THE ANALYSIS OF PRESUPPOSITION BY MAIN CHARACTER IN THE LAST SAMURAI MOVIE SCRIPT.
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ABSTRACT Azmi, Nurul Hidayah. NIM. 082222810008. The Analysis of Presupposition By Main Character in The Last Samurai Movie Script. A Thesis, English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, S tate University of Medan. 2012 This study concerns with presupposition by main character of The Last Samurai movie. The objectives of this research were to find out the type of presupposition , the dominant type of presupposition and why the dominant type become dominant by main character’s dialogue in this movie. This reseach was conducted by applying qualitative describtive design. The data of this reseach were taken from the dialogue by main character of The Last Samurai movie, it is Nathan Algren. The data were collected and analyzed based on 6 types of presupposition according to Yule, which are Existential, Factive, Lexical, Structural, Non-factive, and Counterfactual. The finding of this study shows that all of the types which are found in the dialogue by main caharacter in The Last Samurai movie. They are Existential is 40 items (61.53%), Factive is 7 items (10.76%), Lexical is 3 items (4.61%), Structural is 3 items (4.61%), Non-factive is 1 item (1.53%), and Counterfactual is 11 items (16.92%). The existential presuppositionbecome the dominant type. The implication of the dominant type of presupposition which is used in the dialogue by main character in The Last Samurai movie is the movie wants to tell about the existence of the players in this movie to viewers from their properties or their job by their each characters. It can make the story more interesting to watch. AN ANALYSIS PRESUPPOSITION BY MAIN CHARACTER IN THE LAST SAMURAI MOVI E SCRIPT A THESIS Submitted In Partial to Fulfillment One Of The Requirements For TheDegree Of Sarjana Sastra By NURUL HIDAYAH AZMI Register Number: 082222810008 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN 2012 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Alhamdulillah hirabbil ‘alamin. At the first, the writer would like to thanks to my Lord God Almighty, Allah SWT for His blessing, love, mercy, and gives attitude to her for completed this thesis. And she may not forget her prophet M uhammad SAW for transcending and glorious to the writer. This Thesis has been written to fulfill the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra at English and Literature Department of Faculty Languages and Arts in the State University of M edan. The writer is very thankful for many people who helped and always give the support. Even, the writer knows this thesis so far from perfection, but from the suggestions, advices, and critical comments she hope it could be important learning to her in the future. Due to the limited knowledge and experiences, the writer has been helped by many people. Therefore, the writer would like to express her appreciation and special thanks to: • • • • • • • • Prof. Dr. Ibnu Hajar Damanik, M.S i., as the Rector of State University of M edan. Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M. Hum., the Dean of Faculty of Languages and Arts State University of M edan. Prof. Dr. Hj. S umarsih, M. Pd., and Dra. Rahmah, M. Hum., both as the Head and The Secretary of English Department and her academic consultant. Dra. Meisuri, MA., As the Head of Applied Linguistics. Dra. S ortha S ilitonga, her thesis consultant for the advices, guidance, suggestions and all the time in finishing this thesis. For all the lecturers throughout her academic years at State University of M edan who have shared their knowledge. Especially, Prof. Amrin S aragih for his inspiration as a good educator to the writer. The writer dedicate this thesis to her beloved parents, Buyah Drs. Zainal Chaniago and Ummi Dra. Nikmah Marpaung, MA., who always give advices, supports, financial, love, cares, and spiritual intelligences to her. Thank you so much for the prays and endless love in this life. Without your blessing and sincerity the writer can not be anything. This is for you M om and Dad. For her young brother, the one and only in this world, Muhammad Fadhlan Azhari. Thanks for help, supports, fun and our dreams in the future for our mom’s happiness. Special thanks from deep in her heart also for her beloved buddy, Akhmad S yarif, S .Pd., for help, time, love, cares and supports. And always stand by whenever she need. Thank you. Unforgetable memories and kindness from her best friends, Desi Yunita, S .Pd., Teguh S atria Amin S .Pd., Kiki Sabrina, and Fajar Ikram. • Great thanks to her little sisters and brothers in “Ummi Nikmah Dormitory”. • Thanksful for her teachers at Perguruan Al-Azhar M edan. • Deepest thanks to her friends, brothers, and sisters in, Applied linguistics A and B Classes, HMI KOM ISARIAT FBS UNIM ED and KREATIF UNIM ED. • And never forget to say thank you to her big families. Specialy, her both grandpa and grandma, her uncles and aunties, cousins and nephews. This life is never complete without your loves’. Last, thanks is also given to those who have been involved in the accomplishment of this thesis that can’t be mentioned one by one. • M edan, August 2012 The writer Nurul Hidayah Azmi Reg. 082222810008 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. The Background of The S tudy Communication is very important in our daily life. As a social being, interaction between one and another needs language. Language is a system of comunication in speech and writing. But, sometimes because of miscommunication the listener does not understand about the speaker means. To avoid that the speaker has to say their utterances clearly. Language is the most significant and colosal work that human spirit has envolved. Being one of the most characteristic forms of human behavior, it is so familiar feature or our daily life that we rarely pause to think about it. Paul A Gaeng (1971). So, Every people can see represent the characteristic of someone from their language use. Language is not necessary to life but that it is essential to human life. Language is a way communicating meaning from one human mind to another by vocal sounds, gestures, signals, written symbols, or the like. When the language is studied by the student, they can also find about pragmatics. According to Yule (1996:4) states that pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. Pragmatics is the study of speaker meaning. The meaning of pragmatics is depend on the speaker, condition, and time. So, the addresses must be understand about what people means by their utterances and what the words or phrases in those utterances might mean by themselves. In pragmatics people must understand clearly how to find the meaning. Because of that, they can communicate the sentences easier to someone. The writter interest to investigate presupposition in movie script. According to Nadar(2009:64-65) the meaning of presupposition is the one of kinds of pragmatics. In daily language presupposition also means that any background assumption against which an action, theory, expression or utterance makes sense or is rational. Certain pragmatic inferences or assumptions that seem at least to be built into linguistic expressions. Presupposition can help the speaker find the background meaning of the utterances. So,it make it simple to listener to more understand what the speaker means. This writer analyze the presupposition used in “The Last Samurai” movie script. The spesific thing in this object is analyze the dialogue by main character of The Last Samurai movie. Normaly, presupposition take place in conversations. M ovie is one of medium where people can find the presupposition concept. Sometimes, The viewers have to really understand the deep meaning of the dialogues because it influences the main point of that movie. Base on the explanation above, this study is designed to identify the types of presupposition by main character in The Last Samurai movie script. How the presupposition is delivered the dialogue meaning by the movie script to viewers. As the limitation, the writter choose the dialogue of the main character in this movie. Tom Cruise as Captain Nathan Algren is the main character in this movie. The Last Samurai movie has many awards. These are the list: 1. 2004 : Be the winner in ASCAP Award category Top Box office 2. 2005 : Be the winner in Award of the Japanese Academy category Best Foreign Film 3. 2004 : Be the winner in Special Award category Ken Watanabe 4. 2004 : Be the winner in EM MA category Best Film Actor- Tom Cruise 5. 2004 : Be the winner in Hollywood M akeup Artist and Hair Stylist Guild Award category Best Period Hair Styling – Feature 6. 2004 : Be the winner in MTV M ovie Award category Funniest American in Japan-Tom Cruise 7. 2004: Be the winner in Golden Satelite Award category Best Cinematography, Best Costume Design, Best Film Editing, Best Original Score 8. 2004 : Be the winner in VES Award category Outstanding Supporting Visual Effects in a M otion Picture Overall The Last Samurai is an epic film that is truly impressive. With romance, action, drama, and more, it has everything you could look for in a movie. Expect it to be an Oscar contender. However, Cruise does a great job. He brings his character to life and the viewers really believe his transition from burned out soldier to full fledged Samurai. Not only is his performance emotional but he handles the action very well. His sword fights are quite impressive. He is supported by a group of Japanese actors whom the viewers’ve probably never heard of. Ken Watanabe plays the lead Samurai Katsumoto. He is excellent as a stern leader with a hidden softer side. His relationship with Cruise is entirely believable and he also handles the action well. Koyuki is also memorable as Taka, the widow of a Samurai warrior who Tom Cruise killed. As she is asked to take care of the wounded Cruise, you can tell underneath her polite, quiet exterior she’s thirsty for revenge. This inner conflict makes her one of the more compelling characters of the movie. This movie also stimulus the viewers to get the education of life from the story. That is why this movie is choosed by writer as the object of this study. B. The Problem of The S tudy 1. What types of presupposition found by main character in The Last Samurai movie script? 2. What is the most dominant type of presupposition found by main character in The Last Samurai movie script? 3. Why does the dominant type of presupposition become dominant by main character in The Last Samurai movie script? C. The Objective of The S tudy 1. To find out the types of presupposition by main character in The Last Samurai movie script. 2. To find out the most dominant type of presupposition by main character in The Last Samurai movie script. 3. To explain about the dominant type of presupposition become dominant by main character in The Last Samurai movie script. D. The S cope of The S tudy This study analyze about the types of presupposition based on Yule (1996). And the types devide into: 1. Existensial Presupposition. 2. Factive Presupposition. 3. Lexical Presupposition. 4. Structural Presupposition. 5. Non-Factive Presupposition. 6. Counterfactual Presuppsition This study is limited to the application of presupposition by main character in The Last Samurai movie script. E. The Significance of The S tudy The significance of this study are expected to practically useful for: 1. Researcher want to make further their knowledge about pragmatics specially the types of presupposition. 2. Readers in order to get more information about presupposition. 3. To give more information to viewers about how presupposition are used in The Last Samurai movie. 4. To be understood by the student how to used the presupposition in The Last Samurai movie. CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGESTIONS A. Conclusions After the writer collected, classified, and analyzed the data, it can be concluded that: 1. The type of presupposition namely: Existential, Factive, Lexical, Structural, Non-factive, and Counterfactual were applied in “The Last Samurai” movie. 2. All of the types of Presupposition used in the dialogue by main character in The Last Samurai movie. They are Existential, Factive, Lexical, Structual, Non-factive, and Counterfactual. The total number of Existential (61,53%), Factive (10,76%), Lexical (4.61%), Structural (4.61%), Non-factive (1,53%) and Counterfactual (16,92%). 3. The must dominant type of presupposition in the dialogue by main character in The Last Samurai movie is Existential Presupposition (61.53%). 4. The study shows that existential as dominant type describes the existence of the characters of this film based on their things or their occupation. And it make it the viewers easy to understand who the actor is in this film . Because of that the viewers can enjoy this film until the end. B. Suggestion Based on the results of the research, the suggestions are presented as follows: 1. This study suggested the reader to get more information about presupposition. 2. This study suggested the researcher to make further their knowledge about pragmatics specially the types of presupposition. 3. It is suggested for the next researchers who are interested in pragmatics especially presupposition types to make detail analysis of presupposition in movie. 4. It is sugested to the writter of movie script to use the presupposition in the dialogue to make the situation in the story clearly and make it enjoyable to read. REFERENCES Aik, K. C. 1992. Longman Dictionary of Grammar and Usage. Singapore: Addison Wesley Longman Singapore Ltd. Gaeng, Paul.A. 1971. Introduction to The Principle of Language. United States of America: University of Illinois. Leech, G. 1974. Semantics. London and New York: Routledge. M oleong, Lexy. J. 2007. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya Bandung Nadar,F.X.2009. Pragmatik & Penelitian Pragmatik. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu. Yule,G. 1996. Pragmatics. Oxford: O xford University Press. http://www.google.com/moviescript/script-of-The-Last-Samuraimovie.html.2012.Accessed on February 20th . http://www.google.com/characters-of-Last-Samurai-movie.html.2012. Accessed on February 20th. th http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presupposition.2012. Accessed on February 27 . th http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragmatics.2012. Accessed on February 27 .