9 months ago
Full text






(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma : Nama : Febiriana Anindita Pertiwi Nomor Mahasiswa : 094214054 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah yang berjudul : RESISTANCE TOWARDS NAZISM PRESENTED THROUGH THE SHIFTING OF CHARACTER’S IDEOLOGY IN THOMAS KENEALLY’S SCHINDLER’S LIST Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta. Pada tanggal: 18 Agustus 2014 Yang menyatakan, (Febi Riana Anindita Pertiwi) vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY This is to certify that all ideas, phrases, sentences, unless otherwise stated, are the ideas, phrases, and sentences of the thesis writer. The writer understands full consequences including degree cancellation if she took somebody else’s ideas, phrases, or sentences without proper references. Yogyakarta, August 18th, 2014 Febiriana Anindita Pertiwi vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis came to exist through the direct and indirect participation of many people. I would like to address my gratitude to my mother Valentina Istinah and my father Endro Priyanto who always support me through the efforts and vision. I give my deepest gratitude to my uncle Ir. Mudjadijono and my grandfather Sudipawiro for the eternal inspiration of life experience. Thanks to my one and only brother Pradipta Kumara for the knowledge in art, the passion and spirit to realize dreams. My thanks go to the thesis advisor Paulus Sarwoto, S.S., M.A.,Ph.D. who has provided knowledge and constructive notes especially the grammatical errors and elaboration in this thesis. I would like also thanks to the co-advisor Dra. Sri Mulyani, M.A.,PhD. for the detailed and systematic correction and Adventina Putranti, S.S., M.Hum for the critical questions and technical correction. The next person to thank is Maria Puspitasari Munthe for the willingness to be an unofficial proofreader. The next big thanks go to Arianni Ayu and Louisa Manihuruk for the college friendship and sisterhood. I am also grateful to be one of Kepik Teater family members. Thanks for the chance to learn new things, the stories behind the stage, and the performance. The whole ‘JAKSA’ (Jalinan Akrab Sastra) family whose the burning passion and spirit have become the enduring motivation for myself. I would like to thank my Stella Duce I high school friends: Rani, Fifi, Tika, Ria, Tyas, Rhesa, Thea, Merry, Ayik, Dina, and Hanum for being my travel viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI mates and for the time to learn together. My big thanks go to my fellows in English Letters Department: Sakha, Adul, Pucil, Vina, Refa, Vince, Riza, Vindy, Titus, Aulia, Richard, Dhika, Samsul, Kezia, Dinda, Pinka, Mov, Bea, Indra, Ubaid, Ucca, and many others. Gratitude also goes to Dianing Estihana and Anastasia Shanty for every lesson and discussion in spiritual and psychological knowledge. Thanks for the time to share any experience, knowledge and living inspiration about life. My deepest thanks goes to Natan Arya Leksana Gayuh for being a close friend. Thanks for sharing the dreams and knowledge through the companionship and all the stories made. Last but not least, thanks to Mother Mary and Jesus Christ for every lesson given so I have a chance to live in this wonderful world with wonderful people. Febiriana Anindita Pertiwi. ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ........................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGE ................................................................................. ii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ............................................................................ iii MOTTO PAGE ......................................................................................... iv DEDICATION PAGE .............................................................................. v PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH..... vi STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY …………………………………….. vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………….………………... viii TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………… x ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………. xii ABSTRAK………………………………………………………………... xiii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ............................................................ A. Background of the Study .......................................................... B. Problem Formulation ................................................................ C. Objectives of the Study ............................................................. D. Definition of Terms ................................................................... 1 1 7 7 8 CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW ............................................ 10 A. Review of Related Studies ......................................................... 10 B. 1. Review of Related Theories ................................................... 13 1.1. Theory of Character and Characterization ..................... 13 1.2. Theory of Ideology ......................................................... 14 1.3. Theory of Subject and Agent .......................................... 15 1.4. Theory of Reification ...................................................... 16 1.5. Theory of Resistance ...................................................... 16 2. Review on Historical Background ......................................... 18 2.1. Holocaust ........................................................................ 18 2.2. Nazism ............................................................................ 19 2.3. The Relation between Marxism and Literature .............. 19 C. Theoretical Framework .............................................................. 21 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ......................................................... 23 A. Object of the Study .................................................................... 23 B. Approach of the Study ............................................................... 23 C. Method of the Study ................................................................... 27 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS ...................................................................... 29 A. The Depiction of Oskar Schindler’s Characteristics .................. 29 1. Oskar Schindler as an Upper Middle Class ........................... 31 a. Glamorous ...................................................................... 31 b. Hedonistic ...................................................................... 34 x

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI c. Rebellious ...................................................................... 35 d. Ambitious ………………………………………………38 2. Oskar Schindler as a member of Nazi Party .......................... 42 a. Generous ......................................................................... 43 b. Tolerant ........................................................................... 43 B. Oskar Schindler’s Shifting Ideology:Capitalism to Humanism...45 1. Oskar’s Ideology of Capitalism ............................................. 46 2. Oskar’s New Ideology: Humanism ....................................... 52 C. Oskar Schindler’s Humanism as a Form of Resistance towards Nazism…………………………………………………………. 63 1. Individual Resistance ............................................................. 64 2. Collective Resistance ............................................................. 69 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ................................................................. 72 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................... 75 xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT FEBI RIANA ANINDITA PERTIWI. Resistance towards Nazism presented through the Shifting of Character’s Ideology in Thomas Keneally’s Schindler’s List. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Ideology which is enacted in the structure of state has an important role for both the political party and the state to lead the masses through the enacted system. In this case, the state’s ideology is inculcated to the society through the system ruled and the society is not aware of. Indirectly, the inculcated ideology oppresses and exploits the society which does not agree with it. This stimulates reaction from the society who realizes the oppression which is done by the state through its ideology and manifestation. Resistance becomes a form of reaction and people’s struggle of any oppression which happens through the system. Through the work of Thomas Keneally entitled Schindler’s List, the condition of society, especially the Jews,in the era of Nazi is portrayed. In order to get the deeper analysis of this study, the writer analyzes the depiction of the main character’s characteristics. The next step is the writer analyzes the shifting of main character’s ideology. The last step is analyzing the main character’s new ideology to see the resistance towards Nazism. The writer uses library research method in conducting this research. The writer employs books, articles, encyclopedia and internet as the sources. The sources consist of some theories to be applied in this research. The theories are theory of character and characterization, theory of ideology, theory of subject and agent, theory of reification, and theory of resistance. Review on historical background is also presented to give review and explanation about Holocaust and Nazism. The result of the analysis in this study shows that the political party and the state’s ideology have a function to control the masses. It is manifested through the system of the state which acts as an instrument of oppression. Related to the novel, it is seen that Nazism as the ideology of Nazi Party practices fascism through the ruling system. Nazism which carries racism in its political and ideological practice oppresses the Jews. The oppression is the form of freedom’s exploitation of human’s life. Later, the resistance, which is done by the Jews and the people who do not agree with the system, emerges in two different ways: resistance without violence and with violence. The main character in the novel, Oskar Schindler, is both a German and a member of Nazi Party. He eventually resists the system which is created by his party. It is because the circumstance, which is Nazi Party, practices an ideology which is totally different from his. The result of the process in embracing between the individual ideology and the dominant ideology can be seen through the shifting of Oskar’s ideology from capitalism to humanism. xii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK FEBI RIANA ANINDITA PERTIWI. Resistance towards Nazism presented through the Shifting of Character’s Ideology in Thomas Keneally’s Schindler’s List. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Ideologi yang diberlakukan dalam sebuah tatanan negara memiliki peranan penting baik bagi partai politik dan negara itu sendiri untuk memimpin massa. Dalam hal ini, ideologi negara ditanamkan kepada masyarakat melalui sistem yang berlaku dan pada praktiknya tidak disadari oleh masyarakat. Secara tidak langsung, ideologi yang ditanamkan tersebut menindas dan mengeksploitasi sekelompok masyarakat yang tidak sepaham. Hal ini memunculkan reaksi dari masyarakat yang sadar akan penindasan yang dilakukan oleh negara melalui ideologi dan manifestasinya. Perlawanan menjadi bentuk reaksi dan perjuangan pihak-pihak yang menyadari penindasan yang terjadi melalui sistem yang berlaku. Melalui karya Thomas Keneally, Schindler’s List, situasi masyarakat pada rezim Nazi, terutama kaum Yahudi, tergambarkan dalam novel ini. Untuk mendapatkan analisis mendalam, penulis menganalisa penggambaran tokoh utama dan penokohannya. Selanjutnya, penulis menganalisa pergeseran ideologi tokoh utama. Langkah terakhir adalah menganalisa ideologi baru dari tokoh utama untuk melihat bentuk perlawanannya terhadap Nazisme. Penulis menggunakan metode penelitian pustaka dalam menyusun penelitian ini. Penulis menggunakan buku, artikel, ensiklopedia, dan internet sebagai sumber-sumber untuk penelitian ini. Teori-teori yang diterapkan adalah teori tokoh dan penokohan, teori ideologi, teori subyek dan agen, teori reifikasi, dan teori resistensi. Tinjauan latar belakang sejarah turut dicantumkan untuk mendapatkan ulasan dan penjelasan mengenai Holocaust dan Nazisme. Hasil dari analisa studi menunjukkan bahwa partai politik dan ideologi negara berfungsi sebagai alat pengontrol massa. Hal ini dimanifestasikan melalui tatanan sistem negara yang bertindak sebagai instrumen penindasan. Dalam novel ini, Nazisme sebagai ideologi partai Nazi memberlakukan praktik-praktik fasisme terhadap sebuah sistem. Nazisme mengusung rasisme dalam praktik politik dan manifestasi ideologinya yang berdampak pada penindasan terhadap Yahudi. Penindasan adalah bentuk dari eksploitasi kebebasan dalam diri manusia. Selanjutnya, bentuk perlawanan, yang dilakukan oleh Yahudi dan kelompok yang tidak setuju dengan sistem tersebut, diterapkan dalam dua cara: perlawanan tanpa kekerasan dan perlawanan dengan kekerasan. Tokoh utama dalam novel ini, Oskar Schindler, adalah seorang berkebangsaan Jerman dan anggota partai Nazi. Ia pada akhirnya melawan sistem yang telah dibentuk oleh partainya sendiri. Hal ini dikarenakan,lingkungannya memiliki ideologi yang sangat berbeda dengannya. Hasil dari proses pemahaman antara ideologi individu dan ideologi yang dominan dapat dilihat dari pergeseran ideologi kapitalisme menjadi humanisme. xiii

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Literature is the expression of idea which is implemented through novel, play script, movie script, prose, and poems. It reflects the condition of the society and its life. In English Literature: An Introduction for Foreign Readers, R.J. Rees states that, “Literature is permanent expression in words of some thoughts or feelings in ideas about life and the world” (Rees, 1973: 157). Therefore, literature is a form of human’s knowledge which is the result of a reflection and an observation from the environment. Meanwhile, the environment can be a particular society, history, or human itself. Recently, several themes about society and history can be found many in literary works. Some of them aim to show how the culture and society are formed. It is based on the history behind. One of the themes which draws attention on history and its society is a theme about Nazi. Some of them concern the political beliefs behind and the rest put attention on the racism issue during that era. Talking about Nazi and the system, the reader is brought to the era when the state dominates the society by using its ideology. The attack of Nazi Germany to Poland in 1939 was one of the examples of historical moment which presented the ideological function of the state towards the society. Nazism with its fascist ideology ruled the system in Europe. There was separation between two large groups during the era of Nazi. The first group was German who claimed themselves as the purest and the highest race; the 1

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 second was the Jews. Adolf Hitler who led Germany to the ideology of Nazism, which was based on his Nationalism, presented his ideology through the system in Europe. Nazism as the ideology of the Nazi Party emphasizes that “Aryanism” was more important than the others. The doctrine believed in the superiority of Aryan race. It aims to increase power and gains the Aryan’s supremacy to become a ‘master race’. This idea came from Hitler’s obsession as a Nationalist to reunite Germany and it was based on his hatred of the Jews. The reason behind was because the Jews almost get involved in every single organization and system in the entire world. He questioned about this thing since German becomes the minority among the Jews. Then, it came up to the idea that German should reunite again to occupy the system. B.J. Elliot says that: We can find many reasons to explain why Adolf Hitler came to hate Jews. They are an international race, while Hitler was a fervent Nationalist (Elliot, 1968:14). His Nationalism makes him believe that German is a super-man, the purest and the highest race among others. They believe that they are the only race who can rule the world. However, the Jews become the only obstacle to defeat since they are dominant in every single world. Therefore, Adolf Hitler with his ideology of Nationalism led Nazi and announced the rules to destroy the Jews. The regulation which was made by Nazi was intensely racist. It concerned the Jews in Germany as their object of experiments in terms of medicine and laboring. In this case, Nazism and fascism are both applied through the system. In Today’s Isms written by Ebbenstein, it is explained the description of fascism. He argues that, “Stripped to its essentials, fascism is the totalitarian organization of

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 government and society by a single-party dictatorship, intensely nationalist, racialist, militarist, and imperialist” (Ebbenstein, 1993: 79). It can be concluded that Nazism brings the idea of fascism to conquer the world. The implementation of Hitler’s obsession and ideology was presented through the ‘massive killing’ known as Holocaust he made. It is one of the facts how fascism is applied towards the system. This was also one of the main programs of the party in order to destroy the Jews. The party also added regulation for the Jews such as the implementation of deskilling the Jews, restriction to the Jews’ ritual tradition, and even the withdrawal of the Jews’ fundamental rights. The Jews should leave their house, inheritance and also their job. They should live in the concentration camps which were built by the Nazi Army before they were sent to the gas chamber. It was chosen because massive killing is the effective way to destroy the race. Through these facts, fascism gives bad impacts to the Jews’ right to live. One of the examples how Nazi system works towards the Jews is the fact that all Jews should work for Nazi. All of them were deskilled and the job was organized by Nazi. Meanwhile, the Jews’ occupation in the public office was withdrawn. They were not allowed to hold any jobs privately. During this era, the Jews experienced the era of poverty and they had to struggle hardly to survive. Again, the regulation took aside the fundamental rights of the Jews. They were not allowed to get proper foods, clothing, and place to stay. This then influences both of their psychological and physical conditions. All of them were haunted by the massive fear and illness. Another fact that shows how the system works toward the Jews is in the Jews’ citizenship. The Jews were denied in Germany; they were

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 not allowed to get in a public access such as using transportation, to read news paper, and to have any communication with the outside world. The state with this kind of system became the jail for the Jews as almost half of them died in this condition. In the end, for those who were still alive were sent to the gas chamber to face their death. Almost 6.000 Jews died because of this ‘massive killing’. According to the system, the Second World War costed more money, destroyed many places and killed people. However, Hitler and his party had been succeeding to conquer the world by his dictatorship for almost 12 years (Elliot, 1968: 14). After Hitler as a dictator fell, the life of Nazi and its system were published in many versions. One of the authors who write about Nazism is Thomas Keneally. He was born in Sydney and enters St. Patrick Seminary to be trained as a Catholic priest. However, after he finished his study he did not continue his journey to priesthood. Instead, he worked as a schoolteacher before his success in writing novels. He also writes novels, memoirs, and screenplay that make him a Nobel Prize winner. Schindler’s List is one of his well known literary works. It is the work of literature which presents a topic about Nazism. The book was first published entitled Schindler’s Ark and was adapted into screenplay by Steven Zailian. Both Schindler’s List and Schindler’s Ark gain success and they were adapted into a movie entitled Schindler’s List. It is about Oskar Schindler who becomes a righteous man and savior for the Jews (Keneally, 1994: 14). In the story, Thomas Keneally presents the story of Nazism by revealing the character of Oskar Schindler who resists the system. Thomas Keneally writes the novel as a way to

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 express his idea about Nazi: how he sees the condition of society in the regime of Nazism. It is shown in the story that Oskar is a Sudeten German, a Czech who comes from the German speaking area in Czech Republic, and a member of Nazi Party. He works in the party to supply things such as weapon for the war. Since he is a German industrialist and capitalist, he joins in the party to make profits. He is successful in building and redeveloping a bankrupt factory and even he gains more profit from it. It can be seen that his desire in running his business is very passionate. He tries to expand his relation through the party to take advantage of them just for his own business. It can be considered that Oskar Schindler practices capitalism by doing his business among the party. After he succeeds in building his factory, he faces a different reality. He realizes that the reality does not seem the same like he thinks before. It begins when Oskar meets his Jewish accountant Itzhak Stern, and how Oskar reacts to a phenomenon when the Jews are slaughtered before his eyes. He refuses the reality and cannot give any tolerance towards the system. The condition then affects the raises of his humanist side. This is the beginning of his action in saving the Jews. In this case, the dominant ideology of Oskar Schindler gives power to struggle for the society. The raise of Oskar’s humanism is shown when it opposes the government’s system and ideology. The definition of humanism concerns with the value of human being. The freedom of an individual can be seen from the freedom in racial discrimination and any oppression from the others. Corliss Lamont in The Philosophy of Humanism defines humanism as follows:

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 …Humanism believes in the complete social implementation of reason and scientific method; and thereby in the use of democratic procedures, including full freedom of expression and civil liberties, throughout all areas of economic, political and cultural life (Lamont, 1957: 11). The term humanism concerns in the full freedom and liberties. Freedom is manifested through the field of economic, politic, and cultural life. It can be seen that individual’s freedom is caused by the strict role of custom, law, and authority. In relation to human emancipation, the civilization which concerns in tribe, clan, and also race creates no freedom to express the people to be an independent person. Therefore, humanism is very contradictive with the term authority which bounds individual to the system. Oskar’s passion in gaining more profit for himself then turns into taking risks of his life for his workers. It is seen that the ideology becomes the essential part before he does an action. It can be seen from his humanism which opposes the idea of Nazism. He sees that there is no room for the Jews to get their freedom since their fundamental rights are taken by the system. This perspective is based on Oskar’s experience of seeing death which raises his humanism to defeat the system. It is presented by his action and attitude toward the system. He continues to struggle for his workers by gaining more profit from the factory. The relationship he has with the other members is used to help him in saving the Jews. Recruiting the Jews to work in his factory is the only way to save them. This action becomes the point of his resistance to the system. The reason for choosing this topic is because this novel is different from the other novel which has topic about Nazism. It contains the opposing ideology

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 of the main character as the member of the Nazi and its party. The main character’s ideology is defined as humanism which opposes his previous ideology: capitalism. The shifting ideology then influences his decision to save the Jews instead of employing them as workers. It is clearly seen from the function of factories which first becomes his source of profits into a place to protect the Jews from the holocaust. The ideology can be seen from the action and attitude that are presented toward the milieu in the party and also the Jews. It continues to the resistance as the implementation of his opposing ideology. In sum, the novel implicitly contains a story of a state hegemonic system which fails to be inculcated in an individual ideology. Hence, this novel is worth analyzing. B. Problem Formulation In this research, to focus on the topic and to understand it better, the writer formulates the topic in the following questions: 1. How is the main character, Oskar Schindler, depicted? 2. How is the shifting of character’s ideology presented? 3. How does the character’s new ideology show the resistance toward Nazism? C. Objective of the Study There are three objectives in conducting the study as it is formulated in the problem formulation. The first aim is to analyze the character and to see how the character is presented in the novel. The study gives deeper understanding on the character and characterization in the novel.

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 Secondly, the study is to identify the shifting of character’s ideology which is reflected through the main character. This study aims to explore the main character’s capitalistic ideology to humanistic ideology through the action, attitude and speech. Thirdly, the study is to see the main character’s ideology which resists Nazism. This study aims to see the resistance from the character’s attitude and action as the manifestation of his ideology. D. Definition of Terms To avoid misunderstanding in this research and to focus the study in this topic, the terms that are closely related with this topic will be explained. The writer uses another book to guide in finding the meaning of some terms. 1. Nazism According to Nault in The World Book of Encyclopedia (Nault, 2011: 382) Nazism was the political and social doctrine of the German dictator Adolf Hitler and his followers. Hitler and Nazis rule Germany from 1933 to 1945. Nazi stands for the German name for the National Socialist German Worker’s Party. 2. Ideology Michael Ryan in The Encyclopedia of Literary and Cultural Theory, states that, Ideology is a doctrine that is overly prescriptive and not supported by rational argumentation (Ryan, 2009: 639). Based on Ryan’s explanation, ideology cannot be defined by rational argumentation. It means that ideology is an abstract thing which occurs in every individual.

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 3. Resistance Webster’s New World Dictionary gives an explanation about the general meaning of resistance. It is stated below: Resistance means to stand against, or withstand, to oppose, to fend off, and to withstand the action of. The other meaning is to oppose actively, to fight, to argue, or work against, to endeavor, to counteract, and to be disagreeable. Resistance means a resisting, an opposing, and opposition of some force to others (1984: 1541). Resistance is a form of withstanding towards other forces and doing action to stop it. It happens when there is oppression between groups of people. One of the examples is racism. There are two different groups which have different ideologies and make particular oppression to one another. The inferior groups will be oppressed by the superior. According to Marvin Haris and Orna Johnson in Cultural Anthropology: Seventh Edition, racism refers to “the belief that the cultural and intellectual characteristics of population are linked to its biological racial character, with the notion that some races are inherently superior to others (Johnson, 2007: 216).” It can be said that the quality of people is defined by their races. This phenomenon causes the superior and inferior race and creates the unfair treatments to the inferior race. Then, resistance is begun from the inferior race which aims to stop the force from the superior.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW This chapter consists of some theories, reviews, and review of other study which are considered to be related to this study. There are three parts that will explain further. The first part is the review of related studies containing the previous study related to this study. The second part is the review of related theories to be applied in this study. The last part is theoretical framework which will explain further about the function of the studies and how the theory is applied in this study. A. Review of Related Studies Thomas Keneally is an Australian author and playwright. He has written many books and play scripts. Keneally’s best novel is Schindler’s List published in 1994. This novel wins a Booker Prize in Britain and it is adapted into movie directed by Steven Spielberg and scripted by Steven Zailian. Schindler’s List movie wins The Academy Best Picture and Best Director in Golden Globe Award. Peter Quatermaine who writes his essay in Sue Vice’s book entitled Holocaust Fiction says: The story of Oskar and his ark (whether we see the latter as analogous to that of Noah or of the Jewish Covenant) is a story unique in its scale and daring, and able to stand as an emblem for the inherent divinity and corruption of humanity itself (Vice, 2000: 94). 10

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 His essay explains that Schindler’s List is a unique and daring story. It is interesting because it enacts the struggle between human kindness and corruption of humanity in the story. On the other hand, James Raid, the student from Cambridge University, writes an article The Endangered Species Act is Analogous to Schindler’s List: Looking at the public reaction to it, one might say that Schindler’s List is undoubtedly the most successful novel about the Holocaust. The book’s success in the U.S. and other Western countries can be traced back mainly to the fact that it creates the impression of telling a true apparently authentic story (Raid, 2012). Different from Peter Quatermanine, Raid puts an attention on how the novel can have massive public’s reactions. As holocaust in Germany always becomes a controversial theme, Schindler’s List is stated by Raid as the most successful novel about holocaust. According to Raid, it is because the novel creates impression that Schindler’s List is an authentic story. Another essay about Schindler’s List comes from Brian L.Ott and Carl R. Burgchardt on their essay entitled On Critical Rhetorical Pedagogy: Dialoging with Schindler’s List. Their essay analyzes Schindler’s List movie which is quite different from the novel. The action in Schindler’s List is structured around two primary characters: the pro-tagonist and reluctant hero (Liam Neeson) and the antagonist and Nazi commandant Amon Goeth (Ralph Fiennes). The general narrative slant valorizes Schindler’s perspective, while vilifying Goeth’s, reducing the moral action of the film to a simple good vs evil dichotomy (Burgchardt, 2013). They state that Schindler’s List contains moral action which is presented through both the protagonist and the antagonist. However, the film translates it into a

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 simple story which presents good versus evil that are seen between the protagonist and the antagonist. Considering the reviews above, there are several points of view which can support this thesis. The first review from Peter Quatermaine concludes that Schindler’s List is one of literary works which is unique and daring. It is seen from the story which can stand for the struggle of contradictive things between human kindness and corruption of humanity. In relation to the writer’s research Quatermaine’s review gives a picture of the novel that it is a qualified novel seen from the uniqueness of the story. The second and the last reviews have different perspectives in seeing the novel. From James Raid, it can be concluded that the novel is well known because the story tells as if it is an authentic story. For Raid, the novel is successful in giving impression of the authentic story to the reader. The last critic analyzes that Schindler’s List tells that the moral action which is presented through the antagonist and protagonist, is simplified into the story about good and evil. In this research, the writer analyzes deeply on how Oskar’s ideology goes. The critique from Brian L. Ott describes that Schindler’s List exposes the good versus evil’s dichotomy presented through the antagonist and the protagonist. Using this review, the writer analyzes the main protagonist character, Oskar Schindler and his ideology. The analysis of Oskar’s ideology does not merely stop in the surface of being good, but also how Oskar embraces his ideology of capitalism and Nazism as the society’s ideology, into a struggle and final action to save the Jews.

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 1. Review on Related Theories This subchapter consists of some theories that will be applied to develop the analysis. 1. 1. Theory on Character and Characterization Abrams in Glossary of Literary Terms defines a character as the person presented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they are saying and what they do- their action (Abrams, 2009: 42). Richard M. Eastman explains in A Guide to the Novel that character can be described under two terms; flatness and roundness. The flat character can be considered as a type rather than individual. A flat character usually typifies a social or economic class, a virtue or folly, a basic temperament or outlook. He does not face any inner conflict that is why the flat character is not likely change, he is static: and his responses are predictable. A novelist usually uses flat characteristic to make the readers instantly recognize the minor character (Eastman, 1965: 17). While the round (complex) character is an individual trait; his responses are unpredictable; and also dynamic, capable of different kind of behavior under different strains (Eastman, 1965: 18). Thus, the round character is more complex than the flat character.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 1.2. Theory of Ideology Some theorists have explained about the concept of ideology; examine how the ideology works in every subject. The theorists have also proved that ideology relates to the political issue and power that dominates particular class and society. In the book entitled Literary Theory: The Basics, Bertens explains about the description and the concept of ideology. The description is characteristically seen by Marxist and it is explained as follows: For Marxist usage, ideology is not so much a set of beliefs or assumptions that we are aware of, but it is that which makes us experience our life in a certain way and makes us believe that that way of seeing ourselves and the world is natural (Bertens, 2001: 84). Bertens describes ideology as the way of human’s thinking and seeing about the world. It is about conception, assumption or particular belief which sometimes we are not aware of. Unconsciously, the action, speech and way of thinking of people indicate their ideology. Ideology comes from the experience of life which influences human’s perspective in seeing something. In this case, society takes an essential part of forming a person’s ideology. Another theorist who states about the concept of ideology is Antonio Gramsci. Ideology has function in more sociological action which involves masses and the state. He describes ideology as the first stage before it comes to hegemony. As Bertens’ quoted, Gramsci states the meaning of ideology as follows: Gramsci, writing in the 1930’s, is fully aware of the power of ideology, which leads to ‘[t]he “spontaneous” consent given by great masses of the

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 population to the general direction imposed on social life by the dominant fundamental group’ (Bertens, 2001: 88). In the explanation above, Gramsci states that ideology gives power towards an action in the social life. The dominant ideology, which is usually owned by state, is inculcated to the society’s mind. However, the society does not aware of it yet actually they are directed into it unconsciously. It can be considered that the state inculcates the ideology to the society. Here, ideology is the first phase before it comes into hegemony. The hegemonic action is usually done by the dominant ideology. This research employs theory of ideology quoted by Bertens. The theory is used to analyze the shifting ideology in the main character. Gramsci’s theory of ideology is employed to analyze the historical condition in the era of Nazi as the state’s ideology has power to control the masses. 1.3. Theory of Subject and Agent As an individual, a person can be constructed in the term of subject and agent. The English Studies Book written by Rob Pope, explains about the subject and agent as the relation between human and society. He says that, “Subjects are perhaps thereby cast in the role of victims, those who are ‘done to’ rather than those ‘who themselves do’” (Pope, 2002: 242). It means that subject is the passive term. It does not give any action to the others, but usually the others do an action to it. On the other hand, the active term of a person is constructed as agent. Rob Pope says that, “…it implies a degree of activity and independence, even if the agent is partly acting on behalf of someone or something else” (Pope, 2002: 242).

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 It means that agent is a form of activity which implies some actions as the effort for independence and struggle. By considering this, every individual can be both a subject and an agent at the same time. 1.4. Theory of Reification Reification emerges in the practice of laboring system especially in the industrial era. It discredits the value of human being into a machine in order to fulfill the economic productions. Peter Barry defines reification in Beginning Theory: …it concerns the way, when capitalist goals and questions of profit and loss are paramount, workers are bereft of their full humanity and are thought of as ‘hands’ or ‘the labor force’, so that, for instance the effects of industrial closures are calculated in purely economic terms (Barry, 2009: 151). Reification reduces the value of humanity. It is because in the reification, the workers are forced to work within the purpose of economic productions. This is the fact which shows that dehumanization is one of the results of reification. 1.5. Theory of Resistance The opposing of individual’s ideology towards the others causes resistance. It is considered as a movement from the ruling system. The term resistance is defined as the ‘structure of feeling’ as it is explained by Raymond Williams. Besides, resistance can also be defined in two ways. The first one is individual resistance and the other one is collective resistance.

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 Raymond Williams sees that the resistance is a form of power towards the dominant ideology. Peter Barry explains further as follows: Instead of Foucault’s notion of ‘discourse’ Williams invented the term ‘structures of feeling’: these are concerned with ‘meaning and values as they are lived and felt.’ Structures of feeling are often antagonistic both to explicit systems of values and beliefs and to the dominant ideology within society (Barry, 2009: 177). Williams believes that structure of feeling which concerns with ‘meaning and values’ creates the resistance towards the dominant ideology. It happens when dominant ideology does not fit in ‘meaning and values’ of each individuals. It means that the resistance towards the dominant ideology is possible unlike the Foucault’s notion of ‘discourse’. Jefferson Mack in Invisible Resistance to Tyranny, How to Lead a Secret Life of Insurgency in an Increasingly Unfree World, explains about individual resistance. He states that: When individual acting without direction or guidance from any leader, -to resist, obstruct, frustrate, expose, and interfere. Individual involved in resistance act alone or in cooperation with few trusted friends or others who also face the same risks (Mack, 2006: 163). This explanation shows that resistance is the action without direction of single or few people to refuse against the particular system. This happens when the people’s action deviates from the regulation. It can be seen through the risk which is carried by a person or few people when they fight against the system. The second one is collective resistance which is explained by Kristina E. Thalhammer in Resistance, The Power of Ordinary People. She argues that: Resistance is not solely the province of individuals. Collective resistance occurs when people chooses to challenge injustice together. The nature of

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 collective resistance requires significant interaction with a large and potentially expanding group of activists (Thalhammer, 2007: 104). Collective resistance can be seen through organization or particular group of people which has the same ideology, vision and mission. Usually, they are activists or leftist which against towards particular system. 2. Review on Historical Background This subchapter consists of two terms which are related to the historical background of this research. It aims to give reviews about the history which happens in the novel. 2.1. Holocaust In the era of World War II and when the Nazi regime occupied several areas in Europe, Holocaust became the ‘final solution’ to destroy human race. Based on racism, holocaust raised not only in Europe but also in several countries in the United States. This type of genocide destroyed almost 6.000 Jews in Europe especially in Poland and Germany. According to Holocaust Encyclopedia, it is defined that holocaust is a system which is created by Nazi. It is explained that: The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community (2013). It is described that holocaust is the system which is planned by the state when Nazi occupied Poland and Germany. The system of destroying the Jews is based on their claim that German was superior while the Jews was inferior.

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 The aim of using this system was to keep German, as the superior, became the purest and the highest race. 2.2. Nazism Nazism is the political ideology which is created by Nazi. This ideology is created according to Hitler’s Nationalism. On its practice, Nazism presents fascism to lead the state. According to Ayn Rand, a female writer who writes her article entitled The Fascist New Frontier explains about Nazism. She says that: If the term “statism” designates concentration of power in the state at the expense of individual liberty, then Nazism in politics was a form of statism. In principle, it did not represent a new approach to government; it was a continuation of the political absolutism—the absolute monarchies, the oligarchies, the theocracies, the random tyrannies—which has characterized most of human history (Rand: 2013). It is stated that Nazism is a form of statism. According to her, Nazism is a political system which takes human liberty. This system is the continuation of the absolutism system in the state. 2.3. The Relation between Marxism and Literature In the early history, Marxism did not begin as a literary approach. Marxism concerns with the historical movement and view on history as it aims to make the working classes society changes the world (Bressler, 1998: 211). It is based on the era of capitalism which creates the class division in the society where economic production belongs to private ownership. As the consequence, this kind of system differentiates people’s function in the economic system. Eventually, the desires and expectations of the various social classes will clash (Bressler, 1998: 212). Furthermore, the clash or such a class conflict leads to a radical change in

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 the economic base of society from a feudal system of power based on inherited wealth and status to a capitalist system based on the ownership of private property (Bressler, 1998: 212). The early Marxist critic concerns with the economic as the basis idea of Marxism. It can be seen from the term ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ as Marxist’s model of society. The ‘base’ consists of the material means of productions, distribution, and exchange while the ‘superstructure’ consists of ‘cultural’ world of ideas, art, religion, law, and so on (Barry, 2009: 151). The ‘superstructure’ is always determined by the ‘base’. Therefore, according to this traditional Marxist idea, economic determines every aspect in the society especially the social class. In relation to history, traditional Marxist criticism tends to deal with history in a fairly generalized way. It talks about conflicts between social classes, and clashes of large historical forces, but contrary to popular belief, it rarely discusses the detail of a specific historical situation and relates it closely to the interpretation of particular literary text (Barry, 2009: 152). As the time goes by, the model of society which is divided into ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ gradually shifts in its meaning. Louis Althusser, a French Marxist, simplifies the ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ idea by relating it into culture and literature. It is quite different with the idea carried by the traditional Marxist which examines economic as the basis to determine the ‘superstructure’. His concept in overdeterminism, a word borrowed from Freud, presents an effect which arises from a variety causes, not only from a single cause (in this case, economic) (Barry, 1998: 155). This idea is more flexible than the traditional

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 Marxist; which is very strict to the economic as the fundamental cause in the society. Althusser believes that although there is a relation between culture and economic, art has its particular independence from economic’s power (Barry, 1998: 155). This concept is the way to simplify the idea of ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’ which are wholly determined by the fundamental characteristic of the ‘base’. Ideology is the key concept to simply define literature and culture and its relation to society. It is the system which develops the ‘superstructure’. Althusser emphasizes that the power of ideology has an important role rather than material things. Here, Althusser defines that literature is shown to be of crucial importance in its own right, not just a helpless and passive reflector of the economic base where the real business of society goes on (Barry, 1998: 156). By this, Althusser moves from the idea of Marxist’s raw model of society where the ‘base’ defines the ‘superstructure’. C. Theoretical Framework This thesis examines the resistance toward Nazism presented through the character’s shifting ideology in Schindler’s List. The resistance can be identified by presenting the shifting of Oskar’s ideology which is later followed by his action and attitude as the manifestation of his new ideology. To elaborate study on this topic, the writer uses a novel by Thomas Keneally, Schindler’s List, as the object of the study. The writer has formulated three questions in the problem formulation in order to focus the study. The first question examines how the main character’s characteristic is described in the

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 novel. The second question analyzes how the shifting of character’s ideology presented. The last question reveals how the character’s new ideology shows the resistance toward Nazism. There are theories that help in answering questions given in the problem formulation. To answer the first problem formulation, the writer uses theory of character and characterization. By using these theories, how the main character in Thomas Kenally, Schindler’s List, can be understood. The character and characterization can be seen from the personal description, character seen by others, speech, dialogues, thoughts, and reactions. Theory of ideology is used to help in answering the second question about how the shifting of main character’s ideology from capitalistic to humanistic ideology presented. Theory of subject and agent are applied to examine the position of Oskar Schindler as an individual which can be seen from his passivity, ideology, and activity to resist the system as the implementation of the ideology. These aim to help in answering the third question, how the main character’s new ideology of humanism shows his resistance toward Nazism through the attitude and action as it is presented in the novel.

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study Schindler’s List is a Booker Prize winning novel published in 1982 by Serpentine Publisher and it is written by an Australian author, Thomas Keneally. The novel recreates a true story about Oskar Schindler, an Aryan who risks his life to protect the Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland, who continually defined and outwitted the SS (Nazi Army), and who is transformed by the war into an angel of mercy. Later in 1993, Schindler’s List, was adapted into film with the same title, Schindler’s List, and directed by Steven Spielberg. Both the movie and the novel get many winning prizes and become the best novel and film. The novel wins the Winner of Los Angeles Times Book Award for Fiction while the film wins a Golden Globe Award the Study. The edition used in this thesis is published by Serpentine Publisher. B. Approach of the Study In the context of literature, Marxist approach deals with social relation and ideological function (Delahoyde, 2011). It occurs how the social class struggles with their ideology to oppose the dominant ideology which is usually inculcated by the state. In the beginning, Marxist concerns in economic terms; that social class is created by the properties ownership in the society. Here, Marxism aims to bring a classless society based on the common ownership of the means of productions, distribution and exchange (Barry, 2009: 150). However as the time goes by, there is 23

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 continuous evaluation towards this approach and it is defined that economic in the means of production is not the only basis to see the social condition. In relation to literature, Marxist approach concerns in two models of society which are ‘base’ and ‘superstructure’. The ‘base’ consists of the material means of production, distribution and exchange. While superstructure consists of cultural world of ideas, art, literature, politics, law and so on (Barry, 2009: 151). The superstructure according to Marxism is a form of ‘social consciousness’ which aims to legitimate the power of ruling class in the society. It is quoted by Terry Eagleton in Marxism and Literary Criticism as follows: also consists of certain ‘definite forms of social consciousness’ (political, religious, ethical, aesthetic and so on), which is what Marxism designates as ideology. The function of ideology, also, is to legitimate the power of the ruling class in the society; in the last analysis, the dominant ideas of a society are the ideas of its ruling class (Eagleton, 2003: 5). As Eagleton argues, the superstructure contains the ideology which is defined as the ‘social consciousness’. The function of ideology is to legitimate power to the ruling class. Later, the dominant ideology takes control the ideology of the ruling class and becomes the ideology of the ruling class. The aim of Marxist approach is explained further by Terry Eagleton. In addition to bring the classless society which is based on economic term, Eagleton also defines that Marxist approach deals with human societies and the practice of releasing themselves from any oppression. Here, Eagleton says that: Marxism is a scientific theory of human societies and of the practice of transforming them; and what that means, rather more concretely, is that the narrative Marxism has to deliver is the story of struggles of men and women

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 to free themselves from certain forms of exploitation and oppression (Eagleton, 2003: xii). Eagleton says that Marxism is used to see the condition of the society and how the society can have their freedom from any oppression. In relation to the previous Eagleton’s explanation, the dominant ideology which controls the ruling class can be one of the forms of oppression towards the ruling class. Here, Marxism is used to theorize how the society can have their freedom from any oppression which is usually done by the dominant ideology. Eagleton also explains further about the relation between Marxism and literature: Marxist criticism is part of the larger body of theoretical analysis which aims to understand ideologies- the ideas, values and feelings by which men experience their societies at various times. And certain of those ideas, values and feelings are available to us only in literature (Eagleton, 2003: xiii). According to Eagleton’s explanation, Marxism aims to understand ideologies which consist of ideas, values and feelings. These parts of ideologies occur in human’s life and are experienced by them in their societies. In this case, literature, which is defined as ‘superstructure’, is one of the media which exposes those ideas. Another critic is Michael Delahoyde, a professor of English Literature, who writes his essay about Marxist Criticism. He agrees that Marxism also has a relation to reveal the literary works. The narration below explains his statement: According to Marxists, and to other scholars in fact, literature reflects those social institutions out of which it emerges and is itself a social institution with a particular ideological function. Literature reflects class struggle and materialism: think how often the quest for wealth traditionally defines characters (Delahoyde: 2011).

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 In the narration above, literature is seen as the reflection of social institutions which has particular ideological function. Here, Delahoyde argues that literature which reflects the class struggle critically thinks how the character is defined through the quest of the wealth in the society. According to the critiques above, it can be concluded that Marxist approach deals with human societies, structure of society, and also the struggle of society to bring their freedom. It can be seen through the superstructure as the form of ‘social consciousness’ which reflects the condition of society. Literature is also one of the parts of this ‘social consciousness’ which exposes the reflection of society’s condition. One of the examples is ideology as the form of human societies. As ideology is defined as ‘superstructure’, Marxist approach explains that dominant ideology becomes the ideology of the ruling society. It brings no freedom for those who are under the dominant ideology. The oppression emerges towards the proletariat and it gives impact in the form of the society’s struggle to resist the dominant ideology. Here, it can be seen that Marxist approach aims to bring the freedom from any exploitation and oppression which is done by the dominant ideology. Marxist approach is chosen to analyze this research because it deals with the society, struggle and resistance. This research analyzes the ideology of the main character which brings him to the struggle to resist Nazism. According to the topic and its scope, Marxist approach is appropriate because it deals with human societies and the struggle of individuals to bring the freedom from any oppression. In relation

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 to the topic, Marxist approach explains further about the resistance as the form of individual’s struggle towards the dominant ideology, which is the manifestation of Nazi’s oppression in each individual during the Nazi regime. C. Method of the Study The method used in this thesis is a study of library research based. It means all sources and activities of study use qualitative method to analyze the text. The primary source is Schindler’s List written by Thomas Keneally, published in 1982 by Serpentine Publisher. The secondary sources are used in supporting the analysis. The first is Literary Theory: The Basics written by Hans Bertens. This book helps the writer understands the definition of ideology according to Gramsci. Marxism and Literary Criticism written by Terry Eagleton also supports this research analysis by defining further about ideology and its relation with literature and Marxism. The second book is The English Studies Book which is written by Rob Pope. This book gives deeper understanding in the theory of subject and agent. The third is a book from Peter Barry entitled Beginning Theory which helps the writer to define the term reification. The other book is Hitler and Germany by B.J. Elliot which gives further description and definition about Nazism and Holocaust as the historical background. The other source is an essay from Michael Delahoyde, a professor of English Literature Department who writes about Marxist Criticism. His essay helps the writer to understand Marxism in the context of literature.

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 There were several steps in analyzing the novel. The first step was reading and rereading the novel in order to understand the novel. After doing a close reading method in the primary source, the writer determined the topic and wrote problem formulations to limit the scope of the study. The second step was deciding the approach to analyze the topic. The third step was searching data related to Schindler’s List in order to make criticism through the related studies. The fourth step was quoting some theories and approach in order to limit the scope on this study. The last step was making a conclusion after giving analysis.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This part of the research provides the analysis based on the three problem formulation which is mentioned previously in chapter I. There are three subchapters. The first subchapter explains the depiction of the main character’s characteristics. The second subchapter explains the shifting of main character’s ideology which can be seen through his action, speech and attitude toward the milieu and the system. The last sub chapter reveals the resistance toward the system which can be seen through the main character’s new ideology and it is implemented through the decision he made in the end of the story. Since this research discusses the resistance toward the system presented through the main character’s ideology, the analysis focuses on the main character. The main character included the dynamic activities in the system and the groups he belongs to. There are two significant groups which are classified in the novel: The Nazi Party and the Jews who work in Oskar’s factory. These groups have significant role through the main character’s action and attitude. A. The Depiction of Oskar Schindler’s Characteristics Oskar Schindler is the main character in the story. In the early part of the story he is described as a man who enjoys life with women and luxurious things. He comes to Poland and starts his new business by building his own factory. Before he comes to Poland, he lives in Sudetenland and runs his father’s factory. Unfortunately, the 29

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 factory goes bankrupt and it comes to a decision for Oskar to move to another place to build his own factory. When Oskar moves to Poland, all parts of the cities is occupied by Nazi. The economic crisis happens in the country. This condition makes many capitalists come to the country and seek profits for their business. That is what Oskar does when he comes to Poland. He joins Nazi party to realize his dream to build the factory. In the party, Oskar as a war profiteer helps the party providing any weapons and munitions. Fortunately, Oskar gets many relations through the party and he starts running his own enamel factory then. He recruits the Jews to become his workers. During his life in Poland when he starts running his factory, Oskar sees how the system treats people in the country, especially the Jews. The system which is created by the party he belongs to, Nazi, makes Oskar considers that there is something wrong in the system he follows. Until one day, he sees SS Army slaughters almost all Jewish family in the Jewish Camp. It makes him realizes that he must defeat the system by himself. The analysis on Oskar’s characteristics in this part aims to explain more about the character which gradually changes in the story. In relation to Marxism, the analysis on Oskar’s characteristic is categorized into two parts. The first part is Oskar Schindler as an upper-middle class man, and the second part is Oskar Schindler as a member of Nazi Party.

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 1. Oskar Schindler as an Upper-Middle Class Man Oskar Schindler is known as a factory owner who gains profit from it. According to Marxism, Oskar is categorized as bourgeois because he practices the private ownership. His characteristics can be seen as follows. a. Glamorous In the beginning, Oskar is described as a glamorous man. The term glamorous here is described through Oskar’s appearances, lifestyle and also his social class. Oskar’s life style is considered as an upper class taste. The description below describes that Oskar is considered as an upper class seen from the appearances: In Poland deepest autumn, a tall young man in an expensive overcoat, doublebreasted dinner jacket beneath it and-in the lapel of the dinner jacket – a large ornamental gold-on-black enamel swastika, emerged from a fashionable apartment block in Straszewskiego Street (Keneally, 1994: 15). The description in the quotation describes when Oskar attends meeting with his colleagues. Mostly, the members are upper classes and they work for Nazi Party. The enamel swastika shows that he is the essential member in the party. One of the activities in the meeting always comes to a discussion about the weapon’s supply during the World War. The meeting is usually held in one of the best bars and in the end it is closed with celebration party for Nazi. There are a lot of wine and music. Usually, while having a chit-chat with other members, Oskar tries to promote his business and makes a good relation with others. All of the members are considered as capitalists and they own their factories. This condition is seen that not only Oskar who lives in glamorous lifestyle, but also the other members as well. They are the

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 group of bourgeois who live in a glamorous style. It explains the life of Oskar Schindler as a capitalist. The glamour of Oskar cannot be separated from luxurious things. His hobby in driving limousine and smoking good cigars, presents his high taste of living. Followed by his success in running his enamel factory, he owns the expensive limousine which is not owned generally by people. In the black leather interior of the Adler as it raced along the tram tracks in what was until recently the Jewish ghetto, Herr Schindler chain smoked, as ever (Keneally, 1994: 17). Adler limousine is very well known among the people especially for the rich one. This type of vehicle is made in Germany. What Oskar puts in his interior, which is Adler leather, shows that Oskar has a good taste and very attracted to luxurious thing. It can be seen not only from his vehicle, but also the small thing he has such as cigars. This is the other fact that shows his attractiveness to expensive things. When Oskar lives in Sudetenland, he comes from a family who is an owner of factory. His father is an engineer and the owner of the factory. Oskar’s family is known as a very rich family and has so many workers in the factory. Oskar’s glamorousness probably comes since he was young. Besides the attractiveness in luxurious things, the term glamorous in Oskar’s family can be seen from the educational background which is chosen by Oskar’s father to his sons. Oskar attends the best school in his hometown. This kind of school is the place where many capitalists and the master of science gather. The school he attends is a private school

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 and a place where many expensive vehicles and things can be seen everywhere. This narration below describes the school: Because of its community of German-speaking Sudetendeutschen it maintained a German Grammar School which Oskar attended. There he took the Realgymnasium Course, which was meant to produce engineers-mining, mechanical, civil- to suit the industrial landscape of the area. Herr Schindler himself owned a farm machinery plant, and Oskar’s education was a preparation for this inheritance (Keneally, 1994: 36). Realgymnasium Course is a school for upper and middle class who take an education which concerns in science. Oskar takes an education which concerns in science and technology. It aims to prepare Oskar for the family’s farm machinery plant since Oskar will be the only son who will continue to run it. From this educational background and the environment, it can be considered that Oskar is surrounded by glamorous people who influence his lifestyle. Seen from his father’s aim as well, Oskar is sent to this school so that in the future Oskar can continue his father’s company in automobile and becomes a businessman like his father. Another fact shows that Oskar is very attracted to luxurious thing. He has desire in automotive, especially motorbike. It is probably one of his reasons to take engineering in Realgymnasium Course. Actually, he is not only interested in automotive, but he also can get what he wants easily. When he was young, he owned an expensive and limited edition motorbike. The adolescent Oskar has a hobby of riding an expensive motorbike along Zwittau street: He was one of those boys for whom a motorbike is the most compelling model of the universe. In the last year of high school, Oskar was riding around

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 Zwittau in a red 500cc Italian Galloni. A school friend, Erwin Tragtasch, watched his unspeakable desire as the red Galloni farted its way down the streets of the town and arrested the attention of promenaders on the square. Like the Kantor boys it too was a prodigy, not only the sole Galloni in Zwittau, not only the only 500cc Galloni in Moravia, but probably a unique in the whole of Czechoslovakia (Keneally, 1994: 38). Oskar’s lifestyle which is basically considered as upper class’ life develops his characteristic as glamorous. It can be seen from his hobby, appearances and also his educational background when he was young. This characteristic does not gradually change until he becomes the part of Nazi Party. People recognize him as a man who was always surrounded by luxurious things. However, in the end Oskar glamorousness changes and he leaves it to save the Jews by spending his own money to recruit the Jews in his factory. b. Hedonistic After moving to Poland, Oskar enjoys a good life. It is seen from how he lives his life. He becomes a hedonistic man who loves spending money recklessly. Hedonistic is known as a person’s characteristic who has a way of life based on or suggesting the principles of hedonism. Hedonism itself means the belief that pleasure or happiness is the most important goal in life. Oskar’s factory becomes a very successful factory in town. It gives a very big impact in Oskar’s economic condition. He gets money easily and spends it easily, too. Oskar’s better economic condition can be seen through his daily life activities. Mostly he spends his life in bars and gets drunk. The description below shows Oskar as a hedonistic man:

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 It was a fast and, still, almost a painless year. Longer hours than Herr Oskar Schindler had ever worked, parties at the Cracovia, boozing sessions at the jazz club, visits to the gorgeous Klonowska’s apartment (Keneally, 1994: 114). Oskar’s economic condition rises very fast. Besides spending his money in the bars, Oskar also runs his business through black market. He buys such as jewelries, cigars and drinks through it. It aims to fulfill his needs in hedonism by getting those things cheaply. The normal price is more expensive than in the black market. By buying things in the black market, he can save more money and gets more than he can get in a legal market. It explains that Oskar enjoys doing transaction through black market: It is significant that there were so many cigarettes and so much drinks in the truck, a sign that Oskar, always keen on trade goods, intended now to make his living on the black market (Keneally, 1994: 339). Black market is a place where there are many things are sold with very affordable price. It can be an alternative way for businessman to do transactions of selling and buying with cheapest price. It is because they do not have to pay taxes for the things they buy. As a businessman, Oskar joins this illegal transaction for his own business. Sometimes he buys materials for his factory, and the others are for his own needs such as cognac, cigars and drinks. As Oskar’s economic condition rises, he continuously does this activity which can fulfill his needs to spend his money for pleasure. This is the fact that Oskar is a hedonistic man who loves spending money for his pleasure.

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 c. Rebellious The second characteristic of Oskar Schindler is rebellious. Rebellious here related to a form of refusing to obey rules or authority or to accept normal standards behavior, dress, etc. It also occurs when someone refuses the authority of government. After Oskar becomes the part of Nazi Party, he runs his business while doing his job description in the party. Business is his passion when he lives in Poland because he can get so many opportunities and profits for his own factory. Sometimes, Oskar tries to get more profit alternatively because the rule in the system forbids any under-the-counter trade. The government does not allow everyone to do illegal business. It is part of the rule in the party, too. However, Oskar does not follow the rule. He keeps doing the illegal business for his factory’s needs. It is shown in the narration below: Oskar was not interested in shells as in pots and pans. Pots and pans were easy engineering. You cut out and pressed the metal, dipped it in the tubs, fired it at the right temperature. You didn’t have to calibrate instruments; the work was nowhere near as exacting as it would be for arms. Also there was no underthe-counter trade in shell casings, and Oskar liked under-the-counter, liked the sport of it, the disrepute, the fast returns, the lack of paperwork (Keneally, 1994: 92). This narration presents when Oskar is asked by his fellow from the party to open an armaments division to manufacture anti tank shells. Actually, he does not like a job which has relation with making anti tank shells. He prefers to make pans and pots because the process is not complicated like making shells. Another reason is, he cannot make any illegal trading which can make him gets more profit for his business. Oskar’s hobby in black market trading makes him does not like the rule of

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 the government trading system because it makes boundaries during his factory trading process. Hence, he chooses to keep going with under-the-counter trade while controlling the new division of armaments. One day, his action is considered as breaking the rule and he is arrested because of this black market trading. His action is considered rebellious because he resists the rule in illegal trading and does the trading without any permission. Another situation also shows that Oskar is rebellious. Once when he celebrates his party, he invites his Jewish workers to attend his 34th birthday party. When one of the Polish and Jewish workers enters the room and brings a birthday cake for him, Oskar kisses her in front of his colleagues from the party: A cake was brought in from a pattiserie and he cut it up on Klonowska desk. Delegations of Jewish and Polish workers began to enter the office to congratulate him and he heartily kissed a girl called Kucharska, whose father had figured in the Polish Parliament before the war (Keneally, 1994: 121). His action in the party is considered rebellious by the German Provision of Immigration. The regulation says that German is not allowed to get in touch or have any relation with the Jews. Oskar’s action in the party breaks the regulation and according to the regulation it is considered as breaking the racial improprieties. As a consequence, the morning after, two Gestapo men come to his factory and arrest him: On the morning on April 29th, a Mercedes blocked the factory entrance and two Gestapo men, seeming somehow surer of their ground than the last two, met him crossing the factory yard. He was charged, they told him, with breaking provisions of the Race and Resettlement Act (Keneally, 1994: 121). He is indirectly against the regulation through his action which breaks the provisions. His action gives impact to him which after that he is arrested by Gestapo for the

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 second time. The previous arrest was when Oskar in the office and he was asked to show his factory’s balance sheet, but he could not show them. It was the reason why the Gestapo arrested him: So, this winter night, it is both early days and late days for Herr Schindler’s practical engagement in the salvage of certain human lives. He is in deep, he has broken Reich Laws to an extent that would earn him a multiplicity hangings, beheadings, consignments to the draughty huts of Auschwitz or Gross Rosen (Keneally, 1994: 33). The narration above describes his action against the trading system. It is because Oskar does an illegal trading method in his factory. However, he cannot show the factory report papers or balance sheet as the proof of his properties in his factory. In this case, he breaks the law in terms of the government trading system. Oskar prefers to do illegal trading system because he does not want to pay the taxes for the government. This is the reason why he is arrested by the Gestapo as the proof of his rebellious action and attitude. On the other hand, Oskar has also recognized that there are many strange provisions the system has been created. A lot of grotesque law he has to be dealt with and the law of the lower guts edicts from the black side of the brain (Keneally, 1994: 122). It describes that Oskar knows that the system gives a boundary to the human relation and human right. Therefore, this characteristic does not change in Oskar self and it becomes the root of his action in saving the Jews. d. Ambitious The next characteristic of Oskar is ambitious. The meaning of ambitious here is having a desire to achieve particular goals. Here, this characteristic gradually

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 changes from ambitious to reach his goal to the more social goal. The social goal means he uses his ambition and concerns to the other people, in this case to the Jews. In the beginning his ambition is for gaining profit for him by running the factory. Since Oskar comes to Poland, his passion in building new factory becomes bigger. His ambition to be a successful businessman comes true. Together with Itzhak Stern, his Jewish accountant, he builds his new building factory in the heart of Zwittau. The DEF (Deutsche Email Fabrik) soon becomes a well known factory among the people. The new building is located near the Jewish ghetto camp. Not so many building near Oskar’s, but there are some empty land left behind. An ambitious Oskar buys the land and builds his factory there. It aims to develop his authority in the field of business because he knows the area he has chosen is a very strategic area. It will make him easier to access the trading system since it is in the heart of Krakow and many capitalists always first comes to this area. His desire to expand his factory ensures that the area is his. By expanding his factory, he can produce more products and he can get more profit from it. The location also determines his possibility to get the profit. The narration below describes the situation in Oskar’s factory: At the back of Oskar’s works, Deutsche Email Fabrik, stood a vacant area on which two other plants abutted, a box factory and a radiator works. Schindler had been delighted to find that most of the waste area belonged, according to the surveyor, to DEF. Visions of economic expansion swam before him (Keneally, 1994: 70). Oskar’s desire to be wealthier than his father brings him into a success. It can be seen from his success in building his factory. On the other hand, it also symbolizes that his

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 goal has been reached. However, his ambition continues to a thought to make his factory bigger than before. It brings him to the decision that he should get the papers to makes his next goal. There are a lot of demands he has got to get the permission; he should improve both the products and productions, “Now with the authority of his lucrative Armaments Inspectorate contracts, Oskar was permitted to expand his plant (Keneally, 1994: 79)”. His ambition then brings him to reach his goal. He gets the permission from the government to build the bigger factory. Although it is quite difficult to get, he asks for a help to one of his colleagues in the party to make an alternative way to get it. His effort then can be seen from the permission paper he got. The only reason for it is when he has a bigger factory, he can put the more machineries to produce more products, so he can get more profits from it. Oskar knows that DEF becomes well-known and it makes him also becomes busy and thinks more about the factory tools to support his new expansion. He buys some new machineries which he gets from some places. These machineries are demanded by military and also he should serve some black markets which help him. His ambition is not just successful in running his factory, but also his will to be a magnate among others. As he arrives in Poland, many people start to recognize him because DEF becomes the biggest enamel factory in town. It can be considered that he is able to reach his goal. The narration below describes the part his ambition to be a businessman and a successful man in town and the effort to reach it:

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 He bought a new machinery, some locally, some from the homeland. Apart from the military demand, there was the all devouring black market to serve. Oskar knew now that he could be a magnate (Keneally, 1994: 79). It seems like his ambition makes Oskar gains so much success in running the factory. Actually, Oskar’s passion in business is inherited from his father. In the story, it is narrated that Oskar’s father, Herr Hans Schindler, was a successful businessman. He had a factory in Sudeten but as he grew old, he asked Oskar to manage and handle it. Unfortunately, it went bankrupt and soon after Oskar decided to move to Poland to seek for any opportunities. He wants to run his own factory without his father’s business. It is considered as Oskar’s ambition to be more successful than his father. As he runs his successful factory in Zwittau, Oskar starts planning to employ workers. Due to the demand on pots he has gotten, Oskar plans to employ 250 workers in his factory. The number of the workers increases more all the time. He reaches his success as he gets more orders from his relatives and colleagues. DEF becomes a very busy factory in town: By the mid- summer of 1940 he would be employing two hundred and fifty Poles and would be faced with instituting a nightshift. Herr Hans Schindler’s agricultural machinery plant in Zwittau had the best of times employed fifty. It is a sweet thing to outstrip a father whom you haven’t forgiven (Keneally, 1994: 79). The facts above are considered that Oskar ambition to be successful has been reached. Actually his ambition comes from his family condition in the past. The family conflict between his father, his mother and Oskar then makes Oskar decides to be away from his father. Oskar admits that his father is a strong and very careful man, in term of business, whom he should outstrip. This makes Oskar very ambitious in

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 business and he wants to be succeeding more than his father. The narration below describes about Oskar’s containment because he can be a magnate more than Hans Schindler: To be a prodigal and still be wealthier than your more careful father, that was one of the triumphs Schindler wanted from life. In boom times the cost of labor was beside the point (Keneally, 1994: 97). Oskar’s ambition to be successful in business more than his father makes his ambition occurs many times and continuous along his life. The ambitious characteristic of Oskar Schindler then gradually changes after he witnesses the action of SS Army in the Krakusa Street. Many Jews are slaughtered in the street. It changes his mind and ambition in business, then. At first, his ambition is for his own business but after that he turns into a man who dedicates himself to his Jewish workers. 2. Oskar Schindler as a member of Nazi Party In this part, Oskar Schindler characteristics as a German are compared with the common Germans characteristics in the era of Nazi. As a German and a member of Nazi, Oskar Schindler is different from the other members. Analysis in this part examines how Oskar Schindler is characteristically different from Nazi-Germans. His attitude tends to show that he is more flexible than the other members. a. Generous The next Oskar characteristic is generous. Generous is a characteristic where the ability to provide more than the amount that is needed. In this case it can be said that generous concerns more with other business. In the story, Oskar is recognized as

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 a generous man among people surrounds him. Sometimes he gives some gifts to his colleague or free goods to his friend. The conversation between Bosch and Oskar below shows that Oskar is a generous man: “My aunt in Bremen’s been bombed out, poor old dear.” Said Bosch. “Everything! The marriage bed. The sideboards, all her Meissen and crockery. I wondered could you spare some kitchenware for her. And perhaps a pot or two- those big tureen things turned out at DEF.” Herr Schindler said, “I think that can be managed. Do you want the goods consigned directly to her or through you?” Bosch did not even smile. “Through me Oskar. I’d like to enclose a little card.” “So it’s settled. We’ll say half a gross of everything- soup bowls, plates, coffee mugs. And half a dozen of those stew pots” (Keneally, 1994: 23). The conversation above shows that Oskar gives a help for his friend. His attitude indicates that he is a generous man by offering a help for his friend recklessly. He chooses to give some products from his factory to his friend. Another fact showing that Oskar is a generous man can be seen from his friends’ comment. His generosity is seen by the others as a disease. It is like a connotation for Oskar’s good side. This means that the generosity is a part of Oskar’s self which cannot be separated from his life. It is stated in the story the comment from Oskar’s friends: Some friends would in fact come to say that generosity was a disease in Oskar, a frantic thing, one of his passions. He would tip taxi drivers twice the fare on the meter (Keneally, 1994: 57). The description above indicates that Oskar is seen by the others as a good man. His good side in helping others is considered as generous. This characteristic brings him into a decision of saving the Jews.

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 b. Tolerant The other characteristic of Oskar Schindler is tolerant. The word tolerant here can be described as willing to accept feelings, habits, or beliefs that are different from him. Oskar Schindler is well known as a friendly yet mysterious man. He can make so many friends but people will never know what he thinks. Oskar always opens any discussion especially in business. His tolerance can be seen from his perspective toward the Jews which is very contrastive with the other Nazi members. It is proven when he chooses Itzhak Stern to be his accountant for DEF. This case shows that Oskar accepts the ability of Itzhak Stern as an accountant. Itzhak Stern is his both accountant and partner when Oskar wants to discuss everything especially about the factory. Sometimes, they talk together randomly. They have quite long conversation talking about the part of history between Christianity and Judaism. The description below shows how Oskar is considered as a tolerant person: They stood there for a time, among the typists and clerks, growing philosophical, as Oskar liked to do. It was here that Oskar brought up the matter of Christianity having its base in Judaism, a subject which for some reason, perhaps even because his boyhood friendship with the Kantors in Zwittau, exercised his mind (Keneally, 1994: 52). This narration takes place in the Administration Office where Itzhak Stern works before he becomes Oskar’s accountant. They look very close to each other when discussing about religion. According to the conversation, Oskar admits that Christianity and Judaism are in circle. He seems to agree that there is no difference between Christianity and Judaism. It proofs that Oskar is willing to accept the other’s belief. In this case, it can be seen from his willingness to discuss the diversity of

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 belief with Itzhak Stern. Then his tolerance is shown when he shares his experience about his Jewish friend when he was young. These facts can be considered as a tolerance because Oskar is able to accept Itzhak Stern’s thought and belief. Another case shows Oskar’s tolerance when Oskar has communication with his workers in the factory. Oskar seems to enjoy having chit chat with his workers. This case is related to his characteristic of tolerant, too. He does not just make a communication with his accountant, Itzhak Stern, but also he talks with all of his workers although it is rarely. This time, he talks with one of the workers, Rabbi Levartov, who handles a lathe in the factory. A part of the conversation between Oskar and Rabbi Levartov is presented below: On Friday afternoons, in the munitions hall of DEF where Levartov worked a lathe, Schindler would say, “You shouldn’t be here Rabbi. You should be preparing for Shabbat.” But when Oskar slipped him a bottle of wine for use in the ceremonies, Levartov knew that the Herr Direktor was not joking (Keneally, 1994: 231). Through this conversation, Oskar seems not making any distance with his workers. He blends himself with the circumstances, which when he is in the factory by remaining about the Friday’s tradition -to prepare Shabbat for the next morning- for the Jews. This moment makes a contrastive situation with the system which forbids any Jews to celebrate any tradition related to their religion. Therefore, he is considered as a tolerant person, and this characteristic gets along with his life and also brings him into an act of saving the Jews.

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 B. Oskar Schindler’s Shifting Ideology: Capitalism to Humanism There are two ideologies appear in Oskar’s self which are presented in the story. In the beginning, Oskar’s attitude, action and his way of thinking represent capitalism. It is shown in how he concerns in factory production and profits. However, it gradually changes and shifts into his dominated ideology after he witnesses the moment of slaughtering to the Jews. His humanism as a man rises. As the result, it completely changes his way of thinking in seeing the Jews, even towards the party he joins. 1. Oskar’s Ideology of Capitalism In the very beginning of the story, Oskar Schindler who is successful in developing his enamel factory, concerns in the meaning of production in his life. He employs Jewish labors to run his factory. Oskar takes advantage of the moment of war in Poland and Germany when the Jews are employed as cheap labors. According to Pigou in Socialism versus Capitalism he states the definition of capitalism: A capitalist industry is one in which the material instruments of production are owned or hired by private persons and are operated at their orders with a view to selling at a profit the goods or services that they help to produce (Pigou, 1960: 1). In the story, Oskar is the owner of the factory. It is one of the characteristics of capitalism which is a private ownership in properties. The characteristics of capitalism are stated in the book Today’s Isms written by Ebenstein. He defines private ownership as the one of the characteristics of capitalism:

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 In the capitalist system ownership of the means of production (land, factories, machinery, natural resources) is held, for the most part, by individuals or corporations, not by the state (Ebenstein, 1993: 40). Nazi applies fascism in its system and in every single parts of the governmental system. It can be seen from the education, medical, politics, and economic system. Besides it is known as a racist system, Nazism is also well known with its strict patriarchal system. Women and the Jews are not allowed to be part of the public activities. In the economic system, Nazi applies Autarky as their goal to be a state which economically independent. Ludwig Von Mises, a professor in Ludwig Von Mises Institute, defines Autarky as a state or affairs where there is no foreign trade at all. Every nations only consumes goods produced within its own borders (Mises:2014). In the novel, Nazi takes control in the economic system. Industrialists, capitalists, liberalists, and also socialists are banned. The salary of labor is defined by the party. Factories are focused in producing the needs of war. The rest are focused for fulfilling the needs in Auschwitz camps. Nazi establishes armaments to work under the target for every factory. Meanwhile, Oskar Schindler with his activities in the factory focuses to make more profits for himself. It means that actually his vision is very contrastive with Nazi’s: In an alley off Lipowa, its rear pointing towards the workshop of Schindler enamel plant, stood the German Box Factory. Oskar Schindler always restless and hungry for company to stroll over sometimes and chat with the Treuhander, Ernst Kuhnpast, or to the former owner and unofficial manager, Mr Szymon Jereth (Keneally, 1994: 113).

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 The narration above takes place near Oskar’s factory in Lipowa. It describes that Oskar always needs to discuss the company. His friends are also the owner of particular company as well in Lipowa. It can be seen that Oskar belongs to the elite group and his passion on factory needs brings him into a profit oriented man. Another characteristic of capitalism is the concern about profit: The profit principle is another basic characteristic of the capitalist system. A tremendous difference exists between capitalism and pre-capitalist system: A capitalist economy provides more opportunity for profit than any other economy because it guarantees three freedoms that are not commonly found in other systems –freedom of trade and occupation, freedom of property, and freedom of contract (Ebenstein, 1993: 42). According to Gramsci’s explanation about ideology, the state inculcates its ideology to the society through fascism. The social life in Germany and Poland are imposed by the dominant fundamental group which is Nazi. Fascist ideology is implemented through the system applied. The great masses give “spontaneous” consent or being indoctrinated by fascist ideology which is given by following the system. In this context, the society and their social life are controlled by Nazi. It can be seen through the perspective of Germans who are being racist towards the Jews. This is the fact that Nazi is successful in inculcating their ideology. Economically, Nazi also takes control in trading system based on their goal in Autarky; being independent in terms of economy. The result is also seen through how Germans give another spontaneous consent through the rearmaments which actually give profits to the state.

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 Meanwhile Oskar Schindler as an industrialist, who lives inside the ruling system based on fascism, resists the fascist ideology of the state. As Raymond Williams explained about ‘structure of feeling’, Oskar’s capitalistic ideology contains different ‘meaning and value’ from fascism. His ideology has a big contradiction towards the fascist ideology. As a capitalist, Oskar Schindler upholds the value of liberation and freedom, especially in terms of economic. It is very contrastive with the fascist ideology which is characteristically centralized and authoritarian. It can be considered that the meaning and value which Oskar live and feel are different from the dominant ideology. Although Oskar Schindler follows the system, ideologically he resists it. According to Rob Pope (2002: 242), Oskar Schindler can be considered as an agent. He has a tendency to be independent from the system, economically. When he lives in the fascist system, his action on behalf of the system is clearly seen from his capitalistic idea and attitude. Besides, Oskar is also a subject who is done by the fascist system. The ruling system which has a goal to be, economically, a self-sufficient country, focused on laboring system as their economic solution. They focus on making products and building factories for war’s needs. This program engages with the Germans and Jews as the labor. Therefore, Nazi applies class division as the part of the laboring system. The difference is, Germans are allowed to manage the factory although they should work under the armaments with no wages while the Jews are not. In the story, Oskar Schindler as a war profiteer, helps Nazi to provide the war

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 needs. According to the class division, Oskar Schindler is categorized as a bourgeois and the Jews are the proletariat. All of the proletariat is deskilled. It is proven in the Nazi’s regulation about laboring system towards the Jews: Most Cracow Jews expected such a rash of edicts. There would be some disruption of life –Jews from the shtetls (villages inhabited almost exclusively by Jews) being brought to town to shovel coal, intellectuals being sent into the countryside to hoe beet. There would also be sporadic slaughters for a time, like the one over at Tursk where an SS artillery unit had kept people working on a bridge all day and then herded them into the village synagogue in the evening and shot them (Keneally, 1994: 49). Marxist critic sees and defines this phenomenon as reification. It is a phase when human is treated as a ‘thing’ to fulfill the economic needs. Peter Barry explains about the meaning of reification in Beginning Theory: Third Edition. He argues that: …It concerns the way, when capitalist goals and questions of profit and loss are paramount, workers are bereft of their full humanity and are thought of as ‘hands’ or ‘the labor force’, so that, for instance the effects of industrial closures are calculated in purely economic terms (Barry, 2009: 151). It is explained that reification creates workers not being humans but also the ‘tool’ only for economic purpose. Reification dehumanizes the workers by forcing and deskilling human as ‘tool and thing’. The dehumanization in the Nazi’s system is seen by Marxist perspective in how Nazi’s system takes the Jews fundamental right and needs. Oskar which is said has capitalistic ideology, confesses himself as a capitalist. Oskar also presents his contrastive ideology by his arguments towards the government. It is proven from the conversation between him and Itzhak Stern, his accountant:

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 Left alone with Stern, Schindler murmured that he’d be grateful if the accountant could tell him what he knew about some of the local business. Testing Oskar, Stern suggested that perhaps Herr Schindler should speak to the officials of Trust Agency. “They’re thieves”, said Herr Schindler genially. “They’re bureaucrats too. I would like some latitude. He shrugged. “I am a capitalist by temperament and I don’t like being regulated” (Keneally, 1994: 49). As a capitalist, actually Oskar also agrees with the government’s system of reification. It can be seen from the approval of making Jews as his workers to fulfill his needs as a capitalist. In the narration above, Oskar employs Itzhak Stern as his accountant because Oskar sees Stern’s quality in accounting yet he is also skillful. Therefore, Oskar takes advantage on Stern to help him in gaining profits in his factory. On the other hand, Oskar’s contrastive idea is shown when Oskar Schindler does not agree with the government’s system, especially in trading and productions. His passion in business cannot be manifested freely because of the government system and regulation. The main thing is that Oskar sees the corruption among the bureaucrats that makes him does not like them. It is because the government also takes profits from the society especially his as a capitalist. It is another fact that proves that ideologically Oskar resists fascism. The significance of Oskar’s capitalism can be seen through the meaning and the function of Emalia factory. Oskar capitalistic ideology is seen from how he makes his factory as the source of economic production. From the factory, he can gain profits for himself without any government’s intervention. Therefore, Oskar chooses the Jews as the ‘main source’ of his factory production. In this case, Oskar Schindler

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 agrees with Nazi in terms of deskilling the Jews which gives limitation on developing individual talents. However, his capitalistic ideology does not make him a racist. It is proven through how Oskar keeps the value of humanism. His humanistic ideology can be seen from how Oskar builds communication with his workers, provides proper foods and gives tolerance for the Jews to do the rituals. When considering Nazi’s regulation, Oskar attitude does not reflect as he is a part of Nazi. Therefore, it can be said that Oskar does not agree with what is presented by Nazi about dehumanization. In this context, Oskar Schindler has awareness about human value, but it is dominated with his capitalistic ideology. His humanism gradually rises after Oskar witnesses how Nazi and SS Army work together to slaughter the Jews. Oskar sees the insanity and the practice of dehumanization are presented by Nazi before his eyes. Unconsciously, Oskar realizes the value of human when he sees the slaughtering moment. Gradually, his capitalistic ideology shifts into humanism. Oskar’s reaction to the moment is described as follows: A mother and a boy, perhaps eight, perhaps a scrawny ten, had retreated under a windoesill on the western side of Krakusa Street. Schindler felt intolerable fear for them, a terror in his own blood which loosened his thighs from the saddle and threatened to unhorse him. He looked at Ingris and saw her hands knotted on the reins. He could hear her exclaiming and begging beside him (Keneally, 1994: 142). Oskar’s reaction to the moment is caused by humanism which rises after witnessing it. It dominates and takes aside his capitalistic ideology. Further, it leads to every

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 decision he make which defines his action to resist against the system. His humanism can be seen through the description, “The execution had shocked Oskar because it showed that there was no obedience or obeisance a Jew could make to guarantee survival” (Keneally, 1994: 276). Here, Oskar Schindler sees that what the Jews have done for Nazi, to obey the rule, is just in vain. It continues to Oskar’s decision to save them all. Oskar states that, ““I’m going to get you out,” Oskar grunted all at once. He put a balled fist on the desk. “I’m going to get you all out”” (Keneally, 1994: 277). The indication of this turning point can be seen from the function of the factory after the ideology shifting. It changes from the source of economic and profits for Oskar, into a place where he struggles for saving the Jews. 2. Oskar’s New Ideology: Humanism Marxist explains that one of the factors which makes the resistance appears in the society is the oppression of particular class towards the other social life. Raymond Williams affirms it with the concept of ‘structure of feeling’ which are ‘lived and felt’ (Barry, 2009: 177). The oppression which is done by the dominant ideology creates the reaction to resist it when it does not fit with the society’s value and believe that are lived and felt. In relation to it, Rob Pope argues that each individuals has tendency to become a subject. Subject appears as causality where there is one that oppresses and the other is oppressed. In other words, there is the one who is active and the other is passive. Pope uses diction of ‘victim’ to define subject since it is more passive than active (Pope, 2002: 242). This kind of phenomenon

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 possibly happens between particular groups of people which has a contrast ideology with the other groups. In case of Oskar Schindler, the role of subject and agent can be seen through his ideology. Firstly, Oskar is categorized as a subject since his position as a member of Nazi Party and the ruling system bound himself with the party’s fascist ideology. As an individual, Oskar Schindler claims himself as a capitalist which means he cannot freely executes his ideology in the system ruled. Here, Oskar is seen as the ‘victim’ or, quoting Pope’s diction, as the one ‘who is done to’ the ruling system. Secondly, Oskar Schindler at the same time becomes an agent when he does some opposing activities within the ruling system. His activity in Nazi Party can be considered as acting on behalf because he visibly acts that he obeys the regulation but actually does not. He uses the party as the part of executing his capitalistic ideology within the ruling system. Oskar Schindler’s action and attitude as an agent is considered as resisting against the fascist ideology. The resistance is seen from the contrastive ideology between capitalism and fascism. Both ideologies have different characteristics which causes a resistance. In the previous subchapters it is explained that Oskar’s capitalistic ideology shifts into humanism when Oskar finds out how the insanity of his party treats the Jews as human being. Unconsciously, Oskar has a tendency of being humanist. The description below explains the condition when SS Army treats the Jews:

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 And from the hill you could see the oil on the machine pistol in his hand. The SS man hit the Jew on the ear and was talking to him, loudly and harshly. Schindler, though he could not hear, was sure it was a speech he’d encountered before, at Prokocim station. It doesn’t make any difference to me. If you want to go with your frigging Jewish whore, go! The man was led from one line to another. Schindler saw him edge along it to embrace his wife, and under cover of this act of conjugal loyalty, another woman crept back indoors and was not seen by SS Sonderkommando” (Keneally, 1994: 141). This moment brings Oskar into reaction which makes him shock after witnessing it. According to Bertens, this phenomenon can be explained that Oskar Schindler experiences humanistic ideology. Bertens argues that ideology is not a set of belief which one is aware of, but it appears because of the life experience. Bertens, by paraphrasing Marxist perspective about ideology, emphasizes natural in his explanation which means ideology appears naturally based on the life experience in seeing the world (Bertens, 2001: 84). Using Bertens’ explanation about ideology, Oskar Schindler is not aware of his humanistic nature which appears naturally after seeing the slaughtering moment. The slaughtering moment is Oskar’s life experience which makes his humanism rises and dominates his capitalistic ideology. As a result of it, there is a reaction which emerges due to the experience he faced: At last Schindler slithered from his horse, tripped, and found himself on his knees hugging the trunk of a pine tree. The urge to throw up his excellent breakfast was he sensed, to be suppressed, for he suspected it meant that all his cunning body was doing was making room to digest the horrors of Krakusa Street (Keneally, 1994: 143). Oskar’s reaction indicates that actually Oskar realizes the value of human. In this case, Oskar Schindler sees the impact of the system to the other human being. Indirectly, he resists against the system and the ideology of Nazi after witnessing the

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 slaughtering moment is done by his party. Later, his humanism influences every decisions and action he makes as a form of his resisting ideology. The opposing ideology is clearly seen through the decision he make soon after witnessing the slaughtering moment: By this time Schindler had returned his horse to the stable. He was not on the hill to see the small but significant triumph of red Genia’s return to the place where the SS had first found her. He was already in his office at DEF, shut away for a time, funding the news so heavy to share with the day shift. Much later, in terms uncharacteristic of jovial Herr Schindler, Cracow’s favorite party guest, Zablocie’s big splender, in terms that is which showed, behind the playboy exterior, an implacable judge, Oskar would lay special weight on this day. “Beyond this day,” he would claim, “no thinking person could fail to see what would happen. I was now resolved to do everything in my power to defeat the system” (Keneally, 1994: 146). The narration above describes that Oskar decides to resist the system. His decision is the result of his new ideology, which is, humanism that dominates him. Oskar Schindler humanism makes him realizes that the system encourages dehumanization by slaughtering the Jews. Here, Oskar Schindler as a member of Nazi party reflects himself as a part of the slaughtering moment. His decision to resist against the system is the form of his repentance as a member of Nazi. The Philosophy of Humanism written by Corlis Lamont, it is defined the meaning of humanism. He explains about the definition of humanism in the twentieth century. Lamont argues that: To define twentieth century humanism in the briefest possible manner, I would say that it is a philosophy of joyous service for the greater good of all humanity in this natural world and according to the methods of reason and democracy (Lamont, 1957: 9).

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 57 According to Lamont explanation, Oskar’s capitalistic ideology shifts into humanism because Oskar realizes that the fascist ideology does not bring any liberation towards the Jews’ life. The slaughtering moment is one of the facts that the Jews are oppressed within the implementation of fascist ideology. Oskar’s humanism then becomes the fundamental reason of his resistance. His decision to resist against the system is the form of ‘joyous service’ which indicates his repentance. It means that Oskar Schindler has a goal to release the Jews from the ruling system. Here, there is a struggle to reach his goal. His struggle indicates that Oskar is aware of the need of others in his social life. The proposition of humanist is explained further by Lamont. He emphasizes that humanism tends to do with freedom in any aspects of individual’s life. He states that: …Humanism believes in an ethics or morality that grounds all human values in this-earthly experiences and relationships; and that holds as its highest goal the this-worldly happiness, freedom and progress-economic, cultural and ethical- of all mankind, irrespective of nation, race or religion (Lamont, 1957: 10). In relation to Lamont’s explanation, Oskar Schindler has a tendency in humanism. It is explained in the previous analysis about Oskar’s humanism which rises after witnessing the slaughtering moment. The description of it shows that the Jews has no freedom living under the fascist system. Obviously, the impact of the fascist ideology is seen not just for the Jews, but also to the entire people under the Nazi regime. However, the Jews experience the worst impacts during the Nazi regime. In the story, Oskar becomes a witness and also a subject at the same time. He is aware of the

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 bound that is applied to the ruling system. The bound has an impact towards the society especially the Jews which can be seen through the lack of freedom for every groups and individual. Oskar’s awareness of freedom and liberty indicates that he is also aware of the racism idea which is formed through the system. From the description about the moment, it can be concluded the Jews’ fundamental rights are taken by Nazi. Oskar realizes that the Jews have no right of freedom from his statement after witnessing the moment in Krakusa street. It is the indication of Oskar’s humanism when he makes a reflection of the Jews’ torments which is clearly seen through the Jews’ physical appearance: He began with personal images of the cruel parishes of Cracow, what he had beheld in the streets or heard from either side of wall, from the Jews and from the SS. In that connection, he said, he was carrying letters from members of the ghetto, from the physician Chaim Hilfstein, from Dr Leon Salpeter, from Itzhak Stern. Dr Hilfstein’s letter, said Schindler, was a report on hunger. “Once the body fat’s gone,” said Oskar, “it starts to work on the brain” (Keneally, 1994: 170). Another proposition in humanism is defined by Lamont. It has a relation with welfare of particular community. He states that: …Humanism believes that the individual attains the good life by harmoniously combining personal satisfactions and continuous selfdevelopment with significant work and other activities that contribute to the welfare of the community (Lamont, 1957: 10). In relation to Oskar’s statement, he sees that there is separation between the Jews and the Army. The separator of this condition is based on the racism idea which is agreed by Nazi. The Jews is oppressed by the Army and causes disharmony

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 towards the Jews’ life. Oskar’s statement reflects that Oskar sees from the Jews’ physical appearance, the result of the system which causes the disharmonious condition in Jews’ life. Oskar’s humanism is very contrastive with fascism. Oskar’s thought and ideology can be considered as anti-fascism. It has similarity with the term antifascim. It is seen from Enzo Traverso’s explanation on anti- fascism. As an author of Understanding the Nazi Genocide, he writes an essay about anti fascism ideology. It explains the meaning of anti-fascism and the characteristics of it: Anti-fascism was also identified with the struggle for peace, in a continent where the wounds from the First World War were still open, and where the political balances seemed increasingly more precarious (2004). Anti Fascism is closely related to humanism since it concerns in human being. In the story, Oskar Schindler’s humanism influences his decision to struggle for peace by resisting against the system. This ideology is the opposition result of Fascism which gives constraint and even no liberation in terms of race, ethnic, and gender. The leading party practices the system and becomes the decision maker to make the law regulations. This concept of the system abandons democracies liberty to create a single party state. In the novel, Oskar Schindler’s humanism is seen through the reaction of the moment in Kazimiers: The SS invasion of Kazimiers would, however, arouse in Oskar fundamental disgust; not yet one which would impinge too visibly on the level at which he made his money, entertained women or dined with friends, but one that would, the clearer the intentions of the reigning power became, lead, obsess, imperil and exalt him (Keneally, 1994: 64).

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 60 In the narration, Oskar experiences a fundamental disgust after seeing the invasion. The reality of slaughtering human cannot be accepted in Oskar’s thought. It is appropriate with the characteristics of a humanist which puts the freedom of human being as the concern of humanism. The fascist system practices laboring method to create superiority. By this, Nazi forms a separator for each labor. It means that Nazi creates social classes through the system applied. The implementation can be seen from how Nazi deskilling the Jews and gives ‘price tag’ as a cheap labor. According to Marxist, the system applies reification towards the Jews which means that human is being used to fulfill Nazi’s economic production. Oskar’s shifting ideology from capitalistic ideology to humanism is caused by his awareness of reification which is done by Nazi towards the Jews. In this case, class consciousness occurs as the result of Oskar’s awareness. Class consciousness brings Oskar to the decision to struggle for freedom. Class consciousness is an effort to achieve freedom by eliminating social classes in the society. Freedom here means to achieve the fair system which no discrimination by classes or race at all. By destroying the system thus the freedom is reached and there is no oppression between groups. Oskar’s struggle to reach the freedom for each individual is the proof of his humanism. It means that he can see deeply the value of human being as a human, not a ‘thing’ which is implemented through reification.

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 Oskar’s humanism can also be seen from his thought before it comes to the attitude and action as the result of it. In the story, Oskar’s attitude to the Jews does not show that he agrees with the law regulation which his party made. One day, he comes to the Transmigration Office to seek for an accountant for his factory and he meets Itzhak Stern, a genius Jewish worker who is an accountant in that office. Oskar welcomes Stern right after Stern introduces himself. The introduction and greeting is done according to the regulation when the Jews meet Germans: Aue made the introductions. According to the edict already issued by Governor Frank, Stern made his statement, “I have to tell you, sir, that I am a Jew.” “Well,” Herr Schindler growled at him, “I am a German. So here we are!” (Keneally, 1994: 48). There is a strict rule between the Germans and the Jews. The law regulation compels the Jews to be inferior. However in the conversation, Oskar Schindler even perceives Stern introduction neutrally. He does not seem really care with the border between Jews and Germans. Here, it is seen that Oskar Schindler’s humanism is practiced. He does not discriminate Stern as a Jew and Oskar as a German. The conversation above indicates that Oskar practices equality by being neutral and does not consider Stern’s race. His attitude is obviously contrastive with the ideology of Nazi which he joins. It can be considered as the form of resisting the rule in the system. He does not have any problem with the Jews and treats them in good attitude. This kind of attitude is a phenomenon that Oskar agrees about liberation, that he does not want any border or wall which bounds people in a particular area. By looking at Oskar’s answer, it indicates that he refuses the system and the law regulation which makes it.

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 62 The response and attitude of Oskar Schindler which are very contrastive with the ideology of Nazism can be assumed as opposing against Nazism. It is caused by the reality that Oskar realizes during his life as the part of the party and an owner of his own factory. He witnesses the result of the reigning power and he consciously pays attention to it. Another narration shows that Oskar has crossing ideology with fascism. It happens when Oskar takes a morning walk to see the surrounding near Krakusa street. It takes place near his office. The narration below describes the situation of the street and the response of Oskar which is seen from the description of his thought: The depot yard itself was full of strings of livestock wagons, the station crowded with the ghetto’s dispensable citizens standing in orderly lines, convinced still- and perhaps they were right-of the value of passive and orderly response. It was the first time Oskar had seen this juxtaposition of humans and livestock wagons, and it was a greater shock than hearing of it; it made him pause on the edge of the platform (Keneally, 1994: 135). In the narration, how Nazism treats the Jews is seen very clearly. The system which is pro fascism brings up racism and stereotype to the Jewish group. It represents the unbalance situation between each groups caused by the ruling system. In the story, his experience makes him to be a witness in his own system. He sees many people struggle for his life and they have no right and no choice. The Nazi regime also bans the Jewish daily tradition and rituals. They are not allowed to prepare Sabbath and pray in synagogue. The SS Army destroys all the synagogues in the city. Oskar catches the miserable condition of his workers. The

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 problem of the regime gives such a torment to the human beings. The condition is described below: From the faces of his workers, Oskar could read something of the ghetto’s torment. For people had no time to catch their breath there, no room to dig in, assert their habits or set up family rituals. Many took refuge and a sort of comfort in suspicion of everyone, of the people in the same room as much as of the OD man in the street (Keneally, 1994: 139). Oskar was first a capitalist and enjoyed following the Nazi system. He was one of the influential people who put an effort to gain profit through his job desk in the party. However, after witnessing his workers in the factory, he starts thinking about his workers. Mostly, he considers about the liberation of his workers which means he also considers about how the system treats the people. The narration below strengthens Oskar’s humanism after he sees the action in the Krakusa street: And the unique aspect of all this, of Oskar himself, jaunty in his mountain hat as he emerged from that frosty courtyard, is that unlike Krupp and Farben and all the other entrepreneurs who kept Jewish slaves, he had no serious industrial intention at all. He had no hopes of production, there were no sales graphs in his head. Though four years ago he had come to Cracow to get rich, he now had no manufacturing ambitions left (Keneally, 1994: 330). According to Oskar’s statements above, it can be concluded that Oskar Schindler aware that fascism dominates the society’s social life. He is also aware that it gives the bad even the worst impacts towards the Jews’ life. It can be seen from how he sees the Jews when they are forced to work for Nazi. Nazi treats the Jews insanely which indicates the oppression of the Jews which is done by Nazi in the Krakusa street. In this case, Oskar’s awareness catches the discrimination towards the Jews which is done by the system. It is stated by Lamont that, “Humanism cannot tolerate

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 discrimination against any people or nation as such” (Lamont, 1957: 12). Therefore, Oskar decision to resist against the system is the result after he catches the discrimination issue in the ruling system. This is another fact that humanism appears in Oskar’s self. It is described in the narration that Oskar’s ambition which he brought four years ago has already gone. In conclusion, the facts above shows that Oskar’s ideology dominates how he acts and thinks. The Nazi fascist ideology which is the part of him, fails to dominate Oskar. It can be seen from the shifting ideology from capitalistic ideology into humanism. His new ideology influences his attitude, action, and decision he makes. The dominant ideology is formed by Oskar’s awareness about the Jews as the working class and also how Oskar’s catches the significance of the Jews toward himself. The result of the Nazi regime that slaughtered human being makes Oskar’s humanism rises. His acts and way of thinking about liberation and also the rights of his workers lead to a conclusion that he is a humanist. The result of his humanism can be seen through Oskar’s struggle to resist the fascism. Through the resistance, Oskar does a radical movement without any violence. His resistance is considered as the manifestation of his humanism. C. Oskar Schindler’s Humanism as a Form of Resistance towards Nazism Oskar’s humanism then brings him into the act of resistance. As it is explained previously, his resistance is the form of his humanism. In his struggle to resist the system, Oskar Schindler changes the function of the factory from the source

(79) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 65 of economic productions and profits, into the place where the Jews are released from holocaust. Oskar Schindler who belongs to the party, does a different thing. He witnesses how the system works to the people especially to the Jews. Discrimination, racism and corruption make him resists the system with his ideology. He resists in many ways and takes risks for what he resists to save the people especially the Jews who are being slaughtered by the fascism. Resistance is a form of revolting the system applied. It is an action to stop the progress of something or someone from doing something. In the story, Oskar Schindler resists the fascism with his ideology of humanism. It can be seen from his thought, attitude and action by saving the Jews. Oskar’s way in resisting the system aims to oppose and to stop the practice of racism which has result the annihilation of the Jews. In this part of analysis, Oskar Schindler’s resistance is explained in two ways. The first one is individual resistance as how he takes risk for what he resists. The second one is collective resistance which shows his effort to resist the system by joining in the underground group. 1. Individual Resistance One of Oskar’s resistances which can be seen in the story is his resistance as individual. This kind of resistance is called individual resistance. It happens when individual acts without direction or guidance from anyone to resist the unjust

(80) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 66 situation (Mack, 2002: 7). Oskar as the member of the party who knows everything happening in the system, revolts the Holocaust program held by his party. He breaks the rule by giving special treatment to his Jewish workers. Oskar makes list to note as many as Jews to be employed in his factory. Oskar’s individual resistance is described in the book. It can be seen from his attitude to the regulation which is created by Nazi. He makes a deal with the Police in the train station to save Bankier, one of his workers: Beginning from the locomotive, Schindler moved along the line of more than twenty cattle wagons, calling Bankier name to the faces peering down at him from the open grillework high above the slats of the car...Bankier, Bankier, he continued to call. He was intercepted by a young SS man, an Oberscharfuhrer, an expert railway shipper from Lublin. He asked for Schindler’s pass. Oskar could see in the man’s left hand an enormous list, pages of name. “My workers,” said Oskar. “Essential industrial workers. My office manager. It’s idiocy. I have Armaments Inspectorate contracts, and here you are taking the workers I need to fulfill them” (Keneally, 1994: 137). Oskar makes a deal with the SS to take Bankier back from the train to Auschwitz. In the narration it is also stated that Bankier is his Office Manager which means, Bankier is an essential worker in his factory. Here, Oskar breaks the rule by employing Bankier, a Jew, to be his office manager. In the rule of Transmigration, the Jew is not allowed to work more than a labor and has no right to be an essential in the factory. However, Oskar employs Bankier as his office manager and make a list of him to protect him from the SS. Oskar’s action shows that he saves his worker’s right by dealing with the SS and tries to take Bankier back. It is how Oskar resists the system, which is seen from his attitude in breaking the rule of Transmigration.

(81) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 67 Oskar’s individual resistance can also be seen after witnessing the phenomena in Krakusa street. He sees many Jews being slaughtered by SS Army there. The chaos which Oskar sees has made him angry. The practice of fascism in the system makes his humanism raises: Because Oskar worked that way, the unlikely camp of Emalia stood in Lipowa Street, and there, on most days, a thousand were safe from seizure, and the SS stayed outside the wire. No one was beaten there, and the soup was thick enough of sustain life (Keneally, 1994: 239). The description above shows that the function of Oskar Schindler’s factory turns into a place to save the Jews. Thereby, Oskar acts with his own direction. He does not follow the Nazi Camp Regulation which is made for the Jewish labors. He makes a regulation to protect the Jews so the SS Army cannot take them out from the factory. This is considered as individual resistance. As a Nazi German, he makes a very controversial movement for the Jews and breaks the regulation his party has made. His wrath of seeing the slaughter of human being in the hill brings him to the decision to make a peace by stopping the Holocaust and the annihilation progress goes on. Providing good soup and no slaughtering are his form of resisting Nazism. It means that Oskar stands for human’s welfare. Oskar Schindler also shows his resistance by taking his own risk to save his workers from the SS Army. He protects his worker by telling a lie to the police when the police arrive to take his workers: Then Oskar Schindler who comes down from his office on the frosty mornings of an Aktion to speak to the SS man, to the Ukrainian auxiliary, to the Blue Police and to OD details who would have marched across from

(82) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 68 Podgorze to escort his nightshift home; the Oskar Schindler who, drinking coffee, rings Wachtmeister Bosko’s office near the ghetto and tells some lie about why his nightshift must stay in Lipowa Street this morning- that Oskar Schindler has endangered himself now beyond the limit of cautious business practice (Keneally, 1994: 153). In the narration, Oskar Schindler even endangers himself by telling lies to the police. It is considered as individual resistance because Oskar recognizes the rule and regulation, when he smuggles the Jewish workers, he would be punished for the third times and it would endanger himself. By mentioning his enamel business, he can protect his workers from the slaughtering moment. He acts by his own way and take any risks for the workers. Other people who experience the same moment would choose to let the police takes his workers because it could save themselves. In this case, Oskar insists to protect his workers and faces the police by his own way. Another case of Oskar’s individual resistance can be seen from his treatment to the workers in his factory. Again, he does not follow the regulation for the camp factory and makes his own rule. His caring attitude to his workers is seen from this narration below: Therefore, though the SS may have set the limits to the life people led in Emalia, Oskar sets its tone. The tone was one of fragile permanence. There were no dogs. There were no beatings. The soup and the bread were better and more plentiful than in Plaszow- about two thousand calories a day according to a doctor who worked in Emalia as a factory hand (Keneally, 1994: 221). It is described that in Emalia, Oskar’s factory, there is no more pain like in the others. Oskar ensures everything from the protections for his factory, places, and also he cares of his workers health. There are no dogs that will bark and beat the workers when they are assumed doing mistakes. The power of Oskar’s ideology brings Oskar

(83) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 69 to the mission of saving the Jews. He does so many things for his workers so the workers can stay in his factory. Oskar chooses to stay as a member of the Nazi party to get more money to supply things in his factory. He chooses to resist the system by doing his own rule for the Jews. The individual resistance is also seen from his sacrifice for allocating his profit for his Jews. Emalia still produces munitions for the war and also pots as Oskar’s business. Oskar wants to set his workers free from the system and they can feel freedom: According to accounts Oskar presented after the war to the Joint Distribution Committee, he spent one million eight hundred thousand zloty (three hundred and sixty thousand dollars) on food for Emalia Camp (Keneally, 1994: 221). The narration shows the fact about Oskar’s bank accounts that is analyzed after the war. It is said that Oskar spends his own money to supply foods for his Jewish workers. By allocating his own money, Oskar fights against the corruption which happens in the system. What Oskar does after that is not corrupting the money from the Jews’ properties like what the SS Army does. However, Oskar finds relatives near Budapest and Hungary and outside of Poland, to help him in smuggling the foods. This can be considered as individual resistance because Oskar with his consciousness, considers that the results of fascism is the lost of human right to live without any constraint. It can be seen from the raise of human crime by creating any regulations to discriminate and to annihilate the Jews.

(84) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 70 Considering the facts above, Oskar can be seen as the subject of resistance to the practice of fascism which is made by his own party. The raise of Oskar’s ideology of humanism comes to an action and attitude to revolt and resist againsts Nazism. Oskar recognizes that Nazism with its fascist ideology does not stand for human’s welfare. The form of Oskar’s individual resistance is seen as the manifestation of his humanism. His individual resistance is also considered the non violent resistance. 2. Collective Resistance Beside the individual resistance, Oskar also experiences the collective resistance. It occurs when people join together to fight against injustice (Thalhammer, 2007: 104). Collective resistance is the action of people who are working together to resist the force and discrimination. In the story, Oskar works together with all Jewish friends to supply foods to Emalia Barracks and also to get some important documents which will help his factory and its workers. Oskar also joins ZOB (Zionist of the Halutz Youth) to get any information about the Holocaust. ZOB is the youth organization which resists the practice of Holocaust and the fascism held by Nazi in Krakow. This is an underground organization and Oskar Schindler always keeps contact to ensure any information about the action of SS Army. It can help him to prepare the next plans when he thinks his factory and its workers are in danger.

(85) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 71 ZOB is an underground Organization which is held by young activists, Jewish philosophers, and also Polish People’s Army. This organization supports the resistance of Holocaust and the practice of fascism in all over Germany and Poland. One of their activities is to resist the system by bombing some several regions. It is considered as the act of revolting the Orthodox Pacifist system in the Jewish ghetto. ZOB’s action gets fully support from Oskar. Together with them, Oskar can make another plan to save his Jews. He is interested in this organization because the member of this organization is essential Jewish and Polish youths. Almost the entire member is leftist and extremist. Oskar needs ZOB to forge the Aryan papers. This kind of papers helps Oskar Schindler to make the access in saving the workers easily. He cannot do it by himself, so he usually calls ZOB to make it: The ZOB would in a few months sink patrol boats on the Vistula, petrol bomb sundry military garages throughout the city, arrange Passiercheine for people who were not supposed to have them, smuggle passport photographs out to centers where they could be used in the forging of Aryan papers, detail the elegant army only train that ran between Cracow and Bochnia, and get their underground newspaper into circulation (Keneally, 1994: 159). In the narration the activities of ZOB during the era of fascism in Poland is described. They show their resistance by fighting against the SS Army. Oskar Schindler never joins the aggression, but he often attends a meeting to get any information about the plan of SS Army through the underground newspaper. The protest which is done by ZOB aims to show to the state that they disagree with the system ruled. They refuse

(86) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 72 to follow the rule of mass killing which destroys the Jews. It brings the traumatic event for the Jews. Another fact that Oskar does a collective resistance is when Oskar and Jereth, one of the Jewish workers who joins ZOB, talks about Oskar’s plan to add several barracks for his workers. It is part of his plan to recruit more Jews which is employed in his factory, “Over in Zablocie, in the backyard of Emalia, Mr. Jereth and Oskar Schindler were pursuing their own species of resistance by planning a second barracks” (Keneally, 1994: 159). Oskar together with Jereth plans to build a second barracks and makes several new lists of the Jews to be rescued. This is considered as collective resistance since Oskar and his friends in ZOB fight against the system through underground way. The organization of ZOB is the sign of collective resistance as it is a space to plan for revolting the system. Oskar’s struggle to resist the system is supported by several of his friends. His plan to build a second barracks will be impossible if he does not work together with his colleagues and ZOB. The group provides some help to do with the certificates and papers. It is because building barracks is difficult to maintain without any permission papers, and Oskar decides to smuggle it through ZOB.

(87) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This chapter concludes the whole undergraduate thesis. After analyzing Schindler’s List, a conclusion can be drawn in this part. The writer concludes that this novel portrays the resistance towards Nazism during World War II. The resistance is portrayed by the main character, Oskar Schindler, a Sudeten German who works for Nazi. In this thesis, there are three questions that are analyzed and answered. The first question is the depiction of Oskar Schindler’s characteristics. It can be concluded that Oskar Schindler is described as a glamorous, rebellious, ambitious, tolerant, hedonistic, and generous. The second question is to explain Oskar’s shifting ideology from capitalistic ideology into humanistic ideology. Oskar’s capitalistic ideology is explained in the beginning of the story. In the story, Oskar Schindler is the part of Nazi member. Nazi itself, presents Nazism and practices fascism in its ideology manifestation to the society. However, Oskar Schindler as a member of Nazi Party has contrastive ideology. It gives a result in resisting the system. It is because he experiences the different structure of feeling towards the fascist system. Firstly, he resists the economic system which is presented by Nazi. The resistance can be seen from his purpose and ambition to gain profit from the party. Becoming a warprofiteer in the party opens up the opportunity to do business. Eventually, he can build his own 73

(88) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 74 factory and sells enamels properties for the war needs. However, the fascist economic system forbids any people who do a business and it makes Oskar breaks the law by doing black market trading. Secondly, Oskar does not agree with racism which is presented through the system. Again, he breaks the law by making a good comunication with the Jewish workers. Another fact is that Oskar kisses a Jewish girl in his celebration party and makes him is arrested by the SS Army. The turning point of his capitalistic ideology into humanistic ideology happens when Oskar realizes that the Nazi system treats the Jewish workers insanely. He witnesses the slaughtering moment while the Jews are working before his eyes. Oskar also witnesses the practice of dehumanization towards the Jewish workers. Here, Oskar’s humanistic ideology rises and dominates his capitalistic ideology. The result of his shifting ideology is the action to resist the Nazi system. Oskar’s resistance is the form of his power to defeat the dominant ideology. His shifting ideology from capitalistic into humanistic ideology indicates that he has different belief, values, and feeling toward the system. From the facts above it can be concluded that Oskar’s humanism is very contrastive with Nazism and its fascism. The last question aims to explain further about Oskar’s resistance towards the Nazism. As it is explained previously, Oskar’s ideology of humanism becomes the basis of the action he does for saving the Jews. His struggle to save the Jews is the manifestation of his humanism. He does an individual resistance and collective resistance. In individual resistance, he struggless to save the Jews by recruiting the Jews as many as he can to be the workers in his factory. It is categorized as non

(89) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 75 violent resistance since Oskar does an acting on behalf towards the system. He fools the system by smuggling the Jews in his factory. In his factory, the Jews lives in a welfare condition. Oskar allocates his money to provide daily needs of his workers. He also does black market trading so that he can get more profits to fulfill the Jew’s needs. Here, Oskar changes the function of his factory and the workers as the main source of economic production into a place to live for the Jews. His action is considered as individual resistance because he is conscious that he endangers himself by breaking the law. He knows the consequences by breaking the law but he keeps doing that. Second, Oskar Schindler does collective resistance by working together with underground youth community called ZOB. ZOB is a youth organization which fights against Nazism and fascism. Oskar Schindler asks for help in collecting the information about Holocaust and the plan of Nazi to destroy the Jews. By doing this, Oskar can arrange strategy when there is an attack from the SS Army. He also asks ZOB to help him smuggling food and medical things for the Jews in his factory. In short, Oskar Schindler resistance towards the system comes from his ideology which is very contrastive with Nazism. Oskar disagrees with racism and laboring system which is developed by Nazism. He realizes the dehumanization as the result of Nazi’s laboring system and racism towards the Jews. Then, it motivates him to resist against Nazism by saving the Jews.

(90) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, MH and Geoffrey Galt Harpham. The Glossary of Literary Terms, Ninth Edition. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory, Third Edition. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009. Bertens, Hans. Literary Theory: The Basics. London: Routledge, 2001. Bressler, Charles. E. Literary Criticism: An Introduction to Theory and Practice Second Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. 1998. Burgchart, Carl R and Brian L.Ott. “On Critical- Rhetorical Pedagogy: Dialoging with Schindler’s List”. Western Journal on Communication. London: Routledge. Vol 77 No.1 (2013) (2013) Delahoyde, Michael. Marxist and Literary Criticism: Introduction to Literature. London: Routledge, 2011 (11 February 2013) Eagleton, Terry. Marxism and Literary Criticism. London: Routledge Classics, 2003. Eastman, Richard M. A Guide to the Novel. Brisbane: Chandler Publishing Company, 1965. Ebenstein, William. Today’s Isms, Third Edition. London: Prentice Hall, Ltd.,1993. Elliot, B.J. Hitler and Germany. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd., 1968. Geoffrey, Larrain. “Holocaust Encyclopedia”. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 2013. (26 March 2014) Harris, Marvin and Orna Johnson. Cultural Anthropology, Seventh Edition. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. 76

(91) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 77 Keneally, Thomas. Schindler’s List. London: Serpentine Publishing Co Pty Ltd., 1994. Lamont, Corliss. The Philosophy of Humanism. New York: Harcourt Brace Company, 1957. Mack, Jefferson. Invisible Resistance to Tyranny, How to Lead a Secret Life of Insurgency in an Increasingly Unfree World. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Mises, Ludwig von. Capitalism in Practice. Florida: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2013. (13 April 2014) Nault, Michael. The World Book of Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 2011. Pigou, A.C. Socialism versus Capitalism. New York: St. Martin Press, 1960. Pope, Rob. The English Studies Book: An Introduction to Language, Literature and Culture, Second Edition. London: Routledge, 2002. Raid, James. “The Endangered Species Act is Analogous to Schindler’s List”. Graduate Thesis. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2011. Rand, Ayn. The Fascist New Frontier. London: Routledge, 2012. (6 May 2014) Rees, R.J. English Literature: An Introduction for Foreign Readers. London: Macmillan Education Ltd., 1973. Ryan, Michael. The Encyclopedia of Literary and Cultural Theory, Fourth Edition. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2009. Thalhammer, Kristina E. Resistance, The Power of Ordinary People. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Traverso, Enzo. Understanding the Nazi Genocide, Second Edition. London: Pluto Press Ltd., 1989.

(92) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 78 Vice, Sue. Holocaust Fiction. London: Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, 2000. Webster’s New World Dictionary. New Delhi: Oxford and IDH Publishing co., 1984. Webster, Merriam Dictionary. New Delhi: Oxford and IDH Publishing co., 1985.


Dokumen baru