The values feminism as revealed through inge`s character in fremd`s the glass inferno.
THE VALUES OF FEMINISM AS REVEALED THROUGH
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
This novel with its complexity, reveals the struggle of a woman wholives under patriarchal society, and through the main character’s characteristics, actions, struggle and thought could be seen the values of feminism. The primary sourceis the novel The Glass Inferno itself, while the secondary sources are the references books and the sites from internet that supported the discussion of thisthesis.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Feminism always becomes an interesting topic to discuss, since it deals with
The first wave is the wave of American Feminism in 1840s-1920 which is commonly marked by the first women’s rights Convention, held in Seneca Falls in 1848 andthe second wave is the wave of American Feminism in 1960s which focused upon indictment of male sexism and the domestic oppression of women and alsomarks the establishment of the modern Women’s Movement (2000:3). As oppressions are received by women, a lot of females and some males authors criticize the system that has existed since a long time ago, and they donot only criticize but also want to open the eyes of people in this world to see In this study the writer chooses the novel of The Glass Inferno.
B. Problem Formulation
In order to see the feminism values that arereflected by the character of Inge, this study has three objectives that have to be accomplished. Definition of Terms In order to avoid misunderstanding in reading this study and to give the right focus for the readers while reading this study, there are some terms that thewriter needs to define.
In gender studies the term gender is used to refer to propose social and cultural constructions of masculine and feminine. Patriarchy According to Madsen, patriarchy is another recurrent term, referring to Feminists argue that the opposite of feminism is not masculinity but patriarchy.
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies
Her struggle in searching for self-knowledge and self-understanding are sort of realization for her curiosity about identity and she does not realize that her refusal to choose any specific course of action in itself is akind of selection process. Here, wecan see also how her struggle emphasizes her ask of equality in patriarchal In this study, the writer wants to develop both of those comments, the statements which describe Inge as a figure of woman who struggles in facing theoppressions that she got from her society, patriarchal society.
B. Review of Related Theories
1. Theories of Character and Characterization
The first way is the character designates the According to Abrams, character may remain essentially “stable”, or unchanged in outlook and disposition, from beginning to end of a work, or mayundergoes a radical change, either through a gradual process of motivation and development or as the result of a crisis (1985:23). These are some of the ways in which an author makes his or her readers aware of the personalities and the characters of the people that he or she writesabout in his or her books.
2. Theories of Feminism
a. Feminism in General
Related to the gender stereotypes, according to Butler, gender identity is the same with a cultural performance, matrix of signifiers that enables membersof a cultural group to ‘read’ the signs of gender and to be read as gendered subject, that the basic ‘to search for the origins of gender, the inner truth offemale desire, and a genuine or authentic sexual identity that repression has kept from view (1990: viii). In marriage, women should be free, respected and sovereign in proportion to the stability of the Feminist movement also focuses on women’s consciousness about their disadvantageous positions that is regarded as the second class citizen, thepurpose is to correct the labeling on women and to restructure the society in order to get the equality in gender.
b. Values of Feminism
Stanton also supports Einstein ideasthat personal freedom is the first right to be proclaimed, and that does not and cannot now belong to the relation of wife, to the mistress of the isolated home, tothe financial dependent (Madsen, 2000:40).ii. Woman’s right to be herself Stanton states that the rights of the individual are natural rights which the individual brings into the world of birth; these rights cannot be taken awaybecause they are constituted of the individual.
c. Patriarchy and Its Oppression
According to Madsen, patriarchy is another recurrent term, refers to government by men; patriarchy is a cultural (ideological) system that privilegesmen and all things masculine, and a political system that places power in the hands of men and thus serves male interests at the expense of women (2000:xii). Humm states that the oppression of women differs too from class and race In Gilman’s view, capitalism and patriarchy work together in the economic and sexual exploitation of women (Madsen 2000: 41).
C. Theoretical Framework
In this part of the study, the writer will explain some of the theories and approach that will be used to analyze the problems of the study. In discussing the patriarchal society in which Inge lives, the writer applies the theory of patriarchal society related to the feminism theories: Feminist Theory and Literary Practice by Madsen, A reader's Guide to Contemporary Feminist Literary Criticism by Humm and Feminism: A Reader by Humm.
CHAPTER II I METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of the study is The Glass Inferno. This novel is written by an Australian female writer, Angelika Fremd. This novel has 185 pages with 40
It is the second part of trilogy novels dealing with female character as the main character.by Anglika Fremd tells about a woman, Inge who lives The Glass Inferno in male-dominated world. Then,through her experiences in dealing with men, she realizes that she has to strive for her rights, to be equal with men in all of fields.
B. Approach of the Study
Concerning with feminist criticism, Guerin in his book A stated that: Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature Despite their diversity, feminist critics generally agree that their goals are to expose patriarchal premises and resulting prejudices, to promotediscovery and reevaluation of literature by women, and to examine social, cultural, and psychosexual contexts of literature and literary criticism(1992: 197). Feminist approach is used to analyze the condition of women which is usually differentiated with men and considered as inferior, and then eventuallythis condition discriminates and places women as secondary class citizen in the society.
C. Method of The Study
In writing this thesis, the writer used the library research to find the data as the main step and also preferred to look for some additional referencesfrom the website in internet that hopefully helped the writer to finish this study. Theories of character and characterization that is applied in this study for a better understanding of Inge as the main character are taken from Abram's A Glossary of Literary Terms , Murphy's Understanding Unseen: an Introduction to and Forster's Aspects English Poetry and the English Novel for overseas Students of the Novel.
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the discussion will be divided into three subchapters based
We could find outthe characteristics of Inge from other characters, from her past life, her thoughts, After observing the main character in this novel, the second section will begin with the discussion of the patriarchal society in which Inge lives. The main point of this discussion is that how a woman’s ability has to be challenged in men’s world or in the other word patriarchalsociety, to get freedom in choosing the pattern of her own life without being entrapped by the system.
A. Inge’s characteristics
Her courage to run away from her terriblepast, and from the oppressions that she got not only from her step father, but also from her own mother had become a proof that she is a brave woman. She prefers to leave her husband and her daughter in order to understandmore who she is and to find her freedom, her quest for herself with all of the consequences.
2. Inge is an Independent Woman
“The school is tiny, one for the seniors, one for the juniors, in the larger room I learnt to speak English, to hate my origins, to survive; blendinginto the rhythms, the nuances, the hierarchy of my surroundings.”(p.42)She had to force herself to do what actually she did not want to do in order to be accepted in the new environment. Although the place is really far away from her village andthe street is not in a good condition, she still goes by herself, she does not ask her husband to take her to the education department, and it shows her independencetoo as a woman.
3. Inge is a Kind-hearted Woman
She has to barter her body to the freedom that she dreamt forand also to get the shelter and protection. Having the same feeling as women, shefeels that her hatred to men becomes bigger, she feels that what Fitz has done toJo seems to underestimate her, does not respect women’s rights and it makes Inge’s eyes open widely.
4. Inge is a Responsible Woman
By taking a big decision to marry the man whom she does not love becomes the proof that she is responsible to her life and the baby’s inside. Living in male-dominated world and being David’s wife does not make Inge feels inferior, but in fact she could prove that she is strong and she will be responsibleto what she chooses in her life.
5. Inge is an Attractive Woman
In her adolescent time, when the first time her family moved to Australia, she had to adapt in the new environment. He was fourteen and seemed tohave dispensed with the preliminaries to get straight to penetration.”(p.27) It is proven that Inge has strong sex appeal, even in her younger years.
6. Inge is a Strong Woman
Finally she decides to be free from her past, forgetswhat Karl had done to her, and forgets the revenge that she has to Karl and also the Being David’s wife, she is supposed to be loved and cared, but, unfortunately she does not get that. Being awoman does not make limitation to what she wants to do, in this case she chooses to have a hard work and she also shows her ability to do the work.
B. The Patriarchal Society as Depicted in the Novel
I feel satiated and disappointed at the same time, like a baby whenthe cold rubber of a dummy is pushed in its mouth instead of it’s mother breast, warm, involving.”(p.7)From the statement above it is clearly seen that David gives sexual Besides the sexual relationship that is never gentle or tender, David also oppresses Inge psychologically. That is why David always seeks ways to make Inge falls knee on him, to make Inge owes to David, and when he gets Inge in hishand, he will do the same thing as what Inge did to him in the past.
2. The Oppressions from Paul
For men, as the subject of desire, ‘trouble’ is represented by the female ‘object’ of desire who unexpectedly returns and answers themasculine gaze, who refuses the passive position of the feminine object and thereby ‘contests the place and authority of the masculine position’ (1990, p vii). Although Inge does notwin the custody of both of her daughters, she has done her best to strive for her Another thing that proves Inge’s demand for equality is when she leftDavid and Lena, she has to make living for her own and her daughter, Rua.
3. Woman’s Rights to be Herself
(p.82-83)Inge prefers to stay with Paul since she wants to discover who she is and in the other hand, Inge knows that David does not really love her, but in fact hehas hatred and wants to take revenge by regarding Inge as merely his appendage. She uses her body and sex appeal to have bargaining position, barterposition and as a means to achieve her goals, that is to discover who she is and finds the purpose of this life.
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS After having a long discussion in analyzing the main character’s
She chose to be free from the sexual abuse done by her step father, Karl and the oppression that she gotfrom her surrounding, though she has to barter her body in order to get the Besides responsible to her life, she is also responsible to her family, she wants to take the responsibility of taking care of her grandmother. Inge could be said as a real feminist since she is conscious and tries to break free from the power of through her characteristics as a woman who lives in patriarchal society, her way of thinking and the way she struggles against the patriarchal society in which shelives.