THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT AS SEEN IN THE MAIN CHARACTER OF TETSUKO KUROYANAGI’S TOTTO-CHAN THE LITTLE GIRL AT THE WINDOW AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

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THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT IN CHILD

DEVELOPMENT AS SEEN IN THE MAIN CHARACTER OF

TETSUKO KUROYANAGI’S TOTTO-CHAN THE LITTLE

  

GIRL AT THE WINDOW

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

  Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters

  By

YULISTANTI TRI WISMADANIK

  Student Number: 004214025

  

ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMM

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

JOGJAKARTA

2008

  A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis

  

THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENT ON CHILD

DEVELOPMENT AS SEEN IN THE MAIN CHARACTER OF

TETSUKO KUROYANAGI’S TOTTO-CHAN THE LITTLE

GIRL AT THE WINDOW

  By

YULISTANTI TRI WISMADANIK

  Student Number: 004214025 Approved by Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M. Hum.

  17 July 2008 Advisor Adventina Putranti , S.S., M. Hum

  17 July 2008 Co-Advisor

  Children Learn What They Live If a child lives with criticism, He learns to condemn. If a child lives with hostility, He learns to fight.

  If a child lives with ridicule, He learns to be shy. If a child lives with tolerance, He learns to be patient. If a child lives with encouragement, He learns to confidence.

  If a child lives with praise, He learns to appreciate. If a child lives with fairness, He learns justice. If a child lives with security, He learns to have faith. If a child lives with approval, He learns to like himself. If a child lives with acceptance and friendship, He learns to find love in the world. anonymous

  I dedicate this thesis to: Pada tanggal : 1 September 2008

  

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  I praise the Lord as I have accomplished my thesis and for any help and supports of others, which I believe God sends them to show His wonderful love to me.

  I would like to express my gratitude to Drs. Hirmawan Wijanako,

  

M.Hum, my major advisor, for his guidance and patience in completing this

  thesis My gratitude also goes to the lecturers and staffs of English Letters Department for their aid during my study in Sanata Dharma University.

  I also would like to express my gratitude to my beloved family; my father, ), who always taught me to work hard, my mother, T

  Yesaya Anwar P (

Tukiyatiningsih who always reminds me to finish this thesis, my sisters, Yunarti

P, DS Nugraheni & Septi Dhanik P, who have encouraged me in many ways.

  I am grateful to my best friends: Helena, Ndut, Susie, Linda, Dechenk, that have shared many experiences and stories with me. My gratitude is also for

  

Paramita’s crew, Mbak Ummy, Widha, Eko, Yudi and Joe, who support me in

finishing this thesis.

  I thank friends of mine whom I passed through the process of studying in Sanata Dharma University: Rita, Mita, Yuyun, Lia, Sisil, Wiwin, Wheni, Debby, Lany, Brian.

  Yulistanti Tri Wismadanik

  TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE………………………………………………………………… i

APPROVAL PAGE …………………………………………………………. ii

ACCEPTANCE PAGE……………………………………………………… iii

MOTTO PAGE………………………………………………………………. iv

DEDICATION PAGE...…………………………………………..…………. v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…...…………………………………………… . vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………..………………. . vii

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………….. ix

ABSTRAK......................................................................................................... x

  

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION…………………………………………… 1

A. Background of the Study…………………………………………………

  1 B. Problem Formulation……………………………………………………... 3

  C. Objectives of the Study…………………………………………………… 3

  D. Definition of Terms……………………………………………………….. 4

  

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW………………………………… 5

A. Review of Related Study…………………………………………………. 5 B. Review of Related Theories………………………………………………. 8

  1. Theories of Character and Characterization…………………………... 8

  2. Theories of Environment………………………………………….…... 10

  3. Theories of Development……………………………………………… 13

  4. Theories of Hyperactivity……………………………………………. . 15

  C. Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………. 16

  CHAPTER: III METHODOLOGY…………………..…………………………...................

  17 A. Object of the Study…………………………….…………………..……… 17

  B. Approach of the Study……………………………..……………………… 17

  C. Method of the Study………………………………………………………. 18

  

CHAPTER: IV ANALYSIS…………………………………………………. 20

  A. The Characteristics of Totto-Chan…………………..…………………… 20

  B. The Environments of Totto-Chan and Its Influences on Toto-Chan’s Character Development………………………….………….…………… .27 1. The Environments of Toto Chan……………………………………..

  27

  a. Family……………………………………………………………

  27

  b. School…………………………………………………………….. 29 2. The Influences of the Environments on Toto-Chan………………….

  31 a. Influences of Family……………………………………………..

  31

  b. The Influences of School…………………………………………

  34

  

CHAPTER: V CONCLUSION………….…………………………………. 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………….…………………………………… 52

APPENDIX: Summary of Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-Chan The Little Girl

at the Window.…………………………………………………………… 54

  

ABSTRACT

  YULISTANTI TRI WISMADANIK. The Influence of Environment in Child

  

Development as Seen in the Main Character of Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-

Chan The Little Girl at the Window. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters,

Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2008.

  Every child will develop, both physically and psychologically. The development itself needs others support. In Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s novel, Totto-

  

Chan the Little Girl at the Window , Totto-chan is the main character who

  develops by the influences of her environment. Through her family and school, Totto-Chan’s personality is changing, she becomes a nice little girl. The study will show the influence of environment toward Totto-Chan’s development.

  The study raises two problems to be examined. The first problem is how the main character, Totto-Chan, is described in the story. The second problem is how the environment influences the development of Totto-Chan and also how the development as the effect of the environment is described.

  In order to reach the objectives of the study, the study uses library research to collect the data. The Data is Tetsuko Kuroyanagi novel entitled Totto-Chan the

  

Little Girl at the Window and other sources, which are closely related to the study.

  The approach applied in the thesis is psychological approach.

  The study finds that Totto-Chan develops because of the influence of the environment. In the beginning, Totto-Chan is described as a hyperactive girl, she is different from other children, she has a unique character that makes her get into trouble. Then she comes to Tomoe School which gives her all she needs as a hyperactive child. The education from the school and support from her family make her change. By the influence of her environment, she experiences development from a hyperactive girl to a normal child, who has good manner, helpful, and tolerant. It is proved that right environment will give good influences to a child.

  

ABSTRAK

  YULISTANTI TRI WISMADANIK. The Influence of Environment in Child

  

Development as Seen in the Main Character of Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-

Chan The Little Girl at the Window. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris,

Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2008.

  Setiap anak pasti akan berkembang, baik secara fisik maupun psikologis. Perkembangan itu sendiri membutuhkan banyak dukungan. Dalam novel karya Tetsuko Kuroyanagi, Totto-Chan The Little Girl at the Window, Totto-Chan adalah karakter utama yang berkembang karena pengaruh dari lingkungan terhadap perkembangan Totto-Chan. Melalui keluarga dan sekolah, karakter Totto-Chan mengalami perubahan, Toto-Chan menjadi seoarang anak yang baik.

  Penelitian ini menyajikan dua masalah untuk dibahas. Masalah pertama adalah bagaimana karakter Totto-Chan diuraikan dalam novel. Masalah kedua adalah bagaimana lingkungan dapat mempengaruhi perkembangan Totto-chan dan juga bagaimana perkembangan sebagai hasil dari pengaruh lingkungan diuraikan.

  Untuk mencapai tujuan penelitian ini, digunakanlah studi pustaka untuk mengumpulkan data. Data tersebut adalah novel karya Tetsuko Kuroyanagi,

  

Totto-Chan The Little Girl at the Window dan berbagai sumber yang erat

  hubungannya dengan fokus penelitian ini. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam analisis di tesis ini adalah pendekatan psikologi.

  Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa Totto-Chan dapat berkembang karena pengaruh dari linkungannya. Pada awalnya, dia digambarkan sebagai anak perempuan yang hiperaktif, ia berbeda dari anak-anak pada umumnya, ia memiliki karakter yang unik yang membuatnya masuk dalam kesulitan. Kemudian ia masuk ke sekolah Tomoe yang menyediakan semua yang dibutuhkan oleh seorang anak yang hiperaktif. Pendidikan dari sekolah dan juga dukungan dari keluarganya membuat Totto-Chan berubah. Dengan pengaruh dari lingkungannya ia mengalami perubahan dalam dirinya. Dari seorang anak yang hiperaktif ia menjadi seperti anak normal lainnya, yang memiliki perilaku yang baik, mau membantu, dan sangat toleran. Hal ini membuktikan bahwa lingkungan yang tepat akan memberikan pengaruh yang baik pada anak.

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Human being is always changing from his birth to the time of death. Human being changes not only physically but also psychologically. There are many aspects that help human being change, and one of them is the environment. The first environment that a new born child knows is his home. From his home a

  child gets his early experiences with his family who gives him love and care. His second environment that gives influence to a child is the environment outside his house such as his friends and school. Jersild in his book Child Psychology said that the foundations of psychological development in the individuals are structural and also dependent upon hereditary factors and environmental influences (1954:14).

  Child development as one of the psychological studies is an interesting topic to be discussed. It is because during the time of childhood, a child will experience many development challenges and conflicts which prepare him for adolescence and adulthood. Kuroyanagi in her novel Totto Chan The Little Girl at

  

the Window shows that childhood is an important time to grow and develop. She

  reveals it in the character of Totto Chan who develops because of the influences of her environment. Thus, this study focuses on Totto Chan development and the environment that gives big influences in Totto Chan’s life.

  Totto Chan the Little Girl at the Window is a story of a little girl who has a

  2 as a musician gives her opportunities to know as much as she wants. As an active little girl Totto Chan develops herself to be a thoughtful child. Her parent gives opportunity to grow as what she is. They not only give love and care but also give Totto Chan opportunity to know the feeling of loosing something important in her life and to choose what she really wants to do. In this story, Totto Chan family has an important role in their child development. As states by Schiamberg in Human

  

Development that family has to perform the primary function of socializing the

  child from birth through at least adolescence. There should be mutual interactions between parents and child and the interactions include the transmission and interpretation of cultural standards of values and behavior (1982:261).

  The environment outside the house also gives important influences to a child development. The environment outside the house will introduce the child how to socialize and how to interact with other people and also how to be tolerant to other people. The study of the novel also talks about the environment outside Totto Chan’s family. Totto Chan will get many new experiences outside her house; she finds out that her new school is very interesting. She meets new friends who are very nice to her and new teachers who always support her, and most of all she can do many things that she really wants to do in her school. Her relationship with other children and her headmaster and also the studying system of the school that make her develop and give her many new things. In this period of schooling Totto-Chan begins to learn, interacts with others and organizes her behavior. In

  Child Development , Craig states:

  Middle childhood is the time before adolescence when the child is adjusting to the new environment of school, is forming close ties with people outside the home and is developing work and play habits along with many new interest (1979:396).

  Since Kuroyanagi’s Totto Chan the Little Girl at the Window is a story about a life of a child during her childhood, this study will analyze Totto-Chan’s characteristics, her childhood and how her development is influenced by her environment.

  B. Problem Formulation

  The study talks about the character of Totto Chan that finds her world through her experiences. Therefore the study would be based on two questions following:

  1. How is the main character Totto Chan described in the novel?

  2. How does the environment influence Totto Chan’s character development as revealed in this story?

  C. Objectives of the Study

  Firstly, this study aims to identify the character of Totto Chan from the way she thinks and act. As a child Totto Chan used to see things based on her point of view as a little child. She does not realize that she has experienced many things which are valued for her life.

  The last is that the study will identify the influences of the environment

  3

  4 kind of environment that Totto Chan faces and how this environment gives big influences toward her life and development.

D. Definition of Terms

  In this study, it is important to know the terms which are used in this study. The first term is “environment”. In Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged

  

Dictionary of the English Language , the word ‘environment’ is defined as the

  aggregate of surrounding things, conditions, or influences, especially as affecting the existence or development of someone or something (1989:477).

  The second term is “child development”. In Berk’s Child Development, it is the study of human growth and change from conception through adolescence. It is part of a larger discipline known as developmental psychology or human development, which includes all changes that take place throughout the life span (1984:39).

  The third term is “development”. According to Craig’s Child

  

Development , it can be defined as the changes in the structure, thought or behavior

  of a person that occur as function of both biological and environmental influences (1979:9).

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies Gunawan Muhhamad in his essays collection Catatan Pinggir 2: Totto- Chan , said that the book of Totto-Chan The little Girl at the Window is a

  phenomenon. The book of Totto-Chan the little Girl at the Window keeps an accusation, Tetsuko Kuroyanagi present an alternative education for Japanese education system, which is known as a complicated system. Tetsuko kuroyanagi in her story has opened up the destructive and formal style of education which is shackle to the students (1989:376-377).

  The book of Totto Chan The little Girl at the Window is not a work of fiction, but based on the childhood of its author (a popular Japanese actress, author and talk-show host, philanthropist, UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador and WWF-Japan director), focusing specifically on her experiences as a student at Tomoe Gaukuen, an experimental school in Tokyo, Japan. The school was founded by one Sosaku Kobayashi who obviously loved children and had unique ideas about how they should be raised and educated. Tomoe no longer exists, but educators can learn much from its example. The book describes Totto-Chan's adventures as a curious, imaginative little girl. She is deemed "impossible" by the teachers in her first school and is expelled, but Kobayashi welcomes her with open arms, and, for Totto, Tomoe is a dream come true, a place where she is

  6 surroundings and express herself to her heart's content.. Totto-Chan is broken up into very short chapters, each one relating a short incident or commenting on an interesting aspect of the school or Totto's life and upbringing. It is an easy reading novel, simple, unaffected and charming - and also rather funny. Totto and her classmates are cute, but the hero of the book is, without a doubt, Kobayashi who was ever optimistic and always ready to see the good in every child (http://daphne.blogs.com/books/2005/09/mini_review_tot.html).

  Totto-chan, the Little Girl at the Window is a book written by Japanese

  television personality Tetsuko Kuroyanagi about her childhood at Tomoe, an alternative elementary school founded by educator Sosaku Kobayashi. Tomoe was destroyed by Allied bombing in 1945. The book chronicles Totto-Chan’s life and the wonderful time she spends in her new school Tomoe Gakuen. The book begins with Totto-chan's mother coming to know of her daughter's expulsion from the school. Her mother realizes that what Totto-chan needs is a school where more freedom of expression is permitted. Thus, she takes Totto-chan to meet the headmaster of the new school, Mr.Kobayashi. From that moment a great friendship springs between master and pupil. The book goes on to describe the beautiful times that Totto-chan has, the friends she makes, the lessons she learns, and the vibrant atmosphere that she imbibes. All of these are presented to us through the eyes of a child. Thus, we see things through the eyes of the child, and how the normal world is transformed into a beautiful, exciting place full of joy and enthusiasm. We also see, in our perspective as adults, how Mr. Kobayashi

  7 a great man, a man who understands children excellently and as to how he strives to develop their qualities of mind, body and heart. His concern for the physically handicapped and his emphasis on equality of all children are remarkable. In this small, yet beautiful school, the children lead happy lives, unaware of the great things going on in the world. The World War II has started. Yet in this school, no signs of it are seen. One day the school is bombed, and is never rebuilt. This ends of Totto-chan's years as a pupil at Tomoe Gakuen. The book is the chronicle of a remarkable school, and of it's remarkable headmaster who's kindness and generosity win the hearts of all his children. Indeed, such educators as Mr.Kobayashi were rare in those days. Now, in these frantic days, one can only dream of such a school, where above all things the need for giving students freedom to study and enjoy the activities which they wanted was recognized. Thus, because of the remarkable atmosphere the kids experience at Tomoe, most of them rise to the top of their professions. The book wonderfully chronicles the beauty of life as seen from the innocent eyes of a young girl (http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=2118)

  The studies above are explaining about the school, the education which Totto-Chan had received. Those studies pointed on the system of education, Totto-chan school was an alternative school that was different from common school or formal schools in Japan. Those studies explained how the headmaster Mr. Kobayashi rules the school. Yet, this study is different from the studies above. This study focuses on the development of the character although this studies also

  8 psychologically. This study will explain on how the environment - that is the family and school – gives big influences on the psychological development of the character.

B. Review of Related Theories

1. Theory of Character and Characterization

  A character is an important factor in fiction. In the beginning of the fiction, the author must introduce his character to the readers. In the other hand, it can clear the fiction itself. Because of character is significant especially in this research, and then it is very important to find the best definition of it.

  Character is a person presented in dramatic or narrative work, endowed with moral and dispositional qualities, that are expressed in what they say i.e. the dialogue, and what they i.e. the action. The ground in a character’s temperament and moral nature for his speech and action constitutes his motivation. (Abrams, Glossary of Literary Terms, 1985; 20)

  While according to De Larr (1963:170) character is in human situation and makes them behave like actual human being.

  After we find the definition of character than it is also important to know the type of character. In Reading the novel: An Introduction to the Technique of

  

Interpreting Fiction , Henkle states that characters can be divided into major

  characters and minor characters. Major characters are the most important and complex characters in a novel. They can be categorized as such characters through the complexity of their characterization. The attention is given to the major characters by the author or other characters and the personal intensity that seems to be transmitted. Major characters deserve the fullest attention because they

  9 perform a key structural function. Meanwhile the secondary characters are the characters that perform a more limited function. They are limited in the ways that the major characters are not (1977:88).

  E.M. Forster in Aspect of the Novel (1927:18) classifies characters into two types, flat and round characters. The flat characters are built around a single idea of quality and are represented in outline and without much individuality detail, and so they can be fairly describe in a single phrase or sentence. The flat characters are characterized by one or two traits. The round characters are complex in temperament and motivation and are represented with subtle peculiarity: those they are as difficult to describe with any adequacy as a person in real life and like the most people, they are capable of surprising us. While the all fictional character can be classified as static or developing. The static character is the same sort of person at the end of story as he or she was at the beginning. The developing or dynamic character undergoes a permanent change in some aspect of his or her character, personality or outlook.

  According to Perrine (1974; 68-69), characterization could be presented in two ways: a. Direct Presentation

  The author who chooses direct presentation simply tells readers about the characters in the story. He tells the qualities of the characters in exposition or analysis or has someone else in the story who tells us what they are like.

  10

  b. Indirect Presentation In indirect presentation, the author shows the readers the characters in actions and lets the readers infer what they are like from what they think, they say, or they do. The author just presents the characters acting and talking and leaves the readers to infer their qualities from what they say, think, and do.

2. Theory of Environment

  Environment becomes more and more powerful as an influence that shapes behavior and personality. The first environment that a child knows is his family or home. According to Watson, basically there are two major effects that a home has on the life of a child. The first is that the home provides the conditions that facilitate some kinds of behavior and inhibit others. A home environment, is a home which has rich stimuli and has order and also focus. The stimuli itself directed at the child in the form of conversation, attention, caressing, fondling and playing. These stimuli have facilitating effect on the appearance of more mature forms of behavior. The second effect consists of the ways in which the child personality is shaped. It concerned in the interaction between the parent and the child (1973; 297).

  Based on Hetherington & Parke in Child Psychology a Contemporary

  

Viewpoint , family or parents should become teacher for their child. Parents should

  teach the child the rules of society in which she must live by telling the child what the rules are and by praising or disciplining her when she conforms to violate

  11 children. It means that parents make themselves as a model for the child to imitate (1986; 490-491).

  Parental control is also important and necessary for children to develop into socially and intellectually competent individuals. Children need authoritative parents. It means that they are not intrusive and permit their children considerable freedom within reasonable limits, but willing to impose restrictions in areas in which they had greater knowledge or insight (Hetherington&Parke1986; 495).

  The second environment that gives big influences in the child development is the school environment. School characteristics such as curriculum, quality of teachers, diversity and organization of instructional program are important in the development of the child. According to Schiamberg & Smith in Human Development, the role of the school and classroom is clearly significant to the child academic performance. The way the school or classroom is organized may go a long way toward supporting the child in the school. There are two types of classroom: a. The traditional classroom. In this type, the classroom is characterized by structured arrangement of lessons and discipline as the best ways to achieve student learning.

  b. The open classroom. In this type, the teacher and the student become cooperating partners in the learning process. The basic assumption is that children are naturally motivated to learn socially valued skills. Therefore the function of education should be tap to the spontaneous interest in learning by

  12 said that the classroom should be arrange so that each child moves at his or her own pace by making a choices of activities during the course of a school day. In this classroom, the students can show their good behavior through the exploration and interaction with peers (1982; 363-364).

  According to Gessel & Frances in The Child from Five to Ten, dramatic self-activation is a method of growth and of learning. It is a natural mechanism whereby the child organizes his feelings and thinking. But the last is too great for him alone. The school is the cultural instrument which must help him to enlarge and to refine his dramatic self-projection. The function of the school is to provide personal and cultural experiences which will simultaneously organize the growing emotions and the associated intellectual images. Naturally this can be done effectively only through activity programs and projects which will set into operation the child’s own self activity. He learns not by role but by participation and a creative kind of self activation. His teacher takes him and his schoolmates on a trip to a dairy. The children talk it all over some time later, after an interval of assimilation. For a disadvantaged child, a well conducted school is a heaven.

  For the average school-beginner the understanding teacher becomes a kind of auxiliary mother on whom he fixes affection. Teacher does not displace his mother, nor does teacher aspire to become substitute mother, but theacher strengthens his senses of security in the strange world beyond the home. He derives a new confidence in this new world from her daily welcomes and assurances, and from the sheer satisfaction of his broadening experiences and

  13

3. Theory of Development

  According to Schiamberg & Smith, development during the years of middle childhood is filled with many exciting and sometimes dramatic changes in the child. As children enter the formal, the stage is set for developments in the way they think, learn, interact with others and organize their behavior. During this time the child usually begins to have more extensive interactions outside the family, especially with his peers (1982; 343).

  In Child Development by Arthur T. Jersild, in child development there is a forward impetus in growth, a growing child seeks to be himself, to discover, to realize his resources which is including his resources for doing, thinking, and feeling, for standing independently on his own feet and also for being deeply involved in interpersonal relationships with others. In this process, a child must risk and venture, and this may mean failure as well as success, painful consequences as well as pleasant rewards. It means that the process of growing up is not just continuously pleasant forward jaunt but growth also accompanied by growing pains (1954; 24).

  According to Crow in Child Psychology: Summary of Growth and

  

Development with Review Questions and Answer , there are five factors which

  influence child character development. They are the home, the school, peer associates, religious influences and other factors of influences. In this study only two factors that will be used, the first is the home, the child’s behavior is influenced not only by the family’s attitude toward and treatment of himself but

  14 another, their behavior in the home, and their relationships to persons and things outside the home. Parents’ attitudes toward the child also give important effect toward child character development. Not only concerning the effect upon the child of being a wanted or a rejected child. The effect upon a child of a parent’s attitudes toward him depends not so much upon whether they wanted him as it does upon their understanding of his needs and their ability to meet these needs in all areas of his developing personality. With these understanding and ability, the child will be enabled to progress through the various stages of interpersonal relationships until he obtains a comprehension of his social as well as personal responsibilities and obligations. Home conditions also important in child character development, conditions which is favorable to desirable adjustment are experienced by the child who is reared in a home in which kindliness; sincerity, honesty, and cooperation are practiced daily by the other members of the family.

  The second factor which can influence the child character development is the school. During his interrelationships with the teachers and schoolmates his behavior habits and attitudes he has acquired to this point are either intensified or modified. His experiences in concrete school situations that encourage the development of desirable group behavior can serve as effective means of improving his attitudes and of helping him to gain greater understanding of general concepts of morality or of ethical principles (Crow, 1958: 168).

  15

4. Theory of Hyperactivity

  In Abnormal Psychology Gerald C. Davidson & John M. Neale said that children often behave impulsively or act before thinking, a pattern that may lead both to social friction and to academic failure ( 1996: 429). They have difficulty focusing on a single activity and often shift erratically from one task to another without finishing those projects they begin. These children tend not to maintain the behaviors expected of them for more than a few minutes. They seem to have remarkably high energy levels, approaching activities with striking and sometimes formidable intensity. A hyperactive child is all too frequently “in trouble” with his peers, his teachers, his family and his community. He seems almost normal in every way, but yet he has inordinate and pervasive difficulties getting along in everyday world.

  The term hyperactive is familiar to most people, especially to parents and teachers, other diagnoses that have in the past been used to describe in attentive and impulsive youngsters include minimal brain dysfunction, which clearly suggested that subtle brain damage caused the behavioral problems, and hyper kinesis, these term is renamed as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Davidson, 1996: 430). The focus was shifted to the difficulty the child’s has in concentrating on the task at hand for an appropriate period of time and on the child’s involvement in non-goal-directed over activity. These inattentive children seem to have particular difficulty controlling their activity in situations that call for sitting still, such as at school; or at mealtimes. When required to be quiet, they

  16 tactless, obstinate and bossy. Their activities and movements seem haphazard.

  These children quickly wear out their shoes and clothing, smash their toys, and soon exhaust their family, teachers, and friends.

C. Theoretical Framework

  The study focuses on the main character of the novel, Totto-Chan. The review of theories is needed to answer the problem of the study.

  The theories consist of theory of character, characterization, environment and development. The theories of character and characterization are applied to find the type of the main character Totto-chan, and to answer the first problem formulation. The theory is useful to describe the character of the main character in the novel. The theory of character and characterization, the theory of environment and theory of development is needed to answer the second problem formulation.

  In conclusion, the review of relate theories are chosen in order to analyze the way of the intrinsic element especially the character used to present the child development side.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study Tetsuko Kuroyanagi’s Totto-Chan the Little Girl at the Window is the

  object of this study. Totto-Chan the little Girl at the Window is an autobiographical novel that portrays the story of a little girl named Totto-Chan (Tetsuko herself) in her childhood especially in her schooling time.

  This book is an English version of Madogiwa no Totto-Chan, the Japanese original edition, published in Japan by Kodansha International Ltd. Copyright in 1981 by Tetsuko kuroyanagi. The English version copyright in 1982 by Kodansha International Ltd. Translated by Dorothy Britton.

  This book is a long-standing best seller in Japan and has been distributed to USA and England. It has changed many points of view about education system.

  This book told us about the life of a little girl named Totto-Chan in her childhood. There are so many experiences that happened in Totto-Chan childhood and it made her develop.

B. Approach of the Study

  This study applies the psychological approach, an approach which is focused on psychological interpretation for entrancing the understanding and appreciation of literature (Rorhberger & Woods, 1971; 13). The study focuses on

  18 interpretation especially in the development of a child. The psychological approach helps us to interpret the psychological aspect and development of the character in the novel. Therefore, the psychological approach will be very helpful to reveal the issue of this study since it views a literary work based on psychological interpretation.

C. Method of the Study

  The thesis is a library research. The writer collects many data to have the research understandable. The writer divides the data into two categories, primary data and other references.

  The primary source is the novel by Tetsuko Kuroyanagi entitled Totto-

  

Chan the Little Girl at the Window . The secondary sources are taken from some

  books concerning with the study. It means that the data gathered from books on literature, criticism, and theories on child development and psychology that maybe helpful. Besides, the data is also compiled from Internet. Some sources that will be important for the analysis are Aspect of the Novel by E.M. Forster, Child

  

Development by Clara E. Berk, Child Psychology a Contemporary Viewpoint by

  E. Mavis Hetherington & Ross D. Parke, Child Psychology by Arthur T. Jersild,

  

Human Development by Lawrence B. Schiamberg & Karl U. Smith, and Child

Development by Grace J. Craig.

  To complete the study, library research was done in some steps. The first step was having a thorough reading of the novel for several times to help

  19 reading is needed in making notes of points, quotations, and also summary of the story which were used o find the significant element of story.

  The second step was referring to some references that are related to the studies of Totto-Chan the Little Girl at the Window and theories of literature focusing on character and characterization. The references supported the study in gathering more data to link all of the findings.

  The third step was applying the psychological theories especially in child development in order to answer the problems formulated in this work. The theories were used to analyze the character and make the analysis based on the questions that were formulated earlier

  Finally the last step was drawing the conclusion based on the previous observations. This part contained the statement that is based on the answer to the problems and broader conclusion that related to the topic of the study.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS This chapter consists of two parts based on two problems of this study. The first part is the description of character Totto-chan in the story. It presents the

  description of Totto-chan and the interaction of Totto-chan with other characters or with her surrounding. The second part is to describe or identify the environment where Totto-chan live and the influences of the environment toward Totto-chan’s psychological development.

A. The Characteristic of Totto-Chan

  This part will discuss the character of Totto-Chan. Totto-Chan is 7 years old girl. Her father is a musician and her mother is a housewife. As a little girl Totto-chan can be said as a hyperactive child. It seems that Totto-chan always makes trouble for herself or for her surroundings. It is happened when she is at first grade of elementary school; her teacher cannot understand why Totto-chan always makes so much trouble and the teacher cannot handle it. Totto-Chan’s behaviours have made her teacher and her friends annoyed. Due to Totto-Chan’s behaviour, her mother is invited to school.

  Mother has been sent Totto-chan’s homeroom teacher who came straight to the point. “Your daughter disrupts my whole class. I must ask you to take her another school”. The pretty young teacher sighed. “I’m really at the end of my tether” (p.11).

  Her mother, of course, very shocked because of it, she does not

  21 makes herself into trouble. Her mother worried about Totto-Chan because she has to take Totto-Chan to another school. It means that Totto-Chan already being expelled from the school when Totto-Chan just only on the first grade. As a hyperactive child, Totto-Chan is excited to the new things she sees. For Totto- Chan, her experiences in her school is a great thing, she can do many things in this place. Yet, her new experiences have taken her to the trouble.

  She had said. “School’s wonderful! My desk at home has drawers you pull out, but the one at school has a top you lift up. It’s like a box, and you can keep all sorts of things inside. It’s super! (p.12). Actually, her experience with her desk at her school becomes one of the troubles that she makes. She likes to open and shut the drawer for hundred times that makes the teacher and the whole class annoyed.

  Another Totto-Chan’s characteristic that makes her proved to be a hyperactive child is that she cannot focuses in one thing or studying in a place for a long time. In her class, Totto-Chan cannot sit for a long time, she prefers to stand up at the window and invite the street musician, it can be seen here:

  The gist of the teacher’s story was that after an hour of almost constantly banging her desk top, Totto-Chan would leave her desk and stand by the window, looking out. Then, just as the teacher was beginning to think that as long as she was quiet she might just as well stay there, Totto-Chan would suddenly call out to passing band of garishly dressed street musician. …whereupon, said the teacher, Totto-Chan would announce the fact to the whole room. “Here they are!” and all the children would crowd by the window and call out to the musicians (p.13).

  Beside standing by the window and calling for the street musician, Totto- Chan also talks to the swallows at the classroom eaves. She asks what the swallows is doing in the eaves. For the teacher, it cannot be accepted; she feels

  22 In the drawing lesson, Totto-Chan also makes trouble. The teacher asks the children to draw the Japanese flag and the children do it, but Totto-Chan does not do it. She starts to draw navy flag, add fringes like on youth group banners. Then she draws the fringes went right off the edge of the paper and onto her desk, and it makes the desk full of fringes marks (p.16).

  As a hyperactive child, Totto-Chan always talks too much. When Totto- Chan comes to Tomoe School for the first time, she has to meet the headmaster and the headmaster asks her to tell him anything she wants to talk. Of course Totto-Chan feels happy about it, so she begins to tell everything although she tells her story without any sequences. She tells him about the train, her dog rocky, her father and mother, her clothes and many things she can remember. The headmaster of course listens to her and asks her to tell other stories until she thinks that she does not have any story to tell to the headmaster. Totto-Chan has not learnt how to tell time yet, but if she knows how to tell time she will be surprised that she had talked for about 4 hours. No one will believe that a 7 years old child can find enough to talk about for a long time (p.22-23).

  Besides always doing something strange and talking too much, Totto- Chan also has a weird habit when she plays. She likes to cross other people’s garden by crawling under their fences and burrowed under the barbed wire. For Totto-Chan it is fun, she really likes to play this game although it makes her hair, nail and ears dirty and also makes her clothes and panties get torn (p.86).

  Curiosity is another character that Totto-Chan has. She is really interested

  23 described in the story that there are some cases that happened as the effect of her curiosity. The quotation below show how Totto-Chan’s curiousness described:

  Now Totto-Chan had a curious habit. Ever since she was small, whenever she went to the toilet, she made it a point to peer down the hole after she had finished (p.43).

  Another example of her curiosity is when a new train will come to the school. She has no idea where the new train comes from, she also wonders how a train can come to her school without a railroad on the school. So she decided to see how the train can come to the school without the railroad. This is a new experience for Totto-Chan, she also learns something she does not know before (p.49-52).

  Totto-Chan also has a strange behaviour compared to other children, she likes to jump on something that looks interesting. Her mother always remains her not to do something like that again but to jump into something that make her curious is fun for Totto-Chan although it makes her gets trouble.

  “I thought I told you before”, said mother. “When you see something that looks intriguing, don’t jump on straight away. Look before you leap.”(p.90)

  The quotation above shows that to jump into something that is very intriguing has become Totto-Chan’s habit. It is not just happens one time but has been repeated for many times. Totto-Chan has jumped into cesspool when she saw a newspaper lying in the middle of the part in her school. She thinks it will be fun to see if she can jump onto the newspaper, but the newspaper is actually left by the janitor to cover the cesspool. Of course it makes Totto-Chan’s body

  24 Another trouble comes when Totto-Chan in the way home from school.

  She discoveres something enticing by the side of the road, she thinks that it is a huge pile of sand. She is thrilled and run at a great speed then leaped onto the sand, but finally she finds that it is not a huge pile of sands but a heap of prepared grey well plaster. She sinks into it, and no one helps her until her mother pulls her from the plaster (p.89).

  Although she has been warned by her mother, Totto-Chan cannot promise not to jump to something interesting for her. It can be seen in the quotation below, “No, I won’t jump on anything again,” said Totto-Chan, quietly … I won’t jump onto a newspaper or a pile of sand over again.” Mother was quite sure Totto-Chan might easily take it into her head to jump onto something else (p.91). It proves that Totto-Chan always do the same thing again and again but to different subjects that makes her curious, and this activity becomes one of her habit.

  Totto-Chan can also be said as a brave child. Totto-Chan is brave enough to talk or ask the older people when she wants to know about something. She does it when she asks ticket collector in the station whether she can take the ticket or not (p.9).

  Besides asking the ticket collector, Totto-Chan is also brave enough to ask something to the headmaster in the new school. She feels very exited when she knows that the school uses railroad cars as a classroom, and she asks the headmaster to be a student at the school.

  With a hasty bow, Totto-Chan asked him spiritedly, “What are you, a

  25 For children, ask such question is embarrassing especially when they just see the other people for the first time. But for Totto-Chan it does not a big thing than knowing who really the headmaster is. She also tells the headmaster that she wants to join his school.“…because I wants to ask you a favour. I’d like to come to your school.” (p.20)

  No one will ask a question to the headmaster in the first meet, but Totto- Chan is really a brave girl and asks that question. Totto-Chan is also brave enough to make request a school song to the headmaster, she gives some advice about the song and also rejects the song the headmaster has made because it does not like the school song from her school before.

  Totto-Chan also has unique character, she never gives up to anything she does. She does not want to give up before she gets or she can reach her purpose. It can be seen when she invites her friend Yashuaki-Chan comes to her tree. Yashuaki-Chan’s arms and legs are weak because of polio, he always finds difficulties to walk but he really wants to come to Totto-Chan’s tree. Totto-Chan tries to help him in climbing her tree but she finds difficulties because of Yashuaki’s condition. Her effort to help her friend can be seen from the quotation below:

  …Totto-Chan realized for the first time that it was going to be more difficult than she had thought. What should she do? She wanted so badly to have Yashuaki-Chan climb to her tree, and he had been looking forward to it so much…

  “Wait! I’ve got an idea!” She ran back to the janitor’s shed and pulled out one thing after another to se if she could find something that would help. She finally discovered a stepladder. It would remain steady so she wouldn’t have top hold it. (p.62)

  26 In that quotation, Totto-Chan is trying to help her friend to reach her friend purpose, she knows that she finds difficulties but she refuses to give up.

  She tries to solve her problem, she tries to find something that will help her. She does not give up until she gets the solution. She also helps Yashuaki-Chan to climb into her tree, she tries to pull Yashuaki-Chan’s body to the tree. It is very dangerous for Totto-Chan, she takes a risk for her life, but she does not realize it.

  The most important thing for her is that Yashuaki-Chan can come to her tree. It can be seeing in the quotation below, If any grown up had seen her standing on the pork of the tree starting to pull Yashuaki-Chan who was lying on his stomach on the stepladder onto the tree, they would have let out a scream. It must have looked terribly precarious. But Yashuaki-Chan trusted Totto-Chan completely. And Totto-Chan was risking her life for him (p.63). The quotation above is not just proven that Totto-Chan never give up in reaching her goal but also she acts without thinking the risk. She just knows that she can reach her goal but not know the risk she has take.

  Totto-Chan as a little girl also has a strong will to be a good girl or a good woman. She tries to be her mother, it happens when her school made a recreation and the children should provide their own meal for their lunch. Totto-Chan try to cook as well as her mother, she imitating what her mother done while cooking (p.137).

  The significant character of Totto-Chan which is shown that she is different from other children is can be shown in this quotation: Having a naturally sunny disposition and being a bit absent-minded gave

  27 B. The Environments of Totto-Chan and its Influences on Toto-Chan’s

  Character Development

1. The Environments of Totto-Chan

  In the second part of analysis, it will describe the environment where Totto-Chan lives and also the influence of the environment toward Totto-Chan psychological development. The description of the environment will be divided into two parts, the first is the family environment and the second is the school, the Tomoe School, where Totto-Chan’s study.

  a. Family Totto-Chan comes from a Japanese family, she was born from a musician father and a housewife mother. Totto-Chan is the only child of the family and she gets all her parent attention. Totto-Chan’s family seems to be a happy family and have everything they need.

  In the novel itself, Totto-Chan father’s character is not describe clearly, but he is clearly characterized as a musician, he plays violin. It can be seen in the quotation below,

  He was the concertmaster of an orchestra, and being a concertmaster meant he played the violin (p.68). From the quotation above, it can be seen Totto-Chan’s father is a good violin player because he becomes a concertmaster and becomes a concertmaster means Totto-Chan’s father shall plays solo. Totto-Chan’s father is also having big

  28 play music that really comes from his heart. He respects his music above all things; he has his own idealism in music. It can be seen in the quotation below,

  Daddy thought for sometime before replying, “I don’t want to play that sort of thing on my violin.” (p. 176) It happens when the war is beginning to happen, and there is not enough food in Japan, foodstuffs rapidly disappeared from the market. This happens too in Totto-Chan’s house, her mother almost cannot give Totto-Chan enough food (p.175). Totto-Chan’s father as a good violin player has been awarded a prestigious musical decoration, he is well known as a violist. He is asked to play popular wartime music on his violin in a munition factory and he will given sugar, rice and other treats that can support his family food needs. After discussing it with his wife, he refuses to play his violin at the munition factory although he does not have much work to do to support his family need. Toto- Chan’s father seems to have his own idealism and it is proved in the quotation below.

  But daddy valued his music even more. Mother knew that, too, and she never urged him to do it… He had had a hard time, but he had refused to give up the violin all the same. (p.176) Thankfully his wife and his daughter, Totto-Chan, understand his idealism. His wife does not urge him to do something that he does not like. Totto-

  Chan has the same thought, she thinks that it is quiet right for her father not to play something that her father does not like.

  29 Besides as a man that has strong idealism in music, Totto-Chan’s father is also characterizing as a good swimmer and diver too. It can be seen from the part when the headmaster asks Totto-Chan to tell her story.

  …how she always blew her nose because Mother scolded her if it was runny, what a good swimmer Daddy was, and how he could dive as well. (p.21) Totto-Chan’s mother can be describes as a woman who has a lot of patience and sense of humour. She always tries to understand her daughter in her easy way. The quotation below as the evident, Mother had plenty of patience as well as a great sense of fun. She put her face close to Totto-Chan and whispered, “Why?”(p.19).

  As a mother who has a lot of patience, Totto-Chan’s mother is never angry when her daughter doing something worrying or something strange, A moment later Mother was startled to see Totto-Chan remove the train pass and hang it around Rocky’s neck instead. “Oh dear…” thought

  Mother, but she decided to say nothing but wait and see what happened (p.25). From the quotation above, it can be seen although Totto-Chan always makes her mother worries, her mother still trust her. With her patience, she believes that Toto-Chan basically is a nice girl.

  b. School School where Totto-Chan enters, Tomoe School, is not like common schools. Actually Totto-Chan has been study in an elementary school near her house but she has been expelled because she cannot pay any attention in studying. She has studied in an elementary school which has common curriculum and run

  30 been expelled, she comes to Tomoe School. This school is different than other schools in Japan; this school does not built like the other school which has building as their rooms, in Tomoe the students studying in railroad cars. This class is really comfortable for the children, the seating arrangement which is free to choose also makes the children comfortable and feel free. It can be seen from the quotation below:

  Totto-Chan went in and sat down at someone’s desk. The wooden chairs resembled those at the other school, but they were so much more comfortable she could sit on them all day. Totto-Chan was so happy and liked the school so much, she made a firm decision to come to school every day and never take any holidays (p.27).

  The most important thing from school is how the lesson and also the teacher can make the children comfortable and also make a certain changing in their life. Tomoe School is really a school that gives all the children needs, not only education in class but also in practice, not only formal lesson such as mathematics or physics but also lesson on real life experience. In Tomoe School the one who really understand about education and about children is the headmaster, Mr. Sosaku Kobayashi, this man is a real educator, he understands the children’s world very well. He builds the Tomoe School because he really wants to create education that builds children both physically and psychologically. He does not want the children seen as a passive subject and only listen; he wants them to be active and can express their mind. It can be seen in the meaning of Tomoe word,

  The tomoe is an ancient comma-shaped symbol, and for his school the

  31 his aim for the children: body and mind equally developed and in perfect harmony (p.79).

2. The Influences of the Environment on Toto-Chan

  a. the influences of the family The family is the first environment that child knows, family gives big influences in a child development, good or bad treatment that the family gives to the child will also gives effects to the child. In the story of Totto-Chan, her parent gives a good attention and treatment to her. Totto-Chan’s mother really understands her daughter very well, she knows that her daughter is different from to other pupils. She really understand that her little daughter cannot get along with other people, she realizes that she should finds a place where her daughter can be given a special attention, therefore her daughter can get along with other people.

  After her daughter being expelled from elementary school, Totto-Chan’s mother tries to find a school that can gives her daughter opportunity to grow normally like other pupils. It can be seen in the quotation below:

  Mother obviously had to do something about it. It wasn’t fair to other pupils. She’d have to find another school, a school where they would understand her little girl and teach her how to get along with other people.

  Realizing that her daughter is different, Totto-Chan’s mother does not tell about what has really happened to her. She does not want her daughter to be upset, therefore she does not tell Totto-Chan that she just being expelled from her school. Mother realizes that Totto-Chan will not understand that what she has done is wrong and mother does not want her daughter to get any complexes.

  32 Chan’s mother tries to make Totto-Chan comfortable with the situation, she does not want her daughter knows that she has been rejected by the teachers and school. She just wants her daughter comfortable and confidence in every situation.

  Totto-Chan’s mother also gives good support for her daughter, besides finding the best school for Totto-Chan, she trusts the headmaster to teach her daughter and belief that her girl can grows as a good girl. It can be seen in the quotation below,

  The headmaster offered her a chair and turned to Mother. “You may go home now. I want to talk to Totto-Chan.”… “Well, then, I’ll leave her with you,” Mother said bravely, and shut the door behind her as she went out (p.20).

  A mother will be worried when she leaves the children alone with other people, but Totto-Chan’s mother does not worry about it. She really trusts the headmaster, and this gives Totto-Chan’s a feeling that she will get along all right with the headmaster.

  Parents also give influence to their children development. Not only gives loves, cares, and many good things, but they also teach children in many ways.

  Totto-Chan’s parents not only gives loves, attention and cares but they also give their daughter opportunity to feel lost of something important for her. It is happens when Totto-Chan asks them to buy her baby chicks, she really wants it although her mother says that the baby chicks will die soon. Her father also tells her that the baby chicks are terribly weak and will not live long. They have warned her and tell her the risk when she buys the baby chicks, but Totto-Chan

  33 has Totto-Chan’s parents said begins to be real, one by one her baby chick dies, and this becomes her very first experience of lost and separate (p.82-84). Although Totto-Chan’s parents gives her opportunity to feel lost of something important for her, they never want to make their daughter sad, they feel difficult to tell something that will makes Totto-Chan very sad. It is happened when Totto- Chan comes back from Kamakura where she has spent her summer holiday, she looks for Rocky, her dog, but she cannot finds the dog, then she asks her mother but her mother answer that rocky has disappears just after Totto-Chan left for Kamakura. Her mother seems at a loss of words and tries to finds some words to make Totto-Chan understand that her dog has died. Then Totto-Chan knows what has happened and she can understand her mother feelings, it can be seen in the quotation below:

  Then the truth dawned on Totto-Chan. Rocky must have died. “Mother doesn’t want me to be sad,” she thought, “but Rocky’s dead… But Totto-Chan did not discuss it with Mother. She knew how Mother must feel (p182).

  The other influences that Totto-Chan’s mother gives to Totto-Chan is that she shall be nice to other children, she shall not to tell something bad to other children for any reasons. Toto-Chan’s mother teaches her that every child is just the same whatever their nationality, she shall not yell to other children just because they come from different country. It is happens because of a Korean boy has shouted a bad word to Totto-Chan, he shout her “Korean” with a hatred voice Totto-Chan feels scared because she does not know the reason. Totto-Chan feels that it is not right, she tells her mother about the bad word and her mother cries,

  34 not to say the word to other child. Here, Totto-Chan’s mother gives her an understanding about equality and race discrimination, she does not want her daughter becomes a person who sees peoples from their differences, and it can be seen from the quotation below: “You’re Japanese and Masao-Chan comes from a country called Korea.

  But he’s a child, just like you. So, Totto-Chan, dear don’t ever think of people as different. Don’t think, “That person’s a Japanese, or this person’s a Korean.” Be nice to Masao-Chan. It’s sad that some people think other people aren’t nice because they’re Koreans”(p.117).

  Although it is little bit difficult for Totto-Chan to understand but she knows that she just the same as Masao-Chan, they are all children.

  Besides giving understanding about equality, Totto-Chan’s mother also gives her daughter opportunity to try something new, to get new experience or to choose an activity which her daughter likes. She just accept all her daughter request without asking any question, when Totto-Chan wants to go a dance school her mother just make arrangement and take her daughter to the studio although Totto-Chan then stops her dance lesson just because she cannot dance like the swan lake dance. It is proved in the quotation below:

  Mother never told Totto-Chan that she must do this or must do that, but when Totto-Chan wanted to do something, she would agree, and, without asking all sorts of questions, she would go ahead and make the arrangements (p.131).

  b. The Influence of School The school is the second environment which a child knows, from this environment children can learn many things which is worth for their life. Totto-

  35 Her new school, Tomoe School, has a different education system. This school has unusual system in educating the children. Schools normally have schedule in the subjects, one lesson comes after the other, but in Tomoe the teacher just makes a list of all the problems and questions in the subjects to be studied, and then the teacher will ask the students to start the lessons with choosing one lesson they really like (p.29). This method of teaching enabled the teacher to observe the students in what they are interested in as well as their way of thinking and their character. From this method the teacher can observe the students progress to higher grades. For the students themselves, they able to start their favourite subject and they can cope the subjects they dislike all day, it means they can manage their time to finish all the subjects. It can be said that it is an independent study; the students are free to go and consult to the teacher whenever necessary.

  The teacher, off course will come to them if they want, and will give them explanation in every single problem until it is understood. The students will be given exercises to work alone, it means that there are no students just sitting inattentively while the teacher talks and explains.

  The other advantage of this method is that the children will not feel disturb although other children make some noise. They are trained to concentrate.

  This is proved when Tomoe has a new library, the headmaster has made a new train car as a library, there are rows which are filled with books of all kinds and colours. There are desks and chairs where children can sit and read. Some children are reading and some are singing while they are drawing, no body angry

  36 where the children allowed to work on their subjects in any order they pleased and it will be awkward if the children let themselves be disturbed by what others are doing (p.124-125). Children have good concentration, therefore no body paid any attention to child singing aloud while drawing some pictures.

  Totto-Chan’s new school is unusual because the building is not build like common school but using railroad car as the classroom. The seating arrangement is also unusual, at the public school each student is assigned a specific desk, but in Tomoe the students are allowed to sit anywhere they like at any time (p. 28- 29). This method can make the student knowing all their friends, it can be seen in the quotation below,

  Takahashi went in gaily, swinging the little body that was hidden almost hidden by his bag, and sat down in the front row. Totto-Chan hurriedly sat down next to him. She was glad you could sit anywhere you liked. She didn’t want to leave him. Thus, Takahashi became one of her friends, too (p.89).

  The other advantage from the seating arrangement which is allowing the children to choose the chair in class is that they feel not too sad when someone has gone from the class. When one of Totto-Chan’s classmate, Yasuaki-Chan, passed away, the class feels really sad for a long time, but the fact that the seats which not assigned that helps them not to feel so sad (p.171).

  Another teaching system which is gives influence for Tomoe children is the school walks program. After the children have completing the tasks that the teacher has listed in the blackboard, they are generally allowed to go for a walk in the afternoon. They walk all together with their teacher. Totto-Chan is also

  37 Kuhonbutsu temple. Along the way to the temple, the teacher explains about how the flowers bloom, about pistils and stamens, she also explains about how butterflies help flowers to bloom (p.38). The children themselves are listening to the explanation and also examine in all the teacher has explained. They all are examining the flowers along the way to Kuhonbutsu temple, Totto-Chan and all of her friends sure that pistils and stamens are very important. This school walk program is not only a time to walk and play but actually a study about the nature

  Little did the children realize then that these walks – a time of freedom and play for them – were in reality precious lessons in science, history, and biology (p.39). There is a rule that the headmaster gives to all of Tomoe children which gives good influence, they should bring lunch from home which contain of

  ‘something from the ocean and something fro the hills.’ This phrase is adopted to describe a balance meal, it means that the food is a combines menu, something from the ocean means sea food and something from the hills means food from the land like vegetables, beef, pork and chicken. This is an easy rule for the children’s parents, they will not get confused or worried about how to make lunch for their children and the children will not reject or refuse the meals their mother has make. The headmaster points out that children’s mother should not think to hard to fulfil the two requirements, it can be seen in the quotation below:

  No one would have dreamed of saying, “I don’t like fish rolls,” any more than thinking what a fine lunch so-and-so has or what a miserable lunch poor so-and-so always brigs. The children’s only concern was whether they had satisfied the two requirements – the ocean and the hills – and if so their joy was complete and they were all in good spirit (p.33).

  38 The other influence that Tomoe-school gives to Totto-chan is that this school gives sex education although just in a small part of it and also teaches the children not to feel inferior because of their handicap body. The headmaster of the school, Mr. Kobayashi, has own view on this education. It is happens when the students in Tomoe have a time to swim in the swimming pool on the ground. Totto-Chan worries because she does not bring a swimsuit, but the headmaster says that it is not a big problem if she does not wear a swimsuit. The headmaster just says to see and follow the older children in the assembly hall. Therefore Totto-Chan follows the other and sees that the other children just take off their clothes as they will go to bath. They are all naked, so Totto-Chan takes off her clothes and run to the swimming pool (p.54).

  The headmaster of the school, Mr. Kobayashi, has own thought about swimming naked. He thinks that it is not right for boys and girls to morbidly curious about the differences in their bodies, and he thinks it is unnatural for people to take such pains to hide their bodies from each other. The headmaster wants to teach the children that all bodies are beautiful although they are handicapped. The headmaster also believes that knowing about sex differences is natural for the children.

  The idea of camping in the school also gives influence for Totto-Chan. It is because this program is her very first time to sleep outside her house, far from her parents and relatives. Although Totto-Chan feels little bit frightened, but she feels that camping is like tremendous adventure. The headmaster thinks that it can

  39 (p.58). The idea of bravery test is also important for children especially for Totto- Chan, it makes them will not feel afraid of ghosts.

  The school arrangement or policy which is made by the headmaster also makes the children having good personality. The headmaster always asks parents to send their children to school in their worst clothes. He wants them to wear their worst clothes, so that it will not be a matter if the clothes get muddy and torn. The headmaster thinks that it will be a shame for children to worry about being scolded if their clothes get torn. The Tomoe children come to school in their ordinary clothes, and they have their teacher’s permission to play as they like without giving their clothes a thought (p.84). It proves that the headmaster has highest understanding in children thinking. He does not want his students get scolded because of the dirty clothes; he gives freedom to every child to play as they like. This policy is very useful for Totto-Chan who has a unique behaviour, crawling under the fences of other people’s garden which is made by barbed wire because this game makes all of her dress torn.

  The headmaster also gives good influences to the children in talking in front of other people; he wants his children to learn to speak better. In Japanese tradition, children usually taught at home not to talk in mealtimes but the headmaster has his own thought. The headmaster uses to encourage his pupils to take plenty of time over their meals and enjoy conversation. He also thinks that it is essential for the children to learn how to get up in front of people and express their ideas clearly and freely without being embarrassed. It can be seen in the

  40 “That’s splendid. That will do. You got up this morning. You’ve made everyone understand that. You don’t have to be amusing or make people laugh to be a good speaker. The important thing is that you said you hadn’t anything to talk about and you did find something to say” (p.95).

  The headmaster also creates few games for sport day in Tomoe, only two games which are same with other school. The headmaster creates the carp race.

  This game is to make children organize their body by crawling in the carp streamers and also organize their mind to have good concentration so they will not loose their direction. The other games called find a mother race, this game is created to make children try to find or to call other people and to be brave. The prize which is given to the winner is also amusing, the headmaster gives the student various vegetables, the first prize is a giant radish, second is two burdock roots, and the third is a bundle of spinach. Totto-Chan thinks that all schools in Japan also give vegetables as the prizes on sport day, but actually in those days most schools give notebook, pencils and eraser for the prizes. The Tomoe children do not know about this thing, but they also feel not too happy with the vegetables. They feel embarrassed to bring the vegetables in the train on the way back home. Totto-Chan feels the same too, she gets some burdock roots and some onions. The headmaster then explains that he just want to make the children proud of themselves because they can provide food for their family by their own effort.

  Besides creating new games and giving the vegetables as the prize the headmaster also teaches on respecting other especially respecting girls. Mr.

  Kobayashi teaches the boys to respect and take care of girls. This is happens when Totto-Chan cries and tells the headmaster that her classmates, Oe, has pulls

  41 stands in front of her, he asks for apologize because he has pulled her pigtails. Oe says that the headmaster has scolded him, the headmaster says that Oe shall be nice to girl, to be gentle and look after them (p.120). This is a new perspective for Totto-Chan knows, it seems strange for her but she thinks that it is nice to be looked after. In that time boys are in the “first place”, in everything they should be served first. Only boys were given respect. Boys are always the important ones. Totto-Chan knows that that in a family where there are lots of children, it is always boys who are served first at meals and snack time, and when girls speak, their mother will says that little girl just should be seen and not heard.

  Mr. Kobayashi, the headmaster, does not only give education in room but also give the practice. One of the practice lessons is farming, the headmaster takes the children to a farm near their school. He asks the farmer to teach the children how to plant a field. The farmer tells the children to get spades and hoes from the car and starts them on weeding. The farmer tells all about weeds, how to the weeds grow, about the insects, birds and butterflies, about the weather and all of things. The children themselves also planting the field, they always make the report how well their crops grow. In this case, the headmaster gives example of a process to be something, he wants the children to understand that something they have not comes instantly but it has a process to be done, he also wants the children know that to study is not only in room but also in everywhere. It can be seen below:

  At an ordinary school, anyone who taught the children anything would probably have to have teaching qualifications, but Mr. Kobayashi didn’t

  42 The headmaster also teaches other practice lesson, he teaches them how to cook, the process of cooking. This happens when the children are going to Thunder canyon, the headmaster tells them that they will cook out at that place. The children should bring all that needed in cooking soup and rice. This is a new experience for Totto-Chan, she observes how her mother cook, how to use knife, how to hold a pot and how to serve the rice. When the day of cooking field comes, the children are divided into groups, they also divided the job that should be done, some dugs the hole and makes stove from the bricks, some gathering the firewood in the forest, some others go off to wash the rice and others are to cut up the vegetables (p.139-140). Here, the children not only learn how to cook, the process of making something, but also learn how to cooperate in doing the task before they can get something. Children themselves are hardly watching something cooking or how to regulate the heat. They just eat what has put on the table. The joy of cooking something by themselves and seeing the various changes from the ingredients is a whole new experience for Totto-Chan and her friends.

  The school program such as going to hot spring is also gives influence in Totto-Chan development. On the summer holiday the headmaster has send letter for the student’s parents that the children will have a summer vacation in a hot spring. That will be a three days two nights trip and they will go by train and ship. All of Tomoe children and teachers will be gathered in this trip. The idea of this trip is to make children being independent and tolerant. The trip is a lesson to be

  43 and also they should prepare and do the household by themselves. This trip is a real life experience; it can be seen in the quotation below:

  Toi spa was a real-life experience. For example, they were sent to buy vegetables and fish for dinner, and when strangers asked them what school they went to and where they were from, they had to answer politely (p.74). The Tomoe children also learn to be tolerant to other children. They try to help each other when somebody is in trouble or gets accident, it is happen when some children are nearly get lost in the woods, or the others re swim so far and they cannot get back and makes everyone worry, or other children who get accident because their feet cut by broken glass on the beach. In every case the children are become so tolerant, they try to make the best to help the other who get accident (p.74).

  Besides gives the lesson in practice, the headmaster also teaches children in music, this lesson not only teach children on writing the rhythms but also teach them not to make graffiti on other people’s walls or on the road. It is because the children have opportunity for doing it at school. In their music periods in the assembly halls, the headmaster will gives each child a piece of white chalk, they can sit or lay everywhere and write the music notation in the floor while the headmaster playing the piano. The headmaster thinks that paper is not big enough and there are not enough blackboards to write. Therefore the floor will make a nice big blackboard on which children can note the rhythm as large as they like. The children also can draw everything in the floor, sometimes they will join up their drawings just for fun and the whole floor will becomes one enormous

  44 music. Besides learning how to write the rhythms, the children also learn how to be responsible; it is because after the music periods they shall to wipe the floor with a blackboard eraser then everyone will join to clean the floor with mops and rags, it is an enormous task for them. This is the way the Tomoe children never make graffiti on other people’s walls or street, it can be seen in the quotation below:

  In this way Tomoe children learned what trouble cleaning off graffiti could be, so they never scribbled anywhere except the floor of the assembly hall. Moreover, this class took place about twice a week, so the children had their fill of scribbling (p.168).

  The most important thing is that Tomoe children become real expert on chalk, which kind is best is how to hold it, how to manipulate it for the best results and how not to break it.

  Besides teaches music in all class, the headmaster, Mr. Kobayashi is also teaches the eurhythmics, this is a special kind of rhythmic education devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze. Mr. Kobayashi learnt from him about the eurhythmic. Dalcroze spent a long time wondering how children can be teach to hear and feel music in their minds rather than just with their ears, how to make them feel music as a thing of movement rather than a dull, lifeless subjects, how to awaken a child’s sensitivity (p.26). Mr. Kobayashi teaches this lesson to all Tomoe children, for the headmaster, eurhythmics is a sport that refines the body’s mechanism, a sport that teaches the mind how to use and control the body a sport that enables the body and mind to understand rhythm. According the headmaster practicing eurhythmics makes the children personality rhythmical, and a

  45 of nature (p.77). The children really enjoy this lesson, although it is difficult for the first time but later they can enjoy themselves on the rhythm and on the move. The purpose of eurhythmics is to train body and mind to be conscious of rhythm to achieve harmony between the spirit and the flesh, awakening the imagination and promoting creativity (p.79).

  

3. The Character Development of Totto-Chan as a Result of the Environment

Influences

  As a hyperactive child, Totto-Chan always makes troubles and cannot sit for a long time. She likes to talk and run, but after moving to Tomoe School her behaviour has changes. Totto-Chan can sit properly and works like other children. She does not call for street musician anymore, she becomes polite and do everything properly. It is proved when the children of Tomoe School are going to a hot spring. All of Tomoe children are going to this trip, they are travelling by train and ship. The headmaster only gives one instruction that he does not want if any of them will get lost, but the children are understand this instruction, they all are well behaved. No body run up and down the cars, they are only talking quietly to the friend next to them. They never told to be quit on the train or walk in line but their daily school life somehow instilled into them, that they must not push people smaller or weaker than themselves. They understand that unruly behaviour is something to be ashamed of, and when they come across litter they have to pick it up. They also learn to try not do anything that will annoy or disturb others. This is learnt by all of Tomoe children, especially Totto-Chan who always makes troubles before she comes to Tomoe, it can be seen in the quotation below: Strangest of all was that Totto-Chan, who only a few months before had been upsetting her whole school by talking to street musician out of the window in the middle of class, stayed at her desk and did her lessons properly from the very day she started at Tomoe. If any of the teachers from the other school could have seen her now, sitting properly with the other in the train, they would have said, “It must be someone else!”(p.72). Totto-Chan grows to be a nice girl, she is not the girl that standing in the window and waiting for the street musician anymore. She is a good girl who can make friends with all of the older boys and girls and not only friends in her own class. She grows to like Tomoe Gakuen ever more after the Tomoe vacation (p.94).

  Totto-Chan also grows to be a well behave girl, she learn to be tolerant to other people especially to people who is weaker than herself, it can be seen from the quotation below:

  Totto-Chan realized that while Takahashi didn’t drag legs like Yasuaki- Chan, who had polio, he was taking the same amount of time to get to the train. She quietly waited for him (p.99).

  .

  The school arrangements has make Totto-Chan’s develop, she really like the school of Tomoe, she really enjoy in going to school and learn many new things, it is proved from he quotation below:

  It had been an eventful year for Totto-Chan, and she had eagerly looked forward to every single morning of it. She still liked street musician, but she had learned to like many, many more things around her. The little girl who had been expelled for being a nuisance had grown into a child worthy of Tomoe (p.129). Totto-Chan can be a good girl in many ways; she is kind to every one,

  46

  47 children from other schools said cruel things, she will fight them, even tough it will end with her crying (p.141). She will do everything to care for any injured animals she finds, because the headmaster always tells the children not to tease animals, he said that it will be so cruel to betray the animals when the animals has trust the children (p.183). Totto-Chan herself also learns from her own dog, Rocky, she really loves her dog although rocky has bits her ear, she trust rocky and never wants to loose her dog, rocky is her best friend.

  Totto-Chan grows as a nice little girl, she has a polite manner, and she thinks that it is easy to make friends as long as she can say “thank you”. This is happens when Totto-Chan and her parent are going to skiing to Shiga Highlands, there are so many foreigners who come to skiing. Totto-Chan father has taught her how to say an English word “Thank you”, and she practices it in every single moment. Some foreigners sometimes say something about Totto-Chan that Totto- Chan herself does not understand, but she tries bobbing her head and say “Thank you.” When a lady put her cheeks against Totto-Chan’s cheeks or a gentleman hug her, she will say “Thank you.” She thinks that it is a great fun to be able to make such friends with people just by saying, “Thank you” (p.122).

  Totto-Chan also grows to be tolerant or understanding other people difficulties. The example of this understanding is when her headmaster, Mr.

  Kobayashi asks about the hair ribbon that Totto-Chan wears, he asks for the shop where Totto-Chan has buy the ribbon. Totto-Chan explains that her ribbon is not bought from the shop but it is given by her aunt which taken from her aunt’s old

  48 classmate, Miyo-Chan, asks her father to buy the same ribbon likes Totto-Chan’s ribbon but her father cannot find it. The headmaster then asks Totto-Chan not to wear her ribbon again because Miyo-Chan will keep pestering. Totto-Chan agrees not to wear the ribbon again, she feels rather sorry but her headmaster is in trouble. Another reason from Totto-Chan is that the thought of a grown-up man who is her beloved headmaster searching in all ribbon shop makes her sorry for him. She does not want her headmaster feels sorry too because he can not find the ribbon for her daughter. So she decides not to wear the ribbon again. This decision is also coming from the lesson which Totto-Chan gets from her school, it can be seen from the quotation below:

  That was the way it was at Tomoe. Without realizing it, everyone got in the habit of understanding one another’s problems and trying to help, irrespective of age. It became the natural thing to do (p.150). The other example of Totto-Chan understanding on other people difficulties can be seen in her own life. At those time war has already begins so many are sent to the battle and foodstuffs rapidly disappeared, Totto-Chan knows about this problem too. Her father as a violin player is scarcely plying his violin in concert during the war time. Although Totto-Chan’s father has been ask to play his violin in a munitions factory and he can get foodstuffs, he refuses this request.

  Totto-Chan’s father values his music and his violin, he does not want to play such popular wartime music. Totto-Chan’s mother understands this and does not urge her husband to do it. Totto-Chan’s father feels sorry and asks apologize to Totto- Chan because he can not served food for his daughter (p.176). Totto-Chan is too

  49 really loves his violin. Therefore it does not matter for her if she will not get good food. The quotation below proves that Totto-Chan can understand other people difficulties:

  So Totto-Chan thought it quite right for him not to play something he didn’t like. Totto-Chan skipped about around Daddy and said cheerfully, “I don’t mind. Because I love your violin, too”(p.176). From the explanations above, we can see that Totto-Chan has developed herself. She becomes more tolerant and understands other people difficulties.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The study finds out that the character of Totto-Chan develops as the

  influence of her environment, her family, her father and mother who always support her and try to give the best for her, and the school especially the studying system which gives her much knowledge through the lessons inside and outside the class.

  First, the study finds out the describing of Totto-Chan’s character, she describes as hyperactive child, and she always makes trouble for herself and for her surroundings. She feels that she is different from other children. Her behaviors have made her teacher and her friends from her first school annoyed. Totto-Chan also has a unique character, she is a talkative child, she can talk everything if she is asked to talk. She has big curiosity in something strange for her, she also never gives up in doing something and brave but she has a strong will to be a good girl. All of Totto-Chan’s character description is the answer of the first problem.

  Second, the study finds out that the environment, the family and school, are giving much influences for Totto-Chan development. Totto-Chan grows in a normal family, her parents can provide good things for their daughter, Totto- Chan’s parent gives all the child needs, they really understand their child very well, and they understand that their child is different from other children. Besides gives good cares for Totto-Chan, her parent is also gives her opportunity to feel a

  51 understanding about equality and race discrimination, her mother also gives her opportunity to try something new, gets new experience or new activity she likes. The school environment also gives big influences for Totto-Chan development, the building and the method in studying makes Totto-Chan comfortable to study, studying in practice is also makes Totto-Chan develops, she gets new experience on how to cooperate with others and also how to have good behavior. The most important thing is that the practice is become a real life experience for the children. The Tomoe School has gives and provides all children needs. From the influencing of the environment, ca be seen the development of Totto-Chan, from a hyperactive child she turns to be polite girl, she tries not to annoy or disturb other people and doing something properly. She has a good manner, she becomes helpful and tolerant to other people. She cares about other people and she can understand on other people difficulties.

  

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  Abrams, M H. Glossary of Literary Terms. Florida: Holt, Rinehart and Wiston.Inc, 1985. Berk, Laura E. Child Development. Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon, 1984. Craig, Grace J. Child Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1979. Crow, Lester & Alice Crow. Child Psychology. New York: Barnes & Noble, Inc, 1958. Daphne, Mini Review: Totto-Chan, September 09 2005. http://daphne.blogs.com/books/2005/09/mini_review_tot.html

  Davidson, Gerald C and John M. Neale. Abnormal Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1996. Forster, E. M. Aspect of the Novel. London: Edward Arnold and Co, 1927. Gessel, Arnold MD & Frances L. ILG MD. Child From Five to Ten. New York: Harper & Brothers Publisher, 1946. Henkle, Roger B. Reading the Novel: An Introduction to the techniques of

Interpreting Fiction . New York: Harper & Row, Publisher, Inc, 1977.

Hetherington, A Mavis & Ross D Parke. Child Psychology A Contemporary

  Viewpoint . Boston: Mc Graw-Hill, 1986

  Jersild, Arthur T. Child Psychology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1954 Kuroyanagi, Tetsuko. Totto-Chan The Little Girl at the Window. Trans. Dorothy Britton. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1996.

  Muhammad, Gunawan. Catatan Pinggir 2. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 1989. Perrine, Laurence. Literature, Structure, Sound and Sense. New York: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc, 1974.

  Rohrberger, Mary – Samuel H. Woods Jr. Reading and Writing About Literature.

  New York: Random House, 1971. Schiamberg, Lawrence – U Karl Smith. Human Development. New York:

  53 Van de Laar, E. and N. Schoonderwoerd. An Approach to English Literature. ‘S- Hertogenbosch: L. C. G. Malmberg, 1958.

  Watson, Robert I – Clay Henry Lidgren. Psychology of the Child. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inc, 1973.

  Webster encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language , 1989.

  http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=2118

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