers joining criminality enterprise. He always works hard to accomplish his mission to sail in the sea. He never gives chance to someone to underestimate his strength. He brings his heart
63 to trap his brother and takes revenge to his parents for bad treatment he got in the childhood by killing them in the cruel way.
Considering to twelve factors determining one’s personality, the personality changes happen to Anson are determined by early child factors. Those bad treatments happened in his early year. Every child has right to get their freedom to express either their imagination or their wondering. Therefore, the parents should not force their expectation to their children, moreover press them with such child-rearing system, which is not proper with child’s needs. Daniel and Kathy may succeed in making Anson to be smart. However, they do not consider about his personality development. The son, who becomes their pride, has become a boomerang for the Daniel and Kathy.
This part is divided in two main parts. First is the suggestion for future researchers and second is the suggestion for teaching learning English through literary work.
1. Suggestion for the Future Researchers
The Husband is an interesting novel to discuss. The Husband is one of Dean Koontz’s novels. It is the story about love and thriller. However, it can be seen from different aspect that is parents’ abuse, as this study discusses.
The researchers can study many interesting aspects from this novel. This study uses the psychological approach to analyze the characterization of Anson
64 Rafferty, the types of abuses happen to Anson, and the influence of parental abuse to Anson’s personality development. Using this approach, the future researchers can also analyze from love aspect, the relation between Mitch Rafferty and Holly as the main character in the novel or the next researchers can analyze the relationship between parents’ education background and the child-rearing method. However, the researchers can also use another approach such as moral- philosophical approach to analyze the moral value of this novel. Using this approach, the researcher should find out the value of this story which relates to real life.
Another interesting aspect to discuss is Mitch’s struggle and motivation to keep his wife from the kidnappers. The researchers can analyze Mitch’s struggle to prove his love to his wife. This analysis can be discussed by using theory of love and motivation
2. Suggestion for Teaching Intensive Reading Using Literary Work There are many media which can be used in teaching learning activity.
Novel is one of literary work, which can be used for media to improve the students’ comprehension about English. The students can learn many things from the novel. Using the novel, the students will be helped to enrich their vocabulary and language skill such as speaking and reading. Moreover, they can learn about moral value which is included in the story.
The students can enjoy reading the novel and getting pleasure while they are learning English. Therefore, the students will not feel bored. As a result, the
65 students can enjoy in learning English. Teaching reading sometimes becomes a challenge, because to build the students’ motivation to read a text or a story is not easy. Therefore, the teacher should be creative in choosing the proper material to encourage the students. In reading the novel, the students have to know the vocabulary and understand the story. Indeed, they also learn how to read and pronounce the words or sentences. The students can also identify the grammar used.
The students can learn in a group. They can share their understanding and try to speak up and respond to their friends’ idea. They can also give opinion or ask question to their friends. Therefore, they can develop each other. This activity does not only help them in reading comprehension but also helps them in speaking skill. They can practice to speak, such giving comment and asking questions.
The Husband is one of the novels which can be used in reading class. The teacher should give time for the students to read the novel and then the next meeting they can discuss the novel in class. The students have to make summary of this novel, so that the teacher knows their understanding. Then, in the class, the teacher points randomly one or two students to present what the novel is about, and the other students should prepare the questions, comments or opinions, so that it can be an interesting discussion.
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68 APPENDIX 1
The Cover of The Husband
Adapted from: http://www.deankoontz.com/about-dean/