STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS COMPUTER ASSISTED LANGUAGE LEARNING IN EFL CLASS
STUDENTS’ ATTITUDE TOWARDS COMPUTER ASSISTED
LANGUAGE LEARNING IN EFL CLASS
Submitted to the English Education Department of FKIP Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya as a Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for getting Sarjana Pendidikan Degree by
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
2 ABSTRAK Trisna Gumiwang. 2016.
Students’ Attitude toward Computer Assisted
Language Learning (CALL) in EFL Class. Program Pendidikan BahasaInggris. Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan. Universitas Siliwangi.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sikap umum yang dimiliki para mahasiswa pendidikan bahasa tingkat satu di salah satu universitas negeri di Tasikmalaya terhadap CALL pada kelas bahasa inggris. Dengan menggunakan kualitatif survey, 32 responden dilibatkan dalam pengisian kuisioner dimana skala Likert digunakan sebagai pengukurnya dan diikuti dengan mewawancarai 3 responden untuk mengetahui bagaimana perasaan dan pemikiran mereka tentang seberapa pentingnya CALL untuk mereka. Kuisioner yang digunakan mencakup tiga komponen, yaitu: affect, cognitive dan behavior. Hasil penelitian menyatakan bahwa mereka memiliki sikap positif paling dominan terhadap CALL. Untuk mengecek kembali hasil kuisioner, maka wawancara terstruktur di pilih agar mendapatkan jawaban yang jelas dari responden. Mereka setuju bahwa CALL membantu mereka untuk mempelajari bahasa dengan cara yang lebih nyaman dan menyenangkan, khususnya bahasa inggeris. Dengan belajar menggunakan CALL, mereka setuju bahwa kecakapan bahasa dan kosa kata mereka juga biasa meningkat. Sejauh ini, mereka menggunakan berbagai jenis CALL untuk keperluan mata kuliah maupun di luar mata kuliah.
All praises are due to Allah swt., the Lord of the universe. By efforts and all of God’s mercies, this thesis can be conducted entitled, “Students’ Attitude toward Computer Assisted Language Learning in EFL Class”. It submitted to the English Education Department of FKIP Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya as a partial fulfilment of the requirements for getting Sarjana Pendidikan Degree.
The writer realizes that this thesis cannot be accomplished without any help and support from other people. Therefore, in this opportunity, the writer would like to express her sincere gratitude, especially to: 1.
Head of the English Education Department of FKIP Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya; 2. Yusup Supriyono, S.Pd, M.Pd., as the first supervisor for his time and patience in guiding the writer to write this thesis;
3. Melisa Sri, S.Pd, M.Pd., as the second supervisor for her time and patience in guiding the writer to write this thesis;
4. Lecturers of English Education Department FKIP Siliwangi University Tasikmalaya; 5. Her lovely parents who have supported her spiritually and financially.
6. Her beloved brothers who always give her love, support and prayer.
7. Her beloved friends and students of English Education Department who have given the inspiration in writing this thesis.
8. People who helped her finish this thesis.
The writer realizes that there must be many weaknesses. Thus, the writer readily opens the objective criticism and constructive suggestions of this thesis.
Finally, the writer expects this thesis will be beneficial not only for the writer herself but also for the readers.
Tasikmalaya, October 2016 The writer .
TABLE OF CONTENTSPages APPROVAL ABSTRAK PREFACE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF PICTURES
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background
B. Formulation of the Problems ……………………………..2
C. Operational Definitions ………………………………......3
D. Aim of the Research ………………………………..........3
E. Uses of the Research ………………………………..........4
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A. Theoretical Study………………………………...............5 1. Attitude……………………………….........................5 a. Definitions of Attitude……………………….……5 b. Attitude Components………………………….......6 c. Positive and Negative Attitude toward CALL… …9 2. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL)…….12 a. Definitions of CALL……………………………...14 b.
Evaluating CALL in Language Learning………...17 d.
Uses of CALL in Language Learning……………19 B. Study of the Relevant Research………………………...19 C. Framework………………………………………….......20
CHAPTER III RESEARCH PROCEDURES A. Method of the Research………………………………...21 B. Focus of the Research…………………………………..22 C. Data and Source of the Data…………………………....22 D. Steps of the Research…………………………………...23 E. Techniques of Collecting the Data……………………..24 F. Research Instruments…………………………………..24 G. Techniques of Analyzing the Data……………………..25 H. Time and Place of the Research………………………..26 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSION A. Research Result and Discussion
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusion……………………………………………..37 B. Suggestions…………………………………………….38 BIBLIOGRAPHY
LIST OF PICTURES
Picture 2.1: engVid………………………………………………………………14 Picture 2.2: Edmodo …………...…..……………………………………………15 Picture 2.3: Kamus 2.03.………..…..……………………………………………16 Picture 2.4: Skype ………………….……………………………………………16 Picture 2.5: HeadsUp!………...…….……………………………………………17
1 CHAPTER I
This chapter consists of five subtitles. The first is background that explains the issues about students’ attitude toward Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in English as Foreign Language class. The second is formulation of the problems leading to the question of students’ attitude toward CALL in language learning. The third is operational definitions that explain some terms related to the topic of this research. The fourth is the aims of the research that has been achieved. Finally, this thesis enables to give some contributions for education field, especially in students’ attitude toward CALL in EFL class.
Learners’ attitude sets up learners’ attention. Attention is an important thing to be existed in every learner in learning process. Learner is ready to receive what he learns if he appears his attention showing his readiness to learn. As Mill (1960) stated, “A child’s attitude toward subject matter often set up a process of selective attention. What he will learn is determined in part by his readiness to receive” (p. 213). It means that someone will be ready to receive what he listens and sees to subject matter or something, If he is ready, he will give his attention to material being learned belong he has positive attitude.
Learners’ attitude affects students’ learning achievement. Rahimi (2015) stated, “Students’ positive attitudes towards CALL, motivate them in
students ’ motivation toward CALL and their examination result of lesson using CALL depends on their attitude toward CALL. Learner’s attitude toward CALL has also important role in someone’s language acquisition.
Talebinezhad and Abarghoui (2013) argued, “The attitudes of learners toward CALL could play an important role in language acquisition” (p. 330). They added, “… attitudes toward CALL could be either positive or negative” (p.
331). It means that attitude toward CALL can be positive or negative.
From the description above, the writer tries to conduct a study entitled
Students’ Attitude toward Computer Assisted Language Learning in EFL Class. The study of using CALL in language learning had been ever
conducted by Tuncok (2010) titled
Students’ Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Learning, Computer Assisted Language Learning and Foreign Language Learning . His study is conducted to students’ of Turkish American
Association in Turkey. The result showed that they have positive attitude toward CALL. The difference of this study is in the setting of study. This study is conducted to Asian learner while the previous research was hold in Middle East learners and the object is the students in one of state university in West Java, Indonesia.
B. Formulation of the Problems
Since students’ attitude is an influence factor for CALL, this study becomes an attempt to investigate it. Consequently, a question that will be addressed in this study: what are students’ attitudes toward computer assisted language learning in EFL class?
The terms used in this study are as follows:
1. It is a concept of behavior impacted on Students’ attitudes : both learners’ achievement and performance. In this term, attitude is how learners react and behave toward CALL and how they feel after using CALL in language learning.
2. Computer Assisted Language : It is a computer hardware or software Learning (CALL) application used as a tool or search for both teacher and learner in language teaching and learning to strengthen both their language learning and acquisition and to present the material interactively. In this study, CALL is used for language learning inside or outside the classroom, such as Edmodo.
D. Aim of the Research
This research aims to investigate the students’ attitudes toward CALL in EFL class.
E. Uses of the Research
There are some contributions from this research, as follows:
This research is used as a study relevant for the next researchers with different objects. Beside, the findings of this research can be as an inspiration for the readers or teachers about using technology CALL in language learning to analyze the same issues in their places.
2. Practical Uses
This research is expected to be beneficial for the English teachers, for the students, for the researcher, and for the next researchers, as follows: a.
For students, this research is intended to inspire them in language learning and acquisition by using CALL in both formal and informal ways.
For teachers, this research is expected to give some information and a reference of how to evaluate students who use CALL in his class and how to apply CALL in his language teaching as his innovation in EFL classroom.
For researcher, this research is expected to enrich the researcher’s knowledge about students’ attitude toward the use of CALL in language learning.
For other researcher, this research can be used as information and reference for next researcher.
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL BACKGROUND This chapter consists of three parts. Those are theoretical studies and study
of the relevant research. Theoretical studies discuss some theories related to students’ attitude and computer assisted language learning. Meanwhile, study of the relevant research explains the previous studies related to this research.
A. Theoretical Study 1. Attitude a. Definitions of Attitude Someone’s behavior is properly arranged by his attitude.
Fabrigar , Petty, Smith and Crites (2006) said, “…attitude is a meaningful guide to behavior…” (p. 568). It means that behavior is directed by attitude. Our behavior follows our attitude. If our attitude turns left, then our behavior will follow to the left and conversely.
Attitude is beliefs and feeling affecting someone’s learning achievement. Latchanna and Dagnew (2009) found that attitude is accepted as an important concept to understand human behavior and is defined as a mental state that includes beliefs and feelings. Beliefs about language learning is directly associated with success in language classes (as cited in Oroujlou and Vahedi, 2011, p. 994). It is obviously human behavior presents attitude to understand someone’s attitude to see his behavior. Meanwhile, beliefs and feeling are relat es to someone’s belief about language learning itself. If someone has a good belief toward language learning, then he has a good attitude toward it. If someone has a good attitude toward language learning, then he will be successful in his language class.
Success in IT system is impacted by attitude toward IT system itself. Gracia and Pintrich (1996) found that studies on information technology continuously reports that users’ attitude are important factors affecting the success of the system (as cited in Rahimi, 2015, p. 8). It means that someone’s success in IT system is affected by someone’s attitude itself.
It can be concluded that attitude is a concept of behavior impacting on both learners’ achievement and performance. In this term, attitude is how learners react and behave toward CALL and how their feelings after using CALL, such as Edmodo, e-learning, BBC Learning English and so on.
b. Attitude Components
A number of researchers have considered how cognitive, affective and behavior components contribute to the formation and expression of attitudes. It is inline with Maio and Haddock (2013) who said, “Attitudes have cognitive, affective, and behavioral components” (p. 32). Besides, Breckler (1984) also said, “It is very common to identify three attitude components: affect, behavior, and cognition” (p. 1191). Furthermore, Zan and Martino (2007) stated,
“…three components in the attitude: emotional response, beliefs regarding the subject, behaviour related to the subject” (p. 158). It means that attitude is identified by three components: affective, behavior and cognition. The following are the explanations.
Feelings and emotions toward somebody or something is defined as an affect. Gass and Selinker ( 2008) said, “Affect is “a feeling or emotion as distinguished from cognition, thought, or action” (p. 398). In other words, it refers to feelings or emotions that individuals have about something. Besides, Maio and Haddock (2013) said, “The affective component refers to feelings or emotions associated with an attitude object” (p. 32). In addition, Middleton and Spanias (1999) said that when it refers to an emotion, ‘positive’ normally means ‘perceived as pleasurable’. So, anxiety when confronting a problem is seen as ‘negative’ (as cited in Zan and Martino, 2007, p. 159). It means that affect toward something or someone is measured by feeling expression or interest toward it.
We can see someone’s attitude toward a language as much as someone’s interest toward it. Gardner (1985) described, “A measure like interest in foreign languages can be characterized as much more general than one like attitude toward learning…” (p.
40). It means that we can characterize interest as an attitude measurement. For example: if he is interested in CALL, we can see that he has positive attitude toward CALL.
Behavior is someone’s action appears from past experience and reaction towards something or somebody. Maio and Haddock (2013) said, “The behavioral component refers to past behaviors with respect to an attitude object” (p. 33). It means that behavior is an action caused from the past behavior towards something. In addition, our attitude indicates our behavior. Fabrigar, et al. (2006) stated, “…attitudes influence behaviors” (p. 576). It means that behavior is affected by attitude. Our action indicates our behavior, including our choice to choose what we should do and our way to get some information.
In the institution sight, good behavior can be seen through an achievement. Middleton and Spanias (1999) said: When it refers to behaviour, ‘positive’ generally means ‘successful’. In the school context, a successful behaviour is generally identified with high achievement: this naturally poses the problem of how to assess achievement (as cited in Zan and Martino, 2007, p. 159). It means that achievement can be an indicator of a positive behavior. Because behavior is attitude component, then we can identify our attitude through an achievement. Gardner (1985) stated, “…a measure of attitudes toward learning a second language would relate to achievement in the langua ge…” (p. 42). It means that achievement is indicated our attitude, even in language learning.
Someone’s beliefs and thoughts are referred to someone’s cognitive. Maio and Haddock (2013) said, “The cognitive component refers to beliefs, thoughts, and attributes associated with an attitude object” (p. 32). In addition, Breckler (1984) said, “Beliefs, knowledge structures, perceptual responses, and thoughts constitute the cognitive component” (p. 1191). It means that cognitive is a knowledge or perspective about a concept.
c. Positive and Negative Attitude toward CALL
As stated Talebinezhad and Abarghoui (2013), “…Attitudes toward CALL could be either positive or negative” (p. 330). Here are the explanations. 1)
Positive Attitude Positive attitude is an emotional dominance towards other things or people. Zan and Martino (
2007) said, “… a ‘positive’ attitude is a positive emotional disposition toward the subject” (p.
159). It means that positive attitude is a positive preference in something.
To identify whether someone has positive attitude toward something, we should know what his perception or thought about person or thing, even it is CALL in language learning. Rahimi (2015) stated:
According to some research findings, students have positive attitudes towards using computers for learning language skills. For example, Greenfield (2003) found that the participant in his research felt that the computer helped them improve the productive skill, i.e., writing and speaking through developing their way of thinking and motivating them for more interaction and cooperation. (p. 8-9). It means that positive attitude can be identified by their feeling toward computer for learning language skills or get motivated to use computer to support their language learning.
Positive attitude toward CALL also can be seen how much someone uses it. Liaw, et al. (2007) stated that as individuals’ attitudes on e-learning and computer-based learning become more positive, they will have greater behavioral intention to use it (as cited in Rahimi, 2015, p. 10). It means that the more individual uses CALL, the more positive his attitude is.
2) Negative Attitude
Negative attitude is low self-confident and it can be seen through act low ability or even feels low ability. Zan and Martino (2007) said:
…negative’ attitudes…might be referred to the ‘beliefs about the self’ component, outlining as ‘negative’ those beliefs about the self which are characterized by a scarce sense of self- efficacy (“I’m not able”, “I can’t make it”, “I’m hopeless”). (p. 166). It means that negative is low degree of self-ability, whether it is unconfident or disability.
Negative attitude is indicated by feeling dislike toward something. Dornyei and Ushioda (2011) stated, “Negative attitude towards the L2 (i.e. dislike of the way the language sounds and/or operates)” (p. 149). It means that feeling dislike towards L2 indicates someone’s negative attitude toward L2 itself. Feeling dislike to something such as learner who feels dislike to his teacher or the way teacher teaches by
CALL indicates learner’s negative attitude toward CALL.
Students who do not like using computer for language learning is indicated their negative attitude toward CALL. Salehi and Habibi (2015) said, “Learners' negative attitudes toward CALL integration in language learning made them resist using computers”
(p. 62). It means that negative attitude toward CALL can be identified if learners reject to use computer as language learning tool.
Someone’s positive and negative attitude can be seen if we ask them how their feeling toward CALL itself. If they feel the advantages of CALL and use CALL as their language learning tool, it means they have positive attitude toward it. If they feel the disadvantages of CALL and reject CALL as their language learning
2. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) a. Definitions of CALL
Language teaching and learning through computer can be perceived as CALL. Hani (2014) said, “CALL is the acronym for computer assisted language learning and it is related to the use of computers for language teaching and learning” (p. 644). It means that CALL is an abbreviation from computer assisted language learning which means computer used for language teaching and learning.
CALL is computer application learning or searching for language teaching and learning.
Naeini (2012) said, “CALL stands for the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning” (p. 9). As well as stated by Levy (1997: 1) “CALL may be defined as ‘the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning’ (as cited in Berns, 2010, p. 460). It means that CALL is a study or a search of language teaching and learning using computer. Those applications are such as Edmodo, e- learning, and BBC Learning English.
CALL is an approach for language teaching and learning which uses computer technology to support language teaching and learning activities. As Berns (2010) said:
A more precise way of describing CALL is to say that it is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement, and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. (p. 460). It means that CALL is the way of language teaching and learning by involving computer to strengthen someone’s language and to asses it. It is inline with Zhang and Barber (2008) said, “CALL: An approach in language learning in which a computer presents material to the learner or where the computer is used as a tool to aid language learning” (p. 239). It means that the way and tool of teacher in teaching language using computer to present the material in language learning can be defined as CALL.
Gadget such as smart phones or tablet that uses computer application for language learning also included into CALL. Scott and Beadle (2014) said, “CALL refers to any process in which the learner uses a computer to improve foreign language competence. The technology includes not only computers but also smart phones, tablets, MP3 players…” (p. 19). It means that whatever electronic tools for language learning purpose are included into CALL.
From the definitions above, the writer concludes that CALL is a computer hardware or software application used as a tool or search for both teacher and learner in language teaching and learning to strengthen both their language learning and acquisition and to present the material interactively.
b. Kinds of CALL
Edmodo, e-learning, BBC Learning English are included in Language –learning tools as some of five kinds of CALL. Here are five kinds of CALL as Scott and Beadle (2014) stated:
CALL therefore includes:
1. Authentic foreign language material, such as video clips, flash- animations, web-quests, pod-casts, web-casts, and news etc.;
2. Online environments where learners can communicate with foreign language speakers, through email, text-based computer- mediated communication (synchronous and asynchronous), social media, or voice/video conferencing;
3. Language-learning tools (online apps or software), such as for phonetics, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and clause analysis, which may include a text-to-speech function or speech recognition, and often includes interactive and guided exercises;
4. Online proprietary virtual learning environments, which offer teacher-student and peer-to-peer communication;
5. Game-based learning. (p. 19). It means that CALL is concluded in: 1.
Authentic foreign language material for example is engVid. We can see and listen all English purposes’ video such as English for Business.
Picture 2.1: engVid 2. An online environment is such as social media, email, or computer- mediated communication is included into CALL as long as the aid of
Edmodo is used for learning and assessment medium, teacher and students can communicate each other to discuss or asking questions.
Teacher is an administrator in his own group account. He can make a group for each class he taught, give materials and exercises, and assess his students through a test he made. Students will get their score after doing their test immediately.
Picture 2.2: Edmodo 3. Language-learning tools (online apps or software) such as Dictionary application. User can type in the blank space word he wants to know and click “find” or click “Enter” on their laptop, computer, or android keyboard to appear word in a purpose language.
Picture 2.3: Kamus 2.03 4. Online proprietary virtual learning environments, which offer teacher-student and peer-to-peer communication such as Skype.
Skype is an application that you can share a story, celebrate a birthday, learn a language, hold a meeting or work with friend through video-call online. We can speak, see and instant message other people on it.
Picture 2.4: Skype 5.
Game-based learning such as HeadsUp!. It is an android game application that requires you to guess six vocabularies, things or phrases appeared on your android screen in a minute. Your have to face your android screen about your forehead and you need a friend to give you clues about the appeared vocabulary or phrase. If you want to change the appeared words, you have to down it up. So do if you just answered it.
Picture 2.5: HeadsUp! c.
Evaluating CALL in Language Learning
Evaluating CALL in language learning means choosing what kinds of CALL will be used for students in learning language. Is it suitable and effective for students in language learning are CALL evaluation’s purpose. As Pavon (2012) stated:
Ever since technology and computers were first introduced into language teaching and learning, there were doubts concerning whether multimedia resources had much to add to the language learning experience. These doubts underlined the need for a comprehensive evaluative model for CALL aimed at helping to determine the kinds of multimedia tools which are more effective in language learning, based on the measurable impact these resources make on the learning of language students. (p. 64).
It means that before teacher recommends CALL such as websites, software or application for students, it is important for him to find the impact of using it whether good or not good for his students.
There are six criteria for CALL evaluation as Ducate and Arnold (2006) stated:
1. Language learning potential: The degree of opportunity present for beneficial focus on form;
2. Learner fit: The amount of opportunity for engagement with language under appropriate conditions given learner characteristics;
3. Meaning focus: The extent to which learners’ attention is directed toward the meaning of the language;
4. Authenticity: The degree of correspondence between the learning activity and target language activities of interest to learners out of the classroom;
5. Positive Impact: The positive effects of the CALL activity on those who participate in it; and
6. Practicality: The adequacy of resources to support the use of the CALL activity. (p. 6). It means that before students are given recommendation to use CALL, we have to find: 1) is there more potential benefit of it; 2) learner interest based on their characteristics; 3) purpose of the uses; 4) the balances between learning activity and learners’ interest; 5) good impact; and 6) enough material resources in CALL will be used.
d. Uses of CALL in Language Learning
Under mentions below shows that CALL can be used to improve language learning beside its uses in language learning. As Hani (2014) stated:
CALL can be an adequate medium for improving the quality of …learning the language. This is due to the following leverage points: (1) the computer may be suitable for provoking fruitful classroom activities which help in the acquisition of the four language skills, (2) CALL can help students learn inside as well as outside the classroom, (3) it may also provide individualized, continuous…activities (4) it reduces learners' apathy and lack of involvement in the learning process. So, CALL supports the latest also be a tool for the integration of the four skills, and (6) the computer can provide learners with immediate feedback. (p. 1611). It means that there are six CALL uses in language learning. They are: 1)
CALL is used for students’ learning activity engagement; 2)
CALL is used for place learning flexibility; 3)
CALL is used for autonomy language learning (ALL); 4)
CALL is used for student-center approach; 5)
CALL is used for enhancing language skills such as listening, speaking, reading and writing skill;
6) CALL is used for providing immediate feedback.
B. Study of the Relevant Research
The writer conducts this study based on relevant study entitled
Students’ Attitudes towards Computer Assisted Learning, Computer Assisted Language Learning and Foreign Language Learning by Tuncok, Benzer in
2010. The findings demonstrate that most of the students have positive attitudes towards computer assisted learning, computer assisted language learning and foreign language learning. The result was taken from questionnaire resulted 64.1% of 120 students want to learn English with computers. Students think CALL develops their reading skills, provides the most benefit for listening, and develops their listening skills. On the other hand, the results imply that according to the students, CALL is the least helpful in improving writing, enhances speaking, grammar knowledge. study also suggests that the participants who have CALL experience have more positive attitudes to CALL than those who are not familiar with it.
Attitude is a concept of behavior impacting on both learners’ achievement and performance. In this term, attitude is how learners react and behave toward CALL and how their feelings after using CALL, such as Edmodo, e-learning, BBC Learning English and so on. This study shows that most of students of first grade of English Education Department in Siliwangi University have positive attitude toward CALL. They agree that learning by CALL is easier and fun so they do not feeling like they were studying. CALL not only for learning language from academic contents but also from entertainment contents due to their language learning. Besides, they agree that CALL can improve their language skills. It is different with the neutral students. They tend to use CALL sometimes. They know the advantages and the disadvantages of CALL, so they like to learn language by CALL in the class as useful as learning language by CALL. Those signs above are do different with negative student. She tends to learn language in the class with lecturer. She use CALL just for fulfill her assignment from her lecturer. It is because she does not feel improvement in her language skills.
21 CHAPTER III RESEARCH PROCEDURES
In this chapter, the writer discusses research procedures which consist of several points. Those are method of the research, focus of the research, data and source of the data, steps of the research, techniques of collecting the data, research instrument, and techniques of analyzing the data and time and place of the research.
A. Method of the Research
The writer uses survey research as a method in this study. As stated by Widodo (2010):
Here are commonly used qualitative research design in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) and Applied Linguistics: Survey: This research design attempts to examine as much information as possible qualitatively though the data can be descriptively quantified. (p. 14-15). He added:
Dornyei (as cited in McKay, 2006, p. 35) points out, survey can provide three types of information: Attitudinal information─Attitudinal questions seek to find out more about the options, beliefs or interest of teacher or learners. (p. 15-16).
It means that by using this method, the researcher investigates students’ attitude of a chosen population toward the use of CALL in English language learning.
Focus of the Research
This research focuses on students’ attitudes toward Computer Assisted Language Learning at first grade students of English Education Department - Siliwangi University.
C. Data and Source of the Data 1. Data
The data for this research are obtained from questionnaire and interview.
2. Source of the Data
The data resources of this research are students of English
st Education Department at 1 grade in Siliwangi University, Indonesia.
The researcher uses purposive sampling to choose a population. Frankel and Wallen (200 9) stated, “…purposive sampling is based on previous knowledge of a population and the specific purpose of the research, investigators use personal judgment to select a sample” (p. 99). The researcher chooses the population of which they use CALL on their English language learning at structure class.
The researcher takes 20% of the population. Sw (2006) stated, “Menarik sejumlah persen tertentu dari pospulasi, misalnya 2, 5, 10, 20
atau 50 persen dari N
” (p. 25). It means, “Take a number of certain percent of population, e.g.
2, 5, 10, 20 or 50 percent from N.” It means that you can take sample from population begin from 2% or 5% or 10% or 20% or 50% from population that we will observe.
23 Based on the explanation above, the researcher takes 20% from st
the amount of students in 1 grade. It is 32 participants from 156 students as population to be observed. Dornyei (2003) described, “From a purely statistical point of view, a basic requirement is that the sample should have a normal distribution, and a rule of thumb to achieve this, offered by Hatch and Lazaraton (1991), is that the sample should include 30 or more people” (p. 74). It means that the sample is allowed from 30 participants and so on to get a normal distribution or normal amount of participants taken.
For the interview, the researcher chooses six interviewees from
Students of English Education Department at 1 grade in Siliwangi University; three interviewees who has positive attitude toward CALL, two interviewees who has neutral and one who has negative based on the questionnaire result.
D. Steps of the Research
To make the research systematic and well planned, there are some steps in doing this research. Ary, Jacobs, Sorensen and Razavieh (2009) described the steps of qualitative research are: a.
Planning; Survey research begins with a question that the researcher believes can be answered most appropriately by means of the survey method. For example, “How do elementary teachers feel about retaining students?” b.
Defining the population; One of the first important steps is to define the population under study. To whom will you distribute the survey? The population may be quite large, or it may be rather limited.
Sampling; Because researchers generally cannot survey an entire population, they select a sample from that population. It is very
that would have been obtained if the entire population had been surveyed.
Constructing the instrument; A major task in survey research is constructing the instrument that will be used to gather the data from the sample. The two basic types of data-gathering instruments are interviews and questionnaires.
Conducting survey; Once the data-gathering instrument is prepared, it must be field tested to determine if it will provide the desired data.
Processing the data. The last step includes coding the data, statistical analysis, interpreting the results, and reporting the findings. (p. 378- 379) E.
Techniques of Collecting the Data The writer collects the data through questionnaire and interview.
Frankel and Wallen (2009) stated, “The most common types of instruments used in survey research are the questionnaire and the interview schedule” (p.
416). It means that questionnaire and interview are commonly used for survey research to describe the characteristics of a population.
F. Research Instruments
The writer sets questionnaire and interview as survey research instruments. Frankel and Wallen (2009) stated, “The most common types of instruments used in survey research are the questionnaire and the interview ...” (p. 416). It means that questionnaire and interview are commonly used for survey research to describe the characteristics of a population.
There are 30 statements in the questionnaire. Sw (2006) stated, “Banyaknya item antara 30-40 buah untuk sebuah sikap tertentu” (p. 99). It means, “The amount of item is 30-40 items each certain attitude.” As stated before in the theoretical study that “attitudes have cognitive, affective, and behavioral components” (Maio and Haddock, 2013, p. 32). Thus, the writer
decides to measure attitude toward CALL based on the three components: Affect (
Emotions, preference or interest such as “like” or might be “dislike”) in five items, Behavior ( Repetitive activity such “always” or “never” and even achievement) in six items, Cognitive (Thought, perspective or performance towards something or person such as “useful” or “unuseful”) in 19 items.
In the interview, there are three points interviewed: general opinion about CALL, CALL using, feeling to use CALL, and its benefit for language skills.
G. Techniques of Analyzing the Data
To analyze questionnaire, the researcher used frequency count. As stated by Dawson (2002), “…count your responses and reproduce them. This is called a frequency count…” (p. 123). Each chosen response will be scored one. All chosen responses in each criterion will be summated and presented in percentage. Hatch and Farhady (1982) stated:
Number of instrumental responses Percent = (100)
∙ (p. 43) Total number of responses
The data collected from interview will be analyzed using Braun and Clarke (2006) thematic analysis to identify emerging pattern (themes). The thematic analysis is an analytical tool that aims to identify, analyze, and report pattern (themes) within data (Braun and Clarke, 2006, p. 6). It consists of familiarizing with data, generating initial codes, searching for themes among codes, reviewing themes, defining and naming themes, and producing
the report (Braun and Clarke, 2006, p. 16-23). Hence, the data will be coded and then sorted into potential themes based on Zan and Martino (2007) about positive attitude and negative attitude. The positive attitude is due to student who tends to support CALL, to think or to feel good about CALL. On the contrary, the negative attitude is due to student who does not tend to support CALL, to think or to feel good about CALL.
H. Time and Place of the Research
This research was conducted in July to September 2016 in Siliwangi University.
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Enclosure I No. Subject: ….. Questionnaire
Investigating Students' Attitude toward Computer-Assisted LanguageLearning in EFL Class.
Kuisioner ini dilaksanakan untuk keperluan penelitian demi menempuh gelar sarjana pendidikan di universitas Siliwangi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari tahu sikap anda sebagai pengguna CALL di kelas Structure I terhadap CALL atau pembelajaran bahasa berbantukan komputer. Perlu diketahui bahwa banyak jenis- jenis CALL, diantaranya: website-website internet, youtube, medsos, edmodo, e- learning, google, mp3, dll. Seluruh penggunaan hardisk, software, ataupun internet yang bertujuan mempelajari bahasa adalah termasuk CALL. Identitas partisipan tidak akan dipublikasikan dan akan dijaga kerahasiaannya. Partisipasi kalian sangatlah berharga untuk penelitian ini.
Special Thanks Trisna Gumiwang
SECTION I: PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Please tick (√) the appropriate choices and provide the necessary information below.
Have you studied English via any Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tool before?
Yes No If yes, can you name it? E-learning Edmodo Internet Sites Blogs Other What is it? _____________________
SECTION II: Questionnaire
Please read each statement carefully and indicate the extent to which you agree with the following statements.
Please tick (√) your choices based on the provided criteria.
Answer Neither agree No. Questions Agree nor Disagree disagree
I can access knowledge addition 1. more easily during a CALL class. I feel comfortable enough to share my 2. ideas in English during CALL classes. I know more about how to use
3. technology after having taken CALL courses.
I can get more feedback in CALL 4. classes.
5. CALL is an informal way of learning.
CALL is a useful enlargement of 6. classical learning methods CALL gives flexibility to language 7. learning. CALL is as useful as traditional 8. language learning.
9. CALL can stand alone.
CALL builds a more relaxed and stress- 10. free atmosphere. Learning a foreign language assisted by 11. computer enhances your knowledge. I would like to learn foreign language 12. by computer. The feedback provided by computer is 13. clear. The feedback provided by computer
14. gives me enough information on where I went wrong.
15. CALL develops my reading skills.
16. CALL develops my writing skills.
Answer Neither agree No. Questions Agree nor Disagree disagree 17. CALL develops my listening skills.
18. CALL develops my speaking skills.
19. CALL develops my grammar.
CALL develops my vocabulary 20. knowledge. CALL allows me to participate in online 21. discussions. Teacher’s enthusiasm in CALL largely 22. defines my own motivation. Teacher’s proficiency of using
23. computers in language learning largely defines my own attitude toward CALL.
I have faith in computer- based language 24. tests. I have faith in computer- based language 25. exercises. CALL allows me to get immediate
26 feedback from my teacher.
I do not have technical problems in
27 using computers during CALL classes.
I understand everything we do in CALL
It takes less time to explain something
29 during CALL classes.
CALL has helped me become an 30. independent learner.
39 Enclosure II
Attitude toward Computer Assisted Language Learning
No Components Indicators Key words Items
1. Affect - Emotions/ Comfortable, 2, 12, 24, Feelings Interest, Have faith, 25, 30.
- Interest Help
2. Behavior -Repetitive Develop 15, 16, 17, activity 18, 19, 20.
3. Cognitive Can access, Know 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, Thought
- more, Can get, 7, 8, 9, 10,
- Informal way, Useful, 11, 13, 14, Flexibility, Valuable, 21, 22, 23 , Stand alone, Relax 26, 27, 28, and stress-free, 29.
Enhance, Clear, Enough feedback, Allow, Define, No technical problem, Understand, Take less time
40 Enclosure III
Table 1 : CALL’s Experience Result
CALL Experience Frequency Percent
No, I have not Yes, I have 32 100
Kinds of CALL
Edmodo 32 100 E-Learning
6.3 Internet Sites
47 Enclosure IV
Table 2: Questionnaire Result
BIOGRAPHY Name : Trisna Gumiwang Place of Birth : Ciamis
Date of Birth : 19 September 1993 Religion : Islam Address : Ds. Sindangsari RT/RW 06/04 Dusun Kedung Kendal Kec. Banjarsari, Kab. Camis, West Java Education : 1. MI Al- Ma’arif Kedung Kendal (2000-2006).
2. SMPIT Al-Fawwaz Banjar (2006-2009).
3. SMAN 1 Banjarsari (2009-2012).
4. Siliwangi University-Tasikmalaya (2012-2016).