In the name of Allah, the beneficent, the merciful. All praises be to Allah, the lord of the worlds. Who has given the health and strength to the writer in completing this thesis. May Allah’s peace and blessing be upon His final Prophet and Messenger, Muhammad, his family and his companions.
This Thesis is presented to the English Department of Faculty Languages and Arts, State University of Medan as a partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of first strata.
Alhamdulillah, the writer has finished this thesis. Absolutely it is not only an effort by her self alone, there are many hands help her. In this occasion, she presents great honour to :
Prof. Dr. Ibnu Hajar Damanik, M.Si, the Rector of State University of Medan time, support, guidance, kindness, contributions, and patience in correcting and helping her in finishing this thesis.
Dra. Sorta Silitonga, M.Hum, Drs. Johan Sinulingga, M.Pd, and Dra. Meisuri, M.A., thankfulness for the valuable advice and suggestions as the reviewers at the seminar proposal.
Dra. Hj. Roslaini., the Head of SMA PAB 1 Medan Estate and Khairul Huda S.Pd as a collaborator, for support and goodwill in allowing her to collected the data.
The most special persons in her life, her beloved, dad and mom Suparjo and Risna Dewita , who have given their support during her study and her writing thesis. Thank you for your kindness and you are so patience and also Her little brother Ahmad Rizky.
Her beloved best friends, Eka Novita, Eka Wati, Hafizah, Tia, Daud, Faisal, Imel, Lia, Ida, Putra and Haris Purnama. Who have always been in the writer side in the facing all the laugher and tears during her study. To any others persons who can not be mentioned one by one to their any contribution to the writer during finishing her thesis.
Jannah, Nur, 209321023. Improving Grade XI Students’ Speaking Achievement Through Debate Technique. A Thesis, English Department, Faculty of Language and Arts, State University of Medan, 2013
a. Data in the first cycle ... 35 b. Data in the second cycle ... 37 B. The Findings ... 39
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
A. Conclusions ... 40 B. Suggestions ... 40 REFERENCES ... 41
LIST OF TABLES
2.1 Indicator Assessment of Speaking ... 21
2.2 Rubric for Speaking Assessment in Debate ... 23
3.1 Learning Activities ... 28
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF APPENDICES
A. Lesson Plan ... 42
B. The Students Score ... 70
C. Diary Notes ... 83
D. Interview with English Teacher ... 86
A. The Background of the Study
Speaking as a linguistic skill is often regarded to be a task that comes naturally to an individual. However, an effective and communicable discourse can only be realized by the awareness of the rules and strategy giving the speech events. It seems that the allocation of time is not sufficient in the instructional process of speaking activities. The students keep silent while the teacher monopolizes the class. Consequently, the students are usually given few opportunities to practice speaking. Even worse, speaking has rarely been included in most English-language tests. Therefore, it is no wonder that students use their ears and eyes more than their tongues. Speaking is regarded as a product skill besides writing. It is not easy to be able to speak fluently.
According to Chaney (1998), speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non verbal symbol in variety of context. In Indonesia English has been introduced since Junior High School in the 1950s. In this globalized era, it is introduced in some Elementary Schools. The instructional process is teacher-centered but now the shift has taken place and now it is student-centered. In the in instructional process, a teacher should give much time for the students to take focus in speaking. But, this situation rarely happens, so when students are asked to speak they have nothing to say because they are not to train to do so. On the other hand, in the process of teaching speaking, students
think that speaking is very difficult to be practiced. When a teacher asks them to express their opinions or ideas orally, most of them are afraid to make mistakes. This situation makes them lazy to take part in speaking activities and because of this they get low score. It is proven by their ability in arranging sentences or translating English words into Indonesian and vice versa. But, when they were asked to say or to explain something, they were silent and had no confidence to speak. They become a very aware of the grammatical forms of their sentences and of their friend’s or teacher’s comments on their speaking. In fact, they were the
first year of Senior High School (Sekolah Menengah Atas: SMA). It means, they had learned English about three years in the Junior High School. Speaking is not difficult if one enjoys watching others speaking, read aloud and singing are two human activities that can be classified into speaking.
So the writer is interested in trying to apply Debate Technique in this research. The Debate Technique is a discussion between some participants and they play the roles of one of the participants. In the Debate Technique, students examine different points of view or perspectives related to an issue. The writer believes that Debate Technique is effective and interesting for the students to improve their speaking skill.
B. The Problems of the Study
Based on the background, it is necessary to formulate the problem on this research as following: How to apply Debate Technique to improve the students’
C. The Objectives of the Study
The objective of the study is to find out whether Debate Technique significantly improves students’ speaking skill.
D. The Scope of the Study
The study is limited and focused on the use of Debate Technique in speaking, especially to improve students’ achievement in speaking. And the process speaking refers to students’ perception toward Debate Technique.
E. The Significance of the Study
The findings of the study are expected to have both theoretical and practiced importance in speaking as a process and product, especially the framework of speaking.
1) Theoretically, the findings of the study are expected to enhance the theories of speaking.
a. English teachers. As a source of valuable information about how to increase students’ speaking ability by using Debate
b. Students. Can have more information on how the selection of the interesting and effective media to improve their speaking ability.
c. Other researcher, as a reference material for the conducting of a more in depth research on students’ speaking
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
After analyzing the data, it was found out that the students’ score increased
from the cycle I until cycle II. It means there is an improvement on the students’ speaking skill by using debate. It can be seen from the improvements of mean of students score. The mean’s score of the test I increased to the mean’s score of the
test III. It can be stated that score continuously improved from test I until test III. It is then concluded that the application of debate improved students’ speaking
The result of this study showed that the use of debate could improve the students speaking skill. Therefore the following suggestions are offered:
a. To English teacher, it is better to use debate in teaching speaking because the students can practice their speaking directly and stimulate students’ critical thinking.
b. To the students, it is useful to practice debate by using the variety of debate gambit.
c. It is also suggested to the readers who infers for further study (university students) related to this research should explore the knowledge to enlarge their understanding about how to improve speaking skill and search another references.
Brown, H. D. 2004. Languages Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practice. San Fransisco State University.
Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principle : An Interaction Approach to
Language Pedagogy, (Second Edition). San Fransisco State University.
Bruedorn, H. 2001. Debate. New York: University Press.
Dogget, G. 2003. Eight Approaches to Language Teaching. The TESL Journal.
Retrieved January 16, 2013 From http: //tstu.ru/en/tgtu/science/st/pdf/2005/artemova.
Graves, E. A. 2008. Debate an Effective Teaching Method. Ohio: Ohio University
Press: The Internet TESL Journal. Retrieved January 16, 2013