HOW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILLS
(A CAR at the Eighth Grade in M
Ts Manba’us Sa’diyah
Bandungan in the Academic Year of 2014/2015)
A GRADUATING PAPER
Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the
English and Educational Department
113 10 141
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES
I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I
This graduating paper is whole intended dedicated for:
1. My beloved mother, Maemanah and father, Suwaryadi, you are my
2. My lovely brother Ustadzun, who always motivates me.
3. My big family who always support me.
4. The big Family of Banyukuning Elementary School,
5. All of my best friends who always help, support, motivate me.
Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.
Alhamdulillahirabbil’ alamin, thanks to Allah SWT because the researcher
could complete this research as one of the requirements for getting Educational
Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the English Education Department of State Institute
for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga in 2015. Peace and solution always be given
to our last prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us from the darkness to the
brightness. However, this success would not be achieved without support from
individual, people and institution. For all guidance, the researcher would like
1. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd, as the Rector of State Institute for Islamic
Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, thanks for the time I spend for studying in
2. Suwardi, M.Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education
Faculty, thanks for Islamic Education that you gave to me.
3. Noor Malihah, M.Hum, Ph.D., as the Head of English Education
Department, thanks for your guidance.
4. Hanung Triyoko, S.S, M.Hum, M.Ed, as the counselor, thanks for
advice, support, suggestion, direction and guidance from the beginning
until the end of this research.
5. All of lecturers in English Education Department and all staffs who
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE ... i
DECLARATION ... ii
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ... iii
PAGE OF CERTIFICATION ... iv
MOTTO ... v
DEDICATION ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENT ... ix
LIST OF TABLE AND FIGURES ... xiii
ABSTRACT ... xiv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ... 1
A. Background of the Research ... 1
B. Statements of the Problems ... 7
C. Objectives of the Research ... 8
D. Benefits of the study ... 8
E. Limitation of Terms ... 9
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ... 12
A. Classroom Action Research ... 12
1. The Definition of Classroom Action Research ... 12
2. The Characteristics of Classroom Action Research ... 14
3. The Principles of Classroom Action Research ... 17
B. Writing ... 19
1. The Definition of Writing... 19
2. The Writing Process ... 20
3. The Purposes of Writing ... 22
C. Project Based Learning ... 23
1. Definition of Project Based Learning ... 23
2. Criteria of Project Based Learning ... 25
3. Benefits of Project Based Learning ... 28
4. Disadvantages of Project Based Learning ... 30
5. Teaching through Project Based Learning ... 31
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 33
A. Type of Research ... 33
1. Time ... 33
2. Place ... 34
C. Research Procedure ... 36
D. Population and Sample ... 38
E. Sampling Technique ... 40
F. Technique of Data Collection ... 41
1. Documentation ... 41
2. Observation ... 42
3. Test ... 43
G. Technique of Data Analysis ... 43
CHAPTER IV THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH ... 45
A. Cycle 1 ... 45
B. Cycle 2 ... 59
CHAPTER V CLOSURE ... 78
A. Conclusion ... 78
B. Suggestion ... 79
REFERENCES ... 81
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 List of Population ...38
Table 3.2 List of Sample ...39
Table 3.3 Observation Sheet ...42
Table 4.1 Checklist Observation Sheet Cycle 1 ...50
Table 4.2 Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Cycle 1 ...53
Table 4.3 Students’ Writing skill Rubric Cycle 1 ...55
Table 4.4 Students’ Writing’s Project Result Cycle 1 ...56
Table 4.5 Students’ First Writing Score Percentage ...57
Table 4.6 Checklist Observation Sheet Cycle 2 ...68
Table 4.7 Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Cycle 2 ...70
Table 4.8 Students’ Writing Skill Rubric Cycle 2 ...73
Table 4.9 Students’ Writing’s Project Result Cycle 2 ...74
Table 4.10 Students’ Second Writing Score Percentage ...76
Ainul Fadziah (2015). “HOW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL (A CAR at The Eight Grade of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in The Academic Year 2014/2015)”. A Graduating Paper. Teacher Training and Education Faculty. English and Education Department. State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN). Consultant: Hanung Triyoko, S.S., M. HUM., M. Ed
This research is aimed to describe what the implementation of using the project based learning’s method in the writing class is and describe how can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the problem in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help to improve students’ writing skills.
This research was conducted in MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the Academic Year 2014/2015. Twenty nine students of the eighth grade of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the Academic Year 2014/2015 were instructed through Project Based Learning Method to improve their writing skills. The methodology of this research used Classroom Action Research (CAR). There were two cycles to give the students opportunities to improve their understanding about how to reconstruct and comprehend the organization of Narrative Text well and effectively in groups through doing a project. The results show that the students’ skills improve significantly. The Pre-Test score of the Cycle 1 was 62,41 and the Post-Test score was 70,69. It showed there was an improvement 13,27%. The Pre-Test Score of Cycle 2 was 72,07 and the Post-Test score was 84,83. It showed an improvement 17,71%. This method used the students’ skill to rearrange the jumbled paragraph that they have read, then they tried to rewrite by their own word. This method can help students to remember the organization of narrative text, remember the chronological event of this text, and the details of the vocabulary. In the implementation of Project based Learning Method, the students could enrich their vocabularies, grammar mastery, and be confident to rearrange the text that has been read by their own words. They also showed their understanding about narrative text with good connecting information to another details. This method increased their motivations when joining the English lesson, they were more active in the learning process than before. It increased students’ cooperation with other friends. Based on the results, the researcher recommends using Project Based Learning Method as the solution to improve students’ writing skill.
14 CHAPTER I
A. Background of the Research
Language can’t be separated from human life. Even language is often
used by human life in every activity, so it can be said that interaction is not
happened without language as the medium. The activities that human life’s
doing are like gathering, playing, and giving information using language as
the medium. Language is a human method to express the ideas, feelings, and
ability with own pleasure.
Brown (2007: 6) defines that language is a systematic instrument of
communicating ideas or feelings by using sounds, gestures, or signs agreed.
The primary function of language is for interaction and communication.
Language has an important role in society as a communication tool.
Language enables people to acquire information, knowledge, communicate
and cooperate along with others. However, language cannot be acquired
spontaneously but it needs to be learnt. Just as a baby they cannot speak as
they were born, but they learn by imitating their parent and others. That’s
why language needs to be learnt in order to make communication and
interaction happen properly. In fact, learning a language is learning to
learner's ability to communicate and its success is measured from how well
the learner's use the language itself.
English as one of the international languages in the world should be
mastered by people from many countries in the world to communicate each
other. They may know and understand what they speak communicatively
because of English. Because of the reason, English becomes the first foreign
language that is taught in Indonesia from elementary school up to college.
Putri (2013 : 2) said that learning English means learning four
language skills and its components. The language skills are listening,
speaking, reading, and writing, and its components are grammar, vocabulary,
and sounds system. Writing is one basic skill in learning English beside
listening, speaking, and reading. To write means to communicate using
written language. In writing, all information is delivered through text. Writing
means producing or creating a piece of text.
Writing is regarded as the most difficult skill for foreign language
learners to master because it involves several components which need to be
considered while the learners are writing, such as content, organization,
vocabulary, language use and punctuation (Brown, 2004:244–245).
Writing needs an ability to organize sentences into good text. Writing
also needs a lot of vocabulary mastery in order to reduce the possibility in the
lack of words when they are writing sentence, paragraph, or text. It needs
appropriate as the reader understand of that written form. It needs a right
punctuation using in order the reader catches the purposes and meanings as
suitable as the writer hope. And the last is the content. This is the most
important part that the writer should master it. A good writer will make a
good content of writing in order all of the messages that she or he means are
accepted as appropriate as to the readers.
In the writing learning process, students need to understand all of the
factors above to make good writing. It needs more practices in writing so the
students get used to write anything they can.
Writing becomes one of the students’ difficulties in English language
learning besides speaking moreover in MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah. According
from the English teacher of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah, Mrs. Yuliana, students
have difficulties in creating a good content, organizing several sentences into
good paragraph, and language use.
She said that the students there are lack of the ability in creating good
content. Actually, content is the most important part that should be paid
attention. An integrated content that the writer creates should be understood
by the readers. When the writer creates a bad content, the readers will not get
the messages of the writing well.
She said that the students there are poor in organizing several
sentences into good paragraph. When they listen the word “paragraph”, their
terrible thing to be done. They feel so afraid to arrange words into sentences,
sentences into paragraph, and paragraph into text. They are worry to make a
trouble on it. This fear should be missed from their thought in order they are
able to become a good writer.
She also said that the students there are sometimes use the wrong
languages. The structural languages that they use are usually spaced
inappropriately. When the teacher asks the students to create a narrative text,
the students actually should use the simple past but they use the simple
present. When they are asked to create a descriptive text, they use the simple
past. These troubles are often happened in this school.
Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Manba’us Sa’diyah is one of the Islamic
Junior High School which is located in the village. It makes students don’t
have motivation to master the English especially in writing. Their assumption
that English is difficult and writing is also, are still develop in that
environment. The students become afraid in telling their ideas, trying to
organizing sentences, and wrong using the language. In this school, the
teacher needs an appropriate strategy to overcome this problem.
According to Kemp (1995) cited in Rusman (2011), strategy is a
learning process that has to be done by teacher and students in order the goals
of learning process are able to achieve effectively and efficiently. In teaching
teacher. Teacher is allowed to choose which strategy is effective to be
practiced in the class.
Teachers can practice teaching and learning process through jigsaw.
Jigsaw methodis first developed by Elliot Aronson (1975). This method has two additional version, Jigsaw II (Slavin, 1989) and Jigsaw III (Kagan, 1990). Essentially, it is a cooperative learning design that takes the place of a
lecture. Each student within a team has a piece of the information to be
learned by all students, and each student is responsible for teaching their
section to the other students on the team.
Basically, this method can be applied for the materials which are
related with the reading, writing, listening, or speaking. It combines four
aspects of language (Huda, 2013). However, if this method is practiced in this
school, it will be ineffective strategy. It will be happened because the main
point of this method is share the information to the others. To communicate
with other needs good speaking, so if the students’ speaking skills are poor
the strategy will be applied not as suitable as hoped.
Teachers also can apply SQ3R method. Huda (2013) said that SQ3R or Survey Question Read Recited Review is an understanding strategy which helps students to think of the text they are reading. SQ3R helps students to
find something from the text when they read the text firstly. It helps students
in understanding the text by reviewing the first meaning from title, the bold
answer of the question, repeating the information they get from answering the
question, and reviewing or reflecting the question they answer before. This
method actually can be applied in every skill of English but if this method is
practiced in teaching writing, the writer thinks this method will be ineffective,
moreover if it is applied in Mts Manba’us Sa’diyah. The students’
motivations in reading text are very poor. When they are given a text, they
will be bored to read it. They have no willing in reading, so they will not get
information from the text. If it is happened, the writing process will be done
ineffectively because there is no information which wants to be written.
A teacher needs to use a proper strategy to help her students have
good understanding on new text that they learned. Teacher also needs to
motivate students and create the most effective way to stimulate them, so they
will be interested in practicing their writing. On the other hand, the teacher
should use certain strategy to stimulate students to practice their writing,
because good strategy will support them in achieving good skill including
English skill. Teacher have to teach the material by using good method, good
technique and organize teaching-learning process as good as possible, so
teaching-learning process can run well. It can make student master English
skill, especially in writing skill successfully, because one of the teaching
failures is caused by unsuitable method
There are many teaching strategy that can be applied in the learning
process. Good strategy in the learning helps student understand the lesson,
Yam (2010) cited that learning takes place through the active behavior of the
student, it is what he does that he learns, not what the teacher does. Students
will get their ability in learning process when they practice and do it.
Project Based Learning is a learning strategy which focuses on students’ project. Students are fully involved in the learning process. They
practice to get information or knowledge through the project that they make.
Through this involvement, students are hoped in requiring all of the
information they need on their own. So, they can master it.
From the reason above, Project Based Learning’s Model is hoped
becoming good strategy to improve students’ writing skill in MTs Manba’us
Sa’diyah in the eighth grade, in the academic year of 2014 / 2015.
B. Statements of the Problem
Statements of the Problem in this research are :
a.How is the implementation of the Project Based Learning’s method use in
the writing class of the eighth grade of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us
Sa’diyah in the academic year 2014/2015?
b. How can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the problem
in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help improve
students’ writing skills in the eighth grade students of Madrasah
21 C. Objectives of the Research
Considering the above problems, the objectives of this research are
described as follows :
1.To describe what the implementation of using the project based learning’s
method in the writing class is.
2.To describe how can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the
problem in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help to
improve students’ writing skills.
D. Benefits of the Research
This research is expected to give useful information and contribution
for the students, educators, English teachers and English academicians to
know more about Project Based learning as an appropriate model and strategy
to teach writing.
Giving some contribution to enlarge and enrich the English
language teaching methodologies especially the knowledge about
Project Based Learning’s Model in teaching writing.
a. The writer
This research can be used as starting point in improving the
writers’ teaching experience and it is hoped can contribute to help
22 b. The students
This research can increase students’ activeness to write and
awareness to responsible on their writing skill. It is hoped that the
students will be more motivated to write English well.
c. The English Teachers
This research can give an objective description to the
teacher on how to teach writing to the students using Project Based
Model. It is hoped that teachers can develop language teaching
methods and improve the quality of teaching learning process.
d. The Other Researchers
Give more information about Project Based Learning
Model for the next researchers who will conduct with the similar
problem of writing ability improvement.
E. Limitation of the Terms
To get clear description and avoid errors in interpreting the title, the
writer give limitation of the terms are :
Improve mean to make better in quality or to make more
productive to become better (Webster, 1994: 487). It is also described
23 2. Student
Student is a person who attends a university, college or school for
study; anyone making a serious study of a subject (Merriam, 1981:983)
3. Writing Skills
Writing is a process that occurs a period of time in thinking to
create an initial draft or outline ( Harris, 1993 : 10 ). Writing skill is one
of the four basic English skill beside listening, speaking, and reading.
4. CAR (Classroom Action Research)
Classroom Action Research refers to an acuracy towards learning
activity in which it appears intentionally and occurs together in a class.
The activity is given by a teacher or with a guidance from the teacher
and done by the students (Arikunto, 2007:3)
F. Outline of the Graduating Paper
This graduating paper consists of five chapters. Chapter one is an
Introduction. It contains Background of the Research, Statements of the
Problems, Objectives of the Research, Limitation of the Terms, Benefits of
the Research, and the last is the Outline of the Graduating Paper; which
contains of general frameworks for each chapter for this graduating paper.
Chapter two is Theoretical Framework. This chapter discovers the theories
which are used by the researcher, they are: Classroom Action Research,
Writing, and Project Based Learning. Chapter three is Research
Time and Place Setting, Procedure of the Research, Sample and Population,
Sampling Technique, Technique of Data Collection, Technique of Data
Analysis. Chapter four presents the Implementation of Research. The writer
presents the data and the result of pre-test, post-test, and writing project from
the class which is taught by Project Based Learning. Chapter five is Closure.
It contains Conclusion and Suggestion. The last part is References and
25 CHAPTER II
In this chapter, the writer is going to explain briefly the theoretical
framework which includes the explanation of classroom action research, writing,
and project based learning.
A.Classroom Action Research
1. The Definition of Classroom Action Research
Classroom action research is an action research, which has specific
aim and correlation with class. Marguerite and friends (2010: 40) say in
their books that Action research generally includes a three - step process:
a. Identification of the problem(s) through careful observation and
b. Planning and taking appropriate action (the study)
c. Using the findings to determine if teaching and learning have improved or
if further changes are needed
Arikunto (2006: 3) gives three components in classroom action
26 a. Research
An activity to observe the object by use of ways and
methodologies to get the useful data or information to improve the
quality of thing and that is necessary for researcher.
A movement activity to action with specific purpose, in the
form of activity cycle network for the student.
A group of students, they got a lesson from a teacher in the same
time. Then Arikunto concludes that classroom action research means
monitoring toward teaching learning process in the form of an
action, which is deliberated on action and occur in the class.
Action research deals with social practice. Education is a social
practice. In most cases, it involves the direct interaction of teacher and
groups of students. Classroom is a complex arena, secondary schools are
full of intrigue and conspiracy. Trying to reach understanding of issues
concerned with teaching and learning, therefore, implies getting to grips
with a work range of human issues such as the attitude of students, the
politics within departments and the ethos an environment of the
Elliot (1982) cited in Richard (1989) states that action research
might be defined as the study of a social situation with a view to improving
the quality of action within it.
Gwynn (2004) states that classroom action research is a method of
finding out what works best in your own classroom so that you can improve
student learning. Every teaching situation is unique in terms of content,
level, student skills and learning styles, teacher skills and teaching styles,
and many other factors. To maximize student learning, a teacher must find
out what works best in a particular situation.
The aim of action research is to feed practical judgment in concrete
situations, and the validity of the theories or hypothesis. It is not generate
depends so much on scientific test of truth as their usefulness in
helping people to act more intelligently and skillfully. In recent years,
action research has been applied to problem involving curriculum
development, and in service education, particularly within the field of
self-evaluation (Arikunto, 2006: 57).
2. The Characteristic of Classroom Action Research
Syamsuddin and Damaianti (2007: 197) outlined the following
characteristics of classroom action research:
a. It examines problem which are deemed problematic by researcher in
b. The researcher can give treatment which planned action to solve the
problems and improve the quality, so the subject can get the implication.
c. The steps of research in the form of cycle.
d. Such reflective thinking from researcher both after and before research.
e. Contextual situational, which related to diagnosing and solving the
f. Classroom action research used collaborative approach.
g. Participatory, which each team member accompany in the research.
h. Self-evaluative, which the researcher evaluate by self continually to
improve the performance.
i. The procedure of research is on-the-spot which designed to handle the real
problem in that area.
j. The result applied immediately, long-range in perspective, measuring up
to supple and adaptive.
Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1988) argue that the three defining
characteristics of action research are:
a. It is carried out by practitioners (classroom teachers) rather than outside
b. It is collaborative; and
Especially, they stress that the momentum for carrying out an action
research is to change the system. This assertion is different from Cohen and
Manion (1985) when they identify collaboration as an important feature of
action research ( Hien, 2009 :99)
Relatively different, Borgia and Schuler (1996) cited in Hien (2009)
describe components of action research as the “Five C’s”:
Commitment: Time commitment should be carefully considered by
participants of action research since it takes them time to get
acquaintance with other participants, think about change, try new
approach, collect data, interpret results, etc.
Collaboration: In an action research all participants are equal to each
others in terms of giving ideas, suggestions or anything that leads to
success of the change.
Concern: In the research process, participants will build up a group of
“critical friends” who trust each other and the value of the project.
Consideration: As it is mentioned above, reflective practice is a mindful
review of a professional research like action research. It demands
concentration and careful consideration as one seeks patterns and
relationships that will create meaning within the investigation.
Change: For humans, especially teachers, change is continuing and it is
3. The Principles of Classroom Action Research
According to Hopkins (1993: 57-61), there are six principles of
classroom action research by teacher as follows:
a. The teacher’s primary job is to teach, and any research method should not
interfere with or disrupt the teaching commitment.
b. The method of data collection must not be too demanding on the
c. The methodology employed must be reliable enough to allow teachers to
formulate hypotheses confidently and develop strategies applicable to
d. The research problem under taken by the teacher should be one to which
he or she is committed.
e. The need for teacher researchers to pay close attention to the ethical
procedures surrounding the work.
f. That as far as possible classroom research should adopt a “classroom
exceeding‟ perspective. This is that all members of a school community
actively build and share a common vision of their main purpose.
In accordance with the principles that classroom action research has
to concentrate on the matters happened in the class. A class is one unity of
the concerning elements and to reach the specific aim. The components
of used, result of the study, environmental of the study, and the management
that conducted by head of the school. The object of perceived in classroom
action research does not have always when process of the study underway
because class is not room, but it is a group of students (Arikunto, 2006: 24).
According to Aqib (2006: 18) classroom action research is one of
the strategic ways for the teacher to improve the educationally service which
must be carried out in the context of study in the class and improvement of
the school program quality on the whole. The aims of the classroom action
research are to improve and to increase the process of the study in the class to
be carried out continuous. These aims are close relationship with the teacher
in fulfilling their professional mission ofeducation.
Related with components of the study, classroom action research
have some benefits, they are:
a. Innovation of the study.
b. Development of the curriculum in the school and class level.
c. Improvement of the teacher professionalism.
1. The Definition of Writing
Writing is one basic skill in learning English beside listening,
speaking, and reading. To write means to communicate using written
means producing or creating a piece of text. Harmer (2001: 249) states,
language production means that students should use all and any languages
at their disposal to achieve a communicative purpose rather than be
restricted to specific practice points. Writing is more difficult rather than
other language skills because it needs well knowledge and hard thinking
when they produce words, sentences and paragraphs with a good
Harmer (2001: 255) said:
Written text has a number of conventions which separate it out from speaking. Apart from differences in grammar and vocabulary, there are issues of letter, word, and text formation, manifested by handwriting, spelling, and layout and punctuation.
It means that good content of writing only is not enough. A writer
must also have sufficient language components like grammar, vocabulary,
punctuation, and spelling to facilitate him/her in expressing his/her ideas,
experiences, thoughts, and feelings. The writing should be organized well,
in order to be easily read and understood by the readers.
In other word, writing is first and foremost an intellectual activity.
Writing is also a social process. It puts one mind (the writer’s) in touch
with other minds (those of the audience) and creates a community (Beene,
1992: 67). Like reading and reasoning, writing is a recursive process: it
involves overlapping and repetition (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 68). To
write is put down the graphic symbols that represent a language one
language and the graphic representation. But, writing is the partial
representation of units of language expression (Lado, 1964: 143).
From the explanation above, it can conclude that writing is the way
or the process to express or to represent writer’s knowledge into a textual
medium by following linguistic rules.
2. The Writing Process.
Writing, particularly academic ones, is not easy. It takes study and
practice to develop this skill. For both native speakers and new learners of
English, it is important to note that writing is a process, not a product
(Oshima, 1991: 3). There are four components of a writing process:
inventing, drafting, revising, and editing (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 71).
Inventing is the crafting before write a first draft. Inventing, a
prewriting stage, includes choosing a topic or issue, discovering about
the topic, narrowing and shaping ideas into a plan, and framing a
generalization that sets forth perspective on topic and suggest how the
text will present perspective and ideas.
Drafting includes proposing a thesis statement, deciding on tone,
Revising includes rethinking the content, organization, and level
of formality of text. Revising is the key to success because the process of
rewriting gives a chance to writer in improving their written.
Editing includes check revised draft for misspellings, grammatical
confusion, or incoherence and putting text in a suitable format for
Ron White and Arndt (1991) cited in Harmer (2001) are keen to
stress that writing is re-writing; that re-vision – seeing with new eyes – has
a central role to play in the act of creating text. In their model, process of
writing is an interrelated set of recursive stages which includes :
Drafting means outlining the general information which wants to
be written. This is the first part in writing.
Structuring means ordering the information and experimenting
with arrangements. In this part, the writer arranges the outline which
is written in the draft before into good text.
Reviewing means the step to get checking the context,
connections, assessing the impact, and editing.
Focusing is making sure you are getting the message across you
want get across.
e. Generating Ideas and Evaluation
It is a part for assessing the draft or subsequent it. When the errors
are done, the writer should making revision or improvement.
3. The Purposes of Writing
The goal of written language is to convey information accurately,
effectively, and appropriately; and to do this written language has to be
more explicit than spoken discourse ( Richards, 1990: 101). In another
purpose writing is to persuade an already knowledgeable audience that can
interpret factual information in a way that shows the information is now
part of academic experience (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 72).According
Oshima and Hogue (1991: 3), the purpose of a piece of writing determines
the rhetorical form chosen for it. A persuasive essay will be organized in
one way and an expository essay in another way.
C. Project Based Learning
According to Krajcik&Blumenfeld (2006) Markham, Larmer,
&Ravitz (2003) cited in Lee, Blackwell, Drake,& Moran,
(2014)project based learning is an inquiry-based instructional approach
that offers one avenue to reform. It reflects a learner-centered
environment that concentrates on students’ use of disciplinary
concepts, tools, experiences and technologies to answer questions and
solve real-world problems.
On the journal entitled “A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning”, Thomas (2000) definesproject based learning (PBL) as a model that organizes learning around projects.It means that learning
process is focused on the concepts and principles, involving the
students in the problem-solving investigation, and other tasks which
give students opportunity to construct their own knowledge, and then
achieve the goal to produce the real project.
He also agrees with the definition found in PBL handbooks for
teachers (Jones, Rasmussen, & Moffitt, 1997; Thomas, Mergendoller,
&Michaelson, 1999), that projects are complex tasks, based on
challenging questions or problems, that involve students in design,
problem-solving, decision making, or investigative activities; give
students the opportunity to work relatively autonomously over
extended periods of time; and culminate in realistic products or
Jason Schwalm and Karen SmuckTylek on their journal (2009)
cites that PBL is an approach to instruction that emphasizes
“authentic learning tasks grounded in the personal interests of
learners” (Grant, 2009:1). The Buck Institute for Education calls PBL
as “a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning
knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured
around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products
and tasks” (Markham, 2003:4). However it is defined that PBL
presents students with real-world, multidisciplinary problems that
demand critical thinking, engagement, and collaboration.
On the other definition, PBL is defined as a teaching approach
that has significant potential to transform teaching from a dull and
mundane process of passive learning to one where students actively
engage with the material, resulting in deeper learning and significant
other outcomes (Yam& Rossini : 2010).
From the definition above, the writer concludes that project
based learning is a model of teaching learning process which focuses
on the students’ project. Students become the center of all activities
during learning process. They begin the learning from the question or
problem which sends them to find information with their own. They
should find the solution of the problem and the goal should they
38 2. Criteria of Project Based Learning
According to the Training of 2013 Curriculum which published
by BPSDMPK and PMP 2013 and Center for Youth Development and
Education-Boston (Muliawati, 2010 : 10) cited by Widyantini
(2014)the criteria of project based learningare :
a. There is problem or complex challenges which is shown to the
b. Students design the problem-solving process or challenge which is
shown by using investigation
c. Students learn and apply ability and knowledge that they have to the
several contexts when doing project.
d. Students work in a cooperative team, and also when they discuss
with the teacher
e. Students practice several ability which is needed to their mature and
career (how to allocate the time, being responsible person, personal
skill, and learn from experience)
f. Students reflect their activity regularly
g. Students’ final projects are evaluated
Thomas (2000) has different criteria. He has five criteria on
project based learning. They are centrality, driving question,
constructive investigations, autonomy, and realism.
PBL projects are central, not peripheral to the curriculum. This
projects are the curriculum. In PBL, the project is the central teaching
strategy; students encounter and learn the central concepts of the
discipline via the project. There are instances where project work
follows traditional instruction in such a way that the project serves to
provide illustrations, examples, additional practice, or practical
applications for material taught initially by other means. However,
these "application" projects are not considered to be instances of PBL,
according to this criterion. Second, the centrality criterion means that
projects in which students learn things that are outside the curriculum
("enrichment" projects) are also not examples of PBL, no matter how
appealing or engaging.
PBL projects are focused on questions or problems that "drive"
students to encounter (and struggle with) the central concepts and
principles of a discipline. This criterion is a subtle one. The definition
of the project (for students) must "be crafted in order to make a
connection between activities and the underlying conceptual
knowledge that one might hope to foster."
Projects involve students in a constructive investigation. An
investigation is a goal-directed process that involves inquiry,
knowledge building, and resolution. Investigations may be design,
decision-making, problem-finding, problem-solving, discovery, or
model-building processes. But, in order to be considered as a PBL
transformation and construction of knowledge (by definition: new
understandings, new skills) on the part of students
(Bereiter&Scardamalia, 1999). If the central activities of the project
represent no difficulty to the student or can be carried out with the
application of already-learned information or skills, the project is an
exercise, not a PBL project. This criterion means that straightforward
service projects such as planting a garden or cleaning a stream bed are
projects, but may not be PBL projects.
Projects are student-driven to some significant degree. PBL
projects are not, in the main, teacher-led, scripted, or packaged.
Laboratory exercises and instructional booklets are not examples of
PBL, even if they are problem-focused and central to the curriculum.
PBL projects do not end up at a predetermined outcome or take
predetermined paths. PBL projects incorporate a good deal more
student autonomy, choice, unsupervised work time, and responsibility
than traditional instruction and traditional projects.
Projects are realistic, not school-like. Projects embody
characteristics that give them a feeling of authenticity to students.
These characteristics can include the topic, the tasks, the roles that
students play, the context within which the work of the project is
carried out, the collaborators who work with students on the project,
the products that are produced, the audience for the project's products,
Gordon (1998) makes the distinction between academic challenges,
scenario challenges, and life challenges. PBL incorporates
real-life challenges where the focus is on authentic (not simulated)
problems or questions and where solutions have the potential to be
implemented (Thomas, 2000).
3. Benefits of Project Based Learning
Many benefits of incorporating project work in second and
foreign language settings have been suggested. Fragoulis (2009) on his
journal entitle “Project-Based Learning in the Teaching of English as A Foreign Language in Greek Primary Schools: From Theory to Practice” agrees several taught about the benefits of project based learning.
First, he agrees with Fried-Booth’s (2002) opinionthat the process
leading to the end-product of project-work provides opportunities for
students to develop their confidence and independence. In addition, he
also agrees with Stoller (2006 ; 27) that students demonstrate increased
self-esteem, and positive attitudes toward learning.
He also notes Skehan’s (1998) opinion that students’ autonomy is
enhanced by PBL, especially when they are actively engaged in project
planning (e.g. choice of topic). He also mentions the further benefit
to students’ increased social, cooperative skills, and group
He finds another reported benefit said by Levine (2004) that
PBL is improve language skills. This opinion is supported by Haines
(1989) which is noted in his journal too. PBL is improve language
skills because students engage in purposeful communication to
complete authentic activities, they have the opportunity to use
language in a relatively natural context and participate in meaningful
activities which require authentic language use.
He explains about authentic activities as Brown (1993) said they
refer to activities designed to develop students’ thinking and problem
solving skills which are important in out-of-schools contexts, and to
foster learning to learn.
He adds with Stoller’s (2006) opinion, project-based learning
provides opportunities for “the natural integration of language skills”.
He also adds as Lee (2002) that PBL makes students have enhanced
motivation, engagement and enjoyment.
He notes that projects being authentic tasks, are more
meaningful to students, increase interest, motivation to participate, and
can promote learning. Enjoyment and motivation also stem from the
fact that classroom language is not predetermined, but depends on the
nature of the project (Larsen-Freeman, 2000:149). Another set of
higher order critical thinking skills. These skills are very important,
since they are life-long, transferable skills to settings outside the
Finally, the writer concludes the benefits of PBL are to enhance
students’ motivation, interest, and confidence, students’ language skills
are improved, students get used to solve their problem related to the
authentic activities, and the students become independent because they
solve it themselves.
4. Disadvantages of project Based Learning
Several studies found that PBL is challenging for teachers to
enact despite its positive benefits. For example, one study found the
following barriers to successful implementation of PBL:
a. projects were time-consuming
b. classrooms felt disorderly
c. teachers could not control the flow of information
d. it was difficult to balance giving students independence and
providing them supports
e. it was difficult to incorporate technology as a cognitive tool, and
f. authentic assessments were hard to design (Marx, et al., 1997).
In addition, the authors found that teachers generally focused on
addressing one or two of these challenges at a time and moved back
information gradually and with varied success (Marx, et al., 1994;
Marx, et al., 1997). Teachers also may struggle with entrenched beliefs
when attempting to implement PBL. For example, it may be
challenging to negotiate between giving students opportunities to
explore their interests or covering the state standards, allowing
students to develop individual answers or providing students with one
correct answer, and empowering students to direct their learning or
controlling the distribution of expert knowledge (Ladewski, et al.,
5. Teaching through Project Based Learning
Fragoulis also notes that effective project-based learning requires
the teacher to assume a different role (Levy, 1997). The teacher’s role
is not dominant, but he/she acts as a guide, advisor, coordinator
(Papandreou, 1994), and facilitator. In implementing the project
method, the focal point of the learning process moves from the teacher
to the learners, from working alone to working in groups.
To make PBL effective, Yam and Rossini (2010) notes that
teachers play important roles in motivating students and creating a
classroom environment conducive for students learning (Yam &
Burger 2009). Collaboration among the students, teachers and others in
the community is important so that knowledge can be shared and
Therefore, teachers’ support as well as continuous tutorial
discussions involving teachers and students is imperative to sustain
students’ motivation in the PBL process (Blumenfeld et al. 1991). For
instance, teachers can help by providing access to information, and
support learning by scaffolding instructions to make the tasks more
manageable. It is argued that teachers shouldbreak down tasks to make
it manageable, coaching students in formulating strategies to solve
problems, and gradually releasing responsibility to the students
46 CHAPTER III
G. Type of Research
Research methodology is science that learns about research method or
research instrument (Sofanudin, 2009:35). The method used in this research
was classroom action research. As stated by Kemmis that ActionResearch is a form of self reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situation
in order to improve the rationality and justices, their understanding of these
practices and the situations in which the practices are carried out; (Hopkins,
Elliot (1982) cited in Richard (1989) states that action research might
be defined as the study of a social situation with a view to improving the
quality of action within it. Applying classroom action research is intended to
give new information and knowledge to the teacher and students in Mts
H. Time and Place Setting 1.Time
This research carried in the eighth grade students of MTs
Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the academic year of 2014/2015.
There were some steps in this research: preparation, implementation,
analyses of the data, and report writing. The details of each activity were
as follow :
a)4th February 2015 : Proposal Draft Consultation
b)20th February 2015 : Instrument Consultation
a)25thFebruary 2015 : Research Permission
b)26thFeb - 26thMarch 2015 : Data collection
3) Analyses of Data and Research Report
a)27th March 2015 : Data Analysis
b)6th April 2015 : Research Report
This research was taken place at MTs PSA Manba’us Sa’diyah
Banyukuning Village, Bandungan Sub district, Semarang Regency. MTs
Manbaus Sa’diyah Bandungan is one of the junior high school in
Bandungan. The detail of this school is described as follows:
a) School Name : MTs PSA Manbaus Sa’diyah
b) No. School Statistic : 121233220038
c) School Type : B ( 11 November 2012 )
d) School Address : JalanKalipawon 1,5 Banyukuning – Jambu
: (Sub district) Bandungan
: ( Regency) Semarang
: ( Province) Central Java
e) Phone/HP : 085640279484
g) School Status : Private ( as a part of a committee )
MTs PSA Manbaus Sa’diyah is a junior high school which applies
Islamic Education in the learning process. It is one roof school which
applies boarding house in the teaching learning process. It school has only
three classes, grade Seven, Eight, and Nine. It is only one class for each
grade. This school has built since 1st Juni 2009 under the Manba’us
Sa’diyah committee’s management. This school has built cause of the
cooperation of the AIBEP (Australia Indonesia Basic Education Partner)
and the figure this school surrounding.
The environments of this school are religious people, so it is built
to fulfill people need in Islamic Education. It applies learning process as
same as boarding house. There are many Islamic Subjects which is taught
beside the general ones.
In this school, the lesson is started at 07.00 a.m. It is begun with an
additional subjects, boarding house’s learning in the class for about 30
minutes and continued with the usual subject. It is finish at 13.25 p.m.
except on Friday the lesson ended at 11.00 a.m. It is 40 minutes for one
hour lesson and there are two break times at 09.30 – 09.45 and the second
break to do praying together at 11.45 - 12.15. Therefore, the students learn
approximately 45 hours in a week divided into 17 general subjects and 6
boarding house’s subject. In the eighth grade, English is taught twice a
I. Research Procedure
This study used action research, so the writer used the steps as Kemmis
stated. The procedures stated by Kemmis are briefly describes in the
Figure 3.1 Research Procedure
(Kemmis in Hopkins, 1963)
There were two cycles in this action research. In each cycle the
procedures are follows :
1) Preparing materials, making lesson plan and designing the steps in
doing the action.
2) Preparing list of students’ name and scoring.
3) Preparing teaching aids.
4) Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation
of teaching-learning process when the method or technique or
model is applied).
1) Teaching the material.
2) Team study.
3) Giving occasion to the students to ask any difficulties or problems.
4) Giving written test
Observation is one of instruments used in collecting the data.
Observation is a scientific method that can be systematically used to
observe and note the phenomena investigated (Hadi, 1995: 136).
The writer used this observation to write something that happened in the
The writer’s reflection was done by discussing with her
collaborator. Note of the lack, incompatibility between action and
scenario or different response of students that expected. They
alternative decision of problem solving. Then the next cycle could be
decided or designed.
J. Population and Sample
Population is the whole of the research subject (Arikunto, 1991:102).
The population of this research was all of the students of in Manba’us
Sa’diyah Islamic Junior High School Bandungan Subdistrict. The numbers of
the population are described on the following table.
Table 3.1 List of Population
Number of Students
1. VII 11 9 20
2. VIII 12 17 29
3. IX 12 9 21
Number 35 35 70
Arikunto ( 1991) also states that sample is the representation of the
population will be researched. The samples were 29 students, 17 females and
12 males taken from the population. They came from intermediate to
54 29. Singgih Prabowo
K. Sampling Technique
The researcher used purposive sampling technique to get sample in
her investigation. Purposive sampling is sampling technique based on the
characteristics that is decided of the previous researcher (Dantes, 2012 : 46 ).
In this case, the writer asked Mrs. Yuliana Kustatik, S.Pd as the English
teacher to find more information from the students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah
Manba’us Sa’diyah about their writing skills. She suggested to take the eighth
grade which is become the object of this research. According to her, this class
needs more help in writing learning process. The students of this class are
poor in writing ability. She suggested to choose this class and said this
research would be done successfully.
L. Technique of Data Collection 1.Documentation
As the object that is paid attention to get information, we keep
eyes open for three sources, they are paper, place, and people (Arikunto,
2010). The documentation was used to get more information about the
students of the eighth grade of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah
Bandungan. It was used to get a lot of data from this school, they were
situation of the school. The source of this data was text book or other
supporting book from Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah.
Observation method is also called tracking comprise attention
focusing activity to such object by using all of the senses (Arikunto,
2002:133). This method was used to collect the data when the writer did
the research in the use of Project Based Learning’s Model to improve
students’ writing skill. It also used to know the situation of the teaching
learning process when the strategy was applied. It became the crucial
method because we did not only know the students’ responses but we
could also know about their feeling and their thought of their teacher.
This was the observation sheet the researcher used in this research.
Table 3.3 Observation Sheet
Always Often Rare Never
1. Students are happy to follow the
56 2. Students are passive during the
3. Students try to collect the task on
4. Students are understand the lesson
5. Students ask to the teacher if they
6. Students do the project with their
7. Students are nervous to present
the material in front of the class
8. Students get difficulties to answer
9. Students give feedback from the
result of the project
10. Students use English in classroom
Writer gave test in the meeting. It was written test. These tests
were pre-test and post-test that were given in every cycle of this research.
Except the pre-test and post-test, the students also were given a project in
every cycle. All of the tests can be seen on Appendixes.
M. Technique of Data Analysis
After collecting the data, the next step of the study were
analyzing the data. The data are the result of test from pre test and post test.
In analyzing the test scores, a statistical technique was to find out the mean
score of the students.
The formula that the writer used as follow:
Mean : the average scores
∑x : number of scores
N : number of case (responden) (Hadi, 1974 : 37)
The second technique was counting the percentage of the students’
writing skill through organizing a text.
58 Explanation :
P : number percentage
F : frequency (students’ understanding)
59 CHAPTER IV
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH
In this Implementation, the researcher has arranged two teaching sessions,
the steps are: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting
A. Cycle 1
The activities in the planning are :
a. Preparing materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in
doing the action in MTs MANBA’US SA’DIYAH
b. Preparing list of the students’ name and scoring
c. Preparing teaching aids (material, books, bold marker,etc)
d. Preparing sheet for classroom observation ( to know the situation of
teaching learning process when the method or technique or mode is
aplied in MTs MANBA’US SA’DIYAH)
e. Preparing a test (pre test).
The reasearcher and collaborator did research on Friday 6th March
2015 in the Eighth class. The class atmosphere was too crowded and
disorganized. It was because they got Mathematic lesson in the last
minute. So they were bored. This was a challenge for researcher to face
this situation. Next, the researcher introduces herself and explains what
Mrs. Yuliyana : assalamualaikum Wr. Wb
Students : waalaikumsalamWr. Wb
Mrs. Yuliyana : morning class, how are you today?
Students : I’m fine thank you. How about you?
Mrs. Yuliyana : I’m fine too thank you
Jangan heran kenapa hari ini saya membawa teman, ya karena kelas ini selama beberapa hari kedepan akan menjadi kelas special karena kelas ini akan menjadi object penelitian ( don’t be wonder, why I am with my
friend today, for next somedays this class will be a special class, because
this class there will be an object of research )
Students : wah keren dong Bu? (that’s great Mom)
Mrs. Yuliyana : ya karena kelas kalian adalah kelas yang istimewa, jangan bangga dulu, istimewa nakalnya, ( yes, because this is special class, don’t be proud. I mean super naughty class )
Students : huuuu ,
Mrs. Yuliyana : Now, the time is yours Miss Ainul.
Researcher : good morning students
Students : good morning Miss
Researcher : I would like to Introduce my self, my name is
Ainul Fadziah and you can call me Ainul. Any question?
Fara : where do you live?
Researcher : I live in Tarukan, Bandungan
Musrifah : what is your Hobby Miss?
Researcher : my hobby are writing, watching film, and
traveling. Any question ?
Students : enough Miss.
Researcher : let us start our first meeting today, I want to know
all of you, so please introduce your self one by one, who want to be the
Fara : I am Miss. ( Fara introduced her self and than all
of students )
Researcher : before we start our lesson today, I will give you a
Researcher went around spreading pieces of pre-test. Then, students did
it in 10 minutes. After they were finished, they collected to the
Researcher : now, we will study about Narrative Text. Do you
know about it?
Singgih : No Miss.
Students : wwuuuu, (they shouted)
Umam : I know Miss.
Researcher : OK. Tell me now!
Researcher : Excellent! Then, can you tell me what the purpose
of that text is?
Umam : untuk menghibur pembaca (to entertain the reader) Researcher : That’s great! Anybody wants to translate your
Fara : Yes, I am.
Researcher : OK, please! Give in complete sentence!
Fara : OK, Miss. The purpose of narrative text is to retell
the past event, to amuse or entertain the reader or listener.
Researcher : Excellent. That’s very complete answer. Then, do
you know what the generic structure of this text is?
Fara : Orientation, Complication, Resolution, and
Re-orientation or coda.
Researcher : That’s great!
Then, the researcher explained about narrative. She gave a
narrative text. She wrote in the whiteboard the example of making
sentences to the text entitled SNOW WHITE. She explained the generic
structure one by one paragraph started from Orientation, Complication,
Resolution, and Re-orientation or Coda about 10 minutes.
Researcher : OK. Now, we will make a narrative’s project. But,
we have to make a group before. Please count from 1 to 7 one by one.