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Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Sarjana

Pendidikan (S.Pd.) in Teaching English


Asmara Miftakhol Jannah








Jannah, Asmara M. 2017. The Effectiveness of Flipped Classroom to Improve

Students’ Reading Comprehension to the Third Grade Students of MTs

Unggulan Al-Jadid Waru Sidoarjo. A Thesis. English Teacher Education Department, Faculty of Education and Teacher Training, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University Surabaya. Advisor: Rizka Safriyani, M.Pd.

Key Words : Flipped Classroom, Effectiveness

Flipped classroom is an innovative teaching method that reverses traditional teaching rather than lecturing, teachers assign videos as homework to introduce the topic. At home, student watch the video instruction as many as they wanted to understand the topic and complete the assignment in class

where is the teacher is available to assist with questions to check the students’

comprehension In this study, the researcher was focused on the effectiveness

of flipped classroom to improve students’ reading comprehension. The






MOTTO ... iv




PREFACE ... viii



a. Definition of Reading Comprehension ... 21

b. The Process of Reading ... 23

c. Measuring Reading Comprehension ... 25


1. Data Description of Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental Class and Control Class ... 51

a. Data Pre-test of Experimental Class ... 51

b. Data Pre-test of Control Class ... 53

c. Data Post-test of Experimental Class ... 54

d. Data Post-test of Control Class ... 56

e. Data Difference of Pre-test and Post-test Score Result of Experimental Class and Control Class ... 57

2. Test Difference of Learning Score Result for Experimental Class and Control Class ... 58

a. Test Difference of Pre-Test ... 58

1. Distribution Average Score Pre-test of Experimental Class and Control Class ... 58

2. Normality Test ... 59

3. Homogeneity Test ... 60

4. Mann Whitney U Test ... 61

b. Test Difference of Post-test ... 62


A. Conclusion ... 76

B. Suggestion ... 77





This chapter presents the background of the study that describe the reason shy

the writer conducts the study. It also contains the problem of the study, objective of

the study, research hypothesis, scope and limitations of the study and significance of

the study. Next, significance of this study is provided. Finally, the definitions of the

key term are given to avoid misunderstanding of those terms.

A. Background of the Study

English, as international language is a language that is mostly used by

people in the world. Mostly all books about technique, engineering, science and

journals even tutorials to make something are written in English. It means that

learning English is very important to understand the content of the books,

especially for student. In school curriculum, English is one of the subjects for

students in every level of study especially for junior high school. Based on

curriculum based school, the objective of teaching English at the Junior High

School/Islamic Junior High School (SMP/MTs) is the students can develop

their communicative competence in both oral and written forms to achieve a

certain functional stage1. It involves four others skills; those are speaking,



listening, reading and writing. By learning these skills, students are prepared to

be able to communicate with other people around the world.

From those four English skills, reading is the most important skill which

is enable to support the process of mastering the other skills because reading

can help the students’ ability to speak English fluently, increase the

vocabularies, comprehend the English text, compose writing skill, and also can

improve knowledge2. Reading comprehension is an important activity in every

language class, but we can say it is the most pleasurable activity and a means of

outspreading knowledge3.

Reading comprehension is complex development challenge that we know

to be intertwined with many other developmental accomplishment: attention,

memory, language and motivation4. Reading is also a cognitive process which

is consists of a reader, a text and the interaction between them both, the reader

and the text. In mastering reading text, the basic step that students should do is

to comprehend the text. According to Goodman the essence of reading is

Firdaus. Strategies in Teaching Reading at The Eight Grade of SMP Negeri 2 Buduran Sidoarjo.

(Surabaya: State Institute of Islamic Study Sunan Ampel, 2012), p. 2


Ahmadi, M R. The Relationship between Students’ Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

Journal of Education and Practice. 2013. p. 13 4

Snow, C.F. Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. (Washington DC: National Academy Press) 1998, p 15



texts, d) integrate information, e) search for information needed for writing, f)

critique texts, and g) to get general comprehension6. In conclusion, the meaning

of reading is to enable the reader to get the information from the text.

Brown states that teaching and learning reading comprehension can be

done through micro skills7. Those micro skills which is related to the reading

objective at high school are: a) recognize grammatical word classes (noun,

verbs, etc), systems (e.g., tenses, agreement patterns and rules), b) inferring

context that is not explicit by using background knowledge, c) inferring

connections between events, and detect such relation as main idea, supporting

idea, new information, and generalize and d) distinguish between literal and

Strategies may also help students elaborate language confidently, less time and

energy. Learning strategy, according to Oxford, are the action taken by students

to make learning easier, faster, more self-directed, more effective, and


Grabe and Stoller. Teaching and Learning Reading Comprehension. 2002 7

Brown, H. D. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Third edition. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Inc. 2007



transferable to new situations9. Teacher should choose a learning strategy that

enable students more active in learning process or student-centered method.

The traditional or conventional teaching strategies are teacher-centered

and include the use of lesson and discussions while the problem solving

element is presented by and/or discussed with the teacher, the syllabus, the

teaching materials and the students asessment are determined by teacher and

transmitted to students in various lectures10

. A teacher stands in front of the

classroom, delivering a lecture and writing on a white board, students are taking

notes on their table quietly. At the end of the lesson, students write down the

night’s homework assignment on their book, which consists of reading pages

from a thick textbook and answering the questions at the end of the chapter.

The teacher is exactly aware of many students who do not understand the lesson

of the day but does not have time to meet with them individually during the

45-minute class period. The next day, the teacher will ask the student to collect the

homework and review the homework briefly. If students have questions there

won’t be enough time to explain everything in details. The class have to follow

schedule because there is a lot of material to learn before the test at the end of

the lesson.

Teachers have been working to change the teacher-centered instructional

model with the students-centered instructional model by changing the focus


Oxford, R. Language Learning Styles and Strategies. 1990



from the curriculum guide to student learning needs. They are, increasingly,

turning to an alternative model of instruction called Flipped Learning in which

digital technologies are used to change direct instruction from the group

learning space to the individual learning space, usually via videos.11

The flipped classroom is a new pedagogical method, which employs a

synchronous video lectures and practice problems as homework, and active,

group-based problem solving activities in the classroom. In this strategy allows

teachers to reconsider how to maximize individual face-to-face time with

students12. There is enough time for students to work with peers on projects,

engage content more deeply, practice skills, and receive feedback on their

progress. Teachers can give more time to control their students, help them to

develop their fluency if needed, and inspiring them with challenging projects

which give them greater control to their learning.

The flipped classroom is an innovative teaching strategy that encourages

students’ active learning through accessing instructional contents outside the

classroom and focusing the class time for practice, reinforcement, and review of

the core contents13. In the flipped classroom, the teacher’s role changes from

lecturer and deliverer of content to learning coach, guiding through a series of

engaging and experiential-learning activities. The focus is on learning rather


Hamdan & friends, A Review of Flipped Learning, 2013. p. 3


Bishop & Veleger. The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research, 2013. p 2 13


than teaching and the approach has been found to increase overall interaction

among students and between students and teacher14. Flipped classroom allows

the students to get more time in understand the material deeply rather than

listening teacher explanation.

According to Yu Jung Han in his journal research entitled “Successfully

Flipping the ESL Classroom for Learner Autonomy”, he stated that most of

ESL students expected that they could master English in a limited time15. To

make the students’ expectations, the instructor conducted a flipped classroom to

teach English four skills to the adult community English language program

which is contain of 14 students from different country. And the result of the

research was the students could be more focus to English outside the classroom

with the assistance of technology and the flipped classroom structure required

students to be more actively engaged in learning.

Nowdays, almost all the people have a gadget on their own, especially for

student in junior high school. They use the technology to make them easy to

Philips, Trainor, R. C. Millennial Students and the Flipped Classroom. Las Vegas: ASBBS annual conference. Vol 1(1). 2014



B. Research Questions

Based on the background study described above, the researcher

formulated the problem as the following question:

Is there a significant difference in the reading comprehension skill

between the third grade students of MTs Unggulan Waru Sidoarjo who were

taught using flipped classroom and those who were not?

C. Research Objective

The researcher achieved objective to answer the problem of the research.

Based on the problem above, this study is aimed to find out the effectiveness of

flipped classroom to improve student reading comprehension to the third grade

students at MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid Waru Sidoarjo.

D. Hypothesis

Donal Ary explain that when making a hypothesis, a researcher is

predicting what the outcome of study will be16.

Develop from the research problem in the previous section, the

hypothesis in this study is: teaching reading comprehension using flipped

classroom strategy is effective to improve students’ reading comprehension to

the third grade students in MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid Waru Sidoarjo



E. Significance of Study

This study tries to know the reading English practices at MTs Unggulan

Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo, by Flipped Classroom.

The research is expected to give contribution to:

1. The students of MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo; this research can

be used to know the student English achievement, especially to improve

their reading competence

2. The teacher of MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo; this research can

be used for measuring the students’ reading competence

3. Especially for researcher; the research can be information in order to

increase her knowledge and experience in teaching English using flipped


F. Scope and Limitation

The scope of this study is reading comprehension skill of the students in

MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid. In this research, the researcher was used Narrative

text as the topic of teaching reading comprehension using flipped classroom.

This study only covered a limited number of students for the subject of

study in the third grade students of MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo.

This study was done in 3 times meeting because of the time limitation. For this

study, the focus was on improving students’ reading comprehension through


The population of this research was the third grade of Junior High School in

MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo.

G. Definition of Key Terms

It is important for the researcher to make clear the terms used in this

paper as this followings:

1. Effectiveness : Sharon stated that effectiveness teaching practice

begins with the thoughtful and intentional design of

learning that engages the students intellectually and

academically 17 . The effectiveness is when the

strategy can improve the students’ score of reading

comprehension. The effectiveness itself was

measured by the score of pre-test and post-test. This

research meant for effectiveness as an achievement

of treatment goal.

2. Flipped Classroom : Herreid and Schiller in their research also stated

that flipped classroom is doing something that

usually done in the class changed as homework and

what is usually done as homework is changed as an

activity inside the class. Both activities are flipped or



inverted18. In this research, students watched the

English learning material through the video at home,

and done many activities when they were in class.

3. Reading comprehension : Reading comprehension is the ability to process the

information and to understand the meaning of text19.

In this research, it was measured by using the score

of pre-test and post-test with an aim to know the

students’ reading comprehension.


Herreid, C.F and Schiller, N.A. Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom. Journal of College and Science Teaching, 2013. Vol 42(5). 62-66.





This chapter explains several theories through reviewing some literatures

related to this study. The theoretical build up as follows:

A. Theoretical Framework

1. Learning Strategy

Learning strategies are the thoughts and actions that individuals use to

accomplish a learning goal1. Learning strategy also can be defined as specific

actions, behaviors, steps or techniques such as seeking out conversation partners,

or giving oneself encouragement to tackle a difficult language task used by

students to enhance their own learning2. According to Oxford which is mentioned

by Dr. Victoria Scott, learning strategies are action taken by the student to make

learning easier, faster, more self-directed, more effective, and transferrable to new

situation3. According to Chamot, learning strategies can be functioned as tools

that students themselves can employ independently to complete a language task4.

By those definitions above the researcher can summarize that learning

strategies are unique action which is taken by the students in order to make them


Chamot, U A. Issues in Learning Strategy Research and Teaching. Electronic Journal of English Language Teaching, 2004. Vol 1(1). P. 14-26


Scarcella,R & Oxford, R. The Tapestry of Language Learning: The Individual in the Communication Classroom. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. 1992. P. 63


Dr. Victoria Groves Scott, ”Teaching Students with ADHDto F.O.C.U.S.: A Learning Strategy”

from retrieved on October 20th 6:23 pm


Chamot, U. A. Sailing the 5 Cs with Learning Strategies: Resource Guide for Secondary Foreign Language Educator. National Capital Language Resource Center. 2006 retrieved from


easy to understand the learning material. As Richards said that learning strategies

are intentional behavior and thoughts that learners make use of during learning in

order to better help them understand, learn or remember new information5.

Furthermore, learning strategies are the processes which are consciously selected

by learners and which may result in actions taken to enhance the learning or use

of a second or foreign language through the storage, retention, recall and

application of information about that language6. Learning strategies can also

enable students to become more independent and lifelong learners.

2. Flipping Classroom

a. Definition and Concept

In 21st century, Technology in education can be as an approach which is

focused on student-centered education. According to the latest survey that

organized by APJII or Asosiasi Penyelenggara Jaringan Internet Indonesia

(Association of Indonesian Internet Network Organizer), during 2016 as much as

132,7 million of Indonesian are connected with internet where is the Indonesian

amount is 256,2 million in total7. The survey result means that more than a half of

Indonesian are using internet including the students. By the survey of internet user,

teacher can create engaging learning environments using technologies in their


Richards, J.C., Platt J. & Platt H. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Essex: Longman. 1992.


Cohen, A. Language Learning: Insight for Learners, Teachers and Researchers. New York. Newbury House. 1990. P. 4




teaching to teach more effectively, especially as students have adopted technology

in their lives and use it for learning. According to Youtube Teacher’s Studio

educator, Ramsey Musallam, suggests to the teacher to produce videos to change

the form of instruction from the classroom to homework or in other word as

flipped classroom strategy8.

Flipped classroom is an innovative teaching strategy that reverses traditional

teaching rather than lecturing, teachers assign videos as homework to introduce the

topic. At home, student watch the video instruction as many as they wanted to

understand the topic and complete the assignment in class where is the teacher is

available to assist with questions to check the students’ comprehension9

. The

flipped classroom is also a pedagogical model that inverts traditional teaching

strategy so that typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed10.

This means that the lecturing activity which is normally delivered inside the class

is moved outside the class and homework which is normally the students do it

outside the class is shift into the class. Herried and Schiller stated that In flipped

classroom, what is usually done in the class and what is usually done as a

homework is flipped or inverted. Instead of students listening to a lecture on, say,

genetics in class and then going home to work on a set of assigned problems, they


Danker, B. Using Flipped Classroom Approach to Explore Deep Learning in Large Classroom.

IAFOR Journal of Education. Vol 3(1). 2015


From retrieved on October 21th 2016 12:50 p.m.


UOW technology-Enriched Learning Strategy 2015-2019 from


read material and view videos on genetics before coming to class and then engage

in class in active learning using case studies, labs, games, simulations, or

experiments11. Breztmann also stated that flipped classroom can be describe as

reversal of traditional teaching where students gain first exposure to new material

outside of class, usually via reading or lecture videos, and then class time is used

to do the harder work of assimilating that knowledge through strategies such as

problem-solving, discussion or debates12. The flipped classroom is instructed and

represents a modification from passive to active learning to focus on higher

thinking skills such as applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating (learning

objectives of Bloom's Taxonomy).

There are six stages of learning level in Bloom taxonomy which are

remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating13. In

traditional model, remembering and understanding are normally done during the

class session, and the 4 others, applying, analyzing, evaluating and creating are

hold when student are outside the classroom. In the flipped classroom strategy, the

learning level which are usually done throughout the class session are moved

outside classroom activity, and learning level which are usually done outside the

classroom are moved into the class session14.


Herreid, C.F and Schiller, N.A. Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom. Journal of College and Science Teaching, 2013. Vol 42(5). 62-66.


Bretzmann, Flipping 2.0: Practical Strategies for Flipping Your Class, 2013, p. 10 13

Krathwohl, R. D. A Revision of Bloom Taxonomy: An Overview. 2002 14


Figure 1. Bloom Taxonomy and Flipped Classroom15

In the Flipped Learning strategy, teachers modify direct learning in a large

group learning (classroom) and move it into the individual learning, using one of

several technologies such as video, a course management website, etc. Teachers

record and narrate a screencasts or video of lesson on their computer, create videos

of themselves teaching, or take video lessons from internet sites such as TED-Ed

and Khan Academy16. Many teachers and educators start flipping their classroom

by using these readily available materials. The videos or screencasts are available

for students to access whenever and wherever it is available—at home, during

study hall, on the bus, even in the hospital—as many times as they like, enabling


Adopted from retrieved on October 28th 2016 at 11:35 p.m.



them to come to class better prepared17. To give the students’ preparation, teachers

can give the students more time for integrating and applying their knowledge,

variety of student-centered, active learning strategies such as conducting research

or working on projects with classmates. Teachers also can use class time to check

on each student’s understanding and, if necessary, teacher can help them to

develop their fluency. Teachers can give an individual feedback, an individual

support for students work through the activities designed to help them mastering

the material.

Flipped Classroom has been compared to online, blended, and distance

learning because of the screencast or video components, but, there are clear

differences. Online education, for example, occurs only remotely, and the teacher

and student are never face-to-face18. Usually virtual class meetings, assignments,

and lectures happen online through a course management website, but not always.

Sometimes the lectures and other activities are built up by group chats or other

means of facilitating collaboration and peer instruction. Blended classes also have

an online element, but that usually occurs during class time along with direct

student-teacher contact19. Students’ experiences in face-to-face sessions change

are not necessarily different than what occurs in a traditional classroom.


Musallam, R A Pedagogy-First Approach to the Flipped Classroom. 2013 from retrieved on March 15th 2016 at 12:05 p.m 18

Oblinger & Oblinger. Educating the Net Generation. 2005 19


From the explanation above, researcher can conclude that flipped classroom

is a learning strategy which is allow the student to study in individually through

the learning material such as reading text or articles, video learning or presentation

slide20 that shared by the teacher to online media which is support file sharing and

easy to download. The online media could be online classroom such as Edmodo,

Schoology, Engrade or the teacher can use Facebook, Google Drive, and

Whatsapp group to share the lesson material21. Teacher can also use lesson

resources for the students such as video form YouTube’s Education Section, TED

-Ed, LearnersTV.com22. After teacher share the learning material, students enable

to download it to their device at home everywhere that they are comfort to. If

needed, students can re-read or re-watch the learning material, take some notes and

get a deeper understanding. During the class time, teacher gives students exercises

and useful feedback.

More about flipped classroom, actually it is not a specific strategy to

improve reading strategy only. Flipped classroom can be used for another teaching

skills and another subject except English lesson such as Math, Physic,

Engineering, Health and more. Some previous study about the use of flipped

classroom for another English skills and another subject are provided.


From retrieved on October 9th 2016 at 6:59 a.m


Walsh, Kelly. Flipped Classroom Workshop in a Book: Learn How to Implement Flipped Instruction in Your Classroom. 2013, p. 80



b. The Process of Flipped Classroom

The flipped classroom is as a stategy to help teacher make time in class

more efficient and effective. The flipping classroom change traditional teaching

strategy by delivering lesson online outside the class and moving homework into

the classroom where teachers have more beneficial time to help students with their

question and one-on-one support23.

In the flipped classroom strategy, classroom lessons and Powerpoint slidess

are pre-recorded. Teacher give students a task to watch the recorded Powerpoint

slides or read the reading material or articles before they come to class. When

students come to the class, the role of teacher has changed from presenter of

content to learning mentor. As opposed of delivering information during the class,

teachers spend their time talking to students about the lesson, classroom

discussions, work in pair and working in small group of students. Student who

understand well about the content are be able to work with other students to help

them get the same understanding.



Figure 2. The concept of Flipped Classroom24

There are 3 easy steps to do flip classroom25

1. Create flipped content

The flip class starts with a teacher doing their best explaining the

material by the video or PowerPoint slides or reading text. The learning

content include the connection, the humor and the step of great teaching (for

the video, teacher can use their creativity to make the video teaching more

easy to understand for the students). Teacher can use many illustrations and

demonstrations just as teacher’s do in the real classroom, include whiteboard,

images from web or anything which can improve the teaching process.


Adopted from Han, Y. J. Successfully Flipping the ESL Classroom for LEarnenr Autonomy. NYS TESOL Journal.Vol 2(1). 2015



2. Share it with the students

After teacher done prepare the learning material, teacher share the

learning material which have been made to the student through online media.

Teacher can upload the learning material on a online class such as edmodo,

schoology, or others media such as Google Drive, Facebook, Whatsapp group,

Twitter. Then students can download the learning material and study at home

before class. This way give student a freedom of choosing where and when

they want to learn and it is let the student angage with the learning material in

an environment that make them comfortable. The students can study the

learning material by themselves, with friends or parents. Student can also

choose any device to read or watch the learning material from their iPhone or

their smartphone or their laptop, etc. They can pause, take some notes and

re-watch about the topic to get a more understanding.

3. Spend class time differently

The students have studied the learning material at home, class time can

be spent to apply the lesson in engaging, practical and collaborative ways. The

teacher can help the students according to their need and give an individual

explanation to students who still has a problem in understanding the learning

material while others are working in groups. So during the class time, the

students are less “sit and listen” to be more “do and learn”– and the flipped

model is making class time more enjoyable, productive and engaging for


In this research, before the class meeting, the researcher has shared a

learning video related to the topic that would be discuss in the class by online

media, those were the researcher Facebook page and WhatsApp group class. The

researcher asked the students to watch the video learning at home and understand

the video. When the students had a problem in understanding the topic, the

researcher asked the students to made notes and asked for the researcher

explanation when they were in class. During the class meeting, the students

applied what they have learned from the video that they have watched. The

researcher also made some activities which were allowed the students to get a deep

understanding about the topic. The researcher had more time to answer the

students’ question individually when they faced a problem in doing the activity.

The students also had more time to explore the topic that they learned and done

activities that the researcher has been made.

3. Reading Comprehension

a. Definition of Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is one of the main important elements in English

language learning for all students because it provides the basis for a substantial

amount of learning in education.26 Based on Jeremy Harmer in book entitled

‗How to Teach English’, He states that in teaching reading there are some

principles that we have to pay attention. Those are:


Ahmadi, M.R. The Relationship between Students’ Reading motivation and Reading


1) Reading is not a passive skill but it is an active skill. This is because, in

reading activities, students need to be more active in the process of

understanding the text. Students must understand each important part in the

text. Students should be familiar with the words, pictures, bold print or

italics words in the texts. It helps students to understand the whole purpose

of the text and get what they want.

2) Students need to be engaged with what they are reading. In this case,

students should be involved with what they read. So, they can explore

contents of text. Then the teachers demand to use an interesting strategy in

teaching reading, in order they are motivated to read and try to understand

the text.

3) Students should try to respond content of the text. It means students do not

only know the structure of the language but students should understand the

important part in every paragraph.

4) Prediction is a major factor in reading. Because, prior knowledge of

students is important to explore the contents of the text that they read.

Students will estimate the content of text with regard to relevant guidance

by paying attention to the title, subtitle and synopsis of the story. In this

case, role of teachers is to help students by providing appropriate

instructions, so they can predict content of the text easily.

5) Matching the task with suitable topic. Selection of interesting text and


in comprehending the text. The task that given to the students must be

related to the text they are reading.

Teachers exploit reading texts to the full. In each text, there is usually a

sentence that implied or unimplied, the word, an idea that in pointed out by the

author in writing. For this matter, teacher should pose an interesting activity for

students to understand the important part of the text27.

b. The Process of Reading

Reading is one of the most important skills required for academic

achievement in general and hence the ability to read in L2 is one of the main goals

of the most language courses throughout the world28. In short, reading can be

defined as process to understand the written text. During the reading process,

Hughes stated that there are 3 stages:29

1. Stage 1: Pre-reading

In this stage, students are prepared for what they going to read. Pre-reading

strategies include:

a. Activating background knowledge

b. Setting purpose for reading

c. Making predictions and previewing a book


Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach English. Malaysia: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. 1990, p. 70-71


Yousofi, N & Dovaise, M. S. The Impact of Practicing Reading Skills on L2 Reading Achievement in Pre-intermediate Learners of English as a Foreign Language. Iranian EFL Journal. Vol 10(5). 2014 29

Hughes, J.M. Teaching Language and Literacy.


d. Questioning and making predictions about a story

2. Stage 2: Reading

a. Responding and Exploring

Responding is to enable the students to encourage self-regulatory actions

that can be used to facilitate comprehension. Exploring is to allow

students to personalize learning and deepen understanding

b. Making connections

Students relate to what they read by making connections to their own

live, to other texts they have read and to the thing or event occur in the

world. They compare themselves with the characters in the text and

similar situations or experiences.

c. Predicting

Making prediction or “best guesses” about what will happen in the text is

an important literacy strategy and skill. Students’ predictions are based

on their prior knowledge and experiences about the topic, the genre and

what has happened so far in the text (using both the print text and


d. Synthesizing

Reader is synthesis by summarizing information into key points and

combining their ideas into main idea. Synthesizing helps students to

make generalizations, to integrate new information with prior knowledge


3. Stage 3: Post-Reading – Applying

Applying can helps the students integrate learning into their own

schemata. In this step, student can reflect on their own interpretation to

answer questions, construct a new project such as retelling the story,

writing the new ending, etc.

In this study, reading comprehension process has two activities that have

been happened during the implementation of flipped classroom, those were at

home and in class. Pre-reading and while-reading were happened when the

students were at home. By watched the video learning at home, the students were

activated their background knowledge about the topics, made some prediction

about what would they learned, which was narrative text. The while-reading

activity was also happened when the students were at home. Students were able

to explore the topic with search for another learning resource. The students were

also able to made connection between the definition and the story in the video

learning, synthesized the learning material in the video by summarizing what

they have read. Post- reading activity was occurred in the class during the class

meeting. The students were applied their background knowledge by answering

questions about narrative text that have learned at home by watching the video.

c. Measuring Reading Comprehension

According to Pearson and Sarroub, there are three important aspects in

reading comprehension assessment. Those are: a) norm-referenced, standardized,


informal classroom assessment of comprehension30. They also stated that the

purpose of norm-referenced multiple-choice tests were to see how well students

achieved compared to other students on the same measure. In short, reading

comprehension can be measure using a test. According to,

the definition of test itself is a procedure for measuring the skill, knowledge,

intelligence, capacities or aptitudes of an individual or group31. In his research,

Davis constructed tests to measure nine reading skills32:

1) Knowledge of word meaning,

2) Ability to select the appropriate meaning for a word or phrase in light of its

particular contextual setting,

3) Ability to follow the organization of a passage and to identify antecedents and

references to it,

4) Ability to select the main thought of a passage,

5) Ability to answer questions that are specifically answered in the passage,

6) Ability to answer questions that are answered in a passage but not in words in

what the question is asked,

7) Ability to draw inferences from a passage about its content,


Pearson, P. D & Sorroub, L. Two Steps Forward, Three Steps Back: The Stromy History of Reading Comprehension Assessment. The Clearinghouse. Vol 72(2). 1998


From retrieved on November 16th 2016



8) Ability to recognize the literacy devices used in a passage and to determine its

mood and intent,

9) Ability to determine a writer’s intent or point of view, i.e. to draw inferences

about the writer.

In this research, the researcher used multiple choices test to measure the

students’ reading comprehension for pre-test and post-test. Multiple choice items

are a common way to measure student understanding. The researcher used this

form because it is easier and to be scored and to be counted, also it allows for

assessment of wide range of learning objectives and more accurate assessments.33

4. Narrative Text

According to Halliday and Hasan, text is language that is functional, means

language that is doing job in some context34. BBC also adds that a text can come

in any form and be any kind of writing. Letters, adverts, user-guides, emails,

postcards, notes and magazine articles are all different types of text. When

reading something, it helps to know what type of text it also helps to know

why it has been written35. Text has several types, there are some genres texts:

Narrative text, Descriptive text, Procedure text, Report text, Recount text,


Kupsch, Brenda & Horn E. Writing Multiple-Choice Question. Retrieved from on January 31 2017 at 6:27 a.m. 34

Halliday, M.A.K. and Hasan, R. Language Context and Text: Aspect of Language in Social-Semoitic Prespective. London: Oxford University Press. 1985, p. 6



Exposition text, Hortatory Exposition text, and more36. The researcher will

discuss about narrative in this study because the researcher use narrative text for

this study.

According to Joyce and Feez, narratives are studies about person or a group

of people overcoming problems. They also explain that narratives show how

people react to experiences, explore social and cultural values and entertain the

audience. It aims to entertain, to get and retain the attention of the reader or

listener of the story37. According to Anderson & Anderson, the structure of

narrative text includes orientation, complication, evaluation, resolution and

coda38. Furthermore, narrative also has linguistic feature as listed below39:

a. Specific often individual participants with defined identities. Major participants

are human, or sometimes animal with human characteristic.

b. Mainly use action verb (material processes), that describe what happens.

c. Many narratives also use thinking verbs (mental processes) that gives us

information about what participants are thinking or feeling, such as wondered,

remembered, thought, felt, disliked.

d. Normally use past tense


Hammond, J. English for Social Purpose. A Handbook for Teacher of Adult Literacy. Sydney: Australian Print Group. 1992, p. 75


Joyce, H & Feez, S. Writing Skills: Narrative And Non-Fiction Text Types. Sydney: Phoenix Education Pty Ltd. 2000


Anderson, K., & Anderson M. Text Types in English 2. Malaysia: The modern art production group. 2003



e. Dialogue often includes and uses a number of saying verb (verbal process) such

as said, asked, and replied. The tense may change to the present or future in the

dialogues. Sometimes these saying verbs also indicate how something is said.

In this research, the researcher was used several kinds of narrative texts.

Those were fairy tale, folk tale, legend and fable. The researcher used these

several kinds of narrative text with the aimed that the students knew the kind of

narrative texts and differentiate the definition of those kinds of stories40.

5. Review of Previous Study

This part of reviews is about several previous studies conducted by other

researcher that have similar focus with this study. The first previous study from

journal research entitled “Using Flipped Classroom Approach to Explore Deep

Learning in Large Classroom” which has conducted by Brenda Danker. In this journal research, the researcher focus on how does a Flipped Classroom approach

engage the students in deep learning including looking for meaning in their

learning, interacting actively and relating new and previous knowledge despite

being in large class41.

The stories were adopted from English online resource:



lecture in advanced reading and writing. Based on comments from participants, a

flipped classroom can contribute to personalization with video lectures, which

present to watch or re-watch lessons as needed42.

The third previous study was conducted by Marion Engin with title

“Extending the Flipped Classroom Model: Developing Second Language Writing

Skill through Student-Centered Digital Videos”. The journal research was about how the digital videos enable to develop the students’ in language and writing

skills in English. Depend on this study, in terms of developing language skills, the

activity of simplification required comprehension, paraphrasing and manipulation

of language43.

The next previous study was conducted by Helen Corke, Sally Smith and

Nick Breeze entitle “’Flipping’ Academic Reading”. The aim of the research was

to evaluate the effectiveness of ‗flipping with a particular emphasis on

encouraging wider academic reading. 44Flipping’ is an effective way to engage

students in academic reading and begin to apply their understanding in the

classroom. However, it emerged that not all students enjoy working harder in

class. Lecturers acknowledged that they needed to spend time planning pre-lecture

tasks and embracing the technology that will enable them to ‗flip’. Lecturers also


Ahmet. The Implementation of a Flipped Classroom in Foreign Language Teaching. Journal of Distance Education. Vol 16(4). 2015


Engine, M. Extending the Flipped Classroom Model: Developing Second Language Writing Skill through Student-Centered Digital Videos. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. 2014 44


need to embrace a facilitator role, rather than a more traditional ‗sage on the stage’

attitude. Overall the main benefits of ‗flipping’ were the ability of students to

engage in material anywhere-anytime and the increased interaction in face-to-face

sessions, which appears to have enhanced the student learning.

The fifth previous study was conducted by Yu Jung Han with title

“Successfully Flipping the ESL Classroom for Learner Autonomy”. This study has

an aim to present a theoretical model of flipped learning in second language

acquisition by exploring how the model provides platform successful language

learning. Han stated that the flipped classroom structure requires students to be

actively engaged in learning in parallel with leaner training, the development of

learner autonomy could be observed. Although there are still several major

drawbacks to be resolved, the flipped classroom model clearly demonstrates

significant potential for use in language classes.

The next previous study entitled “Millennial Students and The Flipped

Classroom” which was conducted by Cynthia R. Philips and Joseph E. Trainor45.

In this journal research, they have purpose to examine the flipped classroom

approach to teaching accounting to the millennial generation of students and to

explore accounting-students’ attitudes towards this increasingly popular

instructional approach.



The last previous study was conducted by Dewi Surya Agustina entitled

“The Use of Flipping Classroom for Teaching Story Telling to the Tenth Grades”46

. The aim of conducting this study is to find out effect of flipping

classroom in teaching storytelling to the tenth grade student. Depend on the

conclusion of this research study there was a different score between the

experimental group and the control group.

The study that was conducted by the researcher is different from the

previous studies above. The different is the researcher analyzed whether the

flipped classroom is effective to improve students’ reading comprehension. in this

context, the researcher measured the effectiveness using the final score between

the experimental group and control group.


Agustina, D. S. The Use of Flipping Classroom for Teaching Story Telling to the Tenth Graders.




In this chapter, researcher explains about the methodology of the research and

data collection. The research also explain about the instrument while observing the


A. Research Design

Qualitative and quantitative are the most popular approaches in research.

According to James Dean Brown and Rodgers, they stated that qualitative

research approach is typically the label for non-numerical research and

quantitative research approach is a numerical research, a data conversion is

needed for this approach. In another analysis by Grotjahn, he stated that

experimental or non-experimental is data collection method, qualitative or

quantitative is type of data the resulted, and statistical or interpretative is type of

analysis conducted on the data1. The researcher took an experimental research to

design the study which analysis about what is the effect of flipped classroom in

students’ reading comprehension in narrative text. In conducting this research,

the researcher applied an experimental research.

Experimental research is a scientific method. It is oriented to the future in

the sense that the researcher is seeking to evaluate something new2. According


Brown, J. D., and Rodgers, T. S. Doing Second Language Research. New York: Oxford University Press. 2003, p. 15s



to Donald Ary, an experimental design is the general plan for carrying out a

study with an active independent variable. The design is important because it

determines the study’s internal validity, which is the ability to reach valid

conclusions about the effect of the experimental treatment on the dependent

variable3. In this research, quasi-experimental designs were considered because

they allowed researcher to reach reasonable conclusions although not fully

control. This meant that the researcher had the limit to control the population

because of the teacher of English course suggested two classes to conduct this

research. Quasi-experimental design involved an independent variable

manipulation but the subject or the control group and the experimental group

cannot be taken randomly. The classes were chosen by the teacher of English

course, those were 9A and 9B. The control group in quasi-experimental design

does not fully control the external variables that affect the implementation of the

experiment4. In order to know whether flipped classroom is effective to teach

English especially reading comprehension in narrative text, the researcher

compared two groups, the control group and the experimental group. Those

groups were given pre-test and post-test tests for each group. The following chart

was represented the design:


Ary, D, Jacobs, C. L. & Sorensen, C. Introduction to Research In Education: Eight Edition. Canada: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. 2006., p. 301



Table 3.1: Research Design

Group Pre-Test Treatment Post-Test

E T1 X T2

X : Teaching reading comprehension through Flipped Classroom

B. Variables of the Research

A variable in research is refers to a person, place, thing or phenomenon that

the researcher trying to measure5. There were two variables in this research.

Those were:

1. Independent variable means the variable that is stable and unaffected by the

other variables that the researcher trying to measure. The independent

variable in this study is “the implementation of Flipped Classroom” to

improve students reading comprehension to the third grade students of MTs

Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo.

2. Dependent variable means the variable that depends on other factors that are

measured. These variables are expected to change as a result of an

experimental manipulation of the independent variable. The dependent


Organizing Your Social Science Research Paper: Independent Variable and Dependent Variable.

University of Southern California. Retrieved from


variable of this study is “students’ reading comprehension” in narrative text

to the third grade student of MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo.

C. Setting of the Research

The setting of this study was in third grade student of MTs Unggulan

Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo. In third grade, there were 2 classes, 9A and 9B. The

amount students from both classes were 26 for 9A consisted of 10 female

students and 16 male students, and 24 for 9B consisted of 9 female students and

15 male students. The researcher chose those classes by the suggestion of English

course teacher. The researcher chose 9A to be the experimental group which was

taught using flipped classroom and 9B as the control group which was taught

using the conventional teaching strategy.

MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo is located on street Jend. S.

Parman V, Waru, Sidoarjo. In addition, the time setting consisted of time

allocation for pretest, treatment that was given to examine the treatment effect

and post-test. This study was held in four times meeting. Each meeting had 2x40

duration time. Day and time was adjusted with the schedule of English subject in

each class.

D. Subject of the Research

1. Population

The population of this study was the third grade at MTs Unggulan

Al-Jadid, Waru Sidoarjo. The third grade was consisted of 50 students (two


2. Sample

The researcher took two classes for this study. The sample of this

study was 50 students from 9A and 9B, there were 26 students for 9A and 24

students for 9B. The researcher took two classes which had an equal English

score as the sample, and then being divided into two groups (control group

and experimental group) to examine the treatment effects. A class would be an

experimental group and the other was controlled group. Researcher hoped that

the chosen sample could be representative sample for all second year students

in MTs Unggulan Al-Jadid, Waru, Sidoarjo in the use of flipped classroom to

know the effect of flipped classroom in students’ reading comprehension.

E. Research Procedure

The data was analyzed using quantitative method. Meanwhile, the

quantitative data was obtained from pre-test and post-test result of student score

in 9A and 9B, between the students who were taught using flipped classroom

strategy and the students who were taught using conventional teaching strategy.

Before conducted the research, firstly researcher made research plan.

Secondly the researcher made pre-test and post-test that were adapted students’

book and developed using Taxonomy Barret. After created pre-test and post-test,

the researcher was conducted a validity test to make sure that the tests were

meaningful, useful and proper with conclusion of the test. This was done by the

expert judgmental in reading course, Mr.Salik. Thirdly, the research asked for


research study at the school. After got the permission from the head of the

school, the researcher was discussed the purpose of the researcher research, the

research schedule, the chosen of the class which would be the sample of the

research. After got the deal with the teacher for the plan of research, researcher

was conduct three steps of the quantitative method. Those steps were:

1. Pre-test

After getting two classes, it was divided into two groups; one class as

an experimental group was taught using flipped classroom strategy in

teaching reading comprehension and one class as control group was taught

using silent reading. Then, the researcher gave pre-test to control group and

experimental group. The purpose of this test was to know students ability for

their reading comprehension in narrative text. The result of pre-test between

control group and experimental group was used to identify the students

reading comprehension before the treatment.

2. Treatment Implementation

After giving the pre-test for both control group and experimental

group, experiment implementation was held by giving treatment through

flipped classroom strategy. Flipped classroom strategy was given to A class

or experimental group and B class or the control group was taught using

silent reading. During the experiment session, the experimental group was

given video learning and PowerPoint presentation through online classroom


and the control group was taught using conventional reading. The researcher

was given three times treatments to experimental group. This action had a

purpose to get an accurate result of the flipped classroom strategy. This

research was taken a five times class meeting for both control group and

experimental group. During the treatment, the English teacher’s role was as

an observer.

a. Experimental Class

The steps of flipped classroom strategy in teaching reading

narrative text were:

Outside the classroom.

1) Researcher shared a video teaching about narrative text

explanation through the researcher Facebook page and WhatsApp

group that the researcher has been made. Students were able to

download the video through their laptop, smartphone or computer.

2) Students watched the video at home or wherever place that the

students comfort to study in. They can also study individually or


3) During watching the video, students took some notes from the

video and wrote a problem that they faced when they learn from

the video


Note: to make sure that the students watched the video by

themselves, teacher gave the students task that could be fulfilled

by watching the video that have been shared. When in the class,

teacher asked the students with some questions about the video

that have been shared.

Inside the classroom

1) Teacher asked what they had learned from the video and corrected

the answer that the student had to answer in the video with the


2) Teacher asked them whether there was something that they did not

understand by the video.

3) Teacher gave students a narrative text

4) Teacher divided the students into 4 groups contain of 5 students.

5) In group, students identified and explored the narrative text of the

paragraph to get the main idea from the first paragraph.

6) Using their own words, students wrote important information from

the text

7) This activity continued till the end of paragraph

8) Teacher and students discussed the content of the text. Teacher

can point one of the groups to share their notes about the text.

Teacher controlled and provided the right answer while checking


9) Teacher evaluated the learning process

b. Control Class

This control class did not receive any treatment and the learning

process was done using a conventional learning style. The learning

plans for control group were:

1) Teacher explained the lesson in front the class in form of

conventional learning style

2) Teacher gave a narrative text to students

3) Teacher asked the students to read the learning material using

silent reading and pointed some important information from the


4) Students collected the work

3. Post-test

After the treatment process, researcher continued to deliver a post-test

that would be given to the controlled group and the experimental group. The

purpose of this test was to know the achievement of both groups after getting

the treatment.

After the researcher got the pre-test and post-test from both

experimental and controlled class, the researcher did the data analysis to

found out whether there was an improvement in students’ reading


F. Data Collection Technique

The technique of collecting the data was by conducting the test before

(pre-test) and after (post-(pre-test) the treatment. The test was given before and after the

treatment to measure the effectiveness of flipped classroom to improve students’

reading comprehension. During the treatment, the researcher was done a class

observation of experimental class. The aim of this observation was to observe the

implementation of flipped classroom.

G. Instrument of the Research

Instrument is a tool which change a physical variable of measurement to a

form of recording that is suitable. In order to measure the data, to have consistent

meaning, it is general to employ a standard system of units by which

measurement to be compared6. According to Ibnu Hadjar, instrument is measurer

to get quantitative information about variant of variable characteristic

objectively7. In this research, the researcher used pre-test and post-test as the

instruments prepared to get the data.

This study, researcher used two types of test, those were pre-test and

post-test. The pre-test was given before the treatment and the post-test was given after

the treatment. Pre-test was given to measure students’ understanding about

narrative text and past tense. Additionally, the post-test was given to measure


Hasman, R. J. Characteristic of Instrument. Massachusets Institute of Technology: CRC Press. 2000, p.1



students understanding about narrative text and the use of past tense. In case, the

researcher held the post-test to find out the validity and reliability. Both were

discussed below:

1. The validity of test

According to Gronlund, cited by Brown, validity is a goal of

assessment which is meaningful, useful and proper with the conclusion of

the test. In this part, the researcher was use two validity; those were: a)

content validity is a test where the test-taker perform the behavior which is

measured by using the samples as a subject in inferences, b) construct

validity is a large scale in validating standardized test of proficiency8. In

this research, validity test was done by the expert judgmental in reading

comprehension course, Dr. Salik, M.Ag.

2. The reliability of test

The reliability of the test is a test which is dependable and

consistent in fluctuation in scoring, in the students, in the test itself and test


In the use of pre-test and post-test was multiple choices which were

arranged based on Barret Taxonomy. There are five steps in Barret

Taxonomy, those are:


Brown, H. D. Language Assessment; Principles and Classroom. California: Longman. 2003, p.22 9


1. Literal comprehension; a recall skill about written fact pieces in the


2. Reorganization; a skill in analyzing, synthesizing, get and arrange the

ideas which explored explicitly in the text

3. Inferential Comprehension; a skill to share ideas in intuition and

personal experiences for the basic solve the problems

4. Evaluation; a skill to ensure and evaluate the equality, carefulness or

below shows the development of Barret reading taxonomy.

Table 3.2 Reading Skill Test Rubrics10


Students can conclude contain

of paragraph

Students find contain of


3. Inferential

Students can understand

implicit meaning in the text

Student can understand the

glossaries in the text

4. Evaluation

Students can determine a view

appropriate with the text

5. Appreciation Sharing ideas

H. Data and Source of Data

The data of this study was the students’ the pre-test and post-test score

from both group experimental group and control group. The source of data for

this study was taken from the third grade students of MTs Al-Jadid Unggulan

Waru Sidoarjo. There were two types of data that had been used to answer the

research question of this study. Those were primary and secondary data.

1. Primary data

The primary data of this study was taken from the score of both


Figure 1. Bloom Taxonomy and Flipped Classroom15

Figure 1.

Bloom Taxonomy and Flipped Classroom15 p.24
Figure 2. The concept of Flipped Classroom24

Figure 2.

The concept of Flipped Classroom24 p.28
Table 3.1: Research Design

Table 3.1:

Research Design p.44
Table 3.2 Reading Skill Test Rubrics10

Table 3.2

Reading Skill Test Rubrics10 p.53
Table 4.2 Frequency Distribution Experimental class

Table 4.2

Frequency Distribution Experimental class p.61
table below) for the excerpt, and see (table 4.2 in appendix) for the

table below)

for the excerpt, and see (table 4.2 in appendix) for the p.62
Table 4.4 Frequency Distribution Control Class

Table 4.4

Frequency Distribution Control Class p.63
Table 4.6 Frequency Distribution Experimental Class Score

Table 4.6

Frequency Distribution Experimental Class Score p.64
Table 4.9 Frequency Distribution Pre-test Post-test

Table 4.9

Frequency Distribution Pre-test Post-test p.66
table above, shows that there is an increasing score of the group, it seems

table above,

shows that there is an increasing score of the group, it seems p.67
Table 4.10 Distribution Average Pre-test Score

Table 4.10

Distribution Average Pre-test Score p.68
Table 4.11 Test of Normality Pre-test

Table 4.11

Test of Normality Pre-test p.69
Table 4.12 Test of Homogeneity Pre-test

Table 4.12

Test of Homogeneity Pre-test p.70
Table 4.13 Test of Mann Whitney U Pre-test

Table 4.13

Test of Mann Whitney U Pre-test p.71
Table 4.14 Distribution Average Post-test Score

Table 4.14

Distribution Average Post-test Score p.72
Table 4.15 Test of Normality Post-test

Table 4.15

Test of Normality Post-test p.73
Table 4.16 Test of Homogeneity Post-test

Table 4.16

Test of Homogeneity Post-test p.74
Table 4.17 Test of Mann Whitney U Post-test

Table 4.17

Test of Mann Whitney U Post-test p.75


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