SYMBOLISM IN SCARLET LETTER NOVEL BY NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE.

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SYMBOLISM IN SCARLET LETTER NOVEL BY NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE A THESIS Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Sarjana Sastra By RUMONDANG SIMAMORA REG. NO. 05410102 ENGLISH LITERATURE AND DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN 2012 DECLARATION Except where appropriately acknowledgement, this thesis is my own work, has been expressed in my own words and has not previously been submitted for assessment. I understand that this paper may be screened electronically, or otherwise for plagiarism. Medan, August 2012 Rumondang Simamora Reg. No. 05410102 ACKNOW LEDGEM ENT Nothing but the biggest thanks the writer would like to express to Jesus Christ, her provider for the bless, ability, strength, and protection, that the writer has been granted during completing the thesis so that she is be able to fulfill one of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra at the English Department, Faculty of Language and Arts, State University of Medan. The writer would like to express he sincerest gratitude to :           Prof. Dr. Ibnu Hajar, M.Si., the Head of State University of Medan. Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M.Hum., as the Dean of Languages and Arts Faculty of State University of Medan. Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., as the Head of English Department, Dra. Rahmah, M.Hum., the Secretary of English Department. Dra.Yunita Agnes Sianipar M.Hum., her consultant, who has given so many supports, patience guidance, and advices, also for being mentor during the process of accomplishing this thesis. All lecturers of English department whom the writer respects. Her beloved parents, B. Simamora(+) and A.br.Situmorang for their financial, moral and spiritual supports.this thesis is dedicated for them so that they can see their daughter has changed from nothing to something. Her brothers Bripka A.Simamora and his wife,Briptu R. Simamora and his wife,and Thomas Simamora for their prays, loves, supports, cares,and also for being the best friend. Her little family, her lovely husband Lindung Parulian Simarmata M.H and her lovely and funny sons Zeva and Biel for their loves. Her big family, Tulang and Nantulang Tessa, Tante and Uda Lia, Maktua, Dion, Siska, Uli, Nuel and also to Aiptu.L Simarmata and T.R br Pardede for their supports. Her friends in Applied Linguistics AB ‘05, and everyone that cannot be written, for the sharing, friendship, love, help and support. Mam Enda, for her excellent caring and patience for the help in administration of this thesis. Medan, Agustus 2012 The writer Rumondang Simamora Reg.No. 05410102 ABSTRACT Rumondang Simamora 05410102. Symbolism in Scarlet Letter Novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne. A Thesis. English Department. Faculty of Language and Arts. State University of Medan. 2012. This thesis dealt with the analysis of Symbolism in Scarlet Letter Novel by Nathaniel Hawthorne. This study was attempted to describe the symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne novel, Scarlet Letter. The data were obtained by conducting qualitative research and based on documentary research. The analysis was classified into 5 kinds of symbols: 1) The symbol of place,2) The symbol of Nature,3) The symbol of Characters, 4) The symbol of color, 5) The symbol of the Scarlet Letter. Finally, the percentages of symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne novel are: 1) 15, 7% for The symbol of place,2)31, 5% for The symbol of Nature,3)10, 5% for The symbol of Characters, 4)21% for The symbol of color, 5) 21% for The symbol of the Scarlet Letter. The dominant symbols in Nathaniel Hawthorne novel is the symbol of Nature (31, 5 %). This implied that the author used symbolism in the novel as one of many ways to attract the readers with stylistic language. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................ i ABSTRACT .................................................................................................. ii TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................. iii LIST OF TABLE ...........................................................................................v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ...............................................................1 A. Background of the Study .......................................................................1 B. Problem of the Study ............................................................................5 C. Objective of the Study ..........................................................................5 D. The Scope of the Study .........................................................................6 E. The Significance of the Study ...............................................................6 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE .............................................7 A. Theoretical Framework .........................................................................7 1. Semiotic .........................................................................................7 2. The Differences between Sign and Symbol ....................................10 3. Symbol ..........................................................................................11 4. Symbolism in Literature ................................................................17 5. The Characteristics of Symbols ......................................................19 6. Types of Symbols ..........................................................................21 7. Kinds of Symbol ............................................................................23 8. Examples of Symbolism ................................................................25 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...................................29 A. Research Design ..................................................................................29 B. Population and Sample ........................................................................29 1. Population .....................................................................................29 2. Sample ..........................................................................................30 3. The Technique of Collecting Data .................................................30 4. The Technique of Analyzing Data .................................................30 CHAPTER IV THE DATA AND THE DATA ANALYSIS ....................32 A. Data ....................................................................................................32 B. Data Analysis ......................................................................................32 1. The Symbol of Places ....................................................................32 2. The Symbol of Nature ...................................................................34 3. The Symbol of Color .....................................................................36 4. The Symbol of the Characters Novel .............................................37 5. The Symbol of the Scarlet Letter “A” ............................................38 C. Research Findings ...............................................................................39 iii CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS ...........................41 A. Conclusion ..........................................................................................41 B. Suggestions .........................................................................................41 REFERENCES .............................................................................................43 APPENDIXES ...............................................................................................45 iv LIST OF TABLE Table 4.1 The dominant kind of symbol in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter Novel...............................................................................................................40 v CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study Literature is a social institution, using as its medium languages, a social creation. Literature is the background of real life. Through literature, we will come to know more about life. Based on its parts, literature is divided into three kinds namely: theory of literature, the history of literature and literary criticism. Literary criticism is a part of literature that consists of comprehension, interpretation and intellectual activity of literary works. Literature is divided in three parts namely: prose, poetry and drama. This thesis focuses on prose in the form of novel. Understanding a novel requires strong motivation on the part of the reader to learn what is presented by the author. In doing writing, most writers commonly have a challenge to win their readers. Readers’ interest in consuming a writer’s novel becomes part of important thing for the writer. In addition, the writer’s style to arrange his/ her imagination through the novel becomes an important point for the readers. That is why some writers keep maintaining their style in writing to get closer to the readers by expressing their idea. The words that have been arranged by a writer attract a readers’ interest, so that he/ she will read the novel. Style is thus not a phenomenon that is restricted to literature. One of writing style that often be found in the novel is the use of symbolism. Language itself is a system of spoken or written symbols by which we communicate. Every 1 word is a symbol; the five letters that form the word 'chair' represent a sound as well as a physical object. Symbolism in literature is the deepness and hidden meaning in a piece of work. It is often used to represent a moral or religious belief or value. Without symbolism literature is just a bunch of meaningless words on paper. By the reason above, many novels written in such of symbolism regarded as the language which is close to human daily communication. A symbol has complex meaning; it has not only "literal" meaning, but also additional meaning(s) beyond the literal. Sometimes the literal meaning of a symbol is absurd, so that the symbolic meaning over-rides and cancels out the literal meaning. A symbol may have more than one meaning. In fact, the most significant symbols do convey an indefinite range of meanings. Using such an image only aims at indirectly referring to the abstract idea of justice which exists outside of such a representation. On the other hand, the symbol has a syncretic value: it represents and signifies at the same time, it fuses the object and its secondary meaning. In writing, symbolism is the use of a word, a phrase, or a description, which represents a deeper meaning than the words themselves. This kind of extension of meaning can transform the written word into a very powerful instrument. Symbols are techniques authors use to provide a rich under current to their theme and message. Symbols can express deeper meaning and richer import than straight explanations can because of the images symbols and associations evoke. 2 Lombardi states, in literature, symbolism is used to provide meaning to the writing beyond what is actually being described. The plot and action that take place in a story can be thought of as one level, while the symbolism of certain things in the writing acts on another level to enhance the story. The author uses an object or reference to add deeper meaning to a story. Symbolism in literature is one of the many tools that writers employ in order to generate not only interest in one's work but also to create another level of meaning. (http://classiclit.about.com/od/literaryterms/g/aa_whatisliter.htm) Symbolism is the practice or art of using an object or a word to represent an abstract idea. An action, person, place, word, or object can all have a symbolic meaning. When an author wants to suggest a certain mood or emotion, he can also use symbolism to hint at it, rather than just blatantly saying it. Symbolism consists of using a single object within a story that stands for something else. A literary symbol is something that has greater meaning than its mere literal significance in a story or poem. In writing, symbolism is the use of a word, a phrase, or a description, which represents a deeper meaning than the words themselves. This kind of extension of meaning can transform the written word into a very powerful instrument. Many authors embed subtle images into their work to make it deeper, richer, more meaningful and colorful. Authors may also use symbolism to allude to a mood or feeling without coming out and stating that particular emotion. 3 Authors often use symbolism to communicate a deeper idea than they actually write. Symbolism is an object used by an author to open doors of meaning. They use objects, actions, and characters to give more meaning to the thing itself. In literature, characters can symbolize something of a deeper meaning. Symbolism helps readers connect the story to other main ideas. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Why_do_authors_use_symbols#htm ) Authors insert symbols into their writing to allude to a feeling, mood or attitude without directly stating the perspective or mood intended. Symbolism is supplemental to the story. Some people believe that some symbols have a universal range of meaning; that is, like Jung in Cirlot (1971:51), they believe that some symbols occur with the same meaning across individual and cultural boundaries. Symbols are techniques authors use to provide a rich undercurrent to their theme and message. Symbols can express deeper meaning and richer import than straight explanations can because of the images symbols and associations evoke. For example, the Alps evoke strong images of might, loftiness, purity, freedom, so a heroine who regularly wears a necklace with a pendant shaped as part of the Alps will be strongly associated with the qualities ascribed to the Alpine Mountains. Therefore, Salinger used symbols in order to give a deeper, richer fabric of understanding to Holden's 4 struggle with growing up.(http://www.enotes.com/catcher-in-the-rye/discuss/why-does-author-usesymbols-show-holdens-stru-htm) The most symbolic piece of work in American Literature is Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter. Hawthorne’s use of symbolism in The Scarlet Letter is one of the most significant contributions to the rise of American Literature. Much of Hawthorne's symbolism is very hard to find but several symbols are also obvious. Nathaniel Hawthorne's use of symbolism in The Scarlet Letter shows his greatness to produce a novel of the highest possible caliber By analyzing the symbolic meaning in this novel, it will clarify the universal value of the story in the novel and the hidden value of the symbol is worth knowing because it concerns with the social life. B. The Problems of the study The problems, which will be analyzed in this study, are: 1. What are the kinds of symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter novel? 2. Why Authors Use Symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter novel? C. The Objectives of the study The objectives of the study are: 1. To find out the kinds of symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter Novel. 5 2. To find out the reason why the authors use symbols in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter novel. D. The Scope of the study The Scope of the study is focused on symbolic meaning which is presented by the characters and some places and the scarlet letter ‘A’ in the novel, to show humanity's attitude and the hidden value of the symbol which is worth knowing because it concerns with the social life. E. The Significance of the study By analyzing the symbols in Scarlet Letter novel, we will understand some symbols in it which have hidden meaning. The writer also expects that the finding of this study give some advantages for students of language who are interesting in study about symbolism, so they may understand easily about symbolism in novel. And also to the teachers or lecturers who are teaching prose. 6 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions Based on the data analysis on the previous chapter, there are some points of the result that can be drawn: 1. The writer found that Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter Novel is the novel with much symbolism. To show humanity’s attitude and the hidden value of the symbol, this is worth knowing because it concerns with the social life. 2. There are five kinds of symbols in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter Novel that is place, nature, color, character, and he symbol of the letter “A”. 3. The percentage of each kinds of symbol: the symbol of place is 15, 7%, nature is 31, 5%, color is 10, 5 %, and character 21% and the symbol of the letter “A” is 21%. 4. The dominant symbol which is finding in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter Novel is the symbol of nature with the percentage is 31.5 %. 5. The meaning of each symbols are listed in the Chapter IV. Each meaning of symbols was taken from dictionary and some experts. B. Suggestions The use of symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne Scarlet Letter novel may be one of many ways to attract the readers with the stylistic language, and also the writing act on another level to or by using symbolism, the author makes its meaning so 'visible' enhance the story 41 1. All these things can bring a relevant fact of human personality, natural indifference to human suffering, false ambition, human duty, or the romanticism of youth. 2. Symbolism in literature is the deepness and hidden meaning in a piece of work. It is often used to represent a moral or religious belief or value. 3. Letter the effectiveness of symbolism in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s, The Scarlet Letter adds to the story. Hawthorne uses symbolism in many ways throughout this novel. By adding this marvelous feature he makes it clear to what he is trying to accomplish. To truly understand Hawthorne's message, the reader must familiarize himself with the characters. 42

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