Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the English and Educational Department

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HOW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILLS

(A CAR at the Eighth Grade in M Ts Manba’us Sa’diyah

  

Bandungan in the Academic Year of 2014/2015)

A GRADUATING PAPER

Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirement for the Degree of Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the

  

English and Educational Department

By:

AINUL FADZIAH

  

113 10 141

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY

STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES

SALATIGA

  

2015

  

MOTTO

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I

understand.

  • - Confucious -

  DEDICATION

  This graduating paper is whole intended dedicated for: 1. My beloved mother, Maemanah and father, Suwaryadi, you are my everything.

  2. My lovely brother Ustadzun, who always motivates me.

  3. My big family who always support me.

  4. The big Family of Banyukuning Elementary School, 5.

  All of my best friends who always help, support, motivate me.

  I hope they will get the best rewards from Allah SWT. Amin.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.

  Alhamdulillahirabbil’ alamin, thanks to Allah SWT because the researcher could complete this research as one of the requirements for getting Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the English Education Department of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga in 2015. Peace and solution always be given to our last prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us from the darkness to the brightness. However, this success would not be achieved without support from individual, people and institution. For all guidance, the researcher would like thanks to:

  1. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd, as the Rector of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, thanks for the time I spend for studying in IAIN Salatiga.

  2. Suwardi, M.Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty, thanks for Islamic Education that you gave to me.

  3. Noor Malihah, M.Hum, Ph.D., as the Head of English Education Department, thanks for your guidance.

  4. Hanung Triyoko, S.S, M.Hum, M.Ed, as the counselor, thanks for advice, support, suggestion, direction and guidance from the beginning until the end of this research.

  5. All of lecturers in English Education Department and all staffs who helped me to process the thesis administration.

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE ............................................................................................. i

DECLARATION .......................................................................... ii

  ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES .......................................................... iii PAGE OF CERTIFICATION ....................................................................... iv MOTTO ......................................................................................................... v DEDICATION .............................................................................................. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ........................................................................... vii TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................ ix LIST OF TABLE AND FIGURES ............................................................. xiii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ xiv

  

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................ 1

A. Background of the Research ......................................................... 1 B. Statements of the Problems ........................................................... 7 C. Objectives of the Research ............................................................ 8 D. Benefits of the study ....................................................................... 8 E. Limitation of Terms ....................................................................... 9 F. Outline of the Graduating Paper ................................................ 10

  

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .................................. 12

A. Classroom Action Research ........................................................ 12

  1. The Definition of Classroom Action Research .................... 12

  2. The Characteristics of Classroom Action Research ........... 14

  3. The Principles of Classroom Action Research .................... 17

  B. Writing .......................................................................................... 19

  1. The Definition of Writing...................................................... 19

  2. The Writing Process .............................................................. 20

  3. The Purposes of Writing ....................................................... 22

  C. Project Based Learning ............................................................... 23

  1. Definition of Project Based Learning .................................. 23

  2. Criteria of Project Based Learning ........................................ 25

  3. Benefits of Project Based Learning ......................................... 28

  4. Disadvantages of Project Based Learning .............................. 30

  5. Teaching through Project Based Learning ............................ 31

  

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ................................... 33

A. Type of Research .......................................................................... 33 B. Time and Place Setting ................................................................ 33

  1. Time ........................................................................................ 33

  2. Place ........................................................................................ 34

  C. Research Procedure ..................................................................... 36

  D. Population and Sample ................................................................ 38

  E. Sampling Technique .................................................................... 40

  F. Technique of Data Collection ...................................................... 41

  1. Documentation ....................................................................... 41

  2. Observation ............................................................................ 42

  3. Test .......................................................................................... 43

  G. Technique of Data Analysis ........................................................ 43

  

CHAPTER IV THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH .............. 45

A. Cycle 1 ........................................................................................... 45 B. Cycle 2 ........................................................................................... 59

CHAPTER V CLOSURE .......................................................................... 78

A. Conclusion .................................................................................... 78 B. Suggestion ..................................................................................... 79

REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 81

APPENDIXES

  LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 List of Population .........................................................................38Table 3.2 List of Sample ...............................................................................39Table 3.3 Observation Sheet .........................................................................42Table 4.1 Checklist Observation Sheet Cycle 1 ...........................................50Table 4.2 Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Cycle 1 ....................................53Table 4.3 Students’ Writing skill Rubric Cycle 1 .........................................55Table 4.4 Students’ Writing’s Project Result Cycle 1 ..................................56Table 4.5 Students’ First Writing Score Percentage .....................................57Table 4.6 Checklist Observation Sheet Cycle 2 ...........................................68Table 4.7 Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Cycle 2 ....................................70Table 4.8 Students’ Writing Skill Rubric Cycle 2 ........................................73Table 4.9 Students

  ’ Writing’s Project Result Cycle 2 ..................................74

Table 4.10 Students’ Second Writing Score Percentage ..............................76

  LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 3.1 Procedure of Classroom Action Research ...................................36

  

ABSTRACT

  Ainul Fadziah (2015). “HOW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL (A CAR at Th e Eight Grade of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in The Academic Year 2014/2015)

  ”. A Graduating Paper. Teacher Training and Education Faculty. English and Education Department. State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN). Consultant: Hanung Triyoko, S.S., M. HUM., M. Ed This research is aimed to describe what the implementation of using the project based learning’s method in the writing class is and describe how can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the problem in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help to improve students’ writing skills.

  This research was conducted in MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the Academic Year 2014/2015. Twenty nine students of the eighth grade of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the Academic Year 2014/2015 were instructed through Project Based Learning Method to improve their writing skills. The methodology of this research used Classroom Action Research (CAR). There were two cycles to give the students opportunities to improve their understanding about how to reconstruct and comprehend the organization of Narrative Text well and effectively in groups through doing a project. The results show that the students’ skills improve significantly. The Pre-Test score of the Cycle 1 was 62,41 and the Post-Test score was 70,69. It showed there was an improvement 13,27%.

  The Pre-Test Score of Cycle 2 was 72,07 and the Post-Test score was 84,83. It showed an improvement 17,71%. This method used the students’ skill to rearrange the jumbled paragraph that they have read, then they tried to rewrite by their own word. This method can help students to remember the organization of narrative text, remember the chronological event of this text, and the details of the vocabulary. In the implementation of Project based Learning Method, the students could enrich their vocabularies, grammar mastery, and be confident to rearrange the text that has been read by their own words. They also showed their understanding about narrative text with good connecting information to another details. This method increased their motivations when joining the English lesson, they were more active in the learning process than before. It increased students’ cooperation with other friends. Based on the results, the researcher recommends usin g Project Based Learning Method as the solution to improve students’ writing skill.

  Keywords: Project Based Learning Method – Writing Skill.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Research Language can’t be separated from human life. Even language is often

  used by human life in every activity, so it can be said that interaction is not happened without language as the medium. The activities that human life’s doing are like gathering, playing, and giving information using language as the medium. Language is a human method to express the ideas, feelings, and ability with own pleasure.

  Brown (2007: 6) defines that language is a systematic instrument of communicating ideas or feelings by using sounds, gestures, or signs agreed.

  The primary function of language is for interaction and communication.

  Language has an important role in society as a communication tool. Language enables people to acquire information, knowledge, communicate and cooperate along with others. However, language cannot be acquired spontaneously but it needs to be learnt. Just as a baby they cannot speak as they were born, but they learn by imitating their parent and others. That’s why language needs to be learnt in order to make communication and interaction happen properly. In fact, learning a language is learning to communicate so that language learning should be directed to improve the learner's ability to communicate and its success is measured from how well the learner's use the language itself.

  English as one of the international languages in the world should be mastered by people from many countries in the world to communicate each other. They may know and understand what they speak communicatively because of English. Because of the reason, English becomes the first foreign language that is taught in Indonesia from elementary school up to college.

  Putri (2013 : 2) said that learning English means learning four language skills and its components. The language skills are listening, speaking, reading, and writing, and its components are grammar, vocabulary, and sounds system. Writing is one basic skill in learning English beside listening, speaking, and reading. To write means to communicate using written language. In writing, all information is delivered through text. Writing means producing or creating a piece of text.

  Writing is regarded as the most difficult skill for foreign language learners to master because it involves several components which need to be considered while the learners are writing, such as content, organization, vocabulary, language use and punctuation (Brown, 2004:244

  • –245). Writing needs an ability to organize sentences into good text. Writing also needs a lot of vocabulary mastery in order to reduce the possibility in the lack of words when they are writing sentence, paragraph, or text. It needs right language using in order the message of the writer can be received as
appropriate as the reader understand of that written form. It needs a right punctuation using in order the reader catches the purposes and meanings as suitable as the writer hope. And the last is the content. This is the most important part that the writer should master it. A good writer will make a good content of writing in order all of the messages that she or he means are accepted as appropriate as to the readers.

  In the writing learning process, students need to understand all of the factors above to make good writing. It needs more practices in writing so the students get used to write anything they can.

  Writing becomes one of the students’ difficulties in English language learning besides speaking moreover in MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah. According from the English teacher of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah, Mrs. Yuliana, students have difficulties in creating a good content, organizing several sentences into good paragraph, and language use.

  She said that the students there are lack of the ability in creating good content. Actually, content is the most important part that should be paid attention. An integrated content that the writer creates should be understood by the readers. When the writer creates a bad content, the readers will not get the messages of the writing well.

  She said that the students there are poor in organizing several sentences into good paragraph. When they listen the word “paragraph”, their assumptions are directly changed from English is easy to be learnt up to very terrible thing to be done. They feel so afraid to arrange words into sentences, sentences into paragraph, and paragraph into text. They are worry to make a trouble on it. This fear should be missed from their thought in order they are able to become a good writer.

  She also said that the students there are sometimes use the wrong languages. The structural languages that they use are usually spaced inappropriately. When the teacher asks the students to create a narrative text, the students actually should use the simple past but they use the simple present. When they are asked to create a descriptive text, they use the simple past. These troubles are often happened in this school.

  Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Manba’us Sa’diyah is one of the Islamic

  Junior High School which is located in the village. It makes students don’t have motivation to master the English especially in writing. Their assumption that English is difficult and writing is also, are still develop in that environment. The students become afraid in telling their ideas, trying to organizing sentences, and wrong using the language. In this school, the teacher needs an appropriate strategy to overcome this problem.

  According to Kemp (1995) cited in Rusman (2011), strategy is a learning process that has to be done by teacher and students in order the goals of learning process are able to achieve effectively and efficiently. In teaching and learning process, there are several strategies those can be practiced by the teacher. Teacher is allowed to choose which strategy is effective to be practiced in the class.

  Teachers can practice teaching and learning process through jigsaw.

  

Jigsaw method is first developed by Elliot Aronson (1975). This method has

  two additional version, Jigsaw II (Slavin, 1989) and Jigsaw III (Kagan, 1990). Essentially, it is a cooperative learning design that takes the place of a lecture. Each student within a team has a piece of the information to be learned by all students, and each student is responsible for teaching their section to the other students on the team.

  Basically, this method can be applied for the materials which are related with the reading, writing, listening, or speaking. It combines four aspects of language (Huda, 2013). However, if this method is practiced in this school, it will be ineffective strategy. It will be happened because the main point of this method is share the information to the others. To communicate with other needs good speaking, so if the students’ speaking skills are poor the strategy will be applied not as suitable as hoped.

  Teachers also can apply SQ3R method. Huda (2013) said that SQ3R

  

or Survey Question Read Recited Review is an understanding strategy which

  helps students to think of the text they are reading. SQ3R helps students to find something from the text when they read the text firstly. It helps students in understanding the text by reviewing the first meaning from title, the bold notes, or the schema, making the question from their first reading, finding the answer of the question, repeating the information they get from answering the question, and reviewing or reflecting the question they answer before. This method actually can be applied in every skill of English but if this method is practiced in teaching writing, the writer thinks this method will be ineffective, moreover if it is applied in Mts Manba’us Sa’diyah. The students’ motivations in reading text are very poor. When they are given a text, they will be bored to read it. They have no willing in reading, so they will not get information from the text. If it is happened, the writing process will be done ineffectively because there is no information which wants to be written.

  A teacher needs to use a proper strategy to help her students have good understanding on new text that they learned. Teacher also needs to motivate students and create the most effective way to stimulate them, so they will be interested in practicing their writing. On the other hand, the teacher should use certain strategy to stimulate students to practice their writing, because good strategy will support them in achieving good skill including English skill. Teacher have to teach the material by using good method, good technique and organize teaching-learning process as good as possible, so teaching-learning process can run well. It can make student master English skill, especially in writing skill successfully, because one of the teaching failures is caused by unsuitable method

  There are many teaching strategy that can be applied in the learning process. Good strategy in the learning helps student understand the lesson, moreover in the writing class. Practice is needed. As Tyler (1949 : 63) said as Yam (2010) cited that learning takes place through the active behavior of the student, it is what he does that he learns, not what the teacher does. Students will get their ability in learning process when they practice and do it.

  Project Based Learning is a learning strategy which focuses on

  students’ project. Students are fully involved in the learning process. They practice to get information or knowledge through the project that they make.

  Through this involvement, students are hoped in requiring all of the information they need on their own. So, they can master it.

  From the reason above, Project Based Learning’s Model is hoped becoming good strategy to improve students’ writing skill in MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah in the eighth grade, in the academic year of 2014 / 2015.

B. Statements of the Problem

  Statements of the Problem in this research are : a.

  How is the implementation of the Project Based Learning’s method use in the writing class of the eighth grade of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah in the academic year 2014/2015? b. How can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the problem in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help improve students’ writing skills in the eighth grade students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah in the academic year 2014/2015?

C. Objectives of the Research

  Considering the above problems, the objectives of this research are described as follows :

1. To describe what the implementation of using the project based learning’s method in the writing class is.

  2. To describe how can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the problem in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help to improve students’ writing skills.

D. Benefits of the Research

  This research is expected to give useful information and contribution for the students, educators, English teachers and English academicians to know more about Project Based learning as an appropriate model and strategy to teach writing.

  1. Theoretically Giving some contribution to enlarge and enrich the English language teaching methodologies especially the knowledge about

  Project Based Learning’s Model in teaching writing.

  2. Practically; a.

  The writer This research can be used as starting point in improving the writers’ teaching experience and it is hoped can contribute to help the writer to find out more about the best strategy to teach writing. b.

  The students This research can increase students’ activeness to write and awareness to responsible on their writing skill. It is hoped that the students will be more motivated to write English well.

  c.

  The English Teachers This research can give an objective description to the teacher on how to teach writing to the students using Project Based

  Model. It is hoped that teachers can develop language teaching methods and improve the quality of teaching learning process.

  d.

  The Other Researchers Give more information about Project Based Learning

  Model for the next researchers who will conduct with the similar problem of writing ability improvement.

E. Limitation of the Terms

  To get clear description and avoid errors in interpreting the title, the writer give limitation of the terms are :

1. Improve

  Improve mean to make better in quality or to make more productive to become better (Webster, 1994: 487). It is also described as the process of becoming or making to the better (Oxford Dictionary, 2003:216)

  2. Student Student is a person who attends a university, college or school for study; anyone making a serious study of a subject (Merriam, 1981:983)

  3. Writing Skills Writing is a process that occurs a period of time in thinking to create an initial draft or outline ( Harris, 1993 : 10 ). Writing skill is one of the four basic English skill beside listening, speaking, and reading.

  4. CAR (Classroom Action Research) Classroom Action Research refers to an acuracy towards learning activity in which it appears intentionally and occurs together in a class.

  The activity is given by a teacher or with a guidance from the teacher and done by the students (Arikunto, 2007:3)

F. Outline of the Graduating Paper

  This graduating paper consists of five chapters. Chapter one is an Introduction. It contains Background of the Research, Statements of the Problems, Objectives of the Research, Limitation of the Terms, Benefits of the Research, and the last is the Outline of the Graduating Paper; which contains of general frameworks for each chapter for this graduating paper. Chapter two is Theoretical Framework. This chapter discovers the theories which are used by the researcher, they are: Classroom Action Research, Writing, and Project Based Learning. Chapter three is Research Methodology. It deals with Research Methodology, Type of the Research, Time and Place Setting, Procedure of the Research, Sample and Population, Sampling Technique, Technique of Data Collection, Technique of Data Analysis. Chapter four presents the Implementation of Research. The writer presents the data and the result of pre-test, post-test, and writing project from the class which is taught by Project Based Learning. Chapter five is Closure. It contains Conclusion and Suggestion. The last part is References and Appendixes

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK In this chapter, the writer is going to explain briefly the theoretical

  framework which includes the explanation of classroom action research, writing, and project based learning.

A. Classroom Action Research

  1. The Definition of Classroom Action Research Classroom action research is an action research, which has specific aim and correlation with class. Marguerite and friends (2010: 40) say in their books that Action research generally includes a three - step process:

  a. Identification of the problem(s) through careful observation and reflection.

  b. Planning and taking appropriate action (the study)

  c. Using the findings to determine if teaching and learning have improved or if further changes are needed Arikunto (2006: 3) gives three components in classroom action research, they are: a.

  Research An activity to observe the object by use of ways and methodologies to get the useful data or information to improve the quality of thing and that is necessary for researcher.

  b. Action A movement activity to action with specific purpose, in the form of activity cycle network for the student.

  c. Classroom A group of students, they got a lesson from a teacher in the same time. Then Arikunto concludes that classroom action research means monitoring toward teaching learning process in the form of an action, which is deliberated on action and occur in the class.

  Action research deals with social practice. Education is a social practice. In most cases, it involves the direct interaction of teacher and groups of students. Classroom is a complex arena, secondary schools are full of intrigue and conspiracy. Trying to reach understanding of issues concerned with teaching and learning, therefore, implies getting to grips with a work range of human issues such as the attitude of students, the politics within departments and the ethos an environment of the institution. Elliot (1982) cited in Richard (1989) states that action research might be defined as the study of a social situation with a view to improving the quality of action within it.

  Gwynn (2004) states that classroom action research is a method of finding out what works best in your own classroom so that you can improve student learning. Every teaching situation is unique in terms of content, level, student skills and learning styles, teacher skills and teaching styles, and many other factors. To maximize student learning, a teacher must find out what works best in a particular situation.

  The aim of action research is to feed practical judgment in concrete situations, and the validity of the theories or hypothesis. It is not generate depends so much on scientific test of truth as their usefulness in helping people to act more intelligently and skillfully. In recent years, action research has been applied to problem involving curriculum development, and in service education, particularly within the field of self-evaluation (Arikunto, 2006: 57).

2. The Characteristic of Classroom Action Research

  Syamsuddin and Damaianti (2007: 197) outlined the following characteristics of classroom action research: a. It examines problem which are deemed problematic by researcher in teaching learning process. b. The researcher can give treatment which planned action to solve the problems and improve the quality, so the subject can get the implication.

  c. The steps of research in the form of cycle.

  d. Such reflective thinking from researcher both after and before research.

  e. Contextual situational, which related to diagnosing and solving the problem.

  f. Classroom action research used collaborative approach.

  g. Participatory, which each team member accompany in the research.

  h. Self-evaluative, which the researcher evaluate by self continually to improve the performance. i. The procedure of research is on-the-spot which designed to handle the real problem in that area. j. The result applied immediately, long-range in perspective, measuring up to supple and adaptive.

  Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1988) argue that the three defining characteristics of action research are: a.

  It is carried out by practitioners (classroom teachers) rather than outside researchers; b.

  It is collaborative; and c. It aims at changing things.

  Especially, they stress that the momentum for carrying out an action research is to change the system. This assertion is different from Cohen and Manion (1985) when they identify collaboration as an important feature of action research ( Hien, 2009 :99)

  Relatively different, Borgia and Schuler (1996) cited in Hien (2009) describe components of action research as the “Five C’s”:  Commitment: Time commitment should be carefully considered by participants of action research since it takes them time to get acquaintance with other participants, think about change, try new approach, collect data, interpret results, etc.

   Collaboration: In an action research all participants are equal to each others in terms of giving ideas, suggestions or anything that leads to success of the change.

   Concern: In the research process, participants will build up a group of “critical friends” who trust each other and the value of the project.

   Consideration: As it is mentioned above, reflective practice is a mindful review of a professional research like action research. It demands concentration and careful consideration as one seeks patterns and relationships that will create meaning within the investigation.

   Change: For humans, especially teachers, change is continuing and it is a significant element in remaining their effectiveness.

3. The Principles of Classroom Action Research

  According to Hopkins (1993: 57-61), there are six principles of classroom action research by teacher as follows: a. The teacher’s primary job is to teach, and any research method should not interfere with or disrupt the teaching commitment.

  b. The method of data collection must not be too demanding on the teacher’s time.

  c. The methodology employed must be reliable enough to allow teachers to formulate hypotheses confidently and develop strategies applicable to their classroom.

  d. The research problem under taken by the teacher should be one to which he or she is committed.

  e. The need for teacher researchers to pay close attention to the ethical procedures surrounding the work.

  f. That as far as possible classroom researc h should adopt a “classroom exceeding‟ perspective. This is that all members of a school community actively build and share a common vision of their main purpose.

  In accordance with the principles that classroom action research has to concentrate on the matters happened in the class. A class is one unity of the concerning elements and to reach the specific aim. The components from a class are the students, teacher which is teaching, lesson item, medium of used, result of the study, environmental of the study, and the management that conducted by head of the school. The object of perceived in classroom action research does not have always when process of the study underway because class is not room, but it is a group of students (Arikunto, 2006: 24).

  According to Aqib (2006: 18) classroom action research is one of the strategic ways for the teacher to improve the educationally service which must be carried out in the context of study in the class and improvement of the school program quality on the whole. The aims of the classroom action research are to improve and to increase the process of the study in the class to be carried out continuous. These aims are close relationship with the teacher in fulfilling their professional mission ofeducation.

  Related with components of the study, classroom action research have some benefits, they are: a. Innovation of the study.

  b. Development of the curriculum in the school and class level.

  c. Improvement of the teacher professionalism.

B. Writing 1. The Definition of Writing

  Writing is one basic skill in learning English beside listening, speaking, and reading. To write means to communicate using written language. In writing, all information is delivered through text. Writing means producing or creating a piece of text. Harmer (2001: 249) states, language production means that students should use all and any languages at their disposal to achieve a communicative purpose rather than be restricted to specific practice points. Writing is more difficult rather than other language skills because it needs well knowledge and hard thinking when they produce words, sentences and paragraphs with a good grammatical.

  Harmer (2001: 255) said: Written text has a number of conventions which separate it out from speaking. Apart from differences in grammar and vocabulary, there are issues of letter, word, and text formation, manifested by handwriting, spelling, and layout and punctuation.

  It means that good content of writing only is not enough. A writer must also have sufficient language components like grammar, vocabulary, punctuation, and spelling to facilitate him/her in expressing his/her ideas, experiences, thoughts, and feelings. The writing should be organized well, in order to be easily read and understood by the readers.

  In other word, writing is first and foremost an intellectual activity. Writing is also a social process. It puts one min d (the writer’s) in touch with other minds (those of the audience) and creates a community (Beene, 1992: 67). Like reading and reasoning, writing is a recursive process: it involves overlapping and repetition (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 68). To write is put down the graphic symbols that represent a language one understands, so that other can read these graphic symbols if they know the language and the graphic representation. But, writing is the partial representation of units of language expression (Lado, 1964: 143).

  From the explanation above, it can conclude that writing is the way or the process to express or to represent writer’s knowledge into a textual medium by following linguistic rules.

2. The Writing Process.

  Writing, particularly academic ones, is not easy. It takes study and practice to develop this skill. For both native speakers and new learners of English, it is important to note that writing is a process, not a product (Oshima, 1991: 3). There are four components of a writing process: inventing, drafting, revising, and editing (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 71).

  a.

   Inventing

  Inventing is the crafting before write a first draft. Inventing, a prewriting stage, includes choosing a topic or issue, discovering about the topic, narrowing and shaping ideas into a plan, and framing a generalization that sets forth perspective on topic and suggest how the text will present perspective and ideas.

  b.

   Drafting

  Drafting includes proposing a thesis statement, deciding on tone, and outlining ideas- everything involved in actually writing first draft.

  c.

   Revising

  Revising includes rethinking the content, organization, and level of formality of text. Revising is the key to success because the process of rewriting gives a chance to writer in improving their written.

  d.

   Editing

  Editing includes check revised draft for misspellings, grammatical confusion, or incoherence and putting text in a suitable format for audience.

  Ron White and Arndt (1991) cited in Harmer (2001) are keen to stress that writing is re-writing; that re-vision

  • – seeing with new eyes – has a central role to play in the act of creating text. In their model, process of writing is an interrelated set of recursive stages which includes : a.

   Drafting

  Drafting means outlining the general information which wants to be written. This is the first part in writing.

  b.

   Structuring

  Structuring means ordering the information and experimenting with arrangements. In this part, the writer arranges the outline which is written in the draft before into good text.

  c.

   Reviewing

  Reviewing means the step to get checking the context, connections, assessing the impact, and editing.

  d.

   Focusing

  Focusing is making sure you are getting the message across you want get across.

  e.

   Generating Ideas and Evaluation

  It is a part for assessing the draft or subsequent it. When the errors are done, the writer should making revision or improvement.

3. The Purposes of Writing

  The goal of written language is to convey information accurately, effectively, and appropriately; and to do this written language has to be more explicit than spoken discourse ( Richards, 1990: 101). In another purpose writing is to persuade an already knowledgeable audience that can interpret factual information in a way that shows the information is now part of academic experience (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 72).According Oshima and Hogue (1991: 3), the purpose of a piece of writing determines the rhetorical form chosen for it. A persuasive essay will be organized in one way and an expository essay in another way.

C. Project Based Learning 1. Definition of Project Based Learning

  According to Krajcik&Blumenfeld (2006) Markham, Larmer, &Ravitz (2003) cited in Lee, Blackwell, Drake,& Moran, (2014)project based learning is an inquiry-based instructional approach that offers one avenue to reform. It reflects a learner-centered environment that concentrates on students’ use of disciplinary concepts, tools, experiences and technologies to answer questions and solve real-world problems.

  On the journal entitled “A Review of Research on Project-Based

  Learning

  ”, Thomas (2000) definesproject based learning (PBL) as a model that organizes learning around projects.It means that learning process is focused on the concepts and principles, involving the students in the problem-solving investigation, and other tasks which give students opportunity to construct their own knowledge, and then achieve the goal to produce the real project.

  He also agrees with the definition found in PBL handbooks for teachers (Jones, Rasmussen, & Moffitt, 1997; Thomas, Mergendoller, &Michaelson, 1999), that projects are complex tasks, based on challenging questions or problems, that involve students in design, problem-solving, decision making, or investigative activities; give students the opportunity to work relatively autonomously over extended periods of time; and culminate in realistic products or presentations.

  Jason Schwalm and Karen SmuckTylek on their journal (2009) cites that PBL is an approach to instruction that emphasizes “authentic learning tasks grounded in the personal interests of learners” (Grant, 2009:1). The Buck Institute for Education calls PBL as

  “a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks” (Markham, 2003:4). However it is defined that PBL presents students with real-world, multidisciplinary problems that demand critical thinking, engagement, and collaboration.

  On the other definition, PBL is defined as a teaching approach that has significant potential to transform teaching from a dull and mundane process of passive learning to one where students actively engage with the material, resulting in deeper learning and significant other outcomes (Yam& Rossini : 2010).

  From the definition above, the writer concludes that project based learning is a model of teaching learning process which focuses on the students’ project. Students become the center of all activities during learning process. They begin the learning from the question or problem which sends them to find information with their own. They should find the solution of the problem and the goal should they achieve is a real product.

2. Criteria of Project Based Learning

  According to the Training of 2013 Curriculum which published by BPSDMPK and PMP 2013 and Center for Youth Development and Education-Boston (Muliawati, 2010 : 10) cited by Widyantini (2014)the criteria of project based learningare :

  a. There is problem or complex challenges which is shown to the students b. Students design the problem-solving process or challenge which is shown by using investigation c. Students learn and apply ability and knowledge that they have to the several contexts when doing project.

  d. Students work in a cooperative team, and also when they discuss with the teacher e. Students practice several ability which is needed to their mature and career (how to allocate the time, being responsible person, personal skill, and learn from experience)

  f. Students reflect their activity regularly g.

  Students’ final projects are evaluated Thomas (2000) has different criteria. He has five criteria on project based learning. They are centrality, driving question, constructive investigations, autonomy, and realism.

  PBL projects are central, not peripheral to the curriculum. This criterion has two corollaries. First, according to this defined feature, projects are the curriculum. In PBL, the project is the central teaching strategy; students encounter and learn the central concepts of the discipline via the project. There are instances where project work follows traditional instruction in such a way that the project serves to provide illustrations, examples, additional practice, or practical applications for material taught initially by other means. However, these "application" projects are not considered to be instances of PBL, according to this criterion. Second, the centrality criterion means that projects in which students learn things that are outside the curriculum ("enrichment" projects) are also not examples of PBL, no matter how appealing or engaging.

  PBL projects are focused on questions or problems that "drive" students to encounter (and struggle with) the central concepts and principles of a discipline. This criterion is a subtle one. The definition of the project (for students) must "be crafted in order to make a connection between activities and the underlying conceptual knowledge that one might hope to foster."

  Projects involve students in a constructive investigation. An investigation is a goal-directed process that involves inquiry, knowledge building, and resolution. Investigations may be design, decision-making, problem-finding, problem-solving, discovery, or model-building processes. But, in order to be considered as a PBL project, the central activities of the project must involve the transformation and construction of knowledge (by definition: new understandings, new skills) on the part of students (Bereiter&Scardamalia, 1999). If the central activities of the project represent no difficulty to the student or can be carried out with the application of already-learned information or skills, the project is an exercise, not a PBL project. This criterion means that straightforward service projects such as planting a garden or cleaning a stream bed are projects, but may not be PBL projects.

  Projects are student-driven to some significant degree. PBL projects are not, in the main, teacher-led, scripted, or packaged.

  Laboratory exercises and instructional booklets are not examples of PBL, even if they are problem-focused and central to the curriculum.

  PBL projects do not end up at a predetermined outcome or take predetermined paths. PBL projects incorporate a good deal more student autonomy, choice, unsupervised work time, and responsibility than traditional instruction and traditional projects.

  Projects are realistic, not school-like. Projects embody characteristics that give them a feeling of authenticity to students.

  These characteristics can include the topic, the tasks, the roles that students play, the context within which the work of the project is carried out, the collaborators who work with students on the project, the products that are produced, the audience for the project's products, or the criteria by which the products or performances are judged.

  Gordon (1998) makes the distinction between academic challenges, scenario challenges, and real-life challenges. PBL incorporates real- life challenges where the focus is on authentic (not simulated) problems or questions and where solutions have the potential to be implemented (Thomas, 2000).

3. Benefits of Project Based Learning

  Many benefits of incorporating project work in second and foreign language settings have been suggested. Fragoulis (2009) on his journal entitle “Project-Based Learning in the Teaching of English as

  A Foreign Language in Greek Primary Schools: From Theory to Practice agrees several taught about the benefits of project based learning.

  First, he agrees with Fried- Booth’s (2002) opinionthat the process leading to the end-product of project-work provides opportunities for students to develop their confidence and independence. In addition, he also agrees with Stoller (2006 ; 27) that students demonstrate increased self-esteem, and positive attitudes toward learning.

  He also notes Skehan’s (1998) opinion that students’ autonomy is enhanced by PBL, especially when they are actively engaged in project planning (e.g. choice of topic). He also mentions the further benefit said by Coleman (1992) and Papagiannopoulos (2000) that PBL relates to students’ increased social, cooperative skills, and group cohesiveness.

  He finds another reported benefit said by Levine (2004) that PBL is improve language skills. This opinion is supported by Haines (1989) which is noted in his journal too. PBL is improve language skills because students engage in purposeful communication to complete authentic activities, they have the opportunity to use language in a relatively natural context and participate in meaningful activities which require authentic language use.

  He explains about authentic activities as Brown (1993) said they refer to activities designed to develop students’ thinking and problem solving skills which are important in out-of-schools contexts, and to foster learning to learn.

  He adds with Stoller’s (2006) opinion, project-based learning provides opportunities for “the natural integration of language skills”.

  He also adds as Lee (2002) that PBL makes students have enhanced motivation, engagement and enjoyment.

  He notes that projects being authentic tasks, are more meaningful to students, increase interest, motivation to participate, and can promote learning. Enjoyment and motivation also stem from the fact that classroom language is not predetermined, but depends on the nature of the project (Larsen-Freeman, 2000:149). Another set of reported benefits pertains to the developmentof problem-solving and higher order critical thinking skills. These skills are very important, since they are life-long, transferable skills to settings outside the classroom.

  Finally, the writer concludes the benefits of PBL are to enhance students’ motivation, interest, and confidence, students’ language skills are improved, students get used to solve their problem related to the authentic activities, and the students become independent because they solve it themselves.

4. Disadvantages of project Based Learning

  Several studies found that PBL is challenging for teachers to enact despite its positive benefits. For example, one study found the following barriers to successful implementation of PBL:

  a. projects were time-consuming

  b. classrooms felt disorderly

  c. teachers could not control the flow of information

  d. it was difficult to balance giving students independence and providing them supports e. it was difficult to incorporate technology as a cognitive tool, and f. authentic assessments were hard to design (Marx, et al., 1997).

  In addition, the authors found that teachers generally focused on addressing one or two of these challenges at a time and moved back and forth between old habits and new ideas, incorporating the new information gradually and with varied success (Marx, et al., 1994; Marx, et al., 1997). Teachers also may struggle with entrenched beliefs when attempting to implement PBL. For example, it may be challenging to negotiate between giving students opportunities to explore their interests or covering the state standards, allowing students to develop individual answers or providing students with one correct answer, and empowering students to direct their learning or controlling the distribution of expert knowledge (Ladewski, et al., 1991).

5. Teaching through Project Based Learning

  Fragoulis also notes that effective project-based learning requires the teacher to assume a different role (Levy, 1997). The teacher’s role is not dominant, but he/she acts as a guide, advisor, coordinator

  (Papandreou, 1994), and facilitator. In implementing the project method, the focal point of the learning process moves from the teacher to the learners, from working alone to working in groups.

  To make PBL effective, Yam and Rossini (2010) notes that teachers play important roles in motivating students and creating a classroom environment conducive for students learning (Yam & Burger 2009). Collaboration among the students, teachers and others in the community is important so that knowledge can be shared and distributed among the members.

  Therefore, teachers’ support as well as continuous tutorial discussions involving teachers and students is imperative to sustain students’ motivation in the PBL process (Blumenfeld et al. 1991). For instance, teachers can help by providing access to information, and support learning by scaffolding instructions to make the tasks more manageable. It is argued that teachers shouldbreak down tasks to make it manageable, coaching students in formulating strategies to solve problems, and gradually releasing responsibility to the students (Blumenfeld et al. 1991).

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY G. Type of Research Research methodology is science that learns about research method or

  research instrument (Sofanudin, 2009:35). The method used in this research was classroom action research. As stated by Kemmis that Action Research is a form of self reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situation in order to improve the rationality and justices, their understanding of these practices and the situations in which the practices are carried out; (Hopkins, 1993: 44)

  Elliot (1982) cited in Richard (1989) states that action research might be defined as the study of a social situation with a view to improving the quality of action within it. Applying classroom action research is intended to give new information and knowledge to the teacher and students in Mts Manba’us Sa’diyah.

H. Time and Place Setting 1. Time

  This research carried in the eighth grade students of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the academic year of 2014/2015.

  There were some steps in this research: preparation, implementation, analyses of the data, and report writing. The details of each activity were as follow :

  1) Preparation th

  a) February 2015 : Proposal Draft Consultation

  4

  th

  b) February 2015 : Instrument Consultation

  20 2)

  Implementation

  th

  a) February 2015 : Research Permission

  25

  th th

  b) Feb - 26 March 2015 : Data collection

  26 3)

  Analyses of Data and Research Report

  th

  a) March 2015 : Data Analysis

  27

  th

  b) April 2015 : Research Report

  6 2.

   Place

  This research was taken place at MTs PSA Manba’us Sa’diyah Banyukuning Village, Bandungan Sub district, Semarang Regency. MTs Manbaus Sa’diyah Bandungan is one of the junior high school in Bandungan. The detail of this school is described as follows:

  a) : MTs PSA Manbaus Sa’diyah

  School Name

  b) : 121233220038 No. School Statistic

  c) : B ( 11 November 2012 ) School Type

  d) : Jalan Kalipawon 1,5 Banyukuning

  • – Jambu School Address : (Sub district) Bandungan : ( Regency) Semarang : ( Province) Central Java

  e) : 085640279484 Phone/HP

  f) : pps_masa@yahoo.com Email & Wibsite g) : Private ( as a part of a committee ) School Status

  MTs PSA Manbaus Sa’diyah is a junior high school which applies Islamic Education in the learning process. It is one roof school which applies boarding house in the teaching learning process. It school has only three classes, grade Seven, Eight, and Nine. It is only one class for each

  st

  grade. This school has built since 1 Juni 2009 under the Manba’us

  Sa’diyah committee’s management. This school has built cause of the cooperation of the AIBEP (Australia Indonesia Basic Education Partner) and the figure this school surrounding.

  The environments of this school are religious people, so it is built to fulfill people need in Islamic Education. It applies learning process as same as boarding house. There are many Islamic Subjects which is taught beside the general ones.

  In this school, the lesson is started at 07.00 a.m. It is begun with an additional subjects, boarding house’s learning in the class for about 30 minutes and continued with the usual subject. It is finish at 13.25 p.m. except on Friday the lesson ended at 11.00 a.m. It is 40 minutes for one hour lesson and there are two break times at 09.30

  • – 09.45 and the second break to do praying together at 11.45 - 12.15. Therefore, the students learn approximately 45 hours in a week divided into 17 general subjects and 6 boarding house’s subject. In the eighth grade, English is taught twice a week that is 4 x 40 minutes.

I. Research Procedure

  This study used action research, so the writer used the steps as Kemmis stated. The procedures stated by Kemmis are briefly describes in the following scheme.

Figure 3.1 Research Procedure

  (Kemmis in Hopkins, 1963) There were two cycles in this action research. In each cycle the procedures are follows : a.

  Planning The activities in the planning were:

  1) Preparing materials, making lesson plan and designing the steps in doing the action.

2) Preparing list of students’ name and scoring.

  3) Preparing teaching aids. 4) Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of teaching-learning process when the method or technique or model is applied).

  b. Action 1) Teaching the material.

  2) Team study. 3) Giving occasion to the students to ask any difficulties or problems. 4) Giving written test

  c. Observation Observation is one of instruments used in collecting the data.

  Observation is a scientific method that can be systematically used to observe and note the phenomena investigated (Hadi, 1995: 136).

  The writer used this observation to write something that happened in the classroom.

  d. Reflection The writer’s reflection was done by discussing with her collaborator. Note of the lack, incompatibility between action and scenario or different response of students that expected. They analyzed the observation, identification of the problem and found out the alternative decision of problem solving. Then the next cycle could be decided or designed.

  J. Population and Sample Population is the whole of the research subject (Arikunto, 1991:102).

  The population of this research was all of the students of in Manba’us Sa’diyah Islamic Junior High School Bandungan Subdistrict. The numbers of the population are described on the following table.

Table 3.1 List of Population

  Number of Students No Grade

  Number Males Females 1.

  VII

  11

  9

  20 2.

  VIII

  12

  17

  29 3.

  IX

  12

  9

  21 Number

  35

  35

  70 Arikunto ( 1991) also states that sample is the representation of the population will be researched. The samples were 29 students, 17 females and 12 males taken from the population. They came from intermediate to economic families.

Table 3.2 List of Sample

  No Name of Student 1.

  Aeni 2. Alfin Fitriyan 3. Dwi Listriyanto 4. Erwin Novianto 5. Fara Afsari 6. Fitrianingsih 7. Hamdani 8. Indra Widiyanto 9. Khoerul Umam

  10 Muhammad Surur

  11 Musrifah 12.

  Naelil Muna

  13. Novera Aprina 14.

  Nur Afifah Mahmudah 15. Nurul Hidayah 16. Nurul Muttoharoh 17. Putri Alida Yahya 18. Putri Mahyum Sulastri 19. Rafiq Mustofa 20. Ridho Miftakhul Huda 21. Rina Budiyani 22. Rof'ul Fadhli 23. Silfi Ristiyanti 24. Siti Fadhilah 25. Siti Nur Hatikah 26. Slamet Wahyu Suranto 27. Tiyas Ayutri Handayani 28. Ziana Fauzia Rohmah

  Singgih Prabowo 29.

  K. Sampling Technique

  The researcher used purposive sampling technique to get sample in her investigation. Purposive sampling is sampling technique based on the characteristics that is decided of the previous researcher (Dantes, 2012 : 46 ). In this case, the writer asked Mrs. Yuliana Kustatik, S.Pd as the English teacher to find more information from the students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah about their writing skills. She suggested to take the eighth grade which is become the object of this research. According to her, this class needs more help in writing learning process. The students of this class are poor in writing ability. She suggested to choose this class and said this research would be done successfully.

  L. Technique of Data Collection 1. Documentation

  As the object that is paid attention to get information, we keep eyes open for three sources, they are paper, place, and people (Arikunto, 2010). The documentation was used to get more information about the students of the eighth grade of Madrasah T sanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan. It was used to get a lot of data from this school, they were the conditions of the school, the teachers, the staffs, the students, and the situation of the school. The source of this data was text book or other suppor ting book from Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah.

2. Observation

  Observation method is also called tracking comprise attention focusing activity to such object by using all of the senses (Arikunto, 2002:133). This method was used to collect the data when the writer did the research in the use of Project Based Learning’s Model to improve students’ writing skill. It also used to know the situation of the teaching learning process when the strategy was applied. It became the crucial method because we did not only know the students’ responses but we could also know about their feeling and their thought of their teacher. This was the observation sheet the researcher used in this research.

Table 3.3 Observation Sheet

  Scale No Expression

  Always Often Rare Never

  1. Students are happy to follow the lesson

  Students are passive during the 2. lesson

  3. Students try to collect the task on time

  4. Students are understand the lesson

  5. Students ask to the teacher if they didn’t understand

  6. Students do the project with their friends

  7. Students are nervous to present the material in front of the class

  8. Students get difficulties to answer the question

  9. Students give feedback from the result of the project

  10. Students use English in classroom communication

3. Test

  Writer gave test in the meeting. It was written test. These tests were pre-test and post-test that were given in every cycle of this research.

  Except the pre-test and post-test, the students also were given a project in every cycle. All of the tests can be seen on Appendixes.

  M. Technique of Data Analysis

  After collecting the data, the next step of the study were analyzing the data. The data are the result of test from pre test and post test.

  In analyzing the test scores, a statistical technique was to find out the mean score of the students.

  The formula that the writer used as follow: Explanation : Mean : the average scores ∑x

  : number of scores N : number of case (responden) (Hadi, 1974 : 37)

  The second technique was counting the percentage of the students’ writing skill through organizing a text.

  In this study the researcher took a formula as follows : Explanation : P : number percentage F : frequency (students’ understanding) N : number of case (responden) (Sudijono, 1996:40)

CHAPTER IV THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH In this Implementation, the researcher has arranged two teaching sessions,

  the steps are: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting A.

  Cycle 1 1.

  Planning The activities in the planning are : a.

  Preparing materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in doing the action in MTs MANBA’US SA’DIYAH b. Preparing list of the students’ name and scoring c. Preparing teaching aids (material, books, bold marker,etc) d. Preparing sheet for classroom observation ( to know the situation of teaching learning process when the method or technique or mode is aplied in MTs MANBA’US SA’DIYAH) e.

  Preparing a test (pre test).

2. Implementation

  The reasearcher and collaborator did research on Friday 6

  th

  March 2015 in the Eighth class. The class atmosphere was too crowded and disorganized. It was because they got Mathematic lesson in the last minute. So they were bored. This was a challenge for researcher to face this situation. Next, the researcher introduces herself and explains what his purpose being in MTs MANBA’US SA’DIYAH. Mrs. Yuliyana : assalamualaikum Wr. Wb Students : waalaikumsalam Wr. Wb Mrs. Yuliyana : morning class, how are you today? Students :

  I’m fine thank you. How about you? Mrs. Yuliyana

  : I’m fine too thank you

  

Jangan heran kenapa hari ini saya membawa teman, ya karena kelas ini

selama beberapa hari kedepan akan menjadi kelas special karena kelas

ini akan menjadi object penelitian

  ( don’t be wonder, why I am with my friend today, for next somedays this class will be a special class, because this class there will be an object of research ) Students : wah keren dong Bu?

  (that’s great Mom) Mrs. Yuliyana : ya karena kelas kalian adalah kelas yang

  

istimewa, jangan bangga dulu, istimewa nakalnya , ( yes, because this is

  special class, don’t be proud. I mean super naughty class ) Students : huuuu , Mrs. Yuliyana : Now, the time is yours Miss Ainul.

  Researcher : good morning students Students : good morning Miss Researcher : I would like to Introduce my self, my name is Ainul Fadziah and you can call me Ainul. Any question? Fara : where do you live? Researcher : I live in Tarukan, Bandungan Fara : oh…I see.

  Musrifah : what is your Hobby Miss? Researcher : my hobby are writing, watching film, and traveling. Any question ? Students : enough Miss. Researcher : let us start our first meeting today, I want to know all of you, so please introduce your self one by one, who want to be the first? Fara : I am Miss. ( Fara introduced her self and than all of students ) Researcher : before we start our lesson today, I will give you a pre-test.

  Researcher went around spreading pieces of pre-test. Then, students did it in 10 minutes. After they were finished, they collected to the researcher. Researcher : now, we will study about Narrative Text. Do you know about it? Singgih : No Miss. Students : wwuuuu, (they shouted) Umam : I know Miss.

  Researcher : OK. Tell me now! Umam : text yang menceritakan tentang kejadian di masa

  lampau. (The text that tells about the story in the past event)

  Researcher : Excellent! Then, can you tell me what the purpose of that text is? Umam : untuk menghibur pembaca (to entertain the reader) Researcher

  : That’s great! Anybody wants to translate your friend’s answer? Fara : Yes, I am. Researcher : OK, please! Give in complete sentence! Fara : OK, Miss. The purpose of narrative text is to retell the past event, to amuse or entertain the reader or listener.

  Researcher : Excellent. That’s very complete answer. Then, do you know what the generic structure of this text is?

  Fara : Orientation, Complication, Resolution, and Re- orientation or coda.

  Researcher : That’s great!

  Then, the researcher explained about narrative. She gave a narrative text. She wrote in the whiteboard the example of making sentences to the text entitled SNOW WHITE. She explained the generic structure one by one paragraph started from Orientation, Complication, Resolution, and Re-orientation or Coda about 10 minutes. Researcher

  : OK. Now, we will make a narrative’s project. But, we have to make a group before. Please count from 1 to 7 one by one.

  Who said the same number should be in the same group.

  The students counted one by one. There were 7 groups consisted of 4 students and 1 group consisted of 5 students. Researcher asked them to choose the leader of each group.

  Next, researcher gave sheet for each group. Students had to do the written project on the sheet. The project was to organizing the narrative text from the jumbled paragraph then rewrite that paragraph in their own words. During they organized the project, they should choose the leader and the secretary of the group, manage the schedule, plan the activity they should do, and the punishment would they get when there was a foul.

  After they found the right arrangement, they should rewrite that text. Researcher gave 15 minutes to do it. Then each group should give the project to the other group. Each group should correct other group’s project. Researcher limited this activity just for 10 minutes. After they all finished, they collected those project to the researcher. Researcher : The last, I will give you a post-test. Researcher gave the sheet to students. Then they did and collected it after they were finished.

  Researcher : ok class, I think it’s enough for this meeting, thank you for your attention. Let’s close our lesson today by saying Hamdallah together! Students :

Alhamdulillahirobbil’alamin.

  Researcher : Assalamualaikum. wr. wb.

  Students : W

  

a’alaikum salam wr.wb

3.

Table 4.1 (Observation Sheet)

  Scale No Expression

  Always Often Rare Never Students are happy to follow the 1.

  V lesson

  2. Students are passive during the

  V lesson

  3. Students try to collect the task on

  V time

  4. Students are understand the lesson

  V

  5. Students ask to the teacher if they

  V didn’t understand Students discuss the material 6.

  V with their friends

  7. Students get difficulties to express

  V their idea in the sheet

  8. Students get difficulties to answer

  V the question

  9. Students give feedback from the

  V result of the discussion

  10. Students use English in classroom

  V communication

4. Observation

  In the first cycle, the researcher observed the teaching learning process.

  By monitoring the student’s activity and attention during the action. Every morning before the lesson started, the students read

  Asmaul Khusna and prayed together to increase their spirit of religion

  in learning process. We could see that most of the students were enthusiastic in the teaching learning process because that was our first meeting, but there were some students who were not happy to join this class. They are Singgih, Alvin, Hamdani, Ridho, Fadhli, Muthoharoh, and Slamet. They chose lying on the table than joining the learning process. Erwin, Uam, Fitria, Aeni, and Ziana had a little difficulty to answer the question from the researcher because they lack of vocabulary. Using the project was very useful method to interest and made the students understand the materials.

  When the students practiced to organize narrative text by using project, they had difficulties especially for the third, four, and five group to begin or to choose the leader, because nobody wants to be.

  The second difficulty was to arrange the activities they would do. They felt confused. The condition in the classroom was noisy but the researcher made it well and asked the students to arrange it slowly. The researcher asked them not to be panic first. She also directed them to begin deciding the maximal time they have, then continued to arrange the activities and the punishment. Furthermore, the researcher would analyze the students’ improvement in planning a project.

  When the researcher asked them about the narrative text and its generic structure, they were little bit confuse, did not realy understand what the researcher wants because they were never asked to analyze the text in the learning process. The students who understand are Umam, Rafiq, Musrifah, and Fara who were the clever students in this class. When they practiced to organize this generic structure about narrative text, their knowledge about this text was really increase, actually for the language use, and the content.

  When the teacher asked them to collect the sheet, they were ashamed with their result. Hamdani, Fitria, Aeni, and Alvin become the end students. Students also never used English in the classroom communication before. However, in this meeting, Fara, Rafiq, Musrifah, tried to use it in our first meeting.

  5. Table 4.2 (Students, Pre-Test and Post-Test) NO Name of Student Score

  80

  60

  60

  8 Indra Widiyanto

  60

  70

  9 Khoerul Umam

  70

  10 Muhammad Surur

  70

  60

  70

  11 Musrifah

  70

  80

  12 Naelil Muna

  60

  7 Hamdani

  60

  Pre-Test Score

  3 Dwi Listriyanto

  Post-Test

  1 Aeni

  60

  70

  2 Alfin Fitriyan

  60

  70

  70

  6 Fitrianingsih

  70

  4 Erwin Novianto

  70

  70

  5 Fara Afsari

  70

  80

  70

  13 Novera Aprina

  80

  60

  70

  23 Silfi Ristiyanti

  60

  70

  24 Siti Fadhilah

  60

  70

  25 Siti Nur Hatikah

  60

  26 Slamet Wahyu Suranto

  70

  60

  70

  27 Tiyas Ayutri H

  70

  70

  28 Ziana Fauzia Rohmah

  50

  60

  29 Singgih Prabowo

  60

  22 Rof'ul Fadhli

  60

  60

  17 Putri Alida Yahya

  70

  14 Nur Afifah M.

  60

  70

  15 Nurul Hidayah

  60

  70

  16 Nurul Muttoharoh

  60

  70

  60

  21 Rina Budiyani

  70

  18 Putri Mahyum Sulastri

  70

  80

  19 Rafiq Mustofa

  70

  80

  20 Ridho Miftakhul Huda

  60

  60

  60

  ∑ 1810 2050 Mean of the Pre-Test M = M = M = 62, 41

  Very good 80-90

  There is a few Using good vocabulary.

  Most of what the There is little

  Good 70-80

  Using good punctuatio n in the sentences.

  Occasional errors of word choice.

  Effective but not complex construction .

  Almost all the organizatio n is coherent and chronologic

  Almost all of writer expressed is easy to be understood.

  Write with great punctuatio n.

  Mean of the Post-Test M = M = M = 70, 69

  Using effective word.

  Using the grammar effectively.

  Organizatio n is very coherent and chronologic

  Content is very clear and really understanda ble

  Excelle nt 90- 100

  Rating Content Organizati on Language Use Vocabulary Punctuati on

Table 4.3 (Students, Writing Skill Rubric)

  N = Total of the Subject/Students 6.

  Explanation : M = Mean of the Language Factors score Σ X = Total of the Language Factors score

  There are little writer said is easy to be read. mistakes in organizing the paragraphs problems in using grammar. wrong punctuatio ns

  Good Enough 60-70

  75

  65 65 340

  68.0

  4 Erwin N

  80

  70

  70

  70 70 360

  72.0

  5 Fara Afsari

  75

  70

  70 70 360

  65

  72.0

  6 Fitrianingsih

  80

  65

  75

  65 65 350

  70.0

  7 Hamdani

  75

  65

  65

  65 65 335

  70

  75

  Little of what the writer said is easy to be read.

  Vocab ulary Punctu ation

  Many mistakes in organizing the paragraphs

  Many problems in using grammar.

  Limited of vocabulary.

  There are many wrong punctuatio n

  Poor ≤ 60

  Hardly anything what he/she written to be understood.

  The organizatio n is really not coherent

  No mastery the rule of grammar.

  Little of knowledge of vocabulary.

  There are none punctuatio n in the written draft.

  7. Table 4.4 (Students’ writing’s project result)

  No Name Conte nt Orga nizati on

Langu

age Use

  Total Final score

  3 Dwi L.

  1 Aeni

  75

  65

  65

  70 65 340

  68.0

  2 Alfin F.

  75

  65

  70

  65 65 340

  68.0

  67.0

  8 Indra W.

  22 Rof'ul F.

  75

  24 Siti Fadhilah

  68.0

  65 65 340

  

70

  70

  75

  23 Silfi R.

  67.0

  65 70 335

  

65

  70

  75

  70.0

  

65

  75 65 350

  

65

  65

  80

  21 Rina B

  72.0

  65 75 360

  

65

  75

  80

  20 Ridho M. H.

  72.0

  75 75 360

  

70

  70

  70 70 350

  80

  

70

  67.0  2011

  65 65 335

  

65

  65

  75

  29 Singgih P.

  67.0

  70 65 335

  

65

  65

  70

  28 Ziana Fauzia

  70.0

  70 65 350

  70

  71.0

  80

  27 Tiyas Ayutri

  73.0

  65 70 365

  

70

  75

  75

  26 Slamet W.S

  68.0

  70 65 340

  

65

  65

  75

  25 Siti Nur H.

  75

  19 Rafiq M.

  75

  69.0

  13 Novera A.

  70.0

  75 65 350

  

70

  65

  75

  12 Naelil Muna

  74.0

  75 75 370

  

70

  75

  75

  11 Musrifah

  75 60 345

  65

  

65

  60

  70

  10 M. Surur

  72.0

  70 70 360

  

75

  70

  75

  9 Khoerul U.

  68.0

  70 65 340

  

65

  65

  75

  

65

  68.0

  65

  70 65 340

  

75

  65

  75

  18 Putri M.S

  68.0

  70 65 340

  

75

  65

  80

  17 Putri Alida Y

  68.0

  70 65 340

  

70

  75

  65 65 335

  16 Nurul M.

  70.0

  65 70 350

  

65

  70

  80

  15 Nurul H.

  66.0

  65 65 330

  

65

  65

  70

  14 Nur Afifah

  68.0

  Mean of first writing’s project M =

  M = Mean of the Language Factors M = score M = 69.34

  Σ X = Total of the Language Factors score Explanation :

  N = Total of the Subject/Students

Table 4.5 (Students’ First Writing Score Percentage)

  Classification Score Frequency Percentages

  Excellent 90-100 0% Very Good 80-90 0%

  Good 70-80 13 44.83% Good Enough 60-70 16 55.17%

  Poor ≤ 60 0%

  Total

  29 100% Percentage was count by this formula :

  P = Explanation : P = percentage F = frequency N = number of students Poor P = x 100 % = 0 % Good Enough P = x 100 % = 44.83 % Good P = x 100 % = 55.17 % Very good P = x 100 % = 0 % Excellent P = x 100 % = 0 % 8.

  Reflection After analyzing the result of the cycle I, the researcher concluded that the teacher has to be more creative to make student more interested and more active to express their idea in writing an English text. The teacher also has to be more careful in correcting students’ vocabulary and grammar.

  For the next cycle, the teacher uses the same teaching method but there is different technique. In the first cycle the teacher just asks students to express their idea through organizing a jumbled paragraph as a project, Whereas, in the next cycle the teacher will use the project becoming the task should be presented. Students grouped are well to do the project and present it. Then, the other students’ group will correct. In this case, students are directed to learn effectively.

B. Cycle2

  In the cycle II, the researcher still use the same method, it does consist of planning, implementation, and observation. This is many explanation about them.

1. Planning

  The teacher prepared: a.

  Material, making lesson plan, designing the step in doing action b.

  List of students’ name c. Teaching aid (e.g. pictures, paper, bold marker, etc) d.

  Sheet for classroom observation e. Test 2. The Implementation of Action

  th

  On Friday, March 20 2015, the researcher entered at 09.30 am. In cycle 2 as usual as the cycle 1, asked the students to pray. Before starting the lesson, the teacher elaborated the process by giving pre test to them.

  In elaboration process the teacher wrote a sentence on the whiteboard to explore their information about the grammar use in the narrative text.

  After that the teacher explained about the material by the day to use Simple Past Tense when write a narrative text.

  Then, the teacher divided students into groups. One group consists of four students to make a project about narrative text. One of the students in the group be a leader and lead their friends to arrange their project start from time management, activity, and the consequence of the fouls they had did. Next, the leader should lead the groups to present the result of the project in front of the class. Other groups give the opinion and give the feedback. Reseacher : assalamu‟alaikum Wr.Wb. Students :waalaikum salam, Wr.Wb. Reseacher :Good Morning, students Students :Good Morning, Miss.

  Reseacher :How are you today? Students :I am fine, and you? Reseacher :I am fine too. OK class, today we will study how to write good narrative paragraph by using Simple Past Tense. We will make a project, I hope you are more active and to be a master English, ok?

  Students :Yes Miss. Reseacher :OK, before we focus in the material today, I will show you some sentences and I ask to you to give information about these sentences. First sentence, what pattern of this sentence is? Who wants to be giving me information about this sentence?

  Umam :The pattern is Subject+Verb1+Object Reseacher

  :OK, Umam, you are good! Give applause… any others to give information about this sentence? Fara :That’s the pattern of Simple Present Tense. Reseacher

  :Yes…Great…the next sentence, what the pattern of this sentence is? Dwi can you give me information about this pattern? Dwi :OK Miss, the pattern is Subject+ Verb2+ Object Reseacher :Yes, good! the last sentence, I want to Aeni to give information about this sentence, are you ready Aeni? Aeni :The pattern is Subject+were+Adverb Reseacher

  : OK, never mind, good. And it’s just to warming up before we study about this material of the day. Today we will study about The Simple Past Tense. And to apply these materials we will make a project and present your result in front of the class. Which one the pattern of the Simple Past Tense is? Students : second and third sentences.

  Researcher : Yes, you’re right!

  The teacher explained the materials, the students listened and paid attention carefully.

  Reseacher :Do you understand students? Students : Yes Miss, Reseacher :OK, To apply the material this day I want you to make a group, one group consist of four people and you can make a project from me, and after that you can present the result of your project with your friend in front of the class, do you understand? Students :Ok Miss.

  Reseacher :From Umam you say one and continued Nurul and others two, three, until seven, ok? After that if you say one you must join together with your friend say one too, do you understand?

  Students made a group, from group one until group seven. The teacher walked around in each group to give guidance also advice and asked to each group who wanted to be a presenter also give a title in a each group. Reseacher :Group one you can make a project with the story entitle

  The Legend of Prambanan Temple, and who wants to be presenter? Group 1 : ok Miss, the speaker is Umam. Researcher :Good luck and do the best! Researcher : Group two you can make a project about The Legend of

  Tangkuban Perahu and who wants to be a presenter? Group 2 : Fara Miss, and may we make a project about

  Sangkuriang? Reseacher : OK, never mind! Good luck and make with your friends.

  Group three you can discuss about The Legend of Banyuwangi.

  Group 3 : Musrifah wants to be a presenter Miss. Reseacher : yes no problem, make with your friends after finish you can present your project in front of the class. Group four you can make a project about The Legend of Rawa Pening.

  Group 4 :oh Rawa Pening, Miss? Yeah, Singgih wants to be a presenter mom.

  Reseacher :OK.

  Group five you’re project is about The Legend of Prambanan Temple. Who wants to be a presenter?

  Group 5 : Rafiq want to be a presenter Miss. It is same with the first group, Miss? Reseacher :Yes, I make it the same for the group 5, 6, and 7. It will be a great comparison.

  Students with each group make a project. The Reseacher walked around to give guidance and advice again.

  Reseacher : have you finished making your project with your group? Students : yes Miss.

  Reseacher : OK, if you are finished, I will call your group to present in front of the class. I just call two groups to present it. The first presenter is group three, please come forward to all group three.

  Group 3 : We are from group three we will present about The Legend of Banyuwangi. And Musrifah will be the presenter.

  Then, Musrifah began to tell the story about The Legend os Banyuwangi. Musrifah : Once upon a time, there was a ruler names King

  Sulahkromo. The king had a Prime Minister named Raden Sidopekso. The Prime Minister had a wife named Sri Tanjung. She is beautiful. The king wants her to be his wife.

  One day, the King sent his Prime Minister to a long mission. While the Prime Minister was away, the King tried to get Sri Tanjung. However he failed. He is very angry. Thus, when Sidopekso went back, the King tell him that his wife was unfaithful to him. The Prime Minister was very angry with his wife. Sri Tanjung said that it was not true. However, Sidopekso said that he wants to kill her.

  He brought her to the river bank. Before he kill her and threw her into the river, she said that her thought will be proven. After Sidopekso killed her, he threw her dead body into the dirty river.

  The river immediately became clean and began to spread a good smell. Sidopekso said, "Banyu...Wangi...

  Banyuwangi". This means "good smell water". Banyuwangi was born from the proof of true and holy love. I think enough from us, any question friends?

  Rafiq : from where you know about The Legend of Banyuwangi? Can you tell me?

  Musrifah :we get information about that story from television and also get from internet.

  Rafiq : Ok thanks.

  Musrifah : any question again? Aeni : apakah kamu pernah ke sana? Musrifah : Never. But I hope I can go there. Any question again? Students : no.

  Musrifah :if there is no question again, we will conclude our presentation, we are sorry if there any mistake, thank you.

  Reseacher :give applause to group three, good job! The next presenter is group two.

  Fara :ok we are from group two, and we want present about The Legend of Tangkuban Perahu. I wilI ask you before.

  Did you know about Sangkuriang? Students : Yes…. Fara : ok, Although you know this story, I will remain to tell you about this.

  Once, there was a kingdom in Priangan. There is a happy family. They were a father in form of dog,his name is Tumang, a mother which was called is Dayang Sumbi, and a child which called Sangkuriang.

  One day, Dayang Sumbi asked her son to go hunting with his lovely dog, Tumang. After hunting all day, Sangkuriang start desperate and worried because he hunted no deer. Then he thought to shot his own dog.

  Then he take the dog liver and carried home.

  Soon Dayang Sumbi find that it is not deer lever but Tumang's, his own dog. So, She was very angry and hit Sangkuriang's head. In that incident, Sangkuriang got injured and go away from their home.

  Years go bye, Sangkuriang go around in many places and finally arrived at a village. He meet a beautiful woman and fall in love with her. When they were discussing their wedding plans, the woman looked at the injured in Sangkuriang's head. It matched to her son's injured who left several years ago. Soon she realized that she felt in love with her own son.

  She couldn't marry him but don’t know how to say it. Then, she find the way. She needed a lake and a boat for celebrating their wedding day. Sangkuriang had to make them in one night. He built a lake. With a dawn just moment away and the boat was almost complete. Dayang Sumbi had to stop it. Then, she created a light. It made the cock crowed for a morning day.

  Sangkuriang failed to marry her. She was very angry and kicked the boat. It felt over and became the mountain of Tangkuban Perahu in Bandung. Aeni : What is the pesan moral dari cerita ini? Fara : I think, we tidak boleh jatuh cinta with our son. Hehehe any question? Rafiq : So, with whom we have to fall in love? Students : cieeeeee… Fara : hmmm… I think it is out of context. Any other question? Umam : berapa harga tiket masuk ke Tangkuban Perahu? Fara : I don’t know because I never go there sebelumnya. Any question? If there isn’t question, I close this presentation.

  Thanks for your attention and we are sorry there are many mistakes.

  Reseacher :Give applause to group two and for us. You are the best.

  Two of you have presented the result of your project. I’m so proud of you. You are brave to show your project and getting good communication in this presentation. I think enough for this day all of you have used the expression materials this day. I will give you a post-test for this lesson. The researcher gave the students a paper and asked them to do the test. They did it in a few minutes. Then they collected it to the researcher.

  Researcher : I think this is our last meeting in the class.

  Let’s we close our meeting by reciting hamdalah together.

  Wassalamu‟alaikum Wr.Wb.

  Students : alhamdulillahi robbil’alamin. Wassalamu‟alaikumWr.Wb.

  3. Table 4.6 (Observation sheet)

  Scale No Expression

  Always Often Rare Never

  1. Students are happy to follow the

  V lesson

  2. Students are passive during the

  V lesson

  3. Students try to collect the task on

  V time

  4. Students are understand the lesson

  V

  5. Students ask to the teacher if they

  V didn’t understand

  6. Students do the project with their

  V friends

  7. Students are nervous to present

  V the material in front of the class

  8. Students get difficulties to answer

  V the question

  9. Students give feedback from the

  V result of the project

  10. Students use English in classroom

  V communication

  4. Observation In the second meeting, observation was also carried out during the implementation of the action. The class situation was conducive likes the first meeting. They were very enthusiastic to join the class and also more active than in the first meeting. Only Hamdani who was talking with Singgih. In the second meeting the researcher used the sentences to explain the material. He also asked the student work in a group. The teacher used same method at the first meeting.

  In the beginning all of students had attention when the reseacher asked them to give information according to the sentences that the teacher shows to the students. The students were very enthusiastic expressions the information from in the sentences. After grouping the teacher gave explanation or guidance about what are the activity that should be done by the students. Some students just kept silent or were noisy because not all the students knew the project. All of the groups gave attention and guidance very well to the teacher, so they could present in front of the class well. The situation was more communicative when some students give feed back and comment from the project.

  When the researcher asked them some questions in English, they were not confuse, and understand what the researcher wants. When they practiced to make sentence in the text, their organization was better than the first meeting. And the diction was very good.

  In students’ presentation, there were students who felt very nervous, Musrifah and their groups. She presented very slowly. The students at the corne r almost didn’t listen what she was saying. I thought it because they were the first presenter.

  After the presentation, there were Aeni, Rafiq, Fara, and Umam who gave feedback from the result of the project.

  5. Table 4.7 (Students, Pre-Test and Post-Test result) NO Name of Student Score Score

  Pre-Test Post-Test

  1

  70

  80 Aeni

  2

  70

  80 Alfin Fitriyan

  3

  70

  80 Dwi Listriyanto

  4

  70

  90 Erwin Novianto

  5 Fara Afsari 80 100

  18 Putri Mahyum Sulastri

  15 Nurul Hidayah

  70

  90

  16 Nurul Muttoharoh

  70

  80

  17 Putri Alida Yahya

  70

  90

  70

  70

  90

  19 Rafiq Mustofa

  80

  90

  20 Ridho Miftakhul Huda

  70

  80

  21 Rina Budiyani

  70

  70

  14 Nur Afifah M.

  6 Fitrianingsih

  80

  70

  80

  7 Hamdani

  70

  70

  8 Indra Widiyanto

  70

  80

  9 Khoerul Umam

  90

  90

  10 Muhammad Surur

  70

  90

  11 Musrifah 80 100

  12 Naelil Muna

  70

  90

  13 Novera Aprina

  80

  90

  22 Rof'ul Fadhli

  80

  Mean of the Post-Test M = M = M = 84, 83

  Mean of the Pre-Test M = M = M = 72, 07

  80 ∑ 2090 2460

  70

  29 Singgih Prabowo

  90

  80

  28 Ziana Fauzia Rohmah

  90

  70

  27 Tiyas Ayutri H

  70

  70

  26 Slamet Wahyu Suranto

  80

  70

  25 Siti Nur Hatikah

  80

  70

  24 Siti Fadhilah

  80

  70

  23 Silfi Ristiyanti

  80

  Explanation : M = Mean of the Language Factors score Σ X = Total of the Language Factors score

  N = Total of the Subject/Students 6.

  There is a few problems in using grammar.

  Little of knowledge of vocabulary.

  No mastery the rule of grammar.

  The organizatio n is really not coherent

  Hardly anything what he/she written to be understood.

  Poor ≤ 60

  There are many wrong punctuation

  Limited of vocabulary.

  Many problems in using grammar.

  Many mistakes in organizing the paragraphs

  Little of what the writer said is easy to be read.

  Good Enough 60-70

  There are little wrong punctuations

  Using good vocabulary.

  There is little mistakes in organizing the paragraphs

Table 4.8 (Students, Writing Skill Rubric)

  Most of what the writer said is easy to be read.

  Good 70-80

  Using good punctuation in the sentences.

  Occasional errors of word choice.

  Effective but not complex construction .

  Almost all the organizatio n is coherent and chronologic

  Almost all of writer expressed is easy to be understood.

  Very good 80-90

  Write with great punctuation.

  Using effective word.

  Using the grammar effectively.

  Organizatio n is very coherent and chronologic

  Excellen t 90-100 Content is very clear and really understanda ble

  Rating Content Organizati on Language Use Vocabulary Punctuation

  There are none punctuation in the written draft.

  7. Table 4.9 (Students’ writing’s project result)

  73.0

  70 85 385

  

75

  75

  80

  14 Nur Afifah

  74.0

  80 65 370

  

70

  80

  75

  13 Novera A.

  75 70 365

  15 Nurul H.

  

70

  75

  75

  12 Naelil Muna

  84.0

  90 85 420

  

85

  85

  80

  11 Musrifah

  73.0

  75 70 365

  77.0

  80

  75

  80 75 390

  90 85 425

  

80

  85

  85

  19 Rafiq M.

  76.0

  70 65 380

  

85

  85

  75

  18 Putri M.S.

  78.0

  

75

  75

  80

  80

  17 Putri Alida Y

  72.0

  70 65 360

  

70

  80

  75

  16 Nurul M.

  72.0

  70 70 360

  

65

  

75

  70

  No Name Conte nt Orga nizati on

Langu

age

Use

  69.0

  75.0

  70 75 375

  

75

  75

  80

  4 Erwin N.

  74.0

  75 75 370

  

70

  70

  80

  3 Dwi L.

  70 65 345

  85

  

70

  65

  75

  2 Alfin F.

  69.0

  70 65 340

  

65

  65

  80

  1 Aeni

  Total Final score

  Vocab ulary Punctu ation

  5 Fara Afsari

  80

  10 M. Surur

  69.0

  83.0

  80 85 415

  

90

  75

  85

  9 Khoerul U.

  75.0

  80 65 375

  

75

  75

  80

  8 Indra W.

  65 65 345

  

85

  

65

  75

  75

  7 Hamdani

  77.0

  70 80 385

  

75

  80

  80

  6 Fitrianingsih

  82.0

  90 80 410

  85.0

  20 Ridho M.

  81.0

  70 75 370

  74.0

  26 Slamet W.S

  75

  80

  

80

  80 70 385

  77.0

  27 Tiyas Ayutri

  80

  85

  

80

  75 85 360

  28 Ziana Fauzia

  80

  75

  75

  

65

  70 65 350

  70.0

  29 Singgih P

  75

  80

  

65

  70 70 360

  72.0  2184

  Mean of second writing’s project M = M = M = 75, 31

  Explanation : M = Mean of the Language Factors score Σ X = Total of the Language Factors score

  

70

  75

  80

  

65

  75

  

65

  75 80 375

  75.0

  21 Rina B.

  80

  75

  

75

  75 70 375

  75.0

  22 Rof'ul Fadhli

  80

  80

  80 70 375

  25 Siti Nur H.

  75.0

  23 Silfi R.

  75

  80

  

70

  80 70 375

  75.0

  24 Siti Fadhilah

  75

  80

  

70

  70 70 365

  73.0

  N = Total of the Subject/Students

Table 4.10 (Students’ Second Writing Score Percentage)

  

Classification Score Frequency Percentages

  Excellent 90-100 0 % Very Good 80-90 5 17, 25 %

  Good 70-80 21 72, 41 % Good Enough 60-70 3 10, 34 %

  Poor 0%

  ≤ 60

  Total

  29 100% Percentage was counted by this formula :

  P = Explanation : P = percentage F = frequency N = number of students Poor P = x 100 % = 0 % Good Enough P = x 100 % = 10, 34 % Good P = x 100 % = 72, 41 % Very good P = x 100 % = 17, 25 % Excellent P = x 100 % = 0 %

8. Reflection

  After analyzing the result of cycle 1 and 2, it can be concluded that using Project Based Learning could involve students to be active and communicative in learning writing in the classroom. Because before the writer taught them, their teacher usually using Bahasa and always correct the language use first in the class. That is one of the main problem that the students have not confident to write English form in the class, but after the writer taught by using Project Based Learning from cycle 1 and 2 Alhamdulillah they have significant improvement, because in the first meeting all of students are afraid to write in English form.

  The writer have a target in this research is how to make them can write English well, after the writer gave a project, they were very interested and it make their good improving brave to write in English form. They can practice writing and express their idea through the text, although there are many grammatical error and limited vocabularies. But now they can express and increase their vocabularies and can write better now with more confident. They also were brave to show their project in presentation and enjoyed writing.

CHAPTER V CLOSURE A. Conclusion In this research, the researcher applied a project as a method of

  learning process. These project combined with actions and will to demonstrate the meaning of new language by Project Based Learning method. Based on the research problem and data analysis, the writer drew the conclusion of this research as follows;

  1. The conclusion of cycle 1 and 2 showed the students involved actively in teaching learning process. They were encouraged to exchange ideas, opinions about the topics. They were more confident to write in English form than before. It can be noticed that from cycle I the mean of pre-test score was 62, 41 and the post-test was 70, 69. The pre-test and post-test had different score 8,28, it showed the improvement 13, 27 %.Then, in cycle II the pre-test score was 72, 07 and the post-test was 84, 83. The pre- test and post-test had different score 12, 76, it showed the improvement 17, 71%. The average result of the stud ents’ project of writing skill in Cycle I was 69,34 and in Cycle II was 75, 31. It showed improvement 8, 61 %. It showed that Project Based Learning was able to help the students improve their writing abilities.

  The percentage of students’ writing ability rate, they were cycle I 0% excellent, 0% very good, 55,17% good, 44,83% good enough, and 0% poor. Cycle II 0% excellent, 17, 25% very good, 72,41% good, 10, 34% good enough, and 0% poor.

  2. The result of the research showed that the use of Project Based Learning can improve students‘ motivation, interest and achievement. It also increased the students’ problem solving abilities. This project encouraged students to develop and practice their communication with the other friends. It also involved students to find out the information, then showed theirs and implemented in the learning process. The learning atmosphere became enjoy, so the students and the teacher enjoyed the learning process. The implementation of Project Based Learning method was reasonable because it could give students a great motivation to learn English especially writing. Thus, Project Based Learning method is good to improve students‘ interest, motivation and competence in learning writing.

  B.

  Suggestion With observe of the conclusion of the research, the writer proposes some suggestion as follows:

1. The teachers: a.

  The teacher must be creative in the teaching learning English and makes the students comfort in the class. b.

  The teacher should choose a suitable strategy to increase student achievement.

  c.

  The teacher should develop teaching strategy, so the motivation of the learner to study English will always increase. The uses of various strategies are suggested to make the student more interesting.

2. The students: a.

  The student should develop their motivation because it is an important factor in the English learning.

  b.

  The student should learn the material intensively, repeatedly and toughly.

  c.

  The students should do the projects or tasks from the teacher seriously because it is one of methods the teacher use to develop their English ability.

  3. The parents : a.

  The parents are hoped able to create educative condition at home so that student can study optimally.

  b.

  The parents are hoped able to control their children’s study.

  c.

  The parents are hoped to always give motivation their children to study.

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