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  BAD LANGUAGE WORDS IN THREE TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN NOVELS: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

HARUM AJENG KINASIH

  Student Number: 084214096

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2012

  BAD LANGUAGE WORDS IN THREE TWENTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN NOVELS: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

HARUM AJENG KINASIH

  Student Number: 084214096

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2012

  A A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis

BAD LANGUAGE WORDS IN THREE BAD

  E TWENTIE TIETH CENTURY AMERICAN NOV OVELS: A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY A

  By

HARUM AJENG KINASIH

  Student Number: 084214096 Approved by

  th

  Dr. Fr. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A M.Pd., M.A. August ugust 15 , 2012 Advisor

  th

  Anna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.H

  d., M.Hum. August ugust 15 , 2012 Co. Advisor

  A

  

BAD LANGUAGE WORDS IN THREE

TIETH CENTURY AMERICAN NOV

A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY

  E OVELS: ature

  BAD TWENTIE A

  By

  A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis

HARUM AJENG KINASIH

  Chairperson : F.X. S Secretary : Dra. A Member 1 : Adve Member 2 : Dr. Fr Member 3 : Anna

  Student Number: 084214096 Defended before the Board of Examiners

  On August 31, 2012 and Declared Acceptable

  Name

  . Siswadi, M.A., Ph.D.

  a. A.B. Sri Mulyani, M.A., Ph.D. dventina Putranti, S.S., M.Hum.

  . Fr. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A. nna Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum.

  Yogyakarta, Au Faculty of

  Sanata Dharm De

  D

  , August 31, 2012 y of Letters harma University

  Dean

  

BOARD OF EXAMINERS

Signatu

  

LEMBAR PERNYA YATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KAR ARYA ILMIAH

UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS U Yang bertanda tangan d an di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sana nata Dharma: Nama : Harum Ajeng Kinasih : H Nomor Mahasiswa : 084214096 : 084214096

Demi pengembangan an ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepad pada Perpustakaan

Universitas Sanata Dha harma karya ilmiah yang berjudul:

  

BA BAD LANGUAGE WORDS IN THREE

TWENT NTIETH CENTURY AMERICAN NOVEL LS:

A SOCIOLINGUISTIC STUDY

  

Beserta perangkat yang ang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian sa n saya memberikan

kepada Perpustakaan n Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, meng engalihkan dalam

bentuk media lain, m n, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, m , mendistribusikan

secara terbatas, dan dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau me media lain untuk

kepentingan akademis is tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun me memberikan royalti

kepada saya selama tet tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. is.

  Demikian pernyataan i n ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta rta

  Pada tanggal : 10 Sept eptember 2012 Yang Menyatakan n

  (Harum Ajeng Kinasih nasih)

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY

  I declare that the thesi hesis I have written does not contain any works or ks or parts of the works of other people ople, except those cited in the quotations as any a y academic paper should.

  Yogyakarta, Sept eptember 10, 2012 Harum Aje jeng Kinasih

  

When bad things happen, don’t give up.

The day will come when you look back and laugh at them.

  (Noriko in Fushigi Yuugi by Watase Yuu)

  For my family in which the life to live lively begins and ends.

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  I thank the Lord who arts in heaven, who gives me life and seizes my days with so many blessings and gifts. Even if I turn my face from Him with so many sinful deeds, He never lets me lose my faith to keep struggle and face everything. With Him, I know that I will never walk alone.

  I would like to express my greatest gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Fr. B. Alip M.Pd., M.A., for his patience, readiness, and willingness to guide me work on this thesis. Without him, my thesis would be nothing but unfinished scratches. My gratitude also goes to my co. advisor, Ana Fitriati, S.Pd., M.Hum. for her willingness and thoroughness in reading my thesis. Her short advice completed this thesis and it gave me more confidence and faith that I could really do better.

  I would like to thank my parents and two brothers for their unlimited understanding, support, and love. It is very assuring that I always have a place to come back while I am down. I also thank my big family who never let my little family drown in the hardship.

  My special gratitude goes to Prayudi Wijaya, who is willing to be my mentor. His stubborn opinions on anything saved me over and over again. My thanks to my friends on the same road Topan Putra, Daniel Patty, and Niko Neka, who make my days become extraordinary fun and give me the reason not to be left behind. I also thank Mas Surya Dharma, a great overtime-mate, for being a silence partner that keeps me feel safe.

  Last but not least, I would thank all special people who gave me any form of supports for finishing this thesis. Though I could not mention all the names, all of their contributions were highly appreciated.

  Harum Ajeng Kinasih

  TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………… i

APPROVAL PAGE ………………………………………………….. ii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE ……………………………………………… iii

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PUBLIKASI …………………………..

  iv

  

STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………… v

MOTTO PAGE ………………………………………………………. vi

DEDICATION PAGE ……………………………………………….. vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………. viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………….

  x

  

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………….. xii

ABSTRAK ……………………………………………………………. xiii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ………………………………….

  1 A. Background of the Study ………………………………………

  1 B. Problem Formulation ………………………………………….

  3 C. Objectives of the Study ……………………………………….

  3 D. Definition of Terms ……………………………………………

  4 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW……………………......

  5 A. Review of Related Studies …………………………………….

  5 B. Review of Related Theories ……………………………………

  7 C. Theoretical Framework …………………………………………

  21 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY …………………………………

  23 A. Object of the Study ……………………………………………..

  23 B. Approach of the Study ………………………………………….

  25 C. Method of the Study ……………………………………………

  26 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS …………………………………………..

  29 A. The Usage of BLW in Three Twentieth Century American Novels ………………………………………………………….

  29 1. The Usage of BLW based on their varieties of content …….

  30

  2. The Usage of BLW based on morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional terms ……………………………….

  42 B. The Characteristics of BLW Usage in Three Twentieth Century American Novels ………………………………………

  47 C. The Purposes of BLW Usage in Three Twentieth Century American Novels ………………………………………

  56 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION …………………………………….

  63

  APPENDICES ………………………………………………………….

  67 Appendix 1: List of the Sentences Containing BLW.………………...

  67 Appendix 2: Data Categorization…….……………………………......

  81 Appendix 3: Data Distribution………………………………………..

  96

  .

ABSTRACT

  HARUM AJENG KINASIH Bad Language Words in the Twentieth Century .

  

American Novels: A Sociolinguistic Study Yogyakarta: Department of English

Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2012.

  People in a society need to conform with certain culture to be accepted. However, there are also certain behavior that makes them not to be accepted in their community. Therefore, there are things considered as taboo as the prohibition or avoidance of behavior believed to be offensive to society. Bad Language Words (BLW) is a form of taboo language which are commoly used by people in the society. The use of BLW is interestingly a complex social phenomenon since they commonly appear in many texts and conversations, regardless their offensiveness. It can be seen from their frequent appearances in three twentieth century American novels: The Grapes of Wrath, To Kill A Mockingbird and The Catcher in the Rye.

  There are three questions raised in this study. First is the use of BLW in the direct sentences appear in the data, second is the characteristics of BLW appear in the data, and the third is the purposes of the BLW stated in the data.

  The study is started with the identification of direct sentences containing BLW and the categorization of those sentences. The categorization follows the insights from Geoffrey Hughes’s BLW classification based on their varieties of content (2006) and Tony McEnery’s BLW categorization based on morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional term (2006). The characteristics of BLW in the data are inferred from the categorization for later they become the keys to determine the purposes of the BLW usages.

  The study figures out that the sentences containing BLW in the data cover five categories of BLW proposed by Hughes and thirteen categories of BLW by McEnery. Six characteristics of BLW are inferred from the analysis of the study. They are offensive, emotive, exclamatory, exaggerative, idiomatic, and intimate. Four purposes of the BLW usage in the sentences are found too. They are to express emotion, to provoke the interlocutors’ attention, and to express and reinforce solidarity. These results will give people broader knowledge and understanding about how people should use the BLW and let people know how to identify the offence directed to them through the BLW.

  

ABSTRAK

  HARUM AJENG KINASIH. Bad Language Words in the Twentieth Century

  

American Novels: A Sociolinguistic Study. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris,

Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2012.

  Manusia dalam masyarakat perlu menerapkan budaya tertentu untuk bias diterima.Akan tetapi, ada tingkah laku tertentu yang dapat membuat mereka tidak diterima dalam komunitas mereka. Karenanya, adahal-hal yang dianggap tabu, yaitu tingkah laku yang dilarang dan dihindari karena diyakini menyinggung orang lain dalam masyarakat. Bad Language Words (BLW) adalah suatu bentuk bahasa tabu yang umum digunakan dalam masyarakat. Menariknya, penggunaan

  

BLW merupakan fenomena sosial yang kompleks, karena meskipun bersifat

  menyinggung, bahasa ini umumnya muncul dalam banyak teks maupun percakapan. Hal ini terlihat dari seringnya bahasa ini muncul pada tiga novel Amerika abad kedua-puluh: The Grapes, To Kill A Mockingbird danThe Catcher in the Rye.

  Ada tiga pertanyaan dimunculkan dalam studi ini. Yang pertama adalah penggunaan BLW dalam kalimat langsung pada data, yang kedua adalah karakteristik BLW pada data, dan yang ketiga adalah tujuan penggunaan BLW pada data.

  Studi ini dimulai dengan identifikasi kalimat langsung yang mengandung

  

BLW dan kategorisasi kalimat-kalimat tersebut. Kategorisasi ini mengikuti

  klasifikasiBLW berdasarkan variasi isi yang pernah dilakukan oleh Geoffrey Hughes (2006) dan klasifikasi BLW berdasarkan morfosintaksis, kelas kata, dan istilah fungsional yang pernah dilakukan oleh Tony McEnery (2006).

  Karakteristik BLW yang disimpulkan dari kategorisasi-kategorisasi BLW nantinya digunakan sebagai elemen penting dalam menentukan tujuan penggunaan BLW.

  Studi ini menyimpulkan bahwa kalimat-kalimat yang menggunakan BLW di dalam data meliputi lima kategori BLW yang diajukan oleh Hughes dan tiga belas kategori BLW yang diajukan oleh McEnery. Ada enam karakteristik BLW yang dapat diambil dari penelitian ini. Karakteristik-karakteristik tersebut adalah bersifat menyerang, menunjukkan emosi, mengandung seruan, melebih-lebihkan, idiomatis, dan bersifat intim. Ada empat tujuan penggunaan BLW diperoleh dari penelitian ini. Tujuan-tujuan tersebut adalah untuk memperlihatkan emosi, untuk memprovokasi pendengar, untuk menarik perhatian pendengar, dan untuk menyatakan dan memperkuat solidaritas.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language has a power to change the world. It can connect, destroy, or

  build society. The bound between language and society’s culture are unavoidably existed for as old as the language itself. According to Goodenough in Wardaugh (2010) culture consists of whatever it is one has to know to operate in a manner acceptable to its members, and to do so in any role that they accept for any one of themselves (Wardaugh, 2010: 229).

  People need to apply certain culture to be accepted. On the contrary, there will be certain behavior that makes them not to be accepted in their society.

  This social law is also applied for language. There are some bad language words (hereafter abbreviated as BLW) that are considered as taboo in certain society.

  Taboo is the prohibition or avoidance in any society of behavior believed to be harmful to its members in that it would cause them anxiety, embarrassment, or shame (Wardaugh, 2010: 249). English is a language that is developed from long history and the complex mixing from other languages, and the social meaning of English has lead some words to be offensive or obscene for people. As a taboo, BLW become an offensive matter that is hardly accepted by the other member of the society.

  The language behavior develops from the very first time of the

  2 censor their language, and so normally say whatever first enters their heads without considering the circumstances of utterance, are deemed mentally unstable (Allan and Burridge, 2006:39). Therefore, there is a certain rule that serves as the barrier between appropriate and inappropriate things to say.

  People used to transfer their knowledge, including the knowledge about taboo, orally. However, the invention of writing around 3000 BC transformed oral tradition, transmitted through storytelling, epics, mythical re-enactments and performances, into textual tradition, handed down by scribes (Kramsch, 1998:53).

  The development of arts in the form of literature later becomes the record of the social and society changes. Social analysis through the close examination of literary products then becomes a worth-to-do project.

  Three novels are used as the objects of this study. Three of the novels are twentieth century American novels, written by three different authors. The novels are JD Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye (1964), John Steinback’s The Grapes of

  

Wrath (1976) and Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird (1990). All of these novels

  share the same properties; they are all challenged due to the BLW usage inside them <http://www.ala.org/advocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/challenged classics/ reasonsbanned> (24 April 2012). For example, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger is challenged because it covers “excess vulgar language, sexual scenes, things concerning moral issues, excessive violence, and anything dealing with the occult.” Therefore, these novels are suitable to be the object of study related to the written BLW.

  3 Based on the above, it is interesting to analyze the productivity and the creativity of the BLW in American novels by different authors. Gathering the data from the literary works, the purpose of saying BLW can also be revealed.

  B. Problem Formulation

  There are some questions used to map and focus the study. The questions are as follows:

  1. How are bad language words (BLW) used in three twentieth century American novels?

  2. What are the characteristics of the bad language words (BLW) found in the three novels?

  3. What are the purposes of the bad language words (BLW) use in the three novels?

  C. Objectives of the Study

  There are three main objectives of this study. The first objective of this study is to describe the usage of BLW in three twentieth century American Novels. The term ‘usage’ follows Hughes’s insight about BLW’s classification based on the varieties of content and McEnery’s theory on BLW’s categorization based on the morphosyntax, part of speech, and functional term of usage. The result of the first objective will be useful to explain the second objective, which is to find the characteristics of the BLW found in the novels. Finally, the third

  4 objective of this novel is to figure out the purpose or the motifs of statements contained BLW.

D. Definition of Terms

  There are two main definitions that are used to limit the discussion. The terms are bad languages and sociolinguistic study.

  Tony McEnery in his book Swearing in English: Bad language, Purity

  

and Power from 1586 to the Present defines bad language words as any word or

  phrase which, when used in what one might call polite conversation, is likely to cause offence (McEnery, 2005:2). The related terms to bad languages are profane, swear word, cuss, dirty word, and oath.

  Allan and Burridge add more specific definition for bad language as follows.

  Both slang and profane swearing are found only in colloquial styles – which leads us to the discussion of styles as varieties of English. From swearing and cursing, we proceed to insults and maledictions. Except for style, all these topics have at some time been referred to as ‘bad’ language (Allan and Burridge, 2006:55) The next term is sociolinguistic study. In short, it is a study of language from the social context. Ronald Wardaugh in his book An Introduction to

  Sociolinguistics explains that

  sociolinguistics is concerned with investigating the relationship between language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and how languages function in communication (Wardaugh, 2010:12).

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies The previous study that is related to this study is The Use of Slang in Daily Communication Among Youth in 1950’s New York as Seen in J.D. Salinger’s the Catcher in the Rye (Purna, 2005). It is an unpublished undergraduate thesis of Sanata Dharma University, Yogyakarta, written by Gregorius Purna. The Use of Slang in Daily Communication Among Youth in 1950’s New York as Seen in J.D. Salinger’s the Catcher in the Rye explores the meaning,

  characteristics, and functions of the slang spoken by the youth. It employs some theories of slang by Eric Partridge (1978), Sechrist (1978), and I.L. Allen (1994).

  Using the standard dictionary and dictionary of slang, Purna identifies the meaning and the purpose of the youth’s using slang as the daily terms in their communication behavior. To strengthen the validity of the research, Purna uses the theory of communication combined with supported theory about youth communication to limit the analysis on the “youth communication.”

  Purna analyzes The Catcher in the Rye in the point of view of sociolinguistics. It is found from the quotation below “This is an interesting part for the discussion where the novel can be analyzed in the point of view of sociolinguistics. Using this base, the writer will use the analysis to draw the problems to be discussed later. Sociolinguistics deals with society and language in which the members of a particular society speak,” (Purna, 2005:3).

  6 The study finds out five categories of slang expressions classified according to the meaning attached in the expressions. They are categorized as persons, actions, objects, swearing, and circumstances or conditions. It also finds six characteristics of slang spoken by youth. They show emotion, abbreviation, exclamatory, arbitrary, based on idioms, and often exaggerated. The purposes of the slang usage are found as to express emotion, to be secret, to be quick, to be brief or succinct, and to be playful in meaning. As for the functions, Purna finds slang functions as to speed up the communication process and to express emotion using emotive vocabularies (Purna, 2005: viii).

  Other than the similarity of the use of the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, the present study uses nearly the same pattern as the Purna’s undergraduate thesis.

  BLW, which is the main object of this study, is treated in the same position as slang in Purna’s undergraduate thesis. The study finds out also the characteristic and the purpose of a linguistic variation, in this case BLW. It takes also the same point of view of sociolinguistics, which underlines the relation between language and society.

  In short, this study will take the same position as Purna’s undergraduate thesis. It takes the same literary work as one of the object of the study and it also employs the same point of view and pattern to conduct the analysis.

  7

B. Review of Related Theories

1. Taboo, Bad Language Words (BLW), and Swearing

  The English word taboo derives from the Tongan tabu, which came to notice towards the end of the eighteen century. Taboo in this study is related to taboo in language. In a broad sense, taboos arise out of social constraints on an individual’s behavior which can cause discomfort, harm or injury (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 1). Radcliffe-Brown in Allan and Burridge (2006: 2) states that

  In the languages of Polynesia the word means simply ‘to forbid’, ‘forbidden’, and can be applied to any sort of prohibition. A rule of etiquette, an order issued by a chief, an injunction to children not to meddle with the possessions of their elders, may all be expressed by the use of the word tabu (Radcliffe-Brown, 1939: 5f ).

  Allan and Burridge also categorizes taboo as follows bodies and their effluvia (sweat, snot, faeces, menstrual fluid, etc.); the organs and acts of sex, micturition and defecation; diseases, death and killing (including hunting and fishing); naming, addressing, touching and viewing persons and sacred beings, objects and places; food gathering, preparation and consumption (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 1). A sociolinguist, Wardaugh, states that taboo is prohibition or avoidance in any socitey of behavior believed to be harmful to its members in that it would cause them anxiety, embarrassment, or shame (Wardaugh, 2010: 239). It is an extremely strong politeness constraint. Consequently, as far as language is concerned, certain things are not to be said or certain objects can be referred to only in certain circumstances.

  In a specific case of taboo language, Geoffrey Hughes (2006) claims that “taboo” itself also contains binary opposition, referring to human experiences,

  8 (like the name of God od) or unspeakably vile (like incest) (Hughes, hes, 2006: xv). He initiates the figure of of Varieties of Swearing and Word Magic whic hich is designed to give a basic map of te territory.

  Figure 1. Hughes’s V s’s Varieties of Swearing and Word Magic (Hughe ughes, 2006: xvi) The figure show shows the hierarchical separation between the bi he binary opposites of “sacred”, “profane ane”, and “taboo,” divided by the “line of ac acceptability” on which stands “oaths,” hs,” since they can be either sacred or profane. T . The categories of “obscenity,” “foul lang language” and “ethnic slurs” stand below the li line because they are purely secular and and have no sacred equivalent. As the entries es for these major categories show, seve several of the terms have complex historie ories and unstable meanings (Hughes, 2006 s, 2006: xvi).

  As for McEne Enery, taboo language begins to gain its pow power through a process if stigmatizat zation. This process leads a society to point w nt where inferences about the users of bad bad language are commonplace (Mcenery, 2006: 2006: 1). He refers bad language as any ny word or phrase which, when used in what hat one might call polite conversation, i on, is likely to cause offence. The use of bad bad language is a

  9 range of evidence in order to begin to explain both the source and the undoubted power of bad language and the processes whereby inferences are drawn about the speaker using it (Mcenery, 2006: 1).

  Tony McEnery bases his study on the Lancaster Corpuse of Abuse. The LCA is a problem oriented corpus based on data extracted from the BNC spoken corpus (McEnery, 2006: 26). The corpus contains only those examples of BLW usage where the age, sex and social class of the speaker are known.

  The BLWs covered by the LCA can broadly be grouped under the following main headings—swear words (e.g. FUCK, PISS, SHIT), animal terms of abuse (e.g. PIG, COW, BITCH), sexist terms of abuse (e.g. BITCH, WHORE, SLUT), intellect-based terms of abuse (e.g. IDIOT, PRAT, IMBECILE), racist terms of abuse (e.g. PAKI, NIGGER, CHINK) and homophobic terms of abuse (e.g. QUEER). Obviously, there is an interplay between these broad categories—for example, animal terms of abuse may also be sexist abuse forms (e.g. cow). However, for the purposes of describing the contents of the corpus, this broad classification will suffice (McEnery, 2006: 26).

  Then, McEnery also designs a more specific classification for the BLW. The classification is based on some combined parameters such as morphosyntax, part of speech, and functional term of usage. The table of the categorization is shown in the next page.

  10

  Table 1. McEn Enery’s Categorization of BLW (McEnery, 2006: y, 2006: 27)

  To determine ne the strength of the bad language offensive nsiveness, McEnery combines some survey veys commissioned by various media watchdog hdogs in the UK. He borrows the scale f from one of the sources that have cont ontributed to the constructions of the sur he survey, The British Board of Film Classificati ation. The table is presented in the next pa xt page.

  Table

  Swearing is one racist, and sexist lang most massive exampl and developed forms (Hughes: 2006, xv). H

  In terms of mode

  that something

  somebody; and frustration. The classical terms, blasphemy, pr “exclamation” As in terms of communities, the ran poetic creativity, but xviii). There are some The resonators which below.

  able 2. Scale of Offence of BLW (McEnery, 2006:

  s one example of bad language, yet blasphemous, anguage may also cause offence (McEnery, 2006: ple of bad language, swearing now includes s that some broad distinctions need to be ma

  . Hughes also differentiates modes and content of mode, we swear by some higher force or some hing is so; we swear to do something; we swear and we swear simply out of anger, disa

  These different modes can be retermed by var ms, such as asseveration, invocation, imprecation, profanity, obscenity, and ejaculation (in it on”) (Hughes, 2006: xv). s of content, Hughes states that with the dive range of content is remarkable for its protea but also shocking in its ugliness and cruelty some resonators or things which become the trigg hich are drawn upon by swearing are expresse

  11

  y, 2006: 30)

  ous, homophobic, , 2006: 2). As the udes so many varied made at the outset nt of swearing. somebody; we swear ar at something or disappointment, or various unfamiliar ation, malediction, n its old sense of diversity of speech otean diversity and ty (Hughes: 2006, igger of the BLW. essed in the table

  12

  Table 3. Contents of Swearing Resonators (Hughes, 2006: xviii)

Resonators Examples

  The use of religious reinforcers and by God! , the devil take it!, by my sacred references father’s soul , on my mother’s grave Family origins son of a bitch, whoreson The attribution of various reprehensible traitor, turncoat, bum, layabout, whore, behaviors and violations of moral slut, liar, cheat, crook, swindler, codes, including: treachery, idleness, coward, chicken, toady, brownnose, promiscuity, dishonesty, theft, lack of , miser, filthy, scum

  parsimonious

  courage or martial commitment, sycophancy, meaness, and dirt. social stigmas, such as illegitimacy and bastard, whoreson, bugger, butt-fucker perversion social conditions, such as poverty poor, miserable insulting names, demeaning labels, and cow, pig, prick, tit, imbecile, unflattering comparisons, such as the ignoramus, turd , shit, whitey, yid, animal, the sexual, the intellectual, the fascist, nazi excretory, the racist, the political

  BLW by its nature tends not to be used freely in written or printed form and in any kind of printed publishing. However, since the attitude toward the BLW itself changes from time to time, the acceptability of the words becomes somewhat inconstant in their modes, styles, and references. The degree of provocation is also influenced by culture, age, gender, and so on (Hughes, 2006: xix). Therefore, the study of BLW, including swearing, needs to be specific due to certain origin and period to get specific result too.

  The use of bad language is a complex social phenomenon (McEnery, 2006: 1), so is the purpose behind the use of the BLW in the conversation. It is proved by McEnery that there was no difference in amount of swearing between males and females, although males tend to use the stronger forms of BLW, and

  13 250). The other study of profanity in the workplace reported by University of East Anglia in 2007 reported two interesting findings related to the purpose of the use of profanity: that workers made regular use of profanity to express solidarity and to vent feelings of frustration and that the language was not used in close proximity to customers, being confined to staff-only areas (Wardaugh, 2010: 250).

  In addition for the purpose of saying BLW, Wardaugh gives a statement that linguistic taboos may also be violated on occasion to draw attention to oneself, or to show contempt, or to be aggressive or provocative, or to mock authority – or, according to Freud, on occasion as a form of verbal seduction, e.g., ‘talking dirty.’ The penalty for breaking a linguistic taboo can be severe, for blasphemy and obscenity are still crimes in many jurisdictions, but it is hardly likely to cost you your life, as the violation of certain non-linguistic taboos, e.g., incest taboos, might in certain places in the world (Wardaugh, 2010: 250).

2. Sociolinguistics

  Wardaugh, in his book An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (2010), differentiates between the sociolinguistics or micro-sociolinguistics and the sociology of language or macro-linguistics.

  In this distinction, sociolinguistics is concerned with investigating the relationships between language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and of how languages function in communication; the equivalent goal in the sociology of language is trying to discover how social structure can be better understood through the study of language, e.g., how certain linguistic features serve to characterize particular social arrangements (Wardaugh, 2010:10). In short, Hudson states that sociolinguistics is ‘the study of language in relation to society, whereas sociology of language is ‘the study of society in relation to language’ (Wardaugh, 2010:10).

  14 This thesis will employ some theories of sociolinguistics, including the theory of words and culture, factors influencing language used in communication, and taboo in language. This study concerns on the use of language in societies. Like Coulmas (1997) in Wardaugh said, the micro-linguistics (or sociolinguistics) applications involve the further investigations on how the social structure influences the way people talk and how language varieties and patterns of use correlate with social attributes such as class, sex, and age. This study will spot the use of BLW in American society reflected in three twentieth century American novels written by different authors from different background.

  a. Variables in Sociolinguistics

  There are two types of variable involved in sociolinguistic research. The first is the social variable that determines a variation in language. The possible social factors are gender, geography, age, occupation, educational background, etc. The second variable is the linguistic variable, which is the feature of language that is investigated in the research (Stockwell, 2002). This research employs the BLW as the linguistic variable and relates the productivity and creativity of BLW in America based on the novels on which stories take place in America.

  b. Language and Society

  Before stating the relation between language and society, the clear definitions of both terms have to be stated first. According to Wardaugh, a society is any group of people who are drawn together for a certain purpose or purposes,

  15 while a language is what the members of a particular society speak (Wardaugh, 2010: 1).

  Language is used in a society to maintain communication (Trudgill in Wardaugh, 1983). The communication can happen among people who speak the same language. The process will happen inasmuch as a group of people share the same knowledge about the reference, code, and concept of things surround them.

  Wardaugh gives four possible relationships between language and society. One is that social structure may either influence or determine linguistic structure and/or behavior. A second possible relationship is directly opposed to the first: linguistic structure and/or behavior may either influence or determine social structure. A third possible relationship is that the influence is bi-directional: language and society may influence each other. A fourth possibility is to assume that there is no relationship at all between linguistic structure and social structure and that each is independent of the other (Wardaugh, 2010).

  In this study, this theory of possibilities is used to identify the influence of society background toward the use of BLW. What is believed by people in certain society may have certain impact toward the language. This is supported with Trudgill’s statement about the relation between language and society cited in Wardaugh (2010).

  Thirdly, in addition to environment and social structure, the values of society can also have an effect on its language. The most interesting way in which this happens is through the phenomenon known as taboo. Taboo can be characterized as being concerned with behavior which is believed to be supernaturally forbidden, …. In language, taboo is associated with things which are not said, and in particular with words and expressions which are not used (Trudgill, 1974).

  16

  c. Words and Culture

  The culture in this section does not refer to the appreciation of the work of art; it has simpler sense of whatever a person must know in order to function in a particular society (Wardaugh, 2010). The relation between what is said by people and the influence of people’s way of life exists in rather invisible manner. Whorf simplify the relation by saying that the structure of a language determines the way in which speakers of that language view the world (Wardaugh, 2010).

  The theory of relation between words and culture can explain how certain society, in this research American society, has certain treatment toward some words that are considered as bad languages.

  d. Factors Influencing Language Used in Communication

  This thesis takes the direct quotation in the novels as the object of analysis and it involves the components of speaking of the sentences. Hence, the Hymes’s proposal of ethnographic framework becomes the most relevant theory to support the study. Hymes uses the word SPEAKING as an acronym for the various factors that he deems to be relevant in understanding how particular communicative event achieves its objectives (Wardaugh, 2010: 259). SPEAKING stands for setting and

  

scene, participants, ends, act sequence, key, instrumentality, norms of interaction

and interpretation, and, genre.

  S or setting and scene refers to the physical circumstances in which speech takes place and the abstract psychological setting of the occasion. P or the

  17 addressee, or sender-receiver which satisfies certain specified roles. E or ends refers to the conventionally recognized and expected outcomes of an exchange as well as to the personal goals that participants seek to accomplish on particular occasions, i.e., different personal goals own by participants in the court. A or act

  

sequence refers to the actual form and content of what is said; the precise words

  used, how they are used, and the relationship of what is said to the actual topic at hand. Different speaking in different occasion will have different style of language and content. K or key refers to the tone in which a particular message is conveyed; whether it is delivered light-heartedly, seriously, sarcastically, and so on. I or instrumentalities deals with the choice of channel and the actual forms of speech employed, i.e., the choice of media to deliver the speaking and the register which is chosen. The combination of some media and registers are very possible. N or norms of interaction and interpretation refers to the specific behaviors and properties that attach to speaking and the way it is viewed by someone who does not share them. The last letter G or genre refers to the demarcated types of utterance; such as poems, sermons, lectures, and so on.

  The consideration of Hymes’s proposal about the various factors that are involved in speaking strengthened Hughes’s statement that modes of swearing and societal taboos show quite different emphases at different stages and sectors of the same basic culture (Hughes, 2006: xix). An ethnography of a communicative event, that is proposed by Hymes, is a description of all the factors that are relevant in understanding how that particular communicative event achieves its

  18 communicative event, whether it is positive of negative objective. In this thesis, it means that each speaking containing BLW considers those elements, so that participants involved in the communications own the same understanding about the content of the speaking.

3. Twentieth Century Americans and Twentieth Century American English

  A sociolinguistic study takes an account of the social conditions in order to figure out the influence of those conditions to the language used in the society.

  Since the background of the three novels used in this study are novels about and written in twentieth century, a review about the conditions of twentieth century Americans and twentieth century American English is necessary.

a. Twentieth Century American

  Historians call the twentieth century as a significant century for the development of America because it was the era when the government finally implemented the promise of its ideals to all its citizens and in the process saved Western civilization <http://www.histclo.com/country/us/hist/20/ush20.html> (10 September 2012). The twentieth century of the Americans was stuffed by some international events which greatly influenced the social conditions and the people’s way of life. From the World War I and II, the Great Depression, the Cold War, to the Civil Rights Movement, the Americans witnessed the journey of the nation to reach a condition of the Great Society and the modern society like today.

  Nearly all aspects in twentieth century America were entering the rapid

  19 from the groups of people who are called the Progressives (Wiegand, 2009:214). The Progressives were the journalists, politicians, and single-cause crusaders who sought progress in Politics and social reformation. The use of media and literature as the crucial part of political and social changes was greatly successful. The other groups fought for the improvement of the working class’s condition, initiating some new acts for the protection of the labors and the other workforces.

  During the Kennedy administration (1961-1963), the New Frontier program was initiated to peacefully manage the foreign affairs problem, the Cold War, and the racism in the South by the force of administration to act on Civil Rights. After his death, the Johnson Administration which more concerned about domestic issues initiated new programs in education, medical care, urban problems, and transportation which lead the way to, the controversial term, Great Society <http://www.histclo.com/country/us/hist/20/ush20.html> (10 September 2012).

b. Twentieth Century American English

  At the end of the twentieth century, there were about 400 million native speakers of English in the world, covering the “inner circle” of English which are countries such as the United Kingdom, the USA, and Canada <http://www.oed.com/public/twentiethcenturyenglish#restrictions> (10 Sept 2012). American English was greatly influenced by the Noah’s Webster statement in 1789, which emphasizes the fact that the new encounters with different entities and tradition in America would produce new words into the American tongue.

  20 of English” had become so great that it was appropriate to refer to American English as a separate language. Webster (1806) in Kövecses wrote in the preface of his dictionary

  In fifty years from this time, the American English will be spoken by more people than all the other dialects of the language, and in one hundred and thirty years, by more people than any other language on the globe, not expecting the Chinese (Kövecses, 2000: 7).

  Therefore, the envisioned a glorious of American English was proven by the fact the American people use their “own” English as part of their everyday life.

  In twentieth century, when the American English had gained its maturity, the number literary works were increasing rapidly. The role of the unique social history of the USA and the colonies before that is just as significant and influencing the other areas of linguistic differences (Kövecses, 2000:15), which leads to the influence in literary work. The historical facts of twentieth century Americans as it is explained in above subcategory are more or less giving contribution to the language change in society. Regarding the language use, the language made its independent style, variations, and tendencies. Related to this study, from the historical perspective, it can be claimed that American English contains more of what can be called verbal prudery or propriety than British English does. Verbal prudery simply means that the use of certain words and phrases falls under social sanction, that is, their use is forbidden (Kövecses, 2000:247). It shares the same properties with taboo in language, like BLW.

  Mencken in Kövecses (2000), from his study, stated that the social and linguistic process of “prudery” peaked in the US in the 1830s and 40s, but

  21 American novels still largely use such terms, it can be said that the process still remained in that period too. Profanity words were often used to swear and the ban for the words did not help to decrease their number. Instead, as Marckwardt in Dillard (1980) said, American English developed a whole lexicon of near- swearing (Kövecses, 2000:249).

  Departing from the engagement of the American English and the large use of prudery in the society, this study on BLW dares to employ Sociolinguistic approach to explain the existence of the words in the society. Connecting the factors of how the American English is greatly influenced by the historical condition of the society, how the literary works reflect the language use of the real society, and how some theories in Sociolinguistic can be helpful to analyze the language use in certain society; this study reveals the usage, the characters, and the purposes of BLW spoken by people.

C. Theoretical Framework

  This thesis aims to solve problems as stated in the problem formulation using supported theories that are cited above. There are three main problems in this thesis that need to be solved. The problems are the usages of BLW in the novels, the characteristics of BLW, and the purposes of BLW statements in the novels.

  The analysis of BLW usage in the novels reveals the quantity, quality, and productivity of BLW in the three novels. The supporting theories to answer this

  22 strength. To help the analysis, the standard English dictionary and encyclopedia of swearing are used to find out the meaning of BLW. The results of this analysis are several categorizations of BLW along with its occurrence and variations.

  The second problem is the characteristic of BLW. The analysis is conducted based on the result of the first problem. The most supporting theory used in this second analysis is the Geoffrey Hughes’s theory about the swearing modes and contents. Since swearing is the most massive category of BLW, the application of the theory to analyze the characteristic of BLW is considered appropriate.

  To answer the final problem, which is the purpose of the BLW statements, the characteristics of BLW are reexamined. The supporting theory that helps the analysis of this problem is the Hymes proposal on the elements of speaking. Relating the characters of BLW, the sentence containing BLW, and the components of speaking proposed by Hymes gives a big contribution to find out the purpose of BLW statements.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The objects of this study are three published twentieth century American

  novels; they are JD Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye (1963), John Steinbeck’s

The Grapes of Wrath (1959), and Harper Lee’s To Kill A Mockingbird (2006).

  Specifically, the objects are the direct speeches in the novels that contain the BLW. The analysis will find out how these BLW used from the productivity and creativity aspects.

  The first novel is The Catcher in the Rye. The novel was written by J.D. Salinger. This analysis is using the edition by Signet book which was printed in 1963. The story of this book is about a teenage boy named Holden Caufield which is presented in the 192-paged book. This boy was having a very boring life, from his perspective, and trying to have a more “adventurous” journey outside the school life. An article in the BBC’s website describes that

  “Holden is 16. Expelled from his prep school for flunking too many subjects, he travels to New York, his home town. He drinks, smokes, sees a prostitute, is punched by her pimp, goes on a date, has a strange encounter with a former teacher, spends a fair amount of time in the park, and really does not a great deal else,” <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8084931.stm> (24 April 2012)

  The second novel is The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck. The edition used for this study is the novel published by Penguin Books in 1959. The novel

  24 the Great Depression years and endured a very difficult life, moving from their family in Oklahoma to California. The family got so many miserable stories after they were pushed to leave their land and find jobs in the land of hope, California. In fact, they even got more sufferings because of the worse condition in California.

  The novel is known as a novel which shouts social criticism about the circumstances of America in 1930s. The account of the predicament of migrant workers was taken more as social document than as fiction. Recent literary critics have often lumped it with a number of other dated books of 1930s as “proletarian fiction.” As a social document, the novel presents such a vivid picture of oppression and misery that one tends to doubt its authenticity (Magill, 1989:340).

  The Grapes of Wrath is a noted novel that brings Steinbeck some

  achievements; they are the National Book Award in 1939, Pulitzer Prize in 1940, and finally the Nobel Prize in 1962.

  The last novel is To Kill a Mockingbird. First published in 1960, this novel soon became a target of controversy and was read by many people because of its plot. The edition used in this study is the Harper Perennial Modern Classics novel published in 2006. The edition contains 323 pages. The novel plots a story about a lawyer, Atticus Finch, who struggles to defend a black man in a case of white-girl raping. Scout Finch, his daughter, is the main narrator of the story. The story flows as the Finch family faces some difficulties because to fact that Atticus defends a black man in the court. The family is even called the nigger-lover.

  25 In 1961, the novel was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Although at the beginning of its release the book was getting so many controversies with its

  “spices” of social slurs, profanity, and frank discussion of rape, the book was translated into more than forty languages, sold more than thirty million copies worldwide, and been made into an enormously popular movie. Most recently, librarians across the country gave the book the highest of honors by voting it the best novel of the twentieth century <http://www.harpercollins.com/books/Kill- Mockingbird-HarperLee/ ?isbn=97800609354 67> (24 April 2012).

  The reason of choosing the three books is firstly because the books contain so many bad language words in them. In addition, according to the data of American Library Association, the three books are included into the frequently challenged books of the year. Robert P. Doyle in www.ala.org listed many titles of challenged books in every year, and the three books have been favorite target of censors <http://www.ala.org/ala/issuesadvocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/ challengedclassics/reasonsbanned/index.cfm> (24 April 2012). The three books are challenged for different reasons of word choice, therefore they are chosen so that this thesis has more various data of BLW. Hence, the three resources are qualified to be the sources of research on BLW usage in the three twentieth century American novels.

B. Approach of the Study This thesis primarily uses the sociolinguistic approach to analyze the data.

  26 using literary works as the main resources, there are various theories of sociolinguistic that will be used to show the relation between literary work, words, and society. Positioning language as a part of a social discourse, sociolinguistic is the most appropriate approach to conduct this research.

C. Method of the Study

1. Data Collection

  Before conducting the analysis, the reading of the three novels as a literary work as the primary resources, was necessary. After the reading, identifying direct speeches containing BLW in the novels was the second step. The identifying process involved also the using of Standard English dictionaries and Encyclopedia of Swearing. All sentences in form of direct speeches containing BLW were collected and numbered according to the novels containing the speeches and the order of appearance. . The sentences found in The Grapes of Wrath belong to the category A followed by the codes of number indicated based on the order of appearance in the novel. The sentences found in To Kill A Mockingbird belong to the category B, while those found in The Grapes of Wrath are in the category C.

  For example, the first speech containing BLW in The Grapes of Wrath was given the code A001.

  As the additional references and secondary sources, internet references are used. The preferred websites used as the sources are only restricted websites that are not influenced by common users of internet and only updated by

  27 each BLW, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary Language (Longman, 2005) and The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English

  

Language: Encyclopedic Edition (Merriam-Webster, 1996) are used. The

  reference to the standard meaning of the BLW is needed to find out the categorization and the strength of the words.

  The data of related theories was conducted through library research and internet research. The theories found were gathered and analyzed to make sure that the selected theories were necessary and appropriate to answer the problems presented in the problem formulation.

2. Data Analysis

  The data analysis of this study covers several integrated steps started from the categorization of the data to the inference of the BLW purposes which is the final problem of this study. The steps of data analysis are presented in below itemization.

  a. The sentences of direct speech containing BLW were prepared in a form of an organized list. The speeches were taken from the direct quotation in the three novels. Then, the categories of BLW were observed from the list. Each BLW in a speech belonged to a category. The next step was to identify the strength or the rate of offence owned by each BLW.

  b. The analysis of data was presented in a form of integrated table, consisted of well managed column and row, so that the picture of the BLW usage

  28 data, the amount of data, the category of the data, and the strength of the data would be easy to track.

  c. The deeper study on the integrated table to get comprehensible research for the characteristic of slang was done. The theories by McEnery and Hughes were combined together to get the characteristics of BLW in the three novels.

  d. From the characteristics, the purposes of the BLW saying in speeches were then analyzed. The analysis of the purposes employed the Hymes’s proposal on components of speaking, McEnery’s, and Hughes’s theories, with additional supporting theories gathered from previous studies on BLW. The conclusions of the purposes were drawn also from the direct evaluation of the novels, since they were dealing with the direct expressions stated in the novels.

  e. Based on the analysis, the purposes of the BLW statements in relation to its categorizations and characteristics were inferred together to get the brief ideas of this thesis.

CHAPTER IV RESULTS The main data of this study are 484 direct sentences containing BLW in the three

  selected American novels. Each sentence is coded into three different groups, based on the novels in which the sentence is found. The sentences found in The

  

Grapes of Wrath belong to the category A followed by the codes of number

  indicated based on the order of appearance in the novel. The sentences found in

  

To Kill A Mockingbird belong to the category B, while those found in The Grapes

of Wrath are in the category C. BLW appearing in each sentence are italicized to

  make it easy to indicate.

  

A. The Usage of Bad Language Words (BLW) in Three Twentieth

Century American Novels

  As stated beforehand, there are two theories used to identify the uses of BLW in the data. The first is the usage of BLW based on their varieties of content and the second is the usage of BLW based on morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional terms. In the two categorizations, there are some overlapping uses of BLW. A bad word, for example hell, belongs to only one category in Hughes’s categorization because it only has a type of resonator. Yet, it exists in some categories in McEnery’s categorization. It happens because McEnery’s categorization is based on the morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional terms, which makes it possible for a word to be in several different categories when it is used in different sentences.

1. The Usage of BLW Based on Their Varieties of Content

  According to Hughes, swearing draws upon very powerful but incongruous resonators (Hughes, 2006: xviii). The BLW identified in the research can be categorized based on the five resonators of the sentences which are drawn from every BLW in them. They are categorized as follows.

a. The use of religious reinforces and sacred references

  The improper use of sacred terms such as the name of God and sacred references may lead to a serious offence to someone or certain group. In the three novels used as the object of this study, the BLW containing this resonator becomes the greatest to appear in the data. From 484 sentences containing BLW, 395 sentences or 81.61 percent of the sentences belong to this category. The reason behind this large use of religious reinforces can be traced from the history record of the BLW usage.

  Historically, religious oaths form the vast majority of terms and phrases, making up the variegated vocabulary of swearing in English. It happens because the normal dynamic of swearing or the nature of BLW usage is to invoke some force superior to oneself (Hughes, 2006:388). Although there is always a tension between the necessity of validating an oath and breaking the taboos deriving from biblical authority traditionally surrounding the use of sacred names, the vast usage of religious terms in twentieth century American society is undeniably usual. of twentieth century, Christianity, divided into Protestantism and Catholicism, was the deepest root of the American’s religiosity (Balmer: 2001). Therefore, the terms which are commonly used to swear by the American society in the twentieth century were largely coming from those religions’ terminologies.

  The BLW related with religious reinforces and sacred references in the data are Jesus Christ, God, damn, and hell. Below are 11 examples of the sentences belonging to this category, for complete list of the sentences, see Appendix 1.

  A002. It was about him an' a couple of other guys goin' all over the world drinkin' and raisin' hell and screwin' around.

  A015. Well, hell! A016. But look, when you been in stir a little while, you can smell a question comin' from hell to breakfast.

  A128. So goddamn sassy, A156. But I'll be goddamned if you opened your mouth twicet sence we lef' home.

  A166. You sure give that fella hell, B011. Aw, that’s a damn story, C004. I don't know, and I don't give a damn.

  C036. Just as long as it's descriptive as hell. C050. Checkers, for Chrissake! C056. Jesus, now, try not to stretch it all over the place.

  The main term Jesus Christ and its variants mentioned in the examples C050 and C056 refer to the man who Christians believe is the son of God and on whose life and ideas Christianity is based. The mentioning of the term not in the sacred situation falls under the basic taboo against “taking the Lord’s name in vain” (Hughes, 2006: 262). To be more specific, in Christian societies this rule is listed in the Ten Commandments. This rule works also for the term God mentioned in the example C068. In many religions, including Judaism, Brahmanism, and Islam, direct reference to the name of God is taboo (Hughes, 2006: 201). However, not as strict as it is written in the rule of the religions, the term God nowadays has particularly very mild offence, while Jesus is stronger in the mild category (McEnery, 2006: 30). The less offensiveness happens because the terms have been used very commonly by society, in the greater quantities than in the past days.

  Two exceptional variants of the sentences using God are the examples A128 and A156 which contain the word goddamn. The two terms are basically originated from a serious curse such as “God damn you!” The curse has developed many semantic nuances and grammatical functions, undergoing semantic loss of intensity as its functions have proliferated (Hughes, 2006: 203). From the form, the term goddamn or God damn are the combinations of the term God and damn that both are related to the religious reinforces.

  Examples B011 and C004 contain the term damn. In certain religions, the terrifying notions of eternal punishment, damnation, and hell have naturally and its relatives have been regarded as to be highly taboo (Hughes, 2006: 116). Today, the term is generally regarded as a mild idiomatic oath with different levels of offence depending on the usage of the term in a sentence. Damn and

  goddamn , according to McEnery both have very mild offensiveness (2006: 30).

  Examples A002, A015, A016, A166 and C036 contain the term hell which is closely related to the concept of a place for eternal suffering, the observe of paradise, and the battleground between the principles of good and evil (Hughes, 2006:226). Hell is now mentioned very common in a conversation although some of its usages will be very offensive in regards of the context of the conversation, and particularly it has a very mild offence (McEnery, 2006: 30). Together with

  

damn and goddamn which also share the very mild categorization, hell is

  particularly used in non confrontational way and without an intention to emphasis the word itself.

b. Family origins

  The BLW whose contents are related with the family origins are found in the novel. 25 sentences or 5.17 percent of the sentences using BLW belong to this category. The word used in the sentences is only the main term of son of a bitch. There are also some variants of the word existing such as sons-a-bitches,

  

sonuvabitch and son-of-a-bitch. Here are the examples of the sentences belong to

this category.

  A047. Them dirty sons-a-bitches.

  C187. Hold the sonuvabitch up! Literally, the term son means “someone’s male child” and the term bitch means “a female dog” (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 2005:

  1577 and 140). Therefore, the term son of a bitch is originally used only of despicable males, but it is now highly generalized (Hughes, 2006: 441). The entry for bitch (which is discussed more in the subcategory of insulting names) shows and becomes the key of the offence since the term is generally regarded as highly offensive. Son of a bitch is a term of insult or disrespect which invokes slurs on the target’s character (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 85). The sexual behaviour of the

  

bitch is mainly the insulting factor and it is once very powerful. The power of the

  word is far less offensive now and it shares very mild category (McEnery, 2006: 30).

  

c. The attribution of various reprehensible behaviors and violations of

moral codes

i. Promiscuity

  Promiscuity is related to the violations of moral codes by having many sexual partners. 5 sentences or 1.03 percent of sentences using BLW in the three novels contain the terms of promiscuity. The BLW used in the sentences are whore and slut. Below are the sentences belonging to this category.

  B002. Ain’t no snot-nosed slut of a schoolteacher ever born c’n make me do nothin‘!

  The term whore appearing in the example B019 is among the few insulting epithets that have never lost its power since its ancient usage, whether used in the older narrow sense of “prostitute” or more generally “an unchaste or lewd woman; a fornicatress or adulteress” (Hughes, 2006: 493). The emotive power of the term remains quite strong as it shares the moderate category in the McEnery’s scale of offence (2006:30) as the term associates certain sexual behavior reference and has a tendency to be confronting. The term whore holds more ancient definition of “formal” category prostitution while the term slut, which appears in the example B002 has less easily defined class of women who “sleep around” (Hughes, 2006: 263).

ii. Theft

  Theft is a common reprehensible behavior which happens every day in any place. The popularity of theft is followed by the infamous reputation of the thieves, marked the “occupation” as a detestable title. In the data, there are 3 sentences or about 0.62 percent of the data containing the term crook, which directly refers to this category. Below are the direct sentences containing the word crook .

  C124. You're goddam right I am, you dirty crooked bastard! C193. Are you calling me a crook? . C194. I'm no crook Literally crook means a “dishonest person or a criminal” (LDOCE, 374: sentence is “a thief.” With the large diversity of speech communities, the offence of the BLW is different from one place to another. This also works for the term

  

crook . In consideration of moral quality, crook which exists in the underworld of

  the mafia is largely meaningless, not even once it will live as an offensive language. In the world of The Catcher in the Rye, in which the sentences are found, crook is at least holding the mild category of offence, since the setting of the novel is a common society that normally considers theft as a violation of moral and even law codes. In the examples above, the term crook is used to give offence related to its literal meaning that is related to the act of theft.

d. Social stigmas (illegitimacy)

  Social stigma is basically a set of negative and often unfair beliefs that a society or group of people have about something. The stigma can be the resonator to offence someone. There are some kinds of social stigmas such as illegitimacy and perversion (Hughes, 2006: xviii). The illegitimacy is related to something which commonly unacceptable in the eye of the society (such as illegitimate kids) while perversion is related to unnatural sexual behavior (the term included is for example butt-fucker.) The one which exists in the data of this research is the illegitimacy subcategory. The sentences belonged to the illegitimacy category in the data contain the word bastard. The word appears in 11 sentences or about 2.27 percent of the data. Below are some examples of sentences using the word

  bastard.

  A001. But sometimes a guy'll be a good guy even if some rich bastard makes him carry a sticker.

  A029. Uncle John was a crazy bastard, C040. He’s drunk as a bastard.

  Bastard used to be used, denoting the lexical meaning of the word which is

  “someone who was born to parents who were not married” <http://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/bastard?show=0&t=1343469908> (21 July 2012). The meaning reflects the fact of the illegitimacy itself, while the subsequent potency of the term as a swearword obviously derives from the stigma of the condition (Hughes, 2006: 18). The term has been developed and generalized greatly in meaning and tone. The development leads to the lost of the original literal sense, but the power remains quite offensive as it belongs to moderate category of offensive words (McEnery, 2006: 30). All the examples above carry the developed meaning of the term bastard rather than its literal meaning.

e. Insulting names, demeaning labels, and unflattering comparisons i. The animal

  The animal terms are famous in the history of swearing. Comparisons of people with animals are conventionally ascribed certain behaviors (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 79). There are 3 sentences containing the animal terms found in the data. It covers only 0.62 percent of the data. The animal terms found are pig,

  dog, and bitch. Below are the sentences containing the animal terms.

  B006. Says he’s got the other barrel waitin‘ for the next sound he hears in that patch, an’ next time he won’t aim high, be it dog, nigger, or— Jem Finch!

  C195. Girls with their legs crossed, girls with their legs not crossed, girls with terrific legs, girls with lousy legs, girls that looked like swell girls, girls that looked like they'd be bitches if you knew them. In common usage, the term pig refers to “someone rude, uncouth, slovenly” and in some US dialects, it refers to “an over-dressed (or perhaps under- dressed) woman with too much make-up who looks like a hooker” (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 80). Example A200 which contains pig has the closest relation to the first reference. This term has very mild offence against the interlocutor because in its usage, the word tends to be mocking rather than confronting.

  One sense of dog is “worthless person” and it is attested of a woman otherwise described as “bone ugly” (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 80). As quoted by Hughes (2006) dog is used to call “a worthless, despicable, surly, or cowardly fellow.” Example B006 is closely related to the sense of “worthless person or cowardly fellow” and it gives very mild offence against the hearer. The last, example C195 contains bitches, whose referent is “female dog.” Therefore, the term bitch is a “usually nasty woman held in contempt” (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 80). This term has the longest history among animal terms as an insult and today the term can be used as wounding personal insult (Hughes, 2006: 23).

  Rather than dog, bitch has more power and it belongs to the mild category

  ii. The intellectual

  Intellectuality can be the resonator of offence against someone because it is largely believed that a lack of intelligence is invariably and unfairly regarded as a lack of worth, thus adding a sense of contempt (Hughes, 2006: 452). 1.65 percent of the data or 8 sentences containing the insults for intellectuality are found in this research. The term used in this category is moron C001. All I'm doing right now is thinking about going home Wednesday.

  I'm a moron. C107. Sleep tight, ya morons! The term moron is derived from an ancient Greek word meaning “foolish” or “stupid” and is intended to be specific neutral technical insulting term for low intelligence people (Hughes, 2006: 452-453). Sentence C001 uses the term as a less offensive negative adjective toward the self of the speaker, while sentence C107 uses the term to give personal insult referring to someone else. If it is used as the personal insult like the latter examples, the term has mild offensiveness (McEnery, 2006: 30) since the term wounds directly to the self of the hearer. It attacks the intelligence and the status of the hearer in term of lack education.

  iii. The racist

  American English is largely contributing in the history of the racist term and insulting reference to African or blacks (Hughes, 2006: 326). The nicknaming to individuals (especially those which use racist terms) derives more from

  (Hughes, 2006: 323). From this BLW study, there are 33 sentences or 6.82 percent sentences containing racist terms. The terms found in those sentences are

  Okie and Negro or Nigger. Below are the examples of the racist sentences.

  A004. An' there we spied a nigger, with a trigger that was bigger than a elephant's proboscis or the whanger of a whale.' A192. Okie means you're scum. B004. Mr. Radley shot at a Negro in his collard patch. B007. Jem, I ain’t ever heard of a nigger snowman, B013. I guess it ain’t your fault if Uncle Atticus is a nigger-lover.

  B042. Mr. Finch, if you was a nigger like me, you’d be scared, too. The history of Negro or nigger appearing in sentences A004, B004, B007,

  B013 and B042, is produced largely to insulting references to blacks. In American English, the term has various offensiveness, from extreme when used of blacks by whites, to affectionate expressions of solidarity when used in black English.

  Sentence A192, for example, uses the word Okie. It is a regional nickname given for American-Southerners, for one from Oklahoma. The referents are particularly migrant workers during the Great Depression. The example appears in

  

The Grapes of Wrath whose setting is exactly during the period of economic

  hardship in America and the term Okie in the novel at least holds moderate offensiveness, just like the broader sense of nigger. The term contains serious prejudicial motives which appear because of the generalized xenophobia developed by the native Northerners toward the migrants from the South.

  iv. The sexual

  Although the extent of the attitude toward sexual references in different societies is different, sexual activity is particularly tabooed as a topic for public display and severely constrained as a topic for discussion. The language of sexual pleasuring and copulation, which is found in the research with the term fuck, gives rise to a great deal of verbal play and figurative language as well as a source for terms of heinous insult (Allan and Burridge, 2006: 144). From 484 sentences containing various BLW, only 1 sentence belongs to this category. The sentence contains the word fuck, which is the strongest BLW of all words found in the research. Below is the sentence containing the word.

  C009. Fuck you.

  Fuck is the most powerfully taboo term for copulation over several

  centuries and it is still regarded as unmentionable by the vast majority of middle- class people. In common with many powerful terms of abuse, fuck has developed a great range of grammatical functions and tones (Hughes, 2006: 188-191). The interesting fact about the word is that according to the Longman Dictionary of

  

Contemporary English (2005) its variant, fucking is listed in the top 1,000 most

  spoken words and fuck itself is in the top 3,000 most spoken. The example C009 is an example of cursing expletive with strong offence (McEnery, 2006:30), the strongest offence of all examples.

  

2. The Usage of BLW based on Morphosyntax, Parts of Speech, and

Functional Terms

  McEnery proposes a BLW categorization scheme according to the combined factors of morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional terms of usage.

  There are sixteen categories made out of this classification and each of them has a defined code based on the abbreviated name of the category. The data of this study, which are 484 sentences containing BLW, cover thirteen categories of the scheme proposed by McEnery (2006). The data do not cover three out of sixteen categories that are destinational usage (Dest), figurative extension of literal meaning (Figurtv), and unclassifiable category (Unc). Taking the examples of sentences listed in the previous categorization and added from some other examples from the data, below is exemplified the usage of BLW based on morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional terms found in the data.

  Some BLW may belong to some categories. It is because this categorization is based on the morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional terms. Thus, same examples of BLW in different sentences and different categories may exist in the explanation.

a. Predicative Negative Adjective (PredNeg)

  5 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as PredNeg. Some of the sentences are listed as follow A042. Well, I'll be damned, A156. But I'll be goddamned if you opened your mouth twicet sence we

  Morphosyntactically, the two sentences containing the word be damned serve as the adjectives of the sentences which imply negative meaning of the word.

  b. Adverbial Booster (AdvB)

  79 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as AdvB. Some of the sentences are listed as follow A020. An' I never had no idears about it except that I was goddamn glad when I got one.

  A215. I'm too goddamned tired to care, C036. Just as long as it's descriptive as hell.

  C040. He’s drunk as a bastard. In the example A020, the word goddamn amplifies the adjective glad as an adverb. The same pattern happens in sentence A215 in which the adverbial

  

goddamned amplifies the adjective tired. The phrases containing BLW as hell in

  sentence C036 and as a bastard serve also as AdvBs for they exaggerate the adjectives descriptive and drunk to be more than the truth.

  c. Cursing Expletive (Curse)

  30 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Curse. Some of the sentences are listed as follow A167. Well, goddamn it, he was askin' for it!

  C009. Fuck you. C068. God damn it. The Curse is a clear insult intended phrase with a very clear target for the word. In sentence A167, the speaker intends to insult the third person in the context of the conversation. Al, a character in The Grapes of Wrath, complained about a pitiful deed of someone and use the term goddamn it to express his feeling about it.

  In sentence B001, C009, and C068, the speakers intend to offense the second person to whom the speaker talk with the offensive phrases of be damned

  

to ye , fuck you, and God damn it. A school boy said sentence B001 to his own

  teacher because of anger. Sentences C009 and C068 are found in The Catcher in

  

the Rye . They are spoken by some youngsters to their friends in the offensive

manner.

d. Emphatic Adverb / Adjective (EmphAdv)

  This category contains the 22.11 percentage of the sentences containing BLW or the second largest category in this classification. There are 107 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as EmphAdv. Some of the sentences are listed as follow A013. Ever' person I talked to is on the move for a damn good reason.

  A111. An' now the goddamn car is bust again, an' money's gettin' low. A165. An' cover up that goddamn eye.

  B029. You damn morphodite, I’ll kill you! C005. You're right in my goddam light.

  The BLW serve as the modifier of a noun are the Emphatic Adjective while the ones that serve as the modifier of an adjective or verb are the Emphatic Adverb. Sentences A013, A111, A165, B011, and C005 belong to the first category in which the word damn and goddamn are used to modify the phrase

  

good reason , car, eye, story, and light. Sentence B029 is the second category in

  which the word damn modify morphodite, a slang term for hermaphrodite (having both male and female reproductive organs.)

e. General Expletive (Gen)

  The expletive in this sense is the BLW used as an exclamatory word or phrase which is delivered as an expression of general anger, annoyance or frustration. The use of the words also corresponds with the interjection. There are 17 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Gen. Some of the sentences are listed as follow

  A015. Well, hell! B027. Old hell-devil, old hell-devil! C028. Hell! Sentences A015, B027, and C028 are practically said as spontaneous reactions of surprise and frustration. The tone of the sentences is not offensive.

  Instead, the sentences are neutral sentences that do not have any particular

  f. Idiomatic Set Phrase (Idiom)

  10 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Idiom. The sentence with the most obvious character presenting this category is stated below C004. I don't know, and I don't give a damn. The literal meaning of the word damn in the sentence does not correspond with the whole meaning of the sentence, but it represents the other thing which is unidentified in the sentence. The phrase means “to not care at all about someone or something” (LDOCE, 2005:394), which has no relation with the literal meaning of give (to present something) and damn (to condemn a punishment). Therefore, don’t give a damn becomes a set of phrase which contains idiomatic meaning.

  g. Literal Usage Denoting Taboo Referents (Literal)

  17 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Literal. Some of the sentences are listed as follow B019. She called me a whore-lady and jumped on me! C193. Are you calling me a crook? C194. I'm no crook.

  B004. Mr. Radley shot at a Negro in his collard patch. Particularly, the Literal has no clear intention to insult or offense. It just wants to describe the way something is. Crook in sentence C194 is stated not to attack someone, but merely to give explanation that “I” is not someone who likes also stated without offensive intention. The word is used only to describe that Mr.Radley, a character in To Kill A Mockingbird, shot someone in his collard patch, and the man whom “Mr.Radley” shot was a black man.

h. Imagery Based on Literal Meaning (Image)

  13 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Image. Some of the sentences are listed as follow.

  A166. You sure give that fella hell, C195. Girls with their legs crossed, girls with their legs not crossed, girls with terrific legs, girls with lousy legs, girls that looked like swell girls, girls that looked like they'd be bitches if you knew them. B007. Jem, I ain’t ever heard of a nigger snowman, Sentence A166 uses the word hell as an imagery of the common concept of hell which is an unpleasent, horrible, and full-of-suffer place. Therefore, the meaning of the sentence is that “you” give someone a very unpleasent and horrible thing.

  Sentence B007 uses the word nigger as the literal description toward the condition of the snowman. The sentence was said by Scout in To Kill A

  

Mockingbird , when Jem made a snowman from the snow which is mixed with

  black soil, so that the snowman appeared dark instead of white. Therefore, Scout imagined the snowman was like nigger who was dark-skinned.

i. Premodifying Intensifying Negative Adjective (PremNeg)

  5 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as PremNeg. Some of the sentences are listed as follow.

  A.206 They're so goddamn dumb they don't know it's dangerous. A128. So goddamn sassy,

  Dumb and sassy are adjectives with more negative meaning rather than the

  positive. The word goddamn amplifies the negative meaning of those two words as the adjectives.

  j. Pronominal Form with Undefined Referent (Pron)

  8 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Pron. Some of the sentences are listed as follow.

  A016. But look, when you been in stir a little while, you can smell a question comin' from hell to breakfast.

  A135. Bleedin' like a son-of-a-bitch, A001. But sometimes a guy'll be a good guy even if some rich bastard makes him carry a sticker.

  The important point of Pron category is that a bad word acts as a pronominal without defined referent. The hell in sentence A016 refers to nothing, the son-of-a-bitch in sentence A135 refers to no one, while bastard in sentence A001 refers to an undefined person. The three BLW are pronominal forms from some things which are undefined.

  k. Personal Insult Referring to Defined Entity (Personal)

  55 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Personal. Some of the sentences are listed as follow.

  A029. Uncle John was a crazy bastard, A192. Okie means you're scum.

  A200. Wipe your feet, Will—you dirty pig! B002. Ain’t no snot-nosed slut of a schoolteacher ever born c’n make me do nothin‘! You ain’t makin’ me go nowhere, missus.

  B013. I guess it ain’t your fault if Uncle Atticus is a nigger-lover. C107. Sleep tight, ya morons! C187. Hold the sonuvabitch up! The Personal category is obviously offensive and intended to insult defined person or things. Sentences A200, A192, B002, and C107 are clearly intended to insult defined second persons as the objects. The sentences A029, B013, and C187 are sentences to insult defined third persons as the objects.

  l. Reclaimed Usage with No Negative Intent (Reclaimed)

  8 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as Reclaimed. Some of the sentences are listed as follow.

  A004. An' there we spied a nigger, with a trigger that was bigger than a elephant's proboscis or the whanger of a whale.' B042. Mr. Finch, if you was a nigger like me, you’d be scared, too.

  Both of sentences A004 and B042 are sentences containing the bad word

  

nigger . Their usages are without negative intent because both of the speakers of

  the sentences are African-American people. Therefore, they do not have any offence by saying the term nigger.

  m. Religious Oath Used for Emphasis (Oath)

  Oath is the largest category of the classification with 27.27 percent sentences of the data belong to this group. There are 132 sentences in the data use BLW that serve as the Oath. Some of the sentences are listed as follow.

  A003. This guy had words in it that Jesus H. Christ wouldn't know what they meant.

  A021. By God, this time I ain't gonna do it. A055. God Awmighty. B020. I swear before God if I’ll sit there and let him say somethin‘ about Atticus.

  B022. For God’s sake, Mr. Finch, look where he is! C045. Je-sus Christ! C050. Checkers, for Chrissake! C056. Jesus, now, try not to stretch it all over the place.

  This category is an exclusive group in which a religious oath is used for the emphasis of the sentences.

  

B. The Characteristics of Bad Language Words (BLW) Usage in Three

Twentieth Century American Novels

  From the previous analysis, there are five characteristics of the BLW usage found in the twentieth century American novels. They are offensive, emotive,

  

exclamatory, exaggerative and idiomatic. The characteristics are inferred through

the theories from the previous explanations from Hughes and McEnery.

1. Offensive

  The offensiveness of the BLW is expressed from the definition of the Bad Language Words itself, which is a form of taboo language which is commonly considered as an offence in the society. Bad language is a chief object of offence which is widely identified and accepted in the society (McEnery, 2006: 6). In some some categories proposed by McEnery (2006), there are some groups and examples that clearly show this characteristic.

  Basically, all BLW are naturally offensive, but the rate of offence is different from one word to another. BLW included in the usage of Curse and Personal categories show this character the most since they have clear intention to insult or attack an entity using certain BLW.

  B001. Report and be damned to ye! The example above is the use of religious reinforce as the resonator of

  BLW in the Curse category sentence. The sentence insults and offends the second person as the object.

  C107. Sleep tight, ya morons!

  The examples above use the intellectuals and the social stigma as the resonators of BLW in the Personal category sentences. Even from the category, it can be said that those sentences are offensive for the interlocutor of the sentences.

  

Moron is identical with the stupidity and the lack of someone to comprehend

  something. Bastard is social stigma of illegitimacy, the term is the result of people’s belief on the mischief nature of someone whose parents are unmarried.

  Those terms are negative and definitely offensive when they are delivered to certain entity.

2. Emotive

  Allan and Burridge (2006) state that most cussing (swearing and bad language) is an emotive reaction to anger, frustration, or something unexpected and usually, but not necessarily, undesireable. Unlike inoffensive words, bad language, in some cases, intensifies emotional expression. Anger, frustration, and happiness can be well expressed using BLW.

  In some real cases, someone may say the sentence from The Catcher in the Rye below as an expression of anger to someone.

  C009. Fuck you. The sentence contains sexual resonators which is used as a curse with moderate offensiveness. The strength of the BLW may show that the sentence deserves to be a vehicle to show the feeling of anger.

  C025. Ackley! For Chrissake. Willya please cut your crumby nails over

  The sentence above uses religious reinforce which is used as a curse in mild offensiveness. In this sentence, Holden’s despair or frustation is expressed by the use of for Chrissake.

  The other emotions of happiness and surprise can also be accomodated with the BLW, therefore the words deserve to be characterized as emotive.

  A057. The jack was clean as a whistle—Jesus God, you got salt too? C183. My God, he's grown another twenty inches.

  Sentence A057 is the expression of thankfulness and happiness in The

  

Grapes of Wrath when the Joad family finds good meat to eat. The surprise

  expression of Holden’s former teacher when seeing the Holden’s growth is well delivered through sentence C183. The Oath with religious reinforces as the resonators of the BLW like in two examples are clearly easy ways to show someone’s emotion.

3. Exclamatory

  Exclamatory is derived from the word exclamation which means a sudden term to express surprise or pain (Hornby, 1989:296). Exclamation is a case of untranslatability and practically has an unexplainable meaning. The sentences convey this character at its best. It can be said that semantically these sentences have a great emotional content but lack lexical meaning.

  A128. So goddamn sassy, C028. Hell!

  C050. Checkers, for Chrissake! Sentence A168 is the PremNeg category sentence using a religious reinforce as the resonator of the BLW. Sentence C036 uses also a religious reinforce in the AdvB category. Both of the sentences use BLW that can intensify the meaning of the adjectives, but both BLW practically do not have standard meaning. The same thing happens in sentence C050, whose phrase for Chrissake has no standard meaning. It is just an exclamatory expression of frustration.

4. Exaggarative

  Exaggarative is a derived form of exaggarate which means being described as better, more important than is really true (LDOCE, 2001: 471). The BLW in the categories of AdvB and PremNeg share this character best. These categories contain sentences with BLW which are added to make intensifying effect toward something or someone being spoken.

  A007. They're just goddamn sick of goin'—get sick of it. A020. An' I never had no idears about it except that I was goddamn glad when I got one.

  A215. I'm too goddamned tired to care, B054. Don’t like to contradict you, Mr. Finch—wasn’t crazy, mean as hell .

  The term goddamn in sentences A007, A020, and A 215 is the intensifier of the word sick, glad, and tired. The term emphasis or exaggarate the adjectives The B054 also has an intensifier, that is the word hell in the phrase as hell. The term exagarrate the meaning of mean so that it becomes “extremely mean” in some way.

  5. Idiomatic

  Idiomatic character of the BLW is based on the fact that there are some sentences with BLW which use idiom in the way of they are expressed. Idiom is basically a construction or expression of another language but whose total structure or meaning is not corresponded in the same way in the second language (Webster’s Encyclopedia Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, 1989:707).

  C004. I don't know, and I don't give a damn. The sentence above belongs to the Idiom category using the religious reinforce term. This category suits the character of idiomatic best because the literal meaning of the sentence construction does not meet the intended meaning of the sentence. The standard meaning of the set phrase I don’t give a damn means “not giving a condemn of punishment,” while the actual intended meaning is “not to care at all about someone or something” (LDOCE, 2005: 393-394).

  6. Intimate

  Many sentences in the data are spoken by the people in the close relationship. Either they are used positively or negatively, the sentences are parties. Bad language is restricted to colloquial (informal and intimate) style that includes religion-based profanity and blasphemy, as well as a wealth of obscenities taken from the pool of “dirty words” (Allan and Burridge, 2006:88).

  A028. Preacher wants to pray it set, but Pa says, no, by God, he'd got his heart full of havin' a doctor.

  A075. Hell, man, I was born right aroun' in here. C017. You have a damn good sense of humor, Ackley kid C030. In the first place, I wouldn't let you in my goddam family, The sentences A028 and A075 are found in The Grapes of Wrath. The sentences are said by a family member to the others. The sentences C017 and

  C030 are found in The Catcher in the Rye. The sentences are taken from a conversation between two friends. All sentences appear in the correspondences of intimate groups of family and friends, therefore they are delivered in the intimate style.

  

C. The Purposes of Bad Language Words (BLW) Usage in Three

Twentieth Century American Novels

  From the analysis of characteristics of the BLW usage in the twentieth century American Novels, there are four basic purposes of the BLW usage found in the data. They are to express emotion, to provoke the interlocutors, to attract

  

the interlocutors’ attention, and to express and reinforce solidarity. These

  purposes are inferred from the result of the analysis regarding the result study on profanity at the workplace by University of East Anglia (Wardaugh, 2010: 250) and Wardaugh’s theory on the violation of linguistic taboo (Wardaugh, 2010:250).

  Basically, the purposes are inferred regarding to the examination of context on which the sentences containing BLW are spoken. Associating some factors influencing language used in communication with the context of the speaking, the purpose of BLW usage can be revealed.

1. To Express Emotion

  It is stated before that bad language, in some cases, intensifies emotional expressions in a manner that inoffensive words cannot achieve. The use of BLW is a violation of a taboo in language, however it helps people to vent the feeling of frustration, contempt, surprise, happiness, and exaggeratedness.

a. Frustration

  The sentence below is the example of sentence using BLW to vent the feeling of frustration.

  C025. Ackley! For Chrissake. Willya please cut your crumby nails over the table? Sentence C025 is found in The Catcher in the Rye. It was said by Holden when Ackley did not want to hear his warning for a couple of times. Before saying the sentence, Holden did not use BLW to ask Ackley cutting his nail over the table. But, Ackley did not want to hear Holden’s request and Holden became so frustrated that he used the term for Chrissake.

b. Contempt

  The sentence below is the example of sentence using BLW to vent the contempt.

  C019. Boy, I can't stand that sonuvabitch. The sentence above is the expression of contempt from Ackley (in The

  

Catcher in the Rye ) to someone named Stradlater. Ackley did not like him

  because he thought that Stradlater had a superior behavior. That is why he called Stradlater sonuvabitch.

  The more specific kind of contempt is contempt to certain authority. Saying BLW is about breaking the rules of language in the society. The rules are built by authority, either it is personal or community, to enhance the communication. Yet, some people use the breaking of the rule to mock certain authority or a powerful force above the speaker of the words.

  A223. They's a big son-of-a-bitch. A231. Let them goddamn cops run over me, an' me do nothin'? Sentences A223 and A231 are found in The Grapes of Wrath. Both BLW appear in the two sentences, son-of-a-bitch and goddamn, refer to the Californian

  

cops . The sentences are spoken by the immigrants from Oklahoma who

  particularly hate cops. The scene and time of the novel show that cops have higher authority than the common people. However, instead of protecting all people in the area regardless their race and origin, they do cruel and bad things to the African-American immigrants coming from Oklahoma. The immigrants mock the

  c. Surprise

  The sentence below is the example of sentence using BLW to express surprise.

  C183. My God, he's grown another twenty inches. Mr. Antolini, Holden’s former teacher in The Catcher in the Rye, said sentence C183 because he was surprised that Holden had grown taller. Mr.

  Antolini and Holden, in the context of the sentence, did not meet each other for a long time, which is why the fact that Holden grew taller surprised Mr. Antolini.

  d. Happiness

  The sentence below is the example of sentence using BLW to express happiness.

  A057. The jack was clean as a whistle—Jesus God, you got salt too? Sentence A057 is found in The Grapes of Wrath and said by Joad. Joad was happy because he found a good jackrabbit. Since he and people around him were all hungry, the fact that he found such a good meal was very great. Thus, he was very happy and used the term Jesus God to show his happiness.

  e. Exaggeratedness

  The sentence below is the example of sentence using BLW to exaggeratedness.

  A215. I'm too goddamned tired to care,

  Common inoffensive language does not give enough exaggeration to some conditions and contexts of sentence. That is why Al, in The Grapes of Wrath, used the word goddamn to exaggerate the expression of his tiredness.

  2. To Provoke the Interlocutors

  The offensiveness character of the BLW can be used to provoke the interlocutors. Although there is no such thing as an absolute taboo (in this case BLW) that holds for all worlds, times and contexts, the BLW can be the utility to attack people verbally.

  C124. You're goddam right I am, you dirty crooked bastard! Sentence C124 above contains more than one BLW in a sentence. It can be said that the sentence is very offensive and in the occasion on which the sentence is said, the locutor intentionally says the sentence to provoke the interlocutor.

  Sentence C124 is said by Holden in The Catcher in the Rye. He expressed his anger and disappointment to someone he met at school. Holden was upset because the man had his gloves kept in his galoshes and thought that the man was a thief. Therefore he provoked the man with the sentence to make the mad admitted that he stole the gloves.

  3. To Attract the Interlocutors’ Attention

  BLW usage in a sentence is a violation of word taboo. Therefore, it makes the sentence containing the words becomes distinctive and more attractive for the hearers, either it is in a positive or negative way. The sentence below contains the BLW with the intention to attract the hearer of the sentence more.

  C096. Listen, what the hell was the fight about? Rather than just plain “What was the fight about?” the intensifying function of the BLW in the sentence make it more attractive, so that the hearer will be attracted and tempted to more actively respond the question. Ackley in The

  

Catcher in the Rye said sentence C096 to get the information from Holden about

  the fight happened between him and Stradlater. Ackley asked the same question for several times, but Holden did not pay attention to the question. When he asked again using more emphasis on the BLW, Holden started to pay attention and answered it.

4. To Express and Reinforce Solidarity

  Related to the intimate character of the BLW, the sentences containing BLW can be used to express and reinforce solidarity. A group that feels intense solidarity may be willing to overcome great linguistic differences in establishing a norm, whereas one that does not have this feeling may be unable to overcome relatively small differences and be unable to agree on a single variety and norm (Wardaugh, 2010:32). This rule works also for BLW. Certain group of people such as the Okies in The Grapes of Wrath and the youth in The Cather in the Rye, consider BLW as a register, not as a threat or offense. Unlike the nature of BLW as an offensive language, the words in below examples are used to reinforce

  A075. Hell, man, I was born right aroun' in here. C017. You have a damn good sense of humor, Ackley kid. Sentence A075 is a sentence said in the environment of a family. Although lexically hardly can the word hell be expressed, but semantically the word gives intimate nuance to the sentence. People will not say hell, man, bravely to strangers because it will give more offence rather than intimacy. Yet, in the sentence, both parties in the conversation are close to each other so that the sentence can be a way to express solidarity. Tom Joad in The Grapes of Wrath said sentence A075 to Jim Casy. They were friends from the same town and that made the communication happened in the intimate situation.

  The same thing works for sentence C017 in which the sentence happens in a conversation between schoolmates (Ackley and Holden in The Catcher in the

  

Rye ). The close relationship between the parties make the sentence have the sense

to express and reinforce solidarity too.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Three conclusions can be drawn from the study. Firstly, BLW in the data

  can be classified according to the Hughes’s BLW categorization based on the varieties of contents and according to the McEnery’s BLW categorizations based on morphosyntax, parts of speech, and functional terms. In the first classification, the BLW in the data is analyzed and grouped based on six resonators initiated by Hughes’s theory. It is found that the data satisfies all categories of the resonators, they are the use of religious reinforces, family origin, the attribution of various reprehensible behaviors and violations of moral codes, social stigmas and insulting names.

  In the latter classifications, it is found that the data cover thirteen categories out of sixteen categories of BLW proposed by McEnery. They are the predicative negative adjective (PredNeg), adverbial booster (AdvB), cursing expletive (Curse), emphatic adverb/adjective (EmphAdv), general expletive (Gen), idiomatic ‘set phrase’ (Idiom), literal usage denoting taboo referent (Literal), imagery based on literal meaning (Image), premodifying intensifying negative adjective (PremNeg), pronominal form with undefined meaning (Pron), personal insult referring to defined entity (Personal), reclaimed usage (Reclaimed), and religious oath (Oath). From both classifications, it is found that the BLW in the data share some same characteristics.

  64 Secondly, the BLW appearing in the study have six characteristics which are inferred from the analysis of the BLW classifications. They are offensive, emotive, exclamatory, exaggerative, idiomatic, and intimate.

  Finally, from the classifications and characteristics given above, there are four purposes of the BLW usage in the sentences of the twentieth century American novels. They are to express emotion, to provoke the interlocutors, to attract the interlocutors’ attention, and to express and reinforce solidarity.

  As a variety of language in the English speaking society, BLW have become phenomena that can be found easily in the daily life. This study helps people to have broader understanding and knowledge about the use of BLW. The knowledge is practically helpful for people to wisely decide when they intend to use the BLW or react to the BLW directed to them. Knowing the deeper fact of the BLW properly, people can decide accordingly whether or not they should speak using the words, in regards with the situation and the conversation they are involved in. With such knowledge and awareness about the BLW, hardly will someone say the offensive words unintentionally and unexpectedly, and they can react accordingly when the other people give the offence.

  

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  Allan, Keith and Kate Burridge. Forbidden Words: Taboo and the Censoring of Language . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Balmer, Randall. Religion in Twentieth Century America. Religion in American Life .ed. Jon Butler and Harry Stout. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. Hughes, Geoffrey I. An Encyclopedia of the Social History of Oaths, Profanity,

  Foul Language, and Ethnic Slurs in the English-Speaking World. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 2006.

  Kövecses, Zoltan. American English: An Introduction. Toronto: Broadwiew Press Ltd., 2000. Kramsch, Claire. 1998. Language and Culture. London: Oxford University Press. Lee, Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird. New York: Hachette Book Group USA, Inc., 1990. McEnery, Tony. Swearing in English: Bad language, Purity and Power from 1586 to the Present . New York: Routledge, 2005. Salinger, J.D. The Catcher in the Rye. New York: Signet Book, 1963. Setiawan, Gregorius Purna. “The Use of Slang in Daily Communication among

  Youth in 1950`s New York as Seen in J.D. Salinger`s the Catcher in the Rye.” Undergraduate Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2005. Steinbeck, John. The Grapes of Wrath. Harmondsworth: Penguin Book Ltd., 1976. Summers, Della. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. London: Longman, 2005.

  

The New International Webster’s Comprehensive Dictionary of the English

Language: Encyclopedic edition . Trident Press International, 1996.

  66 Wardaugh, Ronald. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Sixth Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. Wiegand, Steve. U.S. History for Dummies. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing, Inc., 2009.

  Online References Ayto, John. English in the Twentieth Century: An Overview. London: Longman.

  <http://www.oed.com/public/twentiethcenturyenglish> (10 September 2012). Doyle, Robert . Frequently Challenge Classics. American Library Association,

  2010. <http://www.ala.org/advocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/ challengedclassics/ reasonsbanned> (24 April 2012)

  th American History: the

20 Century . <http://www.histclo.com/country/ us/hist/20/ush20.html> (10 September 2012).

  &lt;http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/magazine/8084931.stm&gt; (24 April 2012) &lt;http://www.harpercollins.com/books/Kill-Mockingbird-HarperLee/ ?isbn=97800 60935467&gt; (24 April 2012) &lt;http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/bastard?show=0&amp;t=1343469908&gt; (21 July 2012)

  APPENDICES Appendix 1: List of the Sentences Found in the Novels Data No. Sentences

  A001 But sometimes a guy'll be a good guy even if some rich bastard makes him carry a sticker.

  A002 It was about him an' a couple of other guys goin' all over the world drinkin' and raisin' hell and screwin' around.

  A003 This guy had words in it that Jesus H. Christ wouldn't know what they meant.

  A004 An' there we spied a nigger, with a trigger that was bigger than a elephant's proboscis or the whanger of a whale.'

  A005 Carried that dictionary all over hell with him. A006

  You didn't give a damn when he said a big word 'cause he just done it for ducks. A007 They're just goddamn sick of goin'—get sick of it. A008 Well, it ain't no goddamn cinch, A009 No, by God. A010 I been training my mind for a hell of a long time. A011 I ain't got a hell of a lot further to go, A012 You sure took a hell of a long time to get to it, buddy. A013 I don't give a damn who knows it. A014 The hell you ain't, A015 Well, hell! A016

  But look, when you been in stir a little while, you can smell a question comin' from hell to breakfast. A017 Hi. It's hotter'n hell on the road. A018 You ain't too damn holy to take a drink, are you? A019 What the hell you want to lead 'em someplace for? A020

  An' I never had no idears about it except that I was goddamn glad when I got one. A021 By God, this time I ain't gonna do it.' A022

  Finally it give me such pain I quit an went off by myself an' give her a damn good thinkin' about. A023 'The hell with it! A024 Why do we got to hang it on God or Jesus? A025 Jesus , the guys in the cell block laughed! A026 The guys in my cell block goddamn near died laughin A027

  I brang Jesus to your folks for a long time, an' I never took up a collection

  68 A028

  Preacher wants to pray it set, but Pa says, no, by God, he'd got his heart full of havin' a doctor. A029 Uncle John was a crazy bastard, A030

  We've got a bad thing made by men, and by God that's something we can change. A031 Jesus ! A032 Something knocked the hell out of her. A033 I got an itch that somepin's wronger'n hell. A034 By God! A035 Why, Jesus Christ! A036 Well, Grampa did get her, but he didn't give a damn about the pitcher on it.

  A037 But he better come shootin', 'cause I'll blow his Goddamn stinkin' head off if he comes messin' aroun' my pilla.'

  A038 Grampa's a tough ol' bastard. A039 Hell , I forgot the turtle. A040 Where the hell you s'pose he's goin'? A041 Who the hell's comin' here? A042 Well, I'll be damned, A043 By God, it's lucky I come by! A044 I jus' tol' Tom I wan't gonna move, by God.

  A045 Your grampa didn't wanta kill the guy drivin' that cat', an' that was Willy Feeley, an' Willy knowed it, so he jus' come on, an' bumped the hell outa the house, an' give her a shake like a dog shakes a rat.

  A046 You ain't been aroun' for a hell of a long time. A047 Them dirty sons-a-bitches. A048 I'll take couple-three of the sons-a-bitches along for company. A049 All 'cept me, an' by God I ain't goin'. A050 Damn right, A051 An' now she's cottoned damn near to death.

  A052 But them sons-a-bitches says I got to get off—an', Jesus Christ, a man can't, when he's tol' to!

  A053 I seen her beat the hell out of a tin peddler with a live chicken one time 'cause he give her a argument.

  A054 Well, by God, I'm hungry, A055 God Awmighty , A056 Jesus Christ , I'm hungry for these here creatures! A057 The jack was clean as a whistle—Jesus God, you got salt too? A058 I'm jus' wanderin' aroun' like a damn ol' graveyard ghos' A059 Jesus , look down an' just smell her! A060

  But them sons-a-bitches at their desks, they jus' chopped folks in two for their margin a profit. A061 Jesus Christ , le's eat this meat 'fore it's smaller'n a cooked mouse! A062 Here, Muley, if you ain't too Goddamn upset to eat

  69 A065 I learned to write nice as hell. A066 'Course you get Goddamn good an' sick a-doin' A067

  But, hell, if I seen Herb Turnbull comin' for me with a knife right now, I'd squash him down with a shovel again. A068 Well, he's one hell of a bright guy an' reads law an' all stuff like that. A069

  He says for God's sake don't read about her because he says for one thing you'll jus' get messed up worse, an' for another you won't have no respect for the guys that work the gover'ments. A070 By God, you never, A071 But, Jesus, I hate to get pushed around! A072 By God, you're right! A073 By God, I bet I know, A074 I'd hate to have the dawn come and us be way to hell an' gone somewhere. A075 Hell , man, I was born right aroun' in here. A076 Jesus , I hope Ma's cookin' somepin. A077 Damn ' if I know how they're all sleepin' at Uncle John's. A078 Lonest Goddamn man in the world, A079

  Crazy kind of son-of-a-bitch, too—somepin like Muley, on'y worse in some ways. A080 Made a damn nuisance of hisself. A081 By God! A082 What the hell, if somebody called me, I wouldn't hear him neither. A083 Holy Christ, they're fixin' to go! A084 Oh, thank God! A085 Goddamn it, Grampa, why don't you run off an' be a pirate? A086 Goddamn it, where is he? A087 Sons-a-bitches got no right. A088 So damn much happens in four years if you're away. A089 Jesus , you're growin' like a bean! A090 Sons-a-bitches won't let a ol' fella sleep.

  A091 When you bastards get dry behin' the ears, you'll maybe learn to let a ol' fella sleep.

  A092 An', by God, they's grapes out there, just a-hangin' over inta the road. A093

  By God, if he lives to be two hundred you never will get Grampa house broke, A094 We got trouble enough without they chase the hell out of us. A095 The tires ain't worth a damn, but they're a good size. A096 That's a hell of a long ways. A097 Now what in hell is that? A098

  An' I don't give a goddamn if they's oranges an' grapes crowdin' a fella outa bed even. A099 Goddamn it, I'm a ol' man, but I can still take care a myself. A100 Jesus Christ , it's near sunrise,

  70

  God , they'll steal stuff an' don't buy nothin'.

  A103 Ever' person I talked to is on the move for a damn good reason. A104 But if I don't do no crimes, they won't give a damn. A105 You Goddamn right, A106 Sicker'n hell.

  A107 Pray, Goddamn you! A108

  Sometimes fellas workin' dig up a man an' then they raise hell an' figger he been killed. A109 Why, God Awmighty, we aim to be in California in ten days or less. A110 It's a Goddamn shame. A111 An' now the Goddamn car is bust again, an' money's gettin' low. A112 Why, hell, they don't care how much you eat 'cause they got so much. A113 Why, hell, in a couple years I bet a fella could have a place of his own. A114 No, by God, A115 Oh, Jesus Christ! A116 Jesus , the air was full of bed clothes an' chickens an' kids. A117 God Almighty, the road is full a them families goin' west. A118 Wonder where the hell they all come from? A119 God Almighty, Mae, give 'em bread. A120 Run out, then, Goddamn it, A121 You go to hell, A122 How the hell would I know? A123 He thinks he's the on'y son-of-a-bitch can study at night? A124 Where the hell ya think you're stoppin'? A125 Goddamn it, A126 This here Goddamn wreck's give me trouble right along.

  A127 An' if ya do get me, I swear to God I'll wait till you got your back turned, or you're settin' down, an' I'll knock you belly-up with a bucket.

  A128 So Goddamn sassy, A129

  Jesus Christ , one person with their mind made up can shove a lot of folks

  aroun'! A130 Say, Casy, you been awful Goddamn quiet the las' few days. A131

  I went a-fastin' into the wilderness one time, an' when I come out the same damn thing happened to me. A132 Hell it did! A133 Oh, hell, I don' know! A134 There, by God! A135 Bleedin' like a son-of-a-bitch, A136 Best damn thing in the worl' to stop bleedin' A137 Goddamn it! A138 Jesus Christ , I thought it'd be somepin different when I come out! A139 Oh, what the hell!

  71 A142 You was a hell of a long time. A143

  But ever'body's so Goddamn tired an' wore out an' mis'able, they stayed there. A144 Well, hell—if you been a preacher, I guess you got to. A145 She's jus' givin' him hell. A146

  Christ

  , we could have a hell of a time for ourselves A147 Well, hell, I don't know nobody here. A148 I'm gonna have me a hell of a time when we get to California. A149 Let's jus' try an' get a con-rod an' the hell with the res' of it. A150 Oh, the hell with it! A151 Burn the Goddamn place down, for all I care. A152 I hate the son-of-a-bitch! A153 Take any Goddamn thing you want. A154 Know what that son-of-a-bitch done? A155 By God, I'll whang him some day! A156 No, by God! A157

  An' by God, she was gettin' 'em, too, an' the fellas comin' out thinkin' they're pretty lucky. A158 Jesus Christ , an' all you got is one eye gone. A159 Well, Jesus, ya see somebody edge away from ya, an' it gets into ya. A160 Cover it up then, Goddamn it. A161 Christ , no. A162 We're so Goddamn full now we can't move. A163 Say, by God, if we had a light we could get this here in tonight. A164 You say it's all me, but, by God, he's a son-of-a-bitch. A165 An' cover up that Goddamn eye. A166 You sure give that fella hell, A167 Well, Goddamn it, he was askin' for it! A168 He's a lazy, dirty son-of-a-bitch. A169 Wanta be a hell of a guy all the time. A170

  But, Goddamn it, Al, don' keep ya guard up when nobody ain't sparrin' with ya. A171 God Awmighty, we forgot to get somepin to eat. A172 Christ , I don' know. Jus' plug away at her. A173 Jesus Christ , them walls can take it. A174 You make a darn good mechanic, A175 Jesus , I'm glad Ma stopped us this afternoon. A176 What the hell, A177

  An' the time ain't come yet when us local folks got to take no talk from you Goddamn bums, neither. A178 You goin' out an' get—good wages—oh, Christ! A179 What's so Goddamn funny about that? A180 What the hell you talkin' about?

  72 nothin' but biscuits. A183 Jesus Christ , jus' for a cup a flour an' a spoon a lard. A184 Thank the dear God for that, A185 Damn right, A186 Jesus , I needed this, A187 An' I hear she's a son-of-a-bitch. A188 Jesus Christ , Pa! A189 I don't like you, you son-of-a-bitch. A190 What the hell! A191 Now it means you're a dirty son-of-a-bitch. A192

  Okie means you're scum.

  A193 Purtiest Goddamn country you ever seen, but they ain't nice to you, them folks.

  A194 What in hell can he do with a million acres? A195

  Fella havin' fun, he don't give a damn; but a fella mean an' lonely an' old an' disappointed—he's scared of dyin'! A196 But I'll be goddamned if you opened your mouth twicet sence we lef' home. A197 Yes, by God! A198 Well, Jesus, Pa! A199 Listen, you goddamn fool— A200 Wipe your feet, Will—you dirty pig! A201 You're in California, an' we don't want you Goddamn Okies settlin' down. A202 My God, Ma. A203 A ol' hell-cat, A204 What the hell's the matter with him? A205 Them goddamn Okies got no sense and no feeling. A206 They're so goddamn dumb they don't know it's dangerous. A207 And, Christ Almighty, they don't know any better than what they got. A208 Jesus , what a place. A209

  Them people that's sure about ever'thing an' ain't got no sin—well, with that kind of a son-of-a-bitch, A210 By God, she is, A211 Oh, Jesus, no! A212 I got this goddamn car on my soul. A213 Well, you done a damn good job a pickin'. A214 Jesus , the desert's past! Pa, Al, for Christ sakes! A215 I'm too goddamned tired to care, A216 Jesus Christ ! A217 The hell with it, A218 What the hell was the matter'th that ol' fella with the beard? A219

  They say they's three hunderd thousan' us folks here, an' I bet ever' dam' fam'ly seen them han'bills. A220

  You can print a hell of a lot of han'bills with what ya save payin' fifteen

  73 I seen it. A222 Damn good thing. A223 They's a big son-of-a-bitch. A224 They send out han'bills all over hell. A225

  If ya don't wanta take what they pay, goddamn it, they's a thousan' men waitin' for your job. A226 There ain't another damn thing in that part a the country to do. A227 Wouldn' be long 'fore the price went up, by God! A228 An' I'm so goddamn tar'd I'd argue easy. A229 Goddamn it, I an' my folks ain't no sheep. A230 I'll kick the hell outa somebody. A231 Let them goddamn cops run over me, an' me do nothin'? A232 An' if ya see a cop, why, you're a goddamn dumb Okie, see? A233 Jesus , she's wonderful.

  A234 An' that's it—they wanta jus' fling their goddamn muscles aroun' an' get tired.

  A235 Why, I knowed a one-legged whore one time.

  Data No. Sentences B001 Report and be damned to ye! You ain’t makin’ me go nowhere, missus.

  B002 Ain’t no snot-nosed slut of a schoolteacher ever born c’n make me do nothin‘!

  B003 Calpurnia says that’s nigger-talk. B004 Mr. Radley shot at a Negro in his collard patch.

  B005 Scared him pale, though. Says if anybody sees a white nigger around, that’s the one.

  B006 Says he’s got the other barrel waitin‘ for the next sound he hears in that patch, an’ next time he won’t aim high, be it dog, nigger, or—Jem Finch!

  B007 Jem, I ain’t ever heard of a nigger snowman, B008 Do you defend niggers, Atticus? B009 Of course I do. Don’t say nigger, Scout. That’s common.

  B010 My folks said your daddy was a disgrace an‘ that nigger oughta hang from the water-tank!

  B011 Aw, that’s a damn story, B012 You like words like damn and hell now, don’t you? B013 I guess it ain’t your fault if Uncle Atticus is a nigger-lover besides, B014 Francis, what the hell do you mean? B015

  Grandma says it’s bad enough he lets you all run wild, but now he’s turned

  74 B016 He’s nothin‘ but a nigger-lover! B017 Nigger -lover! B018 Did I hear you say hell a while ago? B019 she called me a whore-lady and jumped on me! B020 I swear before God if I’ll sit there and let him say somethin‘ about Atticus. B021 Atticus, you are a devil from hell. B022 For God’s sake, Mr. Finch, look where he is! B023

  Not only a Finch waiting on tables but one in the courthouse lawing for

  nigger s!

  B024 Your father’s no better than the niggers and trash he works for! B025 what exactly is a nigger-lover? B026 You aren’t really a nigger-lover, then, are you? B027 Old hell-devil, old hell-devil! B028 Stop right there, nigger.

  B029 You damn morphodite, I’ll kill you! B030 God Almighty . B031 The hell he is, B032 You’re damn tootin‘ they won’t.

  B033 I was just leaving my office to go home when B—Mr. Ewell came in, very excited he was, and said get out to his house quick, some nigger’d raped his girl.

  B034 Well, I was sayin’ Mayella was screamin‘ fit to beat Jesus— B035 —I seen that black nigger yonder ruttin’ on my Mayella! B036

  I knowed who it was, all right, lived down yonder in that nigger-nest, passed the house every day. B037

  I said come here, nigger, and bust up this chiffarobe for me, I gotta nickel for you. B038 There was several niggers around. B039

  That nigger yonder took advantage of me an‘ if you fine fancy gentlemen don’t wanta do nothin’ about it then you’re all yellow stinkin‘ cowards, stinkin’ cowards, the lot of you. B040 Bet he was hell with a spitball, B041 He says you goddamn whore, I’ll kill ya. B042 Mr. Finch, if you was a nigger like me, you’d be scared, too. B043 I’ll be damned if I’ll listen to this case again! B044 What’d the nigger look like when you got through with him? B045 Like I says before, it weren’t safe for any nigger to be in a—fix like that. B046 Well, Dill, after all he’s just a Negro. B047 Now I could say the hell with ‘em, I don’t care if they don’t like it. B048 Cry about the simple hell people give other people—without even thinking.

  Cry about the hell white people give colored folks, without even stopping

  75 B051 Hell no. B052 The hell I will, B053 I ain’t touched her, Link Deas, and ain’t about to go with no nigger! B054 Don’t like to contradict you, Mr. Finch—wasn’t crazy, mean as hell. B055

  God damn

  it, I’m not thinking of Jem!

  Data No. Sentences

  C001 All I'm doing right now is thinking about going home Wednesday. I'm a moron .

  C002 I left the goddam foils and stuff on the subway." C003 I had to keep getting up to look at a goddam map on the wall. C004 I don't know, and I don't give a damn. C005 You're right in my Goddam light C006 What the hellya reading?" C007 Goddam book. C008 Mother darling , everything's getting so dark in here. C009 Fuck you C010 You're nuts C011 I swear to God, C012

  Mother darling

  , give me your hand, C013 For Chrissake, grow up C014 Where the hellja get that hat? C015 Up home we wear a hat like that to shoot deer in, for Chrissake C016 Like hell it is.

  C017 You have a damn good sense of humor, Ackley kid C018 I'll get you on the goddam radio C019 Boy, I can't stand that sonuvabitch.

  C020 He's one sonuvabitch I really can't stand. C021 He told me he thinks you're a Goddam prince C022 I just can't stand the sonuvabitch.

  C023 He's got this goddam superior attitude all the time C024 I don't even think the sonuvabitch is intelligent. C025 Ackley! For Chrissake. Willya please cut your crumby nails over the table? C026 He's a conceited sonuvabitch C027 But he'd give you the goddam tie C028 Hell , C029 God damn it. C030 In the first place, I wouldn't let you in my goddam family, C031 What the hell's it doing out--snowing? C032 I spilled some crap all over my gray flannel

  76 ask. C035

  I'm the one that's flunking out of the goddam place, and you're asking me to write you a goddam composition C036 Just as long as it's descriptive as hell. C037

  That sonuvabitch Hartzell thinks you're a hot-shot in English, and he knows you're my roommate. C038 I'm the goddarn Governor's son, C039 But it's in my goddam blood, tap-dancing. C040 He's drunk as a bastard. C041 The little ole goddam Governor's son C042 Hell , no! C043 Cut it out, Holden, for Chrissake! C044 Wuddaya wanna make me do--cut my goddam head off? C045 Je-sus Christ C046 You're damn right I know her. C047 She had this big damn Doberman pinscher C048 You're right in my light, Holden, for Chrissake C049 I don't know, for Chrissake. C050 Checkers, for Chrissake! C051 naturally it does, for God's sake. C052 And run around the goddam house, naked. C053 Jesus C054 Why the hell don'tcha, instead of keep saying it? C055 For Chrissake, I only just met her, C056 Jesus , now, try not to stretch it all over the place C057 Where the hell's my cigarettes? C058 She only signed out for nine-thirty, for Chrissake.

  C059 The reason she did that, she probably just didn't know what a handsome, charming bastard you are.

  C060 goddam right C061 Don't knock yourself out or anything, but just make it descriptive as hell. C062 That bastard . . . All right. Wait a second. C063 Where the hell is everybody? C064 It's like a goddam morgue around here C065 For Chrissake, Holden. C066 This is about a goddam baseball glove. C067 What the hell's the difference if it's about a baseball glove? C068 God damn it. C069 You don't do one damn thing the way you're supposed to C070 What the hellja do that for?" C071 You're back pretty goddam late if she only signed out for nine-thirty C072

  How the hell could we go to New York if she only signed out for nine- thirty?

  77 C073

  You may be getting the hell out of here, but I have to stick around long enough to graduate. C074 What the hell ya think we did all night--play checkers, for Chrissake? C075 We just sat in the goddam car C076 Give her the time in Ed Banky's goddam car? C077 What the hell's the matter with you? C078 Go on, get off a me, ya crumby bastard. C079 You don't even know if her first name is Jane or Jean, ya goddam moron! C080 God damn it--I'm warning ya C081 Get your dirty stinking moron knees off my chest. C082 You're a dirty stupid sonuvabitch of a moron, C083 Holden, God damn it, I'm warning you, now. C084 You asked for it, God damn it, C085 What the hellya doing, anyway? C086 Jesus ! C087 What the hell happened to you? C088 I had a little Goddam tiff with Stradlater C089 You're still bleeding, for Chrissake. C090 Canasta, for Chrissake. C091 I gotta get up and go to Mass in the morning, for Chrissake. C092 You guys start hollering and fighting in the middle of the goddam- C093 I don't know when the hell he's coming back C094 What the hell do you mean you don't know when he's coming back? C095

  No, but for Chrissake, I can't just tell somebody they can sleep in his goddam bed if they want to. C096 Listen, what the hell was the fight about? C097 About me, for Chrissake? C098 How 'bout turning off the goddam light? C099 I wouldn't abuse your goddam hospitality C100 What the hell's the matter with you? C101 I was asleep, for Chrissake. C102 You bastard, did you wake me just to ask me a dumb ques-- C103 All stupid bastards. Or just bastards.

  C104 I don't care what you say about me or anything, but if you start making cracks about my goddam religion, for Chrissake--

  C105 Nobody's making any cracks about your goddam religion. C106 I just want to thank you for being such a goddam prince, that's all, C107 Sleep tight, ya morons! C108 Who's calling me up at this crazy goddam hour? C109

  Jesus Christ .

  C110 Oh, Christ. Don't spoil it, C111 I'm twelve, for Chrissake. I'm big for my age.

  78 C113 Right in the goddam lake. C114 Use your head, for Chrissake. C115 What the hellaya mean what do they do?" C116 They stay right where they are, for Chrissake C117 They live right in the goddam ice. C118 It's their nature, for Chrissake. C119 Their bodies, for Chrissake--what'sa matter with ya? C120

  Their bodies take in nutrition and all, right through the goddam seaweed and crap that's in the ice. C121 You're goddam right they don't," C122 I suppose these are your goddam gloves? C123 I don't want the goddam things." C124 You're goddam right I am, you dirty crooked bastard! C125 All I know is my goddam gloves were in your goddam galoshes C126 What the heck ya wanna talk about? C127 If you just had a goddam operation on your goddam wuddayacallit. C128 If you rough me up, I'll yell like hell. C129 Yell your goddam head off. C130 Get the hell out of my room, C131 You're a dirty moron, C132 I mean I don't give a darn, one way or the other. C133 A horse is at least human, for God's sake. C134 If you weren't around, I'd probably be someplace way the hell off.

  C135 It's full of phonies, and all you do is study so that you can learn enough to be smart enough to be able to buy a goddam Cadillac some day, and you have to keep making believe you give a damn if the football team loses, and all you do is talk about girls and liquor and sex all day, and everybody sticks together in these dirty little goddam cliques.

  C136 The guys that are on the basketball team stick together, the Catholics stick together, the goddam intellectuals stick together, the guys that play bridge stick together.

  C137 Even the guys that belong to the goddam Book-of-the-Month Club stick together.

  C138 That's exactly my goddam point, C139 It's beautiful as hell up there, It really is C140 Honest to God, we could have a terrific time! C141 Why the hell not? C142 Christ almighty.

  C143 There's always a dumb horse race, and some dame breaking a bottle over a ship, and some chimpanzee riding a goddam bicycle with pants on.

  C144 Just sit back and relax, for Chrissake." C145 I've never asked her, for God's sake.

  79 C147 She Chinese, for Chrissake? C148 Not necessarily in China, for God's sake C149 It's too involved to go into, for God's sake, C150 But it depends on who the hell I'm doing it with. C151 Not so loud, for God's sake, Caulfield. C152 If I don't, I sort of lose my goddam desire for her and all. C153 Naturally it does, for God's sake. C154 It's up to you, for God's sake. C155 It's none of my goddam business what you do with your life. C156 He wouldn't do a goddam thing to you. C157 He'd simply talk to you, and you'd talk to him, for God's sake. C158 You're a real friendly bastard, C159 I'm lonesome as hell. C160 Trimma goddarn tree for ya. C161 Boy, you can play that goddam piano. C162 All those goddam golden locks. C163 Annapolis, for God's sake! C164 What are you--a child, for God's sake? C165 C'mon, Phoeb, take that goddam thing off your head. C166

  The worst he'll do, he'll give me hell again, and then he'll send me to that goddam military school. C167 Oh, God, Phoebe, don't ask me. C168 And they had this goddam secret fraternity that I was too yellow not to join. C169

  Old Spencer'd practically kill himself chuckling and smiling and all, like as if Thurmer was a goddam prince or something. C170 I don't know why the hell he asked us. C171

  What he did, he carved his goddam stupid sad old initials in one of the can doors about ninety years ago, and he wanted to see if they were still there. C172 God , Phoebe! C173 Why the hell do you say that? C174

  Just because somebody's dead, you don't just stop liking them, for God's sake C175 Why the hell isn't it? C176 I'm getting goddam sick of it C177

  Back and congratulating you in court when the goddam trial was over, the reporters and everybody, the way it is in the dirty movies? C178 I mean if I had my goddam choice? C179 I don't give a damn if he does, C180 Where the hell are ya? C181 I got my damn bags at the station, C182 How much is it, for God's sake?

  80 C184 He could drive you crazy sometimes, him and the goddam class. C185 Frankly, I don't know what the hell to say to you, Holden. C186 I don't know what the hell you're going to do with those legs of yours. C187 Hold the sonuvabitch up! C188 Hold it up, for Chrissake! C189 What the hell's in that bag? C190 Not be in the play, for God's sake? C191 Want your parents to know you spent the night with a whore?

  For all I know, since you ask, she's probably the Whore of New Hampshire C192 by this time.

  C193 Are you calling me a crook? C194 I'm no crook.

  Girls with their legs crossed, girls with their legs not crossed, girls with C195 terrific legs, girls with lousy legs, girls that looked like swell girls, girls that looked like they'd be bitches if you knew them.

  Legend

  A: Sentences containing BLW in The Grapes of Wrath

  B: Sentences containing BLW To Kill A Mockingbird

  C: Sentences containing BLW The Catcher in the Rye

  81

  1

  1

  1 A011

  1

  1 A010

  1

  1 A009

  1

  1 A008

  1

  1 A007

  1

  1 A006

  1

  1 A005

  1 A004

  Appendix 2: Data Categorization Data No.

  1

  1 A003

  1

  1 A002

  1

  4 A001

  3

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 A012

1 A013

  1 A014

  1

  1

  1 A027

  1

  1 A028

  1

  1 A029

  1

  1 A030

  1 A031

  1

  1

  1 A032

  1

  1 A033

  1

  1 A034

  1

  1

  1 A026

  1 A025

  1

  1 A019

  1 A015

  1

  1 A016

  1

  1 A017

  1

  1 A018

  1

  1

  1

  1 A020

  1

  1 A021

  1

  1 A022

  1

  1 A023

  1

  1 A024

  1

  82

  1

  1 A060

  1

  1 A059

  1

  1 A058

  1

  1 A057

  1 A056

  1 A061

  1

  1 A055

  1

  1 A054

  1

  1 A053

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 A067

  1

  1 A070

  1

  1 A069

  1

  1 A068

  1

  1

  1 A062

  1 A066

  1

  1 A065

  1

  1 A064

  1

  1 A063

  1

  1 A052

  1 A051

  Data No.

  4 A036

  1

  1 A039

  1

  1 A038

  1

  1 A037

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 A040

  1 A041

  1

  1

  1 A050

  1

  1 A049

  1

  1 A048

  1

  1 A047

  1 A046

  1

  1

  1 A045

  1

  1 A044

  1

  1 A043

  1

  1 A042

  1

  83

  1

  1 A095

  1

  1 A094

  1

  1 A093

  1

  1 A092

  1 A091

  1 A096

  1

  1 A090

  1

  1 A089

  1

  1 A088

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 A102

  1

  1 A105

  1

  1 A104

  1

  1 A103

  1

  1

  1 A097

  1 A101

  1

  1 A100

  1

  1 A099

  1

  1 A098

  1

  1 A087

  1 A086

  Data No.

  1

  1 A075

  1

  1 A074

  1

  1 A073

  1

  1 A072

  4 A071

  1 A076

  3

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1

  1

  1

  1 A082

  1 A085

  1

  1 A084

  1

  1 A083

  1

  1

  1

  1 A077

  1 A081

  1

  1 A080

  1

  1 A079

  1

  1 A078

  1

  1

  84

  1

  1 A131

  1

  1 A130

  1

  1 A129

  1

  1 A127

  1 A126

  1 A132

  1

  1 A125

  1

  1 A124

  1

  1 A123

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 A140

  1

  1 A139

  1

  1 A138

  1 A137

  1 A133

  1

  1 A136

  1

  1 A135

  1

  1 A134

  1

  1 A122

  1 A121

  Data No.

  4 A106

  1

  1 A109

  1

  1 A108

  1

  1 A107

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 A110

  1 A111

  1

  1

  1 A120

  1

  1 A119

  1

  1 A118

  1

  1 A117

  1 A116

  1

  1

  1 A115

  1

  1 A114

  1

  1 A113

  1

  1 A112

1 A128

  85

  1

  1 A165

  1

  1 A164

  1

  1 A163

  1

  1 A162

  1 A161

  1 A166

  1

  1 A160

  1

  1 A159

  1

  1 A158

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 A172

  1

  1 A175

  1

  1 A174

  1

  1 A173

  1

  1

  1 A167

  1 A171

  1

  1 A170

  1

  1 A169

  1

  1 A168

  1

  1 A157

  1 A156

  Data No.

  4 A141

  1

  1 A144

  1

  1 A143

  1

  1 A142

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 A145

  1 A146

  1

  1

  1 A155

  1

  1 A154

  1

  1 A153

  1

  1 A152

  1 A151

  1

  1

  1 A150

  1

  1 A149

  1

  1 A148

  1

  1 A147

  1

  86

  1

  1 A200

  1

  1 A199

  1

  1 A198

  1

  1 A197

  1 A196

  1 A201

  1

  1 A195

  1

  1 A194

  1

  1 A193

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 A207

  1

  1 A210

  1

  1 A209

  1

  1 A208

  1

  1

  1 A202

  1 A206

  1

  1 A205

  1

  1 A204

  1

  1 A203

  1

  1 A192

  1 A191

  Data No.

  4 A176

  1

  1 A179

  1

  1 A178

  1

  1 A177

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 A180

  1 A181

  1

  1

  1 A190

  1

  1 A189

  1

  1 A188

  1

  1 A187

  1 A186

  1

  1

  1 A185

  1

  1 A184

  1

  1 A183

  1

  1 A182

  1

  87

  1

  1 A235

  1

  1 A234

  1

  1 A233

  1

  1 A232

  1 A231

  1 B001

  1

  1 A230

  1

  1 A229

  1

  1 A228

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 B007

  1

  1 B010

  1

  1 B009

  1

  1 B008

  1

  1

  1 B002

  1 B006

  1

  1 B005

  1

  1 B004

  1

  1 B003

  1

  1 A227

  1 A226

  Data No.

  4 A211

  1

  1 A214

  1

  1 A213

  1

  1 A212

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 A215

  1 A216

  1

  1

  1 A225

  1

  1 A224

  1

  1 A223

  1

  1 A222

  1 A221

  1

  1

  1 A220

  1

  1 A219

  1

  1 A218

  1

  1 A217

  1

  88

  Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization Data C D E No. A B A B C D E F G H

  I J K L M

  1

  2

  3

  1

  2

  3

  4 B011

  1

  1 B012

  1

  1 B013

  1

  1 B014

  1

  1 B015

  1

  1 B016

  1

  1 B017

  1

  1 B018

  1

  1 B019

  1

  1 B020

  1

  1 B021

  1

  1 B022

  1

  1 B023

  1

  1 B024

  1

  1 B025

  1

  1 B026

  1

  1 B027

  1

  1 B028

  1

  1 B029

  1

  1 B030

  1

  1 B031

  1

  1 B032

  1

  1 B033

  1

  1 B034

  1

  1 B035

  1

  1 B036

  1

  1 B037

  1

  1 B038

  1

  1 B039

  1

  1 B040

  1

  1 B041

  1

  1 B042

  1

  1 B043

  1

  1 B044

  1

  1 B045

  1

  1

  89

  1 C011

  1

  1 C014

  1

  1 C013

  1

  1 C012

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 C010

  1

  1 C009

  1

  1 C008

  1

  1 C015

  1 C016

  1

  1 C021

  1

  1 C024

  1

  1 C023

  1

  1 C022

  1

  1

  1

  1 C020

  1

  1 C019

  1

  1 C018

  1

  1 C017

  1 C007

  1 C006

  Data No.

  4 B046

  1

  1 B049

  1

  1 B048

  1

  1 B047

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 B050

  1 B051

  1

  1

  1 C005

  1

  1 C004

  1

  1 C003

  1

  1 C002

  1 C001

  1

  1

  1 B055

  1

  1 B054

  1

  1 B053

  1

  1 B052

  1

  90

  1

  1 C050

  1

  1 C049

  1

  1 C048

  1

  1 C047

  1 C046

  1 C051

  1

  1 C045

  1

  1 C044

  1

  1 C043

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 C057

  1

  1 C060

  1

  1 C059

  1

  1 C058

  1

  1

  1 C052

  1 C056

  1

  1 C055

  1

  1 C054

  1

  1 C053

  1 C042

  1 C041

  Data No.

  4 C026

  1

  1 C029

  1

  1 C028

  1

  1 C027

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 C030

  1 C031

  1

  1

  1 C040

  1

  1 C039

  1

  1 C038

  1

  1 C037

  1 C036

  1

  1

  1 C035

  1

  1 C034

  1

  1 C033

  1 C032

  1

  91

  1

  1 C085

  1

  1 C084

  1

  1 C083

  1

  1 C082

  1 C081

  1 C086

  1

  1 C080

  1

  1 C079

  1

  1 C078

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 C092

  1

  1 C095

  1

  1 C094

  1

  1 C093

  1

  1

  1 C087

  1 C091

  1

  1 C090

  1

  1 C089

  1

  1 C088

  1

  1 C077

  1 C076

  Data No.

  1

  1 C065

  1

  1 C064

  1

  1 C063

  1

  1 C062

  4 C061

  1 C066

  3

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1

  1

  1

  1 C072

  1 C075

  1

  1

  1 C074

  1

  1 C073

  1

  1

  1 C067

  1 C071

  1

  1 C070

  1

  1 C069

  1

  1 C068

  1

  1

  92

  1

  1 C102

  1

  1 C103

  1

  1 C104

  1

  1 C105

  1 C101

  1

  1 C106

  1

  1 C107

  1

  1 C108

  1

  1

  1

  Data No.

  3

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  I J K L M

  1

  2

  3

  1

  2

  4 C096

  1 C100

  1

  1 C097

  1

  1 C098

  1

  1 C099

  1

  1 C109

1 C110

  1 C111

  1

  1 C123

  1

  1 C124

  1

  1 C125

  1

  1 C126

  1 C127

  1 C122

  1

  1 C128

  1

  1 C129

  1

  1 C130

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 C116

  1 C112

  1

  1 C113

  1

  1 C114

  1

  1 C115

  1

  1

  1 C121

  1 C117

  1

  1 C118

  1

  1 C119

  1

  1 C120

  1

  1

  93

  1

  1 C155

  1

  1 C154

  1

  1 C153

  1

  1 C152

  1 C151

  1 C156

  1

  1 C150

  1

  1 C149

  1

  1 C148

  1

  1

  1

  1

  1 C162

  1

  1 C165

  1

  1 C164

  1

  1 C163

  1

  1

  1 C157

  1 C161

  1

  1 C160

  1

  1 C159

  1

  1 C158

  1

  1 C147

  1 C146

  Data No.

  4 C131

  1

  1 C134

  1

  1 C133

  1

  1 C132

  1

  3

  1

  2

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 C135

  1 C136

  1

  1

  1 C145

  1

  1 C144

  1

  1 C143

  1

  1 C142

  1 C141

  1

  1

  1 C140

  1

  1 C139

  1

  1 C138

  1

  1 C137

  1

  94

  1

  1

  1 C186

  1

  1 C185

  1

  1 C184

  1 C183

  1

  1

  1 C182

  1

  1 C181

  1

  1 C180

  1 C187

  1 C188

  1 C179

  1 C193

  1

  1

  1 C195

  1

  1 C194

  1

  1

  1

  1 C192

  1

  1 C191

  1

  1 C190

  1 C189

  1

  1

  Data No.

  3

  1

  1 C168

  1

  1 C167

  1

  4 C166

  2

  1

  1

  3

  2

  1

  I J K L M

  

Hughes's Categorization McEnery's Categorization

A B C D E A B C D E F G H

  1 C169

  1 C170

  1 C178

  1

  1

  1 C177

  1

  1 C176

  1

  1 C175

  1 C174

  1

  1

  1 C173

  1

  1 C172

  1

  1 C171

  1

  95

  3 the sexual 4 the racist

  K Personal L Reclaimed

  I PremNeg J Pron

  G Literal H Image

  D EmphAdv E Gen F Idiom

  A PredNeg B AdvB C Curse

  M cE n er y' s C at egor iz at ion

  2 the intellectual

  Legend Category Description H u gh es' s C at egor iz at io n

  1 Insulting names, demeaning labels, and unflattering comparisons the animal

  E

  2 theft D Social stigmas illegitimacy

  1 The attribution of various reprehensible behaviors and violations of moral codes promiscuity

  C

  B Family origins

  A The use of religious reinforcers and sacred references

  M Oath

  96

  2

  15 18 55 11,36 Reclaimed

  1

  7 8 1,65 Oath

  74

  5 53 132 27,27

  H ughe s C at egor iz at ion

  The use of religious reinforcers and sacred references 206 24 165 395 81,61

  Family origins

  17

  8 25 5,17 The attribution of various reprehensible behaviors and violations of moral codes promiscuity

  1

  2 5 1,03 theft 2 2 0,41

  1 8 1,65 Personal

  Social stigmas illegitimacy

  4

  7 11 2,27 Insulting names, demeaning labels, and unflattering comparisons the animal

  1

  1

  1 3 0,62 the intellectual

  1

  7 8 1,65 the sexual 1 1 0,21 the racist

  5

  28 33 6,82

  Legend

  22

  7

  Appendix 3: Data Distribution

  5 66 107 22,11 Gen

  Category A B C

  Ʃ % Mc E ne ry's C at ego ri za ti o n

  PredNeg

  3

  2 5 1,03 AdvB

  37

  1 41 79 16,32 Curse

  20

  4

  6 30 6,20 EmphAdv

  36

  15

  1 5 1,03 Pron

  1

  1 17 3,51 Idiom

  7

  3 10 2,07 Literal

  3

  10

  4 17 3,51 Image

  5

  6

  2 13 2,69 PremNeg

  4

  A : Amount of sentences in the category in The Grapes of Wrath B : Amount of sentences in the category in To Kill A Mockingbird C : Amount of sentences in the category in The Catcher in the Rye Ʃ : Total of sentences in the category

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