The Representation of Chicano’s Life and Society Through the Character and the Plot in Luis Valdez’s Los Vendidos AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI The Representation of Chicano’s Life and Society Through the Character and the Plot in Luis Valdez’s Los Vendidos AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fullfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters by Yoga Adi Nugraha Student Number: 084214065 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) I PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A SarjanaSastraUndergraduateThesis T}TF',REPRESENTATIONOF CHICANOS'LIFE AND SOCM,TY TEROUGE TEE CEARACTERS AND PLOT IN LTIIS VALDEZ'S TO,S WNDIDOS o\ o< ! \5 \AJ o$,2 Augast12,2014 NUntp l_ AdventinaPutranti.S.S..M.Hum Co-Advisor August 12,2014

(3) ,\ PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A SarjanaSastraUndergraduateThesis The Representationof Chicano' s l-ife and Societythrough The Characfersand Plot in Luis Valdez' Los Vendidos By Yoga Adi Nugraha StudentNumber: 08421, 4065 Defendedbeforetle Board of Examiners On August29,2014 andDeclaredAcceptable s*#$z i*r*e,1/** "d{l b. 'i\ 16 r'\ th Signature .\ -tt tU g Secretary Member1. Member2. Member3 vep^ r^ \, RKf{ ogyakarta,August29,2014 Facultyof L€tters

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI SURAT PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN KARYA Sayayang bertandatangandi bawah ini menyatakandengansusengguhnya bahwa skripsi yang saya tulis ini tidak memuatkarya orang lain, kecuali yang telah disebutkandalamkutipan dan daftarpustakasebagaimana layaknyakarya ilmiah. Yogyakarla,29 Agustus2014 Penulis, Yoga Adi Nugraha

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI fOR MY BELOVED PARENTS AND ACHSAARDIANA

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINCAN AKADF],MIS Yang bertanda tangandi barvahini, sayamahasiswa [Jniversitas SanataDharma: Nama : YogaAdiNLrgraha NomorMahasiswa : 084214065 Demi kepentingan ilmu pengetahuan, sayanrernberikan kepadaPerpustakaan [Jniversitas Sanata yang Dharmakaryailmiahsaya berjLrdLrl : The Representation of Chicano'sLife and SocietvthroughThe Charactersand Plot in Luis Y aklez' Los L'endidos Beserlapelangkatyang diperlukan( bila ada).Dengan derrikiansaya mernberikan kepada Perpustakaan SanataDharmahak Lrntukmerryimpan" rnengalihkan dalanrbenrukrnediaIain. rnengelolanyadalarn bentuk pangkalan data. ntendistribLrsikan secara telbatas. dan mernpublil
(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In everysuccess,therewill be manypeoplewho alwayssupportand give you strengthto past the barrier.First, I would like ro thank JesusChrist for the presentsand supportswhen I am down.You arethe best.I thank You, unbelieveable Lord. I would like to thankmy advisor, MariaAnanta.S.S.,M.Ed for giving me time to guideme flom the beginninguntil the end this longjourney.I would thank to my co-advisor Adventina Putranti,M.Humfor the suggestionsand corections.I alsowould thankto all of my lecturersin EnglishLettersDepartmeuts for everythingI receivedin SanataDharmaUniversity. I would thank to my greatesthero in this world, The bestparentsin the world. I thank my Mom for giving me supportand yelling whln I am down. I thank my Dad in heaven,I am really sorry becauseuntil your left I havenot passedthis. I would thank to my greatestlove, Achsa Ardiana. Thanks for your suppoftand love that we sharetogether.I would thank to my family, TanteNing, Om Yanto, Dek Roofif, Dek Hanif, Bunda Topeng,Babe Topeng,Dek Vina. Thanks for supportingme when I am really down. vtl

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI I rvould thank also to Mbak Yovie fbr giving me so muclr nrotivationto firrish this thcsis. Pak Sarliinr.Pal
(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE.. I APP ROV A L P A GE .......... ii AC CE P TA NCEP A GE ...... l LEMBAR PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN...... iv DEDICA TION P A GE ..,..... LEMBAR PERNYATAANPERSETUJUANPUBLIKASI....-............. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. v ii TABLE OF CONTENTS,... v iii ABS TRA CT.... X ABS TRA K ...... xi CHA P TE R I: INTRODUCTIO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I A. B. C. D. Background ofthe Study...... ProblemFormulatiorr..... Objectives ofthe Study...... Definitionof Terms...... .... I 5 5 6 CHA P TE RII: THE ORE TICAL RE V I E W. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. B. C. D. Reviewof Related S tu d ie s . . . . . . . . . . . . Reviewof Related Theories.......... Reviewof Chicano'sLife and Society Theoretical Framework... .... CHA P TE R III: ME THODOLO G Y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Objectof the Study...... B. Approach ofthe Study...... C. Methodof theStudy...... 8 8 9 l5 t7 l9 t9 l9 20 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS,. 22 A. Character... 22 36 R Plnt v l

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI C. The Connectionbetu'cenCharacterand Plot as a Representation of Chicarro's Lif'eandSociety 46 .. CHA P TE R V : CONCLUS ION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 BTBLTOGRA P HY ............ . , . . . . 6r tx

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT YOGA ADI NUGRAHA. The Representation of Chicanos'Life and Societv through the Charactersand Plot in Luis Valdez's Los Vendidos.Yogyakalta: Depafiment of EnglishLetters. Facultyof Letters.Sanata DharrraUniversity,.20l4 Lileratureand history can not be sepalated.LiteratureusLrallyspeaks aboutthe history.and the historycan be represented a as a Iiteratufe.Los I"endiclos. work of literaturewhich is written by Luis Valdezis an examplethat Ii:eratureand historvcan not be separated and related.This play tells Lrsaboutthe struggleof Chicano'sstrugglei11orderto get a betterlife in their life in New Amelica.This play contains to the WhiteAmerican. Sothis undergraduate so manysatires thesisraisesa topic on the representation of Chicano'slife and societythloughthe characters and plot in theplay. The aimsof this researchis to revealthe chafacteristics ofthe characterin the play,thenanalyzingthe plot structure.Both ofthat aimsaresignificantto arralyze the struggleof Chicano'slife and societyin theil Iife in America. The researchis examinedthroughthe socio-culturalhistolicalapproach because this approachis ableto examinethe closerelationof Iife, society,historyin work of Iiterature. The methodof the studywasa libraiy research. The materialswele gatheredfrom books,essays,journals,glossariesand also additionalinformations from the internet. This researchexaminesthe life of Chicanothroughthe charactersand the plot. Every charactersin this work of literature play the role as a representationof MexicanAmerican/Chicano. Then,the secondby analyzingthe plot structure,the writer wants to show the stagesand the joumey of Mexican Anrerican'slife and society.Irr the end of the research,the analysiscan make a representation of Chicano'slife andsociety. Therefore,throughthis research,it is obviousthat the life of Chicanois hard,and full of struggle.They facesa hard condition,but they can still survivein that era.

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK YOGA ADI NtiC;ltAIlA. The llepresentationof Chic:rnos'Life and Societl' through the Charactcrsand Plot in Luis Valdcz'sLos l/endidos.Yogvakarta: .lurusan Sastra Ingglis.FaliLrltas Sastra. []nivcrsitas San:ita t)harnra. 2014 Sastraclan se'jarahtidali relpisahkan.Sastrapacl:rLll'tlLln.ln) a bcrbicara tentang seiarahdan se-jarahbisa dileplesenlasikan l:cntlilos. sebagaisastfa.1-(.).! sebr.rah liarvasastl'avanl)ditulisoleh LLrisValclezaclalah salahsatLlcontohl(ar)a sastra)'ang menLtniul(kan bal't\\,a sastr.lclanscjalahitu ticlal
(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Literature is a result from human experience which is poured into written thing. Literature usually written into book, novels, play, or many kinds of text. Literature is usually written as a representation of the writer‟s experiences. The experience that the writer writes in the work of literature is a part of his/her history in life. From the statement above, we can conclude that literature and history can not be separated because they have connection each other. America is a big country which has many kinds of race, they are spread in many places. They come from different place. They come to the place that they called “Dreamland”. The races are consist of White American, Eskimo, Native American (Indian), Chinesse, Hispanic, etc. In America, racism and colonialism are usual cases. White people are considered the highest caste, and another races are considered lowest caste. The race that the writer wants to share and show is Hispanic races. The Hispanic races here means the Mexican American. Mexican American live in the South part of America, Mexico, Texas, etc. They usually called as Chicano. Here, the writer wants to analyze about the life of Mexican American from the beginning until the end . The writer used Los Vendidos to show this issues. Los Vendidos which is written in chronological sequences are helpful to know more about the life of Mexican American which is usually called as Chicano. 1

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 First of all, the way of Mexican American could migrate to the United States have a long process. As stated in this quotation The Mexican government initially promoted American settlement in parts of the territory now known as Texas in the 1820s to bolster the regional economy . As the proportion of North American settlers in these lands multiplied , however they began to request greater local autonomy , feared the possibility that Mexico might outlaw slavery and resented the imposition of taxes from the government in Mexico City. (Engelkirk, 2013: 2) From the quotation above, we can see that the Mexican American were offered to to move to the other country from the government. Although they are offered, the government does not give them the guarantee that they can live in good condition. After the process, the connection between Mexico and America strained. United States and Mexico had war. It occurred during 1830-1840. (Engelkirk, 2013: 2) After the process the process of immigration, United States and Mexico strained, because the Mexican American wants to get the same rights to the white American. Finally after the end of the war, the treaty of Guadeloupe and Hidalgo,and Gadsden treaty were signed, many Mexican American can live in the areas. The areas are called New Mexico and California. There are almost 80000 people migrated there. (Engelkirk, 2013: 2) In the end of war, the United States and Mexico signed on the both treaties that Mexican American can live in the areas. They signed the treaty that makes both of their people to live in the same areas. They try to live together in the same areas. After the migration, Mexican American did not live in an easy way. They faced many obstacles. They faced many White American who did not like them. The racial discrimination, economic issues, criminal issues are the obstacles that the Chicano‟s must face in the early migration or in the beginning of their life in America.

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 There, American people using many ways to classify many kinds of race. There are many races which are considered as lowest caste there. One of them is Mexican American which can be called as Chicano. In Los Vendidos, they use stereotyping to make a struggle to be free and have the same rights with white people/ white American person itself. Stereotypes are far too familiar to American culture. There are so many products which use this as a “building of their existence”. In general, Chicano / Chicana are American people which are lived near Mexico. That‟s why they are called Mexican American. They lived in poor condition, it is different from another American people which have better life. Not only in their life, but also in races they are considered as low caste of American people. They are considered as different races with White People in general, although they are also the part of American people as well. Chicana/ Chicano is a Mexican-American people who struggle to get an achievement like American. Chicana/ Chicano was represented as stupid, poor. It is different from another person in America. American person/white people was represented as the “highest” caste of people. Here in Los Vendidos, the movement of Chicana/ Chicano is represented. The representation is drawn in the character of role models and also the seller, Honest Sancho . The topic is suitable to study because it helps us to know about the chicano‟s struggle and life during or after the colonization of white people. The characterization in this play is interesting to analyze. The topic in this play challenges us to learn more about the struggle of Chicana/Chicano’s movement to get a better life. The background of the writer is one of the reason which make the play more interesting to analyze. Analyzing and studying this play also made us to know about the struggle of Chicano/ Chicana „s movement to end a racism era. The writer, Luis Valdez who lived at that time wants to criticize the people by using this play to end

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 the racism era in America especially in California which is near with Mexico, a country which the people are usually called as Chicano/Chicana. At that time, Chicano lived in the area near Mexico, like in Texas, California,etc. They lived in a poor condition and also people especially the real American person/ white people, underestimated them as the lowest race in their area. And their condition was stated by a person who really know their condition like in this statement below. The condition at that time was fully related to stereotype. Stereotypes are far too familiar to American popular culture today. Everyday it is almost a guarantee to see some stereotypes whether it is on television, on the movie screen or upon everyday products. Every minority has stereotypes built around their existence. In this play Valdez enhances and gives emphasis to the stereotypes in order to make them unmistakable. His work has been revolutionary in the fact that they inspire change in the views people have of Chicanos. Los Vendidos is a play centered on drawing great attention to the misconstrued stereotypes of Chicanos while covertly ridiculing Americans which in turn successfully brings about conversation and critical thinking of these stereotypes and inspires viewers the opportunity to change their preconceived notions of Chicanos.(Mcfadden,2013:1) At this play, Valdez wants to show us about the Mexican American‟s struggle to be free from civilization. Valdez who lives at that place feels about what they are feeling. He told us from the beginning till the end the way of the Chicano is drawn. From one of the writer comments, Valdez‟s Los Vendidos is a play that full of critics from the low caste people in this case is Mexican American to the Higher Caste (white people) in order to get a better life. (Mcfadden,2013:1) This play is interesting to analyze and disscuss because this play shows us about the struggle of Chicano‟s movement at that time. Many aspects can challenge us to analyze this play. The characters in this work of literature are interesting aspects to analyze. We can make

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 many analisis with the characters and the plot. Beside that, the work of literature itself has a meaning and purpose when it is written at that tine. From the statements above we can conclude that Los Vendidos is a play that is full of controversy, it tells us about the struggle of Chicano to get better life, and the satire from Chicano about their life who are fully not in a good condition. We can see it from the characters that they must do some acts to make sure the secretary as a representation of white people believe them as the best “model” that the white people/ American needs. The writer wants to analyze this isues because the characters in this play are represented the life of Mexican American. The characters gives some representation as Mexican American. From their characterization, we can see the life that they faces in their first life in America. Besides analyzing the characters, the writer wants to analyze the plot structure to make a conclusion about the life of Mexican American. The plot structure is an intrinsic element which is helpful to analyze the work of literature. The plot structure in this play is also helpful to analyze about the life of Mexican American. Every step in this play, represent the stages of life of Mexican American. From the beginning until the end of early life in America. B. Problem Formulation After reading the Luis Valdez‟s Los Vendidos , The Writer has found some problems to analyze. The problems are : 1. How are the characters characterized? 2. How is the plot of Los Vendidos? 3. How do the characters and the plot represent the Chicano’s life and society?

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 C. Objectives of the Study The objectives of this study are divided into two parts. The first one is to analyze the characters which are represented as a Mexican American people. As we know, Chicano or Mexican American person are “invaded” by white people or the writer means here are American person. Chicano/ Mexican American are represented as people who are low “caste”. At Los Vendidos, Chicano are also represented a cruel, poor, stupid people. So in this thesis, the writer wants to find out how are the real characters of Mexican American persons who usually called Chicana / Chicano. The Characters in that play showed us about the life of Mexican American which are so sad, full of cruelty. In Los Vendidos, Mexican American are also characterized as cruel person (Johny Pachuco), A slave (Farmworker), Strugler (Revolucionario). But The Honest Sancho hold an important thing in that play, he is drawn as a real “human”, but actually he is a model/ doll. It is represented that Mexican American people also clever to make sure that they are the same with white people in America. The second one is to find out how the plot structure makes a big influence in that play. The plot is an instrument to make us know about the play itself. The plot which is started from the first until the end help us to know about the Chicano’s life and the society itself. The plot structure makes us know about Luis Valdez‟s way of thinking about the Chicano‟s movement in that area. The writer know that plot structure is one of the most important intrinsic elements in a play/story, because without plot structure we can not know the way of the story shown. Plot structure have an important place in the story/play, because the plot structure is not only to know about the story but also how can the story walk into the climax and resolution, it makes a good condition for story because the story become more interesting and meaningful.

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 The third one is to combine both of the analysis of the character and the plot structure to analyze that this play is a representation of Chicano‟s life and society. Combining both of the analysis above, we can clearly see that this play shows us about the life of the Chicano at that era. Beside that, we can also see the stages of life of the Chicano. D. Definition of terms 1. Chicano A Chicano is an individual (usually with a Spanish surname) of Mexican parentage or ancestry who lives in the United States. Chicano is often used synonymously with MexicanAmerican, although many Chicanos presently make an ideological distinction between the two terms. (Sinmandera, 2004:1) 2. Plot Plot is a plan or groundwork for a story, based in conflicting human motivations, with the action resulting from believeable and realistic human response. In well plotted story, nothing is irrelevant; everything is related. Plot/ time is important not simply because one thing happens after another but because one thing happens because of another. (Roberts,1989:87). 3. Representation Representation is defined as the act of placing or stating facts in order to influence or affect the action of others (Ann Marie Baldonado,1996) 4. Character Character is an extended verbal representation of human being, the inner self that determines thought, speech, behavior. ( Roberts,1989:143)

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies Los Vendidos is a work that tells us about the life of the Mexican- American persons. The Mexican-American person that usually called Chicano or Chicana at that moment is struggling to get a recognition that they are also a really American person. As we know that Chicano lives in a bad condition. Valdez's performances of anomalous realities allow for an alternate space of expression where classifications can be challenged in terms not contaminated by dominant ideologies.(Aztlan journal:1970)” From the quotation we can see that The Honest Sancho was really represented as a Mexican-American person who do honestly in his own way representation at the character’s good. Los Vendidos also makes us to know about the mindset of western people characterize something as a “character” or stereotype. Stereotypes are far too familiar to American popular culture today. Everyday it is almost a guarantee to see some stereotypes whether it is on television, on the movie screen or upon everyday products. Every minority has stereotypes built around their existence. In this play Valdez enhances and gives emphasis to the stereotypes in order to make them unmistakable. His work has been revolutionary in the fact that they inspire change in the views people have of Chicanos. Los Vendidos is a play centered on drawing great attention to 8

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 the misconstrued stereotypes of Chicanos while covertly ridiculing Americans which in turn successfully brings about conversation and critical thinking of these stereotypes and inspires viewers the opportunity to change their preconceived notions of Chicanos.(Mcfadden: 2011) Western people usually use stereotyping a man to make a struggle to get a “better life”. That is a kind of satire to make a struggle. From the studies above we can conclude that stereotyping is one way to make a struggle. For this case, it is occurred in Chicano/ Mexican American people. In Los Vendidos, one of many stereotypes concerning Chicanos occurs when Honest Sancho is trying to sell one of the Mexican models to a customer. He uses satire to convey humor , in describing the economic features of the farm worker model. The interaction between the salesman and the customer consisted of the following statement, in regards to the farm worker. “one plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day” (Vendidos 70) . The stereotypes refer to the traditional foods of Chicanos and their traditional work ethic. (www.helium.com/items/229121-critique -luis-valdez-los-vendidossusan-glaspells-trifles-comparison) The quotation above show us about the most important issue in Los Vendidos is about stereotypes. Chicanos/ Mexican Americans are considered as low class people. They are considered as poor and uneducated people. From the word beans and tortillas, it represents that the Mexican American can be paid in low cost and besides that, beans and tortillas are their traditional foods in Mexico. In short, this research will describe the life of Mexican American. Their life which is full of struggle, hard condition, They tried to survive in the racial

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 discrimination condition. And also the goals of this research is to know about the life and condition of the Chicanos. B. Review of Related Theories To answer the problems stated obviously, some theories are needed to support the analysis. There are two theories that the writer used. The theories are: 1. Theory of Character and Characterization 2. Theory of plot a. Theory of Character and Characterization The problems asked how the main character and the another characters are drawn. The character is not only in physically condition but also in psychologically condition. It is also told, “When you study character, be sure to consider physical descriptions, but also be sure to relate the physical to the mental/ psychological.” ( Roberts,1989:144) In Luis Valdez’s Los Vendidos we can also find a character that is not express no attitude except those to be expected. It is called stereotype, because they all seem to be cast in the same mold.

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 In Understanding Unseen: An Introduction of English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Student, Murphy (Murphy, 1972:161-173) explained nine ways of how the author presents the characters: i. Personal description. The author can describe a person’s appearance like skin, color, eyes, and hair, clothes, etc. Personal description is used in many literary works by many authors; it is the easiest way to tell directly to the readers the clues to a character with certain feature. ii. Character as seen by another. Instead of describing a character directly the author can describe him through the eyes and opinions of another. The readers get the clue of a character’s personality or attitude through the other character’s explanation or opinion about that character. iii. Speech. The author can give us an insight into the character of one of the person in the book through what that person says. For example, whenever a person speaks, whenever he is in conversation with another, whenever he puts forward an opinion, he is giving some clues to his character. It means that the readers will get some clues about a character through the character’s own words. iv. Past life. By letting the character learn something about a person’s past life, the author can give us a clue to events that have helped to shape a person’s character.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 This can be done by direct comment by the author, through the person’s thoughts, through his conversation or through the medium of another person. v. Conversation of others. The author can also gives us clues to a person's character through the conversation of other people and the things they say about him. People do talk about other people and the things they say often give us a clue to the character of the person spoken about. vi. Reactions. The author can also gives us a clue to a person’s character by le ting us know how that person reacts to various situations and events. vii. Direct comment. The author can describe or comment on a person’s character directly. By using direct comments, the author gives the opinion about the character. This is one of the most common ways that the most writer use. viii. Thoughts. The author can give us direct knowledge of what the person is thinking about. In this respect he is able to do what we cannot do in real life. He can tell us what different people are thinking. ix. Mannerism. The author can describe a person's mannerism, habits, and also behavior

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 whether positive or negative which tell us something about the reflection of his personality (1972: 161-173). b. Theory of Plot The picture of the plot diagram which is fit to the Los Vendidos like the diagram below. This plot diagram draws from one process into another process. We can see that the plot diagram below draws the condition in Los Vendidos. (http://cavemanenglish.blogspot.com/2011/08/plot-map-diagrams.html) The plot diagram above is fit to the Los Vendidos because there is step by step process in that plot diagram. The plot in this play also has a important rules. The plot helps us to know the way of the story . There is also a statement that said “ without a plot, we don’t have a story or drama”. The other important thing is conflict in plot. Without conflict, plot can’t be raised. The reason that the conflict is the major ingredient in a plot is that once two forces are in opiposition, there may be doubt about the outcome.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 “Formal categories of structure is divided into 5 parts. They are Exposition, Complication, Crisis, Climax, Resolution. “(Roberts,1989:102) Beside that, Stanton (1965) said that plot is the story which has an order event, but every event are only connected reciprocally. Plot is something, which is higher and more complex than a story. Narrative tradition calls for developing stories with particular pieces plot elements in place. Exposition is the information needed to understand a story. The introductory material which gives the setting creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understand the story. Complication is the catalyst that begins the major co.nflict the essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts that we encounter can usually be identified as one four kinds. (Man versus……Man,Nature, Society, or Self. Climax becomes the turning point in the story that occurs when characters try to resolve the complication, the conflict reaches a turning point. At this point, the opposing forces in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis occurs before or at the same time as the climax.The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the highest point of the story for the reader. Frequently it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted. (http://notesinthemargin.org.glossary.html.c.2004) The quotation above shows us about the good plot structure in work of literature. It starts from the exposition phase which is so important to understand the story itself. The second phase complication, this phase will be the starting point of the conflict. After meeting the complication phase there will be a turning point when the prombles will be. This process called crisis. And the next process is climax. This phase shows us the top of the problems. This point will be the most important phase because usually at this phase the problems will reach the top of the point from the problems before and the last phase is resolution. This phase shows us about the resolution of the conflict in the work of literature.

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI C. 15 Review of Chicano’s life In the early migration in America, the Mexican American people faced hard conditions. they migrated to America because of the Mexican Revolution and unsettled economic condition. They tried to move in the new country in order to get a better condition of life rather than their life in Mexico. They tried to find another job which can help them reach their purpose of move, better life. The Chicano/ Mexican American were experienced and well enough in agricultural sectors. Farming is their specialization. Farming cotton, fruits were usual thing there. All along the southwest borderlands economic activity was picking up in the late nineteenth century. Railroads were being built , copper mines were opening in Arizona, cotton and vegetable agriculture was developing in south Texas, and growing was being introduced in in Southern California. (Henretta et al,1999:467) From the quotation above, we can see that the development of the early settlement of Mexican American is in the South area of America which is near from Mexico. There are so many chance to the Mexican American repair their life but the fact is not like they want. There are a number of factors contributing to the great proportion of crime by a certain element of the Mexican population. Among the contributing factors are those of economics, lack of employment, and small wages that cause certain ones to commit theft and robbery for the purpose of obtaining the means to own and drive automobiles and to have money to spend on their girl friends, liquor, clothes, etc., also to obtain the wherewithall to live. ( Ayres, 1942)

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 From the quotation above, the economic conditions made some efforts. The efforts were robbery, theft, and another crimes. This condition was caused by small wages, lack of employment, so to fulfill their life. Mexicans who held tracts of land of any appreciable size in Texas, California, and New Mexico prior to 1848 were angered and alienated when they began to lose their properties because of alterations made in the 1848 treaty after its signing or because of other unethical tactics used by Anglo Americans to obtain their land (Engelkirk,2013) From the quotation above, the writer sees that the starting points of the problem between the Anglo Americans and the Mexican Americans is obtaining the area. The Anglo Americans try to obtain and break the The Treaty of Hidalgo which separates the land between the Anglo Americans and Mexican Americans. During the second era, from 1810 until 1848, the Southwest was part of an independent Mexico. It developed slowly, largely because of the distance between it and the capital of Mexico City. Then in 1846-48 the Mexican War gained the Southwest for the United States. The war was ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, in which the United States promised to protect the rights of Mexican Americans in the newly won territories. Most of the treaty's provisions, unfortunately, were not honored by the United States. Huge tracts of land belonging to Mexicans were taken from them by the most dubious legal means or by outright theft. Violence was perpetrated against them, and there was a great deal of economic exploitation. This sad tale of exploitation covers the period from 1849 until 1910, an era of Anglo-American assimilation of the new territory. The Mexican Americans of the Southwest were gradually overwhelmed in numbers by Anglo newcomers from the East. (Anglo is a term used by Hispanics to describe all white non-Hispanic Americans.) (Engklekirk, 2013) From the quotation above, the writer sees the life of Mexican Americans who are exploited by the Anglo Americans. The Anglo Americans brbreak the treaty

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 which is accepted before. The worst impact is the number of Anglo Americans which moved to the South is getting bigger, it makes the Mexican Americans feel that the Anglo Americans want to occupy their land. D. Theoretical Framework The teories above is used to analyzed the work of literature itself, first the theory of characterization. Theory of characterization is used to analyze the problem that the character faced, not only in physical appearance but also in psychologically condition. The theory of characterization also helpful for us to make a conclusion about the study, the study here for knowing the habit of Chicano’s movement to struggle against the racism in that place. This theory is needed because to analyze a character, we must use this theory. Characterizing a character can be looked by using this theory. The second theory is a plot theory. The plot theory is used to analyze the plot in that play. It is needed because analyzing plot must use this theory. The theory of plot help us to know about the way of the story have a relation with the theme and also the story is in ordinal condition or not. All of that theories is combined to analyzed one work of literature. That is Los Vendidos in this case. The theories will be helpful to analyze it.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 The review of Mexican American’s life is used to compare about the real condition on that moment than the condition in the Los Vendidos itself. This review also make us helpful analyzing this play because this review contains some elements which represent the character on this play. Like the review about the agricultural. There is a character who represent that condition.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the study The object of the study was Luis Valdez’s play Los Vendidos. This play is a famous play in America especially in California, because the background of the writer is from there. Los Vendidos is play which told us about a seller whose name is The Honest Sancho. He sells a dolls/models that represent many kinds of person but actually it is a satire for white people from Chicano’s people. This play, Los Vendidos was first performed in 1967 for El Teatro Campesino and was awarded an Emmy in 1972. From that play, we can know and learn about the struggle of chicano’s movement at that era. B. Approach of the study To understand a literary work we need some approach to be applied. Approach that I can use to analyze this study is Sociocultural-Historical approach. By that approach, analyzing this play is easier, because that approaches help us about the condition at that time and the condition of the writer when he wrote that play.According to Rohrberger and Woods, Sociocultural Historical approach insist that the only way to locate the real work is in reference to the civilization that produced it. They define civilization as the attitudes and actions of a specific group of people and point out that literature takes these attitudes and its actions and subject matter. They feel therefore , that it is necessary that critic investigate the social milieu in which a work was created and which it necessary reflects. No one, of course can deny this assertions. First, that literature is not created in a vacuum and second that literature embodies ideas significant to the culture that produced it.” (Rohrberger, 1971:9) 19

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 Using the Sociocultural-Historical approach also help us identifiying the social life when the work of literature was written. We can know that the culture at when Los Vendidos was written is when the racism spread in America especially in America in South which the boundary’s line is Mexico. This approach used because it is helpful for us to analyze this work of literature. Besides that, this approach have big influences to analyze. The big influences are the background of the story, the background of the writer, and also what is the purpose of the writer wrote that story/ play. it also connects with the history of the Mexican American and also the social life there. C. Method of the study The method of the study that the writer used to collect data for this study was library research. The method of the study are divide into 4 parts. Each part has a mission to complete the study in order to be a good study. The first part is reading the work of literature. By reading the work of literature itself will help us to know what is the problems that can be analyzed for this study. Reading the work of literature can make me understand the content of the story and can catch the idea which the writer wants to post. The writer focus on the character and the plot of object study. The second parts is searching sources to help the writer to make a good study. Searching resources is from book and online. It supports the writer so much in writing the study.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 The third step is reviewing and examining the primary and secondary data then develop a more reliable and reasonable analysis the problem formulation. The analysis process in this step are read, and search many data which are related with theory of character and the theory of plot. And then, the writer described how is The Representation of Chicano’s Life and Society through the Character of Sancho and the Plot in Valdez’ Los Vendidos itself.

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this section the analysis of this research will be divided into 3 sections. The first section is to analyze the characters in Los Vendidos which is written by Luis Valdez. The second section is to analyze the plot from the first until the end of the play. This plot helps us to identify about the stages of introduction the character and also the journey of Chicano’s life and society . The third section is to analyze about the character and the plot in Valdez’ Los Vendidos in order to know about the Chicano’s Life and Society. In this play, there are so many characters which build this play. The characters build their own rules. The characters in this play are Honest Sancho, Secretary,Farm Worker, Johny Pachuco, Revolucionario, Mexican American. Every characters in this story made some effects to know about the Chicano’s Life and Society. A. Characters First of all, the writer wants to analyze about the Characters. The characters in this play are: 1. The Honest Sancho The character of the Honest Sancho is the main character at that story. The Honest Sancho is drawn as a “seller” in the story. He plays many rules in this play. 22

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 There are 2 characteristics of the Honest Sancho. They are Physical characteristic and psychological characteristics. First the writer wants to analyze the psychological characteristics of The Honest Sancho. The psychological characteristics of The Honest Sancho are: a. Communicative Sancho is drawn as a communicative person, From the first until the end of the story, he speaks so much to the customer. As a “Seller”, he plays the role to make the story becomes in an order way. The character Sancho makes some efforts in this play. By being a communiative person, Sancho is drawn as the character who becomes a “bridge” from one moment into another moment, because he talks to the Secretary from the first until the end to introduce his “dolls” which he wants to sell. SANCHO: Bueno, Bueno mis monos, vamos a ver quien vendemos ahora no quihubo, I’m Honest Sancho and this is my shop.Antes fui contratista pero ahora logre tener mi negocito, All I need now is a customer. Ay, a customer. SECRETARY: Good Morning, I’m Miss Jimenez from, SANCHO: Ah una chicana ! Welcome welcome Senorita Jimenez (Valdez 1965:1-9) From the quotation above we can see that Sancho starts to speak at the first section of the play. He tries to greet Secretary, he uses so many words which are actually useless. He tries to be more communicative in order to make the Secretary impressed with him and his shop. He speaks too much although it is just an introduction of himself and his shop. By speaking too much in this section, the quotation above can be made as a proof which shows us that Sancho is a communicative person.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week. SECRETARY: What about the storage? SANCHO: No problem. You know these new farm labor camps our Honorable Governor Reagan has built out by Parlier or Raisin City?They were designed with our model in mind. Five, six, seven, even ten in one of those shacks will give you no trouble at all. You can also put him in old barns,old cars, river banks. You can even leave him out in the field overnight with no worry(Valdez,1965:82) When he offers the dolls, he introduces the dolls briefly and clearly. So the customer can know the model itself. Maybe being a communicative person is a characteristic that usually a seller does when he faces the customer. As we see in line 68, “Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans. Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day.”(Valdez,1965: 68-70), we can clearly see about the specification of the first model, The Farm Worker. Sancho tells us that the specification of The Farm Worker is cheap/economical. He also tells about how to give the the model food to make it work well. The writer concludes that The Honest Sancho is a communicative person by seeing the role of himself in the play. b. Friendly The Honest Sancho is a character who is a friendly person. It can be known from this play itself. He speaks honestly and friendly. The character of Honest

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 Sancho makes a good speech when he faces the customers. He serves the customer well so the customer feels comfortable with the situation. Sancho: Ah, una chicana! Welcome, welcome Senorita Jimenez. (Valdez, 1965: 2) From the quotation above, we can clearly see that the seller wants to prove that he tries to be kind to the customer. It can be proved when he tries to greet the customer at first time. As a seller, he wants to show his good manner in serving the customer. Friendly is a habit that a seller must show to customer. It is almost shown by every seller to the customer. By being a friendly person, the customer will feel good and they will understand about the things the seller’s sell. c. Hardworker Hardworker is another characteristic of the Honest Sancho. We can see from the text that Sancho wants to get profit from the things that he sell. So, The Honest Sancho tries to make sure that the products that he sell are good enough to sell. He offers the “dolls” one by one. He also explains about the use, price, and any features that the dolls have. By using the Murphy’s theory of characters in the point of “thoughts”, we can see the characteristics of the Honest Sancho as a hardworker. Here, Valdez wants to show about the Sancho’s acts which shows us as a hardworker person. SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week.(Valdez,1965:69_ From the quotation above we can see when Sancho tries to explain about one of the features that the model have. He explain about the “dolls” clearly so the customer will know about the “dolls” well. As a seller, maybe it is hard to offer something patiently but it is a must as a seller itself. After analyzing the psychological characteristics, the writer wants to describe the physical characteristic. The physical characteristic of The Honest Sancho are using sombrero, handling gabacho, speaking Spanish. 2. Secretary Besides Sancho, there is another character who plays an important rule in this play. The character is Secretary. Secretary creates a conflict in this play. It makes the situation becomes in an order way. Actually, this play is started because Secretary is asked by the governor to find a model which is fit to fill the position of administration. She comes to Sancho’s shop and tries to find the models. She selects the models one by one in order to get the cheap, and good Mexican American. There, she finds many kinds of models. There are many characteristics of this character. The characteristics are:

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI a. 27 Critical As a buyer, Secretary wants to get the best model like she wants. To be a buyer, she must be selective to choose from many options that the seller’s offered. She talks to much to know about the composition, the price and the quality of the models. It is usual to do like that as a buyer. SECRETARY: Yes, we are looking somebody suave. (Valdez 1965:21) From the quotation above, we can conclude that this is the first sign that the Secretary being a critical person. She tries to describe the model that she wants. SECRETARY: Wonderful. But is he economical? (Valdez 1965: 67) The quotation above is another proof that she is a critical person. She tries to speak to the seller in order to get information. She talks too much because she wants to know about the feature that the models have. b. Underestimating As we know, at that era, American people colonized the Mexican American people. They considered the Mexican American as a slave that can help them to finished the work. Sancho:Mota. Secretary: Mota? Sancho: Lenos, Marijuana(snap;Johny inhales on an imaginary joint) Secretary: that’s against the law! Johny: (big smile,holding his breath), Yeahhh (Valdez, 1965:136-140) By seeing the quotation above we can see that Johny is represented Mexican American “against” the law which is totally different from the white

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 American. Inhaling marijuana is considered as a criminal acts. It also shows us that the Secretary makes a negative prejudice to Johny Pachuco because he tries to inhale marijuana in front off her. She does not like that act because according to her, inhaling marijuana is considered as a criminal act. Sancho: He steals(Snap. Johny rushes the secretary and steals her purse Johny: Dame esa bolsa, vieja!(He grabs the purse and runs. Snap by Sancho. He stops) (Secretary runs after Johny and grabs purse away from him, kicking him as she goes Secretary : No, No, No!We can’t have any more thieves in the state Administration. Put Him back. By seeing the another quotation we can see that Johny do another criminal acts. He tries to steal the Secretary’s purse. It connects with the previous quotation. The acts that Johny has done makes the Secretary underestimates him. It can be concluded that The Secretary (white people) underestimates and has negative prejudice to him as the criminal or bad people who always do the criminal acts. c. Curious Curiousity is a characteristic that someone has to know more about something for a purpose. In this play, the Secretary is curious about the model that she wants to buy.. Actually, it is a common thing when a customer wants to know more about something that she wants to buy.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 The Secretary asks one by one about the models to the seller. She makes a “bridge” in this play, so the story can flow in the order way. We can see from the quotation below, SECRETARY: Versatile isn’t he?( Valdez, 1965: 54) SECRETARY: BILINGUAL? (Valdez, 1965: 129) SECRETARY: Wonderful, is he economical? (Valdez, 1965:67) SECRETARY: Does he function in politics? (Valdez, 1965:274) From the quotation above, we can see that the characteristic of the secretary is full of curiousity. From the first quotation, we can see that the Secretary wants to know more about the features of the model. Then, in the next quotation, it is also about the feature of the role models, the important things that the secretary wants to find is the models must be English spoken. The next feature that the Secretary wants is also cheap. It has a relation between the curious and underestimating characteristic. The Mexican American is considered as “cheap” person. In the last quotation, we can see that Secretary also tries to find model which can have a function in political view. 3. Farm Worker The Farm Worker is one of the characters which is represented as a Mexican American. He is drawn as a hardworker person. The writer can see this characteristic by viewing and analyzing the play. At first, the Farm Worker is drawn as a friendly man. It can be proven from his first speech when he tries to greet the Secretary.

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 FARM WORKER: (lifts up head)Buenos Dias, senorita(his head drops) From the quotation above we can see that the Farm Worker show his respect to the Secretary. We can see that, from the quotation above it is said that the Farm Worker tries to respect Secretary by dropping his head. SECRETARY: Wonderful. But is he economical? SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week.(Valdez 1965:68) From the quotation above we can see that the Farm Worker is considered as “cheap” models. It doesn’t takes so much cost to make it worked correctly. Here, the character of Sancho tells about the way to keep the model of Farm Worker. SECRETARY: What about the storage? SANCHO: No problem. You know these new farm labor camps our Honorable Governor Reagan has built our by Parlier or Raisin city? They were designed with our model in mind. Five, six, seven even ten in one of those shacks will give you no trouble at all. You can also put him in old barns, old car, river banks. You can ever leave him out in the field overnight with no worry! SECRETARY: Remarkable SANCHO: And here’s an added feature. Every year at the end of the season, this model goes back to Mexico and doesn’t return, automatically, until next spring. .(Valdez, 1965:75) From the quotation above, the writer can clearly see that the Farm Worker is considered as a poor, and people will underestimate them because he is considered as lowest caste labour. It is different from the Secretary which has a

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 better job than the Farm Worker. We can also see, that the Farm Worker’s jobs is just to cut the grapes, pick cottons, pick melons, anything which have connection with farm’s job. It is totally different with the Secretary who is drawn as a clean, smart like an intelligent person, and also she is represented looks like a boss. 4. Johny Pachuco In this story, there is a character which is drawn as cruel, can’t obey the regulations but he can speak English. English spoken is one of the characteristic that the Secretary wants to find. He is Johny Pachuco. In this play, although Johny Pachuco does not take so much roles, he plays the role as a Mexican American who is rude, unintelligent, and live in road is an usual habit. As we know, in Mexico, criminalities are usual. Here, Johny Pachuco is drawn as cruel, he can fight with knifes, He tries to hurt The Secretary by using his knife. It can be proven in the quotation below, SANCHO:Ah, from the city! Step right back.over here in this corner of the stop is exactly what you’re looking for. Introducing our new 1969 JOHNY PACHUCA model! This is our fast back model. Streamlined. Built for speed, low riding, city life. take a look at some of the features. Magshoes, dual exhausts, green chartreuse paint job,dark tint windshield a little poof on top.let me just turn him on. (Valdez,1965 : 106) From the quotation above we can conclude that Johny Pachuco must survive in the city life which is cruel, hard, not friendly. Here, Johny Pachuco is drawn as a person/character which can survive at that situation.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 SANCHO: Anything and everything necessary for city life. For instance , survival : he knife fights (snap. Johny pulls out switch blade and swings at the secretary). (Valdez, 1965:117) JOHNY: (Comes downstage) Fuck-You (Valdez, 1965:133) SANCHO : lenos… marijuana. (Snap. Johny inhales on an imaginary joint.) (Valdez, 1965: 146) From the quotation above we can conclude that the proofs that the Mexican American is a criminal is really shown. They are drawn as a criminal. They use marijuana, sniff glues, fight with knifes. It has a relation with the real life in Mexico. 5. Mexican American The character of Mexican American is shown in the climax phase in this play. At first, Valdez tries to describe this character as a real good Mexican American. We can see from the quotation below, Sancho: He just came this morning. Ain’the beauty? Feast your eyes on him!Sturdy US steel frame ,streamlined, modern. As a matter of fact, he is built exactly like our Anglo models except that he comes in variety of darker shades:naugahyde, leather, or leatherette. Secretary: Naugahyde Sancho: Well, we just write down. Yes, Senorita, this model represents the apex of American Engineering! He is bilingual, college educated, ambitious! Say the word “acculturate” and he accelerates. He is intelligent, well mannered, clean-did I say clean? Smell. Secretary: Old Sobaco, my favorite. Sancho: Eric! We call him Eric Garcia. I want you to meet Miss JIMenez Mexican American: Miss JIM-enez, I am delighted to make your acquaintance. (Eric kisses her hand) Secretary: Oh my, how charming! (Valdez:1965,250)

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 From the quotation above we can see that Valdez who is the writer of this play wants to show about the characterization of this Mexican American. The character of Mexican American shows us about the image of the Mexican American itself. From the smell of the character of Mexican American, we can see that the authentic smell of the Mexican American (old sobacco) can be found in this play. Here we can see that the writer also wants to analyze the Mexican American as one of the important character in this play. The character of Mexican American has a big role in the climax phase in plot structure. At first, the character of Mexican American looks like support the Reagan’s government. We can see from the quotation below, Secretary: Does he function in politics? Sancho: Senorita, you are looking at a political MACHINE. Have you ever heardof the OEO, EOC,COD, WAR ON POVERTY? That’s our model! Not only that, he makes political speeches Secretary: May I hear one? Sancho: With pleasure. Eric, gives us a speech. Mexican American: Mr. Congressman, Mr. Chairman, members of the board, honored guests, ladies and gentlemen. Please, please, I come before you as a Mexican American to tell you about the problems of Mexican. The problems of the Mexican stem from one thing and one thing alone; He’s stupid. He’s uneducated. He needs to stay in school He needs to be ambitious , forward looking, harder working. He needs to think American, American, American, AMERICAN, AMERICAN, GOD BLESS AMERICA Secretary: Oh my, He’s patriotic too! (Valdez:1965,275) From the quotation above, we can see there is a satire to the American itself. The character of Mexican American tries to describe the behaviour of the Mexican American which is contrary to themself. The character of Mexican

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 American says that the Mexican American are fool, uneducated. But, actually the diction of the character of Mexican American is a satire, because the American itself underestimate the Mexican American. So the character of Mexican American has 2 values. Although he is a Mexican American, in contradictory, he acts like a white American. In the end of the play, we can see that the Mexican American changes his manner towards the Secretary. When The Secretary wants to try operating him, the Mexican American does the different act into the The Secretary. We can see from the quotation below, Mexican American: RAZA QUERIDA!VAMOS LEVANTANDO ARMAS PARA LIBERARNOS DE ESTOS DESGRACIADOS GABACHOS QUE NOS EXPLOTAN !VAMOS Secretary: What did he say? Sancho: Something about lifting arms, killing white people, etc. Secretary: but he’s not supposed to say that! (Valdez:1965,327) The character of Mexican American takes an important role in this phase. He makes the different manner towards the Secretary of this play. From the quotation above, we can also see that the Mexican American hates the Secretary itself. The Mexican American said that he wants to kill white people, etc. 6. Revolucionario As a matter of fact, the character of Revolucionario doesn’t have an important role in this play. It is just a representation of the Mexican American in

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 physical characteristic. Here, in this play, the character of Revolucionario doesn’t give much speech, but the character of The Honest Sancho gives many explanations about the feature that the character of Revolucionario have. We can see the representation of Mexican American in Sancho’s speech about the character of Revolucionario. Here are the quotation below, Sancho: Ah, a lover. Step right over here, senorita. Introducing our standard Revolucionario and or Early California Bandit type. As you can see he is well built, sturdy, durable. This is the international Harvester of Mexicans. Secretary: What does he do? Sancho: You name it, he does it. He rides horses, stays in the mountains, crosses deserts, plains, rivers, leads revolutions, follow revolutions, kills, can be killed, serves as a martyr , hero, movie star, did I say movie star? Did you ever see Viva Zapata, viva villa, villa rides?pancho villa returns?pancho villa goes back? Pancho villa meets abbot and costello? From the quoation above, we can see the physical characteristic of the character of Revolucionario. That character wears sombrero, rides horses, do like a cowboy. The character of Revolucionario is represented as a Mexican who usually makes some revolutions to struggle about their life. In quotation above we can clearly see the word “Viva Zapata, Viva Villa”, the word “ viva “ means come on or let’s go in English word. They want to show their struggle to face the hard moments in their life in America.

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI B. 36 Plot Plot structure is an important thing in work of literature. The plot structure will always make a “story” in the work of literature. “Fictional people or characters are derived from life, as are things they do. These actions or incidents, occur in sequence , or in chronological order” (Roberts,1987: 98) Every work of literature will always be in the chronological order, from the first moments until the end of the moments in the work of literature. Without plot structure we will always miss the parts of the work literature itself. The example: the first moment in the work of literature is introducing the character, etc.. By using the plot structure we can know the journey from the start until the end of the story of the work literature itself. If there is no plot in the work of literature, the work of literature will not have sequences/parts and it will make the story becomes tasteless, especially in analyzing the work of literature itself. That‟s why the plot structure in the work of literature is so important. But before analyzing the plot, the plot itself means plan or groundwork of human motivations, with the actions resulting from believable and realistic human responses. (Roberts, 1987:98). In a well plotted work, nothing is irrelevant. Everything is relevant to each other. So we can conclude that everything in a good work of literature is in a chronological order.

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 In analyzing the plot we need something/element which can built the work of literature itself. The most significant element of plot is conflict. In conflict human responses are brought out to their highest degree. Conflicts exist both between individual and larger forces. Reffering to the formal categories of structure, we can divide the plot structures into exposition, complication, crisis, climax and the last is resolution. The plot structure here makes us to know the way of the story itself. Here the writer wants to analyze every single parts of the Los Vendidos. 1. Exposition First of all, the writer wants to introduce what exposition is. Exposition means the laying out, the putting forth, of the materials in the work. It presents everything that is going to be important in the pattern of the actions. ( Roberts 1987, 101). The exposition in this play is when The Honest Sancho introduces himself and his shop. It is common in the starting point of the work of literature, the characters was introduced. SANCHO: Bueno, Bueno mis monos, vamos a ver quien vendemos ahora no quihubo, I‟m Honest Sancho and this is my shop. Antes fui contratista pero ahora logre tener mi negocito, All I need now is a customer. Ay, a customer. SECRETARY: Good Morning, I‟m Miss Jimenez from, SANCHO: Ah una chicana ! Welcome welcome Senorita Jimenez (Valdez 1965:1-9)

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 From the quotation above we can see that it is the exposition of the play. We can see that The Honest Sancho introduced himself and introduced his shop. It is important for the reader to know the starting point of the play. So by analyzing that parts, the writer wants to introduce the first part of the play itself. The first part of this play is the background and introduction of the play itself. From the exposition we can see about the character and the starting point of this play itself. 2. Complication The second parts of the good plot structure in this play is when The Secretary wants to find a “model” which fit for the government. That process is called complication. The complication marks the onset of the major conflict in the story (Roberts 1987, 101). The complication starts when The Secretary wants to find the model which is cheap and can speak English. When The Secretary tries to choose the model, The Honest Sancho offers her the model that he had in his shop. SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week. SECRETARY: What about the storage? SANCHO: No problem. You know these new farm labor camps our Honorable Governor Reagan has built out by Parlier or Raisin City? They were designed with our model in mind. Five, six, seven, even ten in one of those shacks will give you no trouble at all. You can also put him in old barns,old cars, river banks. You can even leave him out in the field overnight with no worry(Valdez,1965:82)

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 We can see from the quotation below is the starting point of the “conflict” of this play. SECRETARY: I don‟t care. You still don‟t understand what we need. It‟s true we need Mexican models, such as these, but it‟s more important that he be American. SANCHO: American? SECRETARY: That‟s right, and judging from what you‟ve shown me, I don‟t think you have what we want. Well, my lunch hour‟s almost over, I better … SANCHO: Wait a minute! Mexican but American? SECRETARY: That‟s correct. From the quotation above we can see that the conflict starts to raise. The character of Secretary wants to find a Mexican but American model. The Honest Sancho has offered her some models but she still can not find the model. SANCHO: Mexican but … (A sudden flash.) American! Yeah, I think we‟ve got exactly what you want. He just came in today! Give me a minute. (He exits. Talks from backstage.) Here he is in the shop. Let me just get some papers off. There. Introducing our new 1970 Mexican-American! Ta-ra-ra-raaaa! (SANCHO brings out the MEXICAN-AMERICAN model, a clean-shaven middle class type in a business suit, with glasses.) SECRETARY: (Impressed.) Where have you been hiding this one? SANCHO: He just came in this morning. Ain‟t he a beauty? Feast you eyes on him! Sturdy U.S. Steel frame, streamlined, modern. As a matter of fact, he is built exactly like our Anglo models, except that he comes in a variety of darker shades: naugahide, leather or leatherette. SECRETARY: (Smells.) Old Sobaco, my favorite. From the quotation above, we can see the specification that the Secretary wants. The Mexican American model in quotation above represent the Mexican

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 American, He is good looking, looks smart, clean, has a good smell. That is the criteria of the Secretary wants from the Mexican American model. Secretary: That‟s much better, but you didn‟t answer my question. Does he speak English? Sancho: Bueno no pero, he has other. Secretary: No.(Valdez,1965: 95) Secretary : No, Mr. Sancho, I don‟t think this. Secretary: No, No, No! We can‟t have any more thieves in the State Administration. Put him back. Secretary: No, I‟m sorry we can‟t buy anything but American products. . He just won‟t do Sancho: but he‟s an antique Secretary : I don‟t care . You don‟t understand what we need. It‟s true we need a Mexican models such as these, but it is more important that he be American. (Valdez,1965 :235) From the quotation above we can see that the conflicts start. The conflict in this work of literature is when The Secretary wants to find a model which can speak English and fit to fulfill the position in Governor‟s Reagan parliament. She wants the best model to fulfill the position, because of that, She asks the seller to give her so many options for that. That‟s why The Honest Sancho who is the seller offers her some models that he sells in his shop. The problems start to raise, the simple saying is the moments above is introducing the problems. The complication in this work of literature has a significant role, because it is the starting point of the conflict in this work of literature. So, from the process of the complication the plot will raise in chronological way.

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3. 41 Crisis After the process of complication, we can see the phase which can be called as crisis. The crisis is the turning point , the separation between what has gone before and what will come after. The crisis is usually a decision or action undertaken to resolve the conflict( Roberts 1987, 101). The crisis in this play starts when The Honest Sancho introduces all the models that he had. The Secretary can‟t find the models that she wants so much. The Honest Sancho offers the models that he sells. He tries to offer the Secretary from one model into another models. The model which the Honest Sancho offers to the Secretary are The Farmworker, Johny Pachuco, Revolucionario, Mexican American (Eric Garcia). Although The Honest Sancho has offered The Secretary some models, from The Farm Worker until Johny Pachuco, The Secretary can not find the model that she wants much to fulfill the position. This process called “crisis” because it will be the turning point between the last moments to the what will happens in the next moment. SECRETARY: That‟s right, and judging from what you‟ve shown me, I don‟t think you have what we want. Well, my lunch hour‟s almost over, I better … SANCHO: Wait a minute! Mexican but American? SECRETARY: That‟s correct. (Valdes,1965: 236) From the quotation above we can see that the phase which is called crisis is shown. Crisis is a process in the play which will make a decision, where will the

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 play go. The crisis in this play is when the Secretary wants to find a Mexican American which is cheap enough, and have good qualities to fullfil the position in Governor Reagan‟s parliament. After the Honest Sancho gives her so many options, she can not find the model that can fulfill the parliament. 4. Climax The next process of this conflict is climax. This is the top/peak of the problems of the play itself. The climax in this play is when the models try to catch the Secretary because Secretary makes them to be angry. They are angry because the models feel that the Secretary has a lot of excuse in choosing the models that she wants. The peak of this play is when the Mexican American or Eric Garcia was offered by the Honest Sancho to the Secretary SANCHO: Mexican but … (A sudden flash.) American! Yeah, I think we‟ve got exactly what you want. He just came in today! Give me a minute. (He exits. Talks from backstage.) Here he is in the shop. Let me just get some papers off. There. Introducing our new 1970 Mexican-American! Ta-ra-ra-raaaa! (SANCHO brings out the MEXICAN-AMERICAN model, a clean-shaven middle class type in a business suit, with glasses.) SECRETARY: (Impressed.) Where have you been hiding this one? SANCHO: He just came in this morning. Ain‟t he a beauty? Feast you eyes on him! Sturdy U.S. Steel frame, streamlined, modern. As a matter of fact, he is built exactly like our Anglo models, except that he comes in a variety of darker shades: naugahide, leather or leatherette. SECRETARY: (Smells.) Old Sobaco, my favorite. (Valdez,1965; 243)

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 From the quotation above, the process of climax is reached. The Secretary finds the model that she wants. She can find a model which is good enough, he is more intelligent, cleaner than the previous models. When The Honest Sancho asks him to give an act to show his capability, at first Mexican American or Eric Garcia gives his capability to give speech in congress situation. His speech is about supporting American government and tells about the Mexican American‟s capability who are stupid, uneducated, criminal, etc. Suddenly when the Secretary wants to try him, the Mexican American gives another version of speech. He gives speech like the writer shown below. Mexican American: RAZA QUERIDA VAMOS LEVANTANDO ARMAS PARA LIBERARNOS DE ESTOS DESGRACIADOS GABACHOS QUE NOS EXPLOTAN!!VAMOS. Secretary: What did he say? Sancho: Something about lifting arms, killing white people, etc. Secretary: but he‟s not supposed to say that! ( Valdez, 1965: 328) From the quotation above, we can see that the Mexican American is angry. He shows his anger. The diction that he choose to express his anger is a cruel, hard words. He says his language which can be translated that he wants to kill white people, lifting arms, etc. This phase shows us the climax of this play. After the process of introduction, the rising of conflict and this is the peak of this work of literature. From the quotation above, we can clearly see the feeling of the character of Mexican American who is angry. The diction that he use to express his anger is also extremely

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 hard. Mexican American also make an important effort in this phase of the plot structure, because this will be the peak of this play. 5. Resolution The final process of the plot is resolution. The resolution in this work of literature also has an important effect, because the resolution in this work of literature is the conclusion and the end of the plot structure. After Secretary goes away because the models try to catch her, the models chat each other. The models talks about the Secretary who can be lied because she does not know that the real model is The Honest Sancho. The models are successful in tricking her. After she goes away the models also divide the money that they have gotten from the Secretary. Johny: Man, that was a long one, ese? Farm Worker: How did we do? Johny: Pretty Good, look all that lana, man! Revolucionario: En la madre, look at all the money. Johny: We keep this up, we‟re going to be rich Farm Worker: They think we‟re machines. Revolucionario: Burros Johny: Puppets (Valdez,1965: 353-362) From the quotation above we can see that the models chat each other about the Secretary. The models feel that their success to trick the Secretary is an awesome winner. The models also chat each other about the money that they got.

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 They got much money from the Secretary. They divide the money, each “model” gets $3000. Mexican American: The only thing I don‟t like is how come I always got to play the goddamn Mexican American? Johny: That‟s what you get for finishing high school. (Valdez,1965: 363) From the quotation above we can see about the refusal of the character of Mexican American about why it is always him who will be the Mexican American. But the character of Johny Pachuco tells to him about his capability to act as Mexican American because he passes high school. Farm Worker: How about our wages, ese? Johny: Here it comes right now. $3000 for you, $3000 for you, $3000 for you, and $3000 for me. The rest we put back into bussiness. (Valdez ,1965: 366) From the quotation above we can see that the models chat about the wages that they should get from the Secretary. They get $15000 and they divide it in equal number each. Farm Worker: I‟m going over to Concha‟s. There‟s a party. Johny: Wait a minute , vatos. What about our salesman? I think he needs an oil job. Revolucionario: Leave him to me. (Valdez,1965: 372) From the quotation above we can also see the end of the story. After the wages are divided into each character, the character has another interest. The character of Farm Worker goes to the party, Johny goes to another place and Revolucionario stays to keep the real model, The Honest Sancho.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 In the end of the play, Revolucionario is also proud of the Honest Sancho because he can trick the Secretary. We can see in quotation “ He‟s the best model we got! Ajua”(Valdes,1965: 380), we can see that the Revolucionario shows his pride by showing off the model to the audience and tells the word like in the quotation above. C. The Connection between Character and Plot as a Representation of Chicano’s Life and Society The character and the plot have important roles in the work of literature. The plot structure and the character can not be separated, because the character build the plot structure. Every character in the work of literature will always exist in the plot structure, because the the component of plot structure will be represented by the character. In this third section, the writer wants to analyze about how the plot and the characters represent the Chicano‟s life and society. From the plot of that work of literature, we can see there is a journey between the starting point until the end of play. The plot in Los Vendidos works orderly. Every character plays in their own way. The characters play the journey of the plot step by step. From the plot and the characters we can see that the life of the Chicano is represented. The analysis in the first part on this thesis analyzes the character. By analyzing the characters, the writer wants to show about the characters in the play and

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 their roles in the play also. The second part analyzes the plot structure of the play itself. By analyzing the plot structure, the writer wants to show about the plot structure and its impact on the play in order to understand the Mexican American. On this third part the writer wants to combine the first and the second part. By combining the first and the second part, the writer wants to show about the characters and the plot structure in order to make a conclusion how the life Chicano is and also the purpose of Luis Valdez writes this play. The character of the Honest Sancho is the main character on this play. In the plot structure in exposition phase, Honest Sancho takes an important role. He introduces his shop and himself. But if we analyze further, Luis Valdez wants to show us about the social critiques about the life of Mexican American. Every moments and characters in this play have meanings. Luis Valdez wants to satirize the White American with this work of literature. At first, Honest Sancho introduces his shop and himself. By seeing the word shop, we can get a conclusion from it. Shop is usually identical with a place to sell something. Here, Valdez wants to satirize the White American. Luis Valdez wants to show that at that era, White American considers the Mexican American has lower caste than the White American. “Shop” means as a place to sell something. In this play, Valdez uses “shop” as a place to sell models which represents the Mexican American. Every models that Honest Sancho sold has their own rules. This moments contents social critique. From the “shop”, it

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 means that the Mexican American can be bought with money, they are cheap. The exposition of this play starts to show the background of the Mexican American itself. In the exposition phase, there are 2 characters which have important roles. Both of the characters plays their own role so the play has story to develop. Besides the character of the Honest Sancho, there is also a character of Secretary who is the secretary of Governor Reagan who has task to get a model to fulfill the positon in Governor Reagan‟s parliament. Both of the characters makes the story in this play develop. The Honest Sancho tries to offers his shop and the things that he has in shop, and the Secretary is the customer who wants to find a model like her boss‟ wants to fulfill the position. After the exposition phase, we will find the phase in plot structure which is called complication. The complication phase in this play takes an important role. Complication phase in this play is the phase when the Secretary started to find the model which is fit to the Reagan‟s parliament and the Honest Sancho helps her to find the model in his shop. Honest Sancho offers her some models. The first model that the Honest Sancho offers to the Secretary is Farm Worker. The character of the Farm Worker is a character who is hardworker character, friendly, respecting the Secretary. If we analyze further, the character of Farm Worker here is also a representation of the Mexican American. Mexican American works in field. They are planting corn, cotton, melon, etc.

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 Actually, from this character, Luis Valdez wants to show the Mexican American manner towards his action in character of Farm Worker. We can see from the quotation that Honest Sancho tries to tell to the Secretary, ” didn‟t I tell you? But his most attractive feature is that he‟s hard working. Let me show you.” (Valdes 1965; 45-48). From that quotation, we can see that Luis Valdez wants to show that the Mexican American is a hardworker person. But, besides that there is also a social critique through this character of Farm Worker. As we know, the character of Farm Worker is unskilled, they are dirty, work in field which is identically consider a slave. Worker in field is usually identical with unskilled person, only use his power not his brain. So from the analysis above we can see that usually Mexican American works in field, considered as an unskilled labour, uneducated labour, and a slave. All along the southwest borderlands economic activity was picking up in the late nineteenth century. Railroads were being built, copper mines were opening in Arizona, cotton and vegetable agriculture was developing in South Texas, and fruit growing was being introduced in Southern California. In Texas, Hispanic population increased from about 20.000 in 1850 to 165.000 in 1900. Some Mexicans came as contract workers for railway track gangs and harvest crew; virtually all were relegated to the lowest paying and most back breaking work; and everywhere they were discriminated against and reviled by bigher status Anglo Worker (Henretta et al, 1999: 467). From the quotation above, we can clearly see that the Mexican American immigrates to America especially in the area which is near their homeland. California, Texas, are areas which is near and not so far from their homeland to get a better life, and also that area is an area which develops in agricultural activity. It is fit

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 to them, because the Mexican American also have competencies in agricultural work like the writer show in character of Farm Worker. The immigrants came from the Ilocos Island under the servitude system. Their passage was paid by banks and rich families in the Philippines. The men had to pay back their fares as they worked in vineyards at 50 per cent interest. This is required two or three years of hard labor for some of the men. “many of them existed on a handful of rice and few cents pay each day.” A farmer told me (Day, 1971:16) From the quotation above, we can see that the immigrants prefer to work in agricultural fields. This is because agricultural is the peak of the development and it needs so many farm workers and labors. There were many reasons why the Mexicans were included in the southwestern economy, albeit at the lower part of the structure, whereas the Indians were not. The Mexicans were experienced in farming, ranching, and mining;most Indians tribes were not (Kitano,1985, 158) From the quotation above we can see that the Mexican American are experienced in farming, ranching, and mining. They have a good experienced in farming compares to the other worker from another place. This is the reason why the character of Farm Worker was putted in the first of Sancho’s models because the character of Farm Worker was represented as the first Mexican American who immigrates to the America, and on that moments the agricultural needs more workers, because the agricultural reach the peak at the moments.

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 In the play, according to the theory above, the character of Farm Worker is also represented as a “cheap” worker. SANCHO: Economical? Senorita you are looking at the Volkwagen of Mexicans.Pennies a day is all it take. One plate of beans and tortillas will keep him going all day. That, and chile Plenty of chile.Chile jalapenos,chile verde ,chile Colorado. But of course if you give him chile then you have to change his oil filter once a week. SECRETARY: What about the storage? SANCHO: No problem. You know these new farm labor camps our Honorable Governor Reagan has built out by Parlier or Raisin City?They were designed with our model in mind. Five, six, seven, even ten in one of those shacks will give you no trouble at all. You can also put him in old barns,old cars, river banks. You can even leave him out in the field overnight with no worry(Valdez,1965:82) From the quotation above we can see that the character of Farm Worker can work by only giving them a plate of beans and tortillas, that can make the Farm Worker work all day long. Besides that, the way to keep this character is so usual. The owner just can leave it in the field overnight without no worries. Delano and Earlimart were in the heart of the Grapes of Warth country. People were so impoverished that they would undercut one another for a job. If a grower offered a man 25 cents an hour , another man would take the job for as a little as 15 cents. Life was miserable, and people were starving. „The dust bowlers lived in Hooverville –type camps. Residents tell how the migrants would dismantle the old homesteaders‟ shacks in the foothills , in orderto fuel their fires and keep warm (Day, 1971:16)

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 From the quotation above we can see that the workers were paid in unreasonable amount that was too little to live in America. That is why the Mexican labour becomes the poorest worker in America. It is totally different with the character of Secretary. The Secretary is characterized as a good looking woman, educated, critical, curious. The character of Secretary in this play can represent a White American or the higher class of Mexican American. She takes an important role in this play. We can see from the quotation ,” My name is miss JIM-enez. Don‟t you speak English ? What‟s wrong with u? (Valdes 1965; 12-14), from that quotation we can see that the character of Secretary underestimates the character of Honest Sancho. She does not want to call JIMENEZ but JIM-enez. Jimenez is identical with Spanish/Mexican„s name. She does not want to look like a Mexican American. The Secretary also tries to speak a good English, and it is totally different with the character of Honest Sancho who combines between Spanish and English language. From the quotation above we also can see about the criteria of Mexican American who is uneducated. They are considered as people who can not speak English fluently, and it is different from the Secretary. After introducing the character of the Farm Worker, the character of Secretary does not want that model because the model is not fit to fulfill the position in Reagan‟s government, so that the character of Honest Sancho gives her another choice. The next model that the Honest Sancho shows in the character of Johny

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 Pachuco. The character of Johny Pachuco has a criteria of a model who can survive in city life. Sancho: Ah, from the city! Step right back. Over here in this corner of the shop is exactly what you‟re looking for. Introducing our new 1969 JOHNY PACHUCO model! This is our fast back model . Streamlined. Built for speed, low riding, city life. Take a look at some these feature, mag shoes, dual exhausts, green chartreuse paint-job, dark tintwindshield, a little poof on top. Let me just turn him on. (Johny walks to stage center with pachuco bounce) (Valdez 1965; 106-114) From the quotation above we can see the characteristics of Johny Pachuco. He was designed for a city life. In the first section of analysis, we can see the characteristic of the Johny Pachuco. He can fight with knife, he was rude, he inhales marijuana, he steals the Secretary „s purse. From the characterization above, we can see the criteria of Mexican American. We can see that the character of Johny Pachuco which is considered as a criminal. There are a number of factors contributing to the great proportion of crime by a certain element of the Mexican population. Among the contributing factors are those of economics, lack of employment, and small wages that cause certain ones to commit theft and robbery for the purpose of obtaining the means to own and drive automobiles and to have money to spend on their girl friends, liquor, clothes, etc., also to obtain the wherewithall to live. Mexicans as a whole in this country are restricted in the main to only certain kinds of labor and that being the lowest paid. It must be admitted that they are discriminated against and have been heretofore practically barred from learning trades, etc. (http://www.oac.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/hb6m3nb79m) From the quotation above we can see the background of the Mexican American. They live in hard condition. Economic, better life is the another

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 backgrounds why they do some criminal acts. The character of Johny Pachuco is a representation of a Mexican, who makes some criminal acts to survive. From that character we can see that the life of Mexican American in that era is hard, cruel, full of criminal acts ,and the criminal acts usually done by the Mexican American not the White American. After the character of Johny Pachuco, the Secretary still can not find the model that can fulfill the position. The Secretary wants another model. Then, the Honest Sancho offers him another model. The model is Revolucionario. As we see in the analysis before, this model does not have an important role. He is only analyzed as a Mexican American by his physical characteristic. But from that characteristics, we can see the life of Chicano. They ride horses, stays in mountains, crosses desserts, plains, rivers, lead revolutions. That is the characteristics of Chicano according to the character of Revolucionario. After the Revolucionario, the Honest Sancho offers her Eric Garcia . At first, The Secretary feels interesting about this model. This is because this model has the same thoughts with her. We can see from the quotation below, Secretary: Does he function in politics? Sancho: Senorita, you are looking at a political MACHINE. Have you ever heardof the OEO, EOC,COD, WAR ON POVERTY? That‟s our model! Not only that, he makes political speeches Secretary: May I hear one? Sancho: With pleasure. Eric, gives us a speech. Mexican American: Mr. Congressman, Mr. Chairman, members of the board, honored guests, ladies and gentlemen. Please, please, I come

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 before you as a Mexican American to tell you about the problems of Mexican. The problems of the Mexican stem from one thing and one thing alone; He‟s stupid. He‟s uneducated. He needs to stay in school He needs to be ambitious , forward looking, harder working. He needs to think American, American, American, AMERICAN, AMERICAN, GOD BLESS AMERICA Secretary: Oh my, He‟s patriotic too! (Valdez:1965,275) From the quotation above, the Mexican American shows that he has the same thoughts with the American itself. The Mexican American agrees about the mainstream that the Mexican American are lazy, poor, uneducated. This is how acculturation exists because Mexican American tries to neglect its own culture and goes with the mainstream of American society ( Kitano, 1985: 27). From the quotation before, we can see that the character of Mexican American wants to show their existence to support the American government. They tries to blend with the custom that the American itself shows to them. From the speech that the character of Mexican American shows their patriotic acts by giving the speech. It looks like he loves his country more than their homeland. It can be proved by seeing this quotation, Racial ethnic groups have also gone through the same process and some have successfully acculturated. They have learned English and the American way, they have fought and died for America and have subscribed to the tenets of patriotism and love of country (Kitano 1985 :27) We can clearly see from the quotation above, the ethnic groups blends to the new custom in order to be accepted in the new group. Eventually, they forget their

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 homeland, their major ethnic in order to be accepted, although they must leave their custom, like being an individualistic which is totally different with custom in Mexico. The plot which is examined by introducing the characters above called crisis. The crisis in this work of literature is when the Honest Sancho tries to offer the Secretary the models that he has in his shop. The crisis in this work of literature takes an important role to analyze the Chicano „s life and society. It is caused of crisis, the characters who represent the Chicano‟s life and society are shown. After the process of crisis, the models which are offered by the Honest Sancho can not fullfil the position, the plot reach the peak. The peak is called climax. The climax in this play is when the Mexican American gives speech, after giving speech, suddenly all of the characters tries to catch the Secretary. In the end of the play, we can clearly see that the Mexican American tries to catch the Secretary. It shows us, that the Mexican American tries to get the same life with the white American. They wants to be the same, and the models was a representation of struggle of the Mexican American itself. This play has purpose to satirize the White American about the life of Mexican American. The models which actually represent Mexican American are not the real model. The real model is The Honest Sancho. They can trick the Secretary which represents the White American. The models play role that they look like real model but actually not. This play also contains a social critique to the White

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 American which is characterized as intelligent, smart, educated person can be tricked by the Mexican American which are characterized as a poor, uneducated, unintelligent and totally different with the White American. In the end of the play we can also see that the models spread their income from the Secretary. It shows us that the Mexican American shows their intelligence. The prove that they can lie to the Secretary who represents the White American. In short, this thesis tries to combine between the characters analysis and the plot analysis. Both of that analysis is to know about the life of Mexican American itself. Every characters have their own rule to build the condition of the life of the Chicanos. The plot structure also makes some efforts. We know that every step that the Honest Sancho explains about the models that he has is the plot structure of the play itself. The Honest Sancho arrange the models in an order way, but actually that is the representation of condition of life that Valdez wants to share. For the example, the character of Farm Worker represents the life of Mexican American when they are early migrate to America, the character of Johny Pachuco who represents the cruelty because of their hard life and their hard condition. The character of Revolucionario and Mexican American, represent the life when the Mexican American wants to end the era that they face. The racial discrimination, economic issues are the obstacles that they want to end. All of them are the goals for the Mexican American to get better life in America, and also they are also considered as the same white the another American.

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Los Vendidos is a play which have many issues about Mexican American’s life such as racial discrimination, prejudice, and also struggle to reach the grade which is called better life. In this play, Luis Valdez wants to share the experience about the Mexican American’s life, including their struggle, their critics to the White American. Actually, this play represents the struggle of Mexican American faces the era when they move to the new world which is called America. Luis Valdez wants to share the experience of the Mexican through the models that he built to represent the life of Mexican American itself. Los Vendidos which means the sellout, has so much impacts in Mexican American’s history in their life in America. This play satires the White American in about their life and their prejudice towards the Mexican American itself. Los Vendidos also make some impacts to the reader because it makes the reader has views about the Mexican American. Los Vendidos starts from the character of Secretary who wants to find a model who fits to fulfill the position in Reagan’s government. She went to the Honest Sancho’s shop which sell some model. At first, Honest Sancho offers her the Farm Worker model. The Farm Worker model is offered at the first, because it represents 58

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 the life of Mexican American at first, after they migrated to the American. The character of Farm Worker is represented as uneducated, poor, cheap labor. The needs of good quality farm workers makes the Mexican American become the farm worker in the early migration in America.In their homeland, they have been usuall in agricultural sectors. They are major at agricultural activities. The Secretary does not want the Farm Worker model, she wants another models. As a seller, Honest Sancho gives her some alternatives models. The next model that Honest Sancho offered to her is Johny Pachuco model. This model represents the life of Mexican American which is hard, cruel. This model represents the Mexican gangster which can use knife, sniff glues, inhaling marijuana who consider a crimes in America. This model represent the life of Mexican American when they face the hard era of living in America. There are so many factors contributes the great proportion of this crime. There a few job to make a better life. Robbery and theft is a way to get money to defense their existence in hard America. After the model of Johny Pachuco, the Secretary still does not want the model. Here, the conflict is started. The conflict is Secretary wants to find a cheap, smart, good looking Mexican American. The Honest Sancho gives another options to the Secretary. He offers the Revolucionario. This character is also represents Mexican life. As we know, the Mexican faces the hard period. They face racial discrimination, pressure, etc. They struggle hardly to be the same with the White American. Mexican

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 American become uncontrolled in this phase of revolution, and it is represented by Revolucionario. After that, the Honest Sancho gives her the last option. That is the Mexican American model which is called Eric Garcia. This model at first looks like support the White American’s government, but in the climax phase this model also makes an act which show the rebellions, it is followed by the other models. In the end of the play, the proof that that the real model is The Honest Sancho. This play has a good plot structure, the writer shows the critics, showing the Mexican American life in an order. Besides that, the writer shows that the Mexican American who represented as an uneducated, fool is not proven, because the fact is the character of Secretary who represents white American can be tricked by the Mexican American itself. Every step in this thesis has their own rule. The character and the plot structure will represent the life of Mexican American. Every character and plot represent the step of life of the Mexican American. They represent also the struggle of the Mexican American to end the hard condition that they face in the early America.

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Alchura, Jakarta. “A Critique of Luis Valdez’s Los Vendidos and Susan Glasspell’s Trfles: Using Comparison and Contrast, 2007 22 Maret 2013 Ayres, Edward Duran. “Statistics: the nature of the Mexican American criminal “. California: UCLA Edu.1942 Baldonado, Ann Marie. Representation. 25 April 2013. Englekirk, Allan and Marguirite Marin. “Mexican Americans Overview”. 30 Mei 2013 Hazuda, H.P., Stern, M.P., Haffner,S.M. Acculuturation and Assimilation among Mexican Americans:Scales and population-based Data. Social Science Quarterly 69,1988. (25 Mei 2013) Holman,C.Hugh and William Harmon. A Handbook of Literature. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company,1986. Mcfadden, Ryan. Stealthily Satirizing Americans. 27 April 2013 Roberts, Edgar.V, and Henry E. Jacobs. FICTION: Introduction to Reading and Writing. New Jersey: Prentice Hall,1989 Rohrberger, Mary and Samuel H. Woods. Reading and Writing About Literature. New York: Random House,1971 Sinmandera, Telodrigo. “The Chicano .(23 Maret 2014) Movement”. Stanton, Robert. An Introduction to Fiction. Michigan: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965

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