A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education

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  READING STRATEGIES OF NON-ENGLISH DEPARTMENT STUDENTS A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Education By S. MULAT ANDRIYANI 981214062 ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2007

  I dedicate this thesis to

  

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY

I honestly declare that this thesis which I wrote does not contain the works or

part of the works of other people, except those cited in the quotations and

bibliography, as a scientific paper should. th Yogyakarta, 16 January 2007

  

S. Mulat Andriyani

  

ABSTRACT

Andriyani, S. Mulat. 2007. Reading Strategies of non-English Department Students.

  Yogyakarta: English Education Study Program, Sanata Dharma University.

  Strategies are important tools to gain the success of reading comprehension. They help the readers read effectively and efficiently since strategies can reduce the difficulties which occur in their reading.

  The aim of this research was to find out the patterns of strategies used in reading English texts. This research was carried out on the ground that to comprehend their compulsory books written in English, non-English department students use different strategies. There was a question asked in this research. The question was: what the participants’ patterns of strategies in reading English text are.

  This research was qualitative with three participants to find out the patterns of strategies in English reading tests. This research used three instruments to get the data. They were observation, tests, and interview. The observation was done to identify the participants’ activities during doing the tests. The tests were done to identify their reading comprehension. The tests were written tests. There were six written tests given. Each written test consisted of a text and questions. The questions related to identify title, locate main idea, and draw conclusion. The interview was done to get information on the strategies. The interview was what the participants did to comprehend the texts contain. The interview was conducted after the participants did each test.

  The analysis result presented the data resulted from interview, observation, tests, and other data that are considered important for the research. The result of the analysis shows that: The participants used certain patterns to comprehend the reading texts. The patterns were: first, they read the text between the lines. Second, they consulted dictionary. The last, they reread the text to make sure their comprehension. Other findings showed that: (1) the three participants had different comprehension level. It could be seen from the data that Participant 1 was the best among the participants, Participant 2 was better than Participant 3, (2) it was found out that the participants did not master the grammar well, (3) the participants’ did not also master vocabulary well, but they tried to answer the questions using their own words, and (4) the participants were not careful in writing the vocabulary. This research recommended the students to use various and suitable strategies, since they can facilitate their reading comprehension.

  

ABSTRAK

  Andriyani, S. Mulat. 2007. Strategi-strategi membaca oleh mahasiswa program non-

Bahasa Inggris. Yogyakarta: Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

  Strategi-strategi adalah alat yang penting untuk berhasil dalam pemahaman membaca. Mereka menolong pembaca untuk membaca secara efektif dan efisien karena strategi-strategi bisa mengurangi kesulitan-kesulitan yang timbul saat mereka membaca.

  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui strategi-strategi dalam pemahaman membaca teks berbahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini dikembangkan atas dasar bahwa untuk memahami buku acuan yang ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris, siswa non- program bahasa Inggris menggunakan strategi-strategi. Ada sebuah pertanyaan yang ditanyakan dalam penelitian ini. Pertanyaan tersebut adalah: pola-pola strategi apa yang digunakan siswa dalam memahami teks berbahasa Inggris.

  Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kwalitatif dengan tiga partisipan untuk mengetahui strategi-strategi dan pemahaman membaca bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga alat dalam memperoleh data. Alat-alat tersebut adalah pengamatan, tes-tes, dan wawancara. Pengamatan dilakukan untuk mengetahui kegiatan kegiatan apa yang dilakukan oleh para partisipan selama mengerjakan tes. Tes-tes dilakukan untuk mengetahui pemahan membaca bahasa inggris mereka. Tes- tes tersebut berupa tes tertulis. Ada enam test tertulis yang diberikan. Tiap tes terdiri dari sebuah teks dan pertanyaan-pertanyaan. Wawancara dilakukan untuk memperoleh informasi tentang strategi. Wawancara tersebut adalah tentang apa yang para partisipan lakukan untuk memahami isi bacaan tersebut. Wawancara tersebut dilakukan setelah para participan selesai mengerjakan tiap tes.

  Hasil analisa membicarakan tentang data yang diperoleh dari wawancara, observasi, tes-tes, dan data-data lain yang penting untuk penelitian ini. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa: para partisipan menggunakan pola-pola tertentu untuk memahami teks berbahasa Inggris. Pola tersebut adalah: pertama, mereka membaca teks sekilas. Kedua, mereka membuka kamus. Terakhir, mereka membaca kembali teks untuk memastikan pemahaman. Penemuan lain menunjukkan bahwa: (1) ketiga partisipan mempunyai tingkat kemampuan pemahamn membaca yang berbeda. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari data bahwa kemampuan membaca Partisipan 1 yang terbaik dari ketiganya, Partisipan 2 lebih baik daripada Partisipan 3, (2) diketahui bahwa para partisipan tidak menguasai tata bahasa dengan baik, (3) para partisipan juga tidak menguasai kosakata dengan baik, tapi mereka berusaha untuk menjawab pertanyaan dengan menggunakan bahasa mereka sendiri, dan (4) para partisipan tidak teliti dalm menulis kosakata. Penelitian ini merekomendasikan agar siswa-siswa untuk penggunaan strategi secara bervariasi dan tepat, karena strategi-strategi tersebut dapat mambantu pemahaman bacaan mereka.

  

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  I would like to express my sincere gratitude to those people who have assisted me in a variety of ways during my study and those who have contributed a lot to the accomplishment of this thesis.

  First of all, I am grateful to my Lord Jesus Christ for His everlasting blessing, love, and talents so that I was able to finish this thesis. This completion of this thesis has required hard efforts and taken a lot of energy, and it would not have been possible without the assistances of others. Therefore, I would like to acknowledge my greatest gratitude to Ag. Hardy Prasetyo, S.Pd., M.A., my sponsor for spending his time to correct my thesis.

  My greatest gratitude is expressed also to Dr. J. Bismoko who has kindly spent his precious time guiding, advising, correcting me to finish this thesis, and who has provided me with valuable and helpful comments to improve my thesis.

  I would also like to express my greatest gratitude to Th. Astanti Rorik W., S.Pd., M.Ed. for her patience and willingness to read and correct this thesis and for her help in giving ideas and comments.

  My appreciation goes to all the members of the lecturing staff of the English Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University who had guided and taught me, and to all secretariat and library staff for their warm and kind help.

  I would like to thank to my friends, PBI ’98: Dewi, Sari, Cathy, Nana, Inang and Lis for the fun time being together. My deepest gratitude is dedicated to my beloved parents, Bapak, Ibuk, for their love, encouragement, and being patient, to my sisters: Mbak Nining, Mbak Lus,

  Mbak Kanti for their love and support.

  My deepest gratitude also goes to Albertus Iwan Setiyanto, my dearly beloved husband, for being patient and giving support, help, care, and greatest love to me, and also to Christophorus Indriawan Wibisono, my dearest cute little son, for bringing cheerfulness to my life. He is my amazing grace that God gives to me. Both of them complete my happiness and are my biggest spirit. I love them both so much.

  S. Mulat Andriyani

  

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  TITLE PAGE ................................................................................................. i PAGE OF APPROVAL ................................................................................ ii PAGE OF ACCEPTANCE ........................................................................... iii PAGE OF DEDICATION ............................................................................ iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY .............................................................. v ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ vi

  

ABSTRAK ...................................................................................................... vii

  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............................................................................. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................. ix LIST OF TABLES ......................................................................................... xii

  

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................. 1

A. Background .......................................................................................... 1 B. Problem Identification ........................................................................... 3 C. Limitation of the Research .................................................................... 4 D. Research Questions ............................................................................... 4 E. Research Objectives .............................................................................. 4 F. Research Benefits ................................................................................. 5 G. Definition of Terms .............................................................................. 5

  CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW ................................................... 7 A. Theoretical Discussion ........................................................................... 7

  1. Strategies ............................................................................................ 7

  a. Types of Strategies ...................................................................... 7

  b. The Importance of Strategies .................................................... 11

  2. Reading .............................................................................................. 13

  a. Nature .......................................................................................... 13

  b. Comprehension ........................................................................... 17

  3. Non-English Students ....................................................................... 23

  4. Strategies and Reading comprehension in EAP .................................. 25

  B. Theoretical Framework ........................................................................... 26

  CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY .............................................................. 29 A. Method .................................................................................................... 29 B. Procedures and Data Acquisition and Analysis ........................................ 29 C. Research Participants ............................................................................... 30 D. Research Instruments ............................................................................. 30 E. Data Recording ...................................................................................... 32

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULT ....................................................... 33

A. Data from Interview ................................................................................. 33

  1. Data Presentation ................................................................................ 33

  a. Participant 1 ................................................................................. 33

  c. Participant 3 ................................................................................. 34

  2. Data Interpretation............................................................................... 34

  a. Reading Between the Lines .......................................................... 34

  b. Detailed Reading ......................................................................... 34

  c. Consulting Dictionary .................................................................. 35

  d. Translation ................................................................................... 35

  e. Marking ....................................................................................... 35

  f. Taking Note ................................................................................. 35

  g. Connecting to Knowledge of the World ....................................... 35

  h. Connecting Sentences .................................................................. 36 i. Guessing ...................................................................................... 36 j. Rereading .................................................................................... 37

  B. Data from Observation ............................................................................. 37

  C. Data from Tests ........................................................................................ 37

  1. Data Presentation ................................................................................ 37

  2. Data Interpretation .............................................................................. 38

  a. Text 1 .......................................................................................... 38

  b. Text 2 ......................................................................................... 39

  c. Text 3 .......................................................................................... 40

  d. Text 4 ......................................................................................... 41

  e. Text 5 ........................................................................................ 42

  f. Text 6 ......................................................................................... 43

  D. Other Data ................................................................................................ 44

  CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS.................... 46 A. Conclusions ............................................................................................. 46 B. Other Findings ......................................................................................... 47 C. Recommendations .................................................................................... 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................... 49 APPENDICES ............................................................................................... 51 APPENDIX 1: Test Materials .......................................................................

  52 APPENDIX 2: Interview of Participant 1........................................................

  61 APPENDIX 3: Interview Interpretation of Participant 1 ................................

  65 APPENDIX 4: Observation on Participant 1 ...................................................

  69 APPENDIX 5: Interview of Participant 2 .....................................................

  71 APPENDIX 6: Interview Interpretation of Participant 2 .................................

  75 APPENDIX 7: Observation on Participant 2 .................................................

  78 APPENDIX 8: Interview of Participant 3 ...................................................... 80 APPENDIX 9: Interview Interpretation of Participant 3 ...............................

  84 APPENDIX 10: Observation on Participant 3 ...............................................

  87

  

LIST OF TABLES

  1. Table 4.1 The results of reading tests …………………………………… 37

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This chapter purposes to clarify the research questions. Therefore, it discusses

  the background of the research, problem identification, limitation of the research, research questions, research objectives, benefits, and definition of the terms.

A. Background

  When one reads a text, he or she tries to get the ideas of the text. Reading does not merely know each word in the text, but it needs one’s text comprehension.

  Comprehension is the product of reading. One needs strategies to facilitate successful comprehension. Reading strategy is a mental process that a reader consciously chooses to use in accomplishing reading tasks (Cohen, 1990: 83). Strategies help the reader to meet successful reading and to reduce the difficulties that occur in the reading activities.

  Reading in a second language is not only done by students of the English program. Students of non-English Programs also require reading their textbooks written in English. It is not easy since English is a foreign language or second language. We are quite sure that reading in a native language is much easier than in a second language since we have mastered its vocabulary and structure of our own language. On the other hand, reading in a second language is difficult. It demands enough knowledge of the target language which has a different system from the native language. The lack of vocabulary, structure, and other knowledge cannot influenced by one’s mother tongue. Sometimes, reader uses his mother tongue structure in reading English. Sartinah (1988: 34) states that “to express oneself in a foreign language is an impossible thing if it is combined with the way of thinking in one’s mother tongue”. Reading ability is individual because each person has different reading ability. Reading ability refers to what extent the process is well developed and the result is achieved. According to Davis as cited in Smith and Johnson (1980: 13), one can have good reading comprehension when she or he has the ability to find the main thought of passage and to draw inferences from the passage that determine the writer’s attitude purpose. Those two abilities then will be mentioned as comprehension in this research if the participants master them. There are three abilities, those are the elements of comprehension, will be discussed in this research. Besides the two abilities above that are ability to find the main thought of passage or then will be mentioned as the ability to locate main idea and ability to draw inferences from the passage or then will mentioned as the ability to draw conclusion, there is also ability to identify title.

  Reading comprehension is the ability to make sense of printed symbols by coordinating emotional, cognitive and psychomotor abilities to understand the meaning of the text that is being read, and reading strategy is a mental process that the reader consciously chooses to use in accomplishing reading task. Reading cannot be separated from strategies in that they facilitate the reader to read more effective and efficient. To gain successful reading comprehension one needs reading strategies. One can have different strategies in his reading process. Different reading tasks require different strategies. So, it needs research to find out the strategies in

B. Problem Identification

  Comprehension cannot be separated from strategies. Strategies play an important role in reading comprehension because they facilitate the readers to read efficiently to meet successful reading comprehension. Strategies can be metacognitive, cognitive, social, and affective. Metacognitive strategies control the reader’s cognition by coordinating the planning, organizing, and evaluation of the learning process. Cognitive strategies encompass the language learning strategies of identification, grouping, retention, and storage of language material, as well as the language use strategies of retrieval, rehearsal, and comprehension. Social strategies include the actions which the learners choose to take in order to interact with other learners and with native speakers. Affective strategies serve to regulate emotions, motivation, and attitudes.

  Successful reading also involves emotion, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities (Taschow, 1985: 24). Emotion is connected with interest. When one is interested in reading a text, he or she tries hard to comprehend the text, and the goal of reading that is comprehension, hopefully achieved. Cognition relates to understanding in reading. Understanding involves interpretation, assimilation, accommodation, adaptation, and equilibrium. Cognition depends on perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, and reasoning, all of which lead to understanding. Psychomotor abilities connect to reading fluency that fluency in silent reading can be expressed in agility or mental action and nimbleness of thought, comprehension, and resourcefulness in completing and composing stories, solving problems, and initiating and working out new ideas.

  Based on the identification above, therefore, this research was done to find out their strategies in reading English text. The research was on three participants of non-English department. The research uses qualitative research that makes use observation, tests, and interview to collect the data.

  C. Limitation of the Research

  From the problem identification above and to make this research feasible, it is necessary to limit the study into several areas. The purpose of it is to make the writer easy to develop the research so that she can present deep discussion.

  The environment of the research is the non-English Department and requires three non-English department students of different universities as the participants.

  The research focuses on the strategies used by the participants in their reading English texts. The comprehension can show the effectiveness of the strategies they choose. The criteria of comprehension are the participants’ abilities in identifying title, locating main idea, and drawing accurate conclusion in each test.

  D. Research Questions

  The problems of this research can be formulated as: What are the students’ strategies in reading English texts?

  E. Research Objectives

  Because the research was on strategies used by three non-English department students, therefore, the objective of the study is to find out their strategies in reading

  F. Research Benefits

  Strategies in reading are mental processes that the reader chooses to use in accomplishing reading task (Cohen, 1990: 83). Reading strategies have important roles in comprehension English texts. Strategies here mean techniques of reading to get the idea of the reading texts. There were various strategies used to meet successful reading comprehension. The result of this research could be useful not only for the students but also for the teachers.

  The students will get information about the strategies they should use for certain texts. They can apply different strategies to solve their problem in comprehending English texts. Therefore, by knowing various kinds of strategies they can comprehend English text better and can apply them appropriately. Finally, those might make the reading texts easier to comprehend. Using different strategies to read English text is useful since a problem in reading comprehension cannot only be solved by a strategy but sometimes need more than one strategy.

  The teachers will also get information about reading comprehension. He or she can inform his or her students about the strategies they should apply when they read difficult text. Comprehension can be gain if the readers apply various strategies.

  G. Definition of Terms

  It is necessary to clarify up some terms used in the research that are considered important. Those terms are:

  1. Reading Strategies Reading strategies are mental processes that readers consciously choose to use in strategies, paraphrasing strategies, strategies for establishing coherence in text, or strategies for supervising strategies use (Sarig in Cohen, 1990: 91).

  2. Reading Comprehension Reading comprehension in this research is the ability to identify title, locating main idea, and draw conclusion in the reading tests.

  3. Non- English Department Students The three students who learn English to support their academic and professional success in non-English related studies, such as Health, Economic, and Education.

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter discusses the theory of reading and it is divided into two big areas. Those are theoretical description and theoretical framework. The theory description

  presents some theories that support this research. The theory framework discusses the theory to clarify related concepts to answer the research questions theoretically and to show their complexities.

A. Theoretical Discussion.

   This section presents some theories that support this research. This section is

  divided into four subsections. They are Strategies, Reading, Non-English Students, and Strategies and Reading Comprehension in EAP.

1. Strategies.

  Specifically, Cohen (1990: 83) proposes strategies in reading as mental processes that reader consciously chooses to use in accomplishing reading tasks. According to this definition, all levels of strategies, such as guessing new words from context to more specific ones, like performing interparagraph analysis to guess words, are all considered “strategies”, as opposed to referring to the more specific ones by some other term, such as “techniques” or tactic”. Such strategies facilitate successful comprehension of text.

  Strategies refer to both general approaches and specific actions or techniques to learn a second language, in this case, reading English text. A reader deploys strategies to overcome particular reading problems. Generally, reader is aware of the strategies he uses

  Strategies contribute indirectly to learning by providing the reader with the data about second language which he then processes. However, some strategies may also contribute directly, for example, memorization strategies directed at specific lexical items or grammatical rules. Strategies use varies considerably as a result of both kinds of task the reader is engaged in and individual learner preferences.

  The following are possible differences that distinguish a skill from strategy that presented by Urguhant (1998: 91).

   Strategies are reader-oriented; while skills are text oriented. It is true that skill taxonomies tend to focus on text.

   Strategies represent conscious decisions taken by the reader; skills are deployed unconsciously. Another way of phrasing this is that skills have reached the level of automatically.

   Strategies, unlike skills, represent a response to a problem, e.g. failure to understand a word or significance of preposition, failure to find the information one was looking for.

  On the whole, William and Moran in Urguhant (1998: 91) draw the distinction between skill and strategy. A skill is an ability which has been automated and operated largerly subconsciously, whereas a strategy is a conscious procedure carried out in order to solve a problem.

  Sometimes, strategies are referred to as good, effective, successful, and converse. It needs to be pointed out that with some expectations, strategies themselves are not inherently good or bad, but have potential to be used effectively, whether by the same reader from one instance within one task to another instance within that same task, from one task to another, or by different readers dealing with different task (Cohen, 1990: 8).

  There is an opinion that readers who use more strategies indicate that they are better than they who use fewer strategies. The total number or variety of strategies employed and the frequency with which any given strategy is used are not necessarily indicators of how successful they will be on a language task. Whereas the successful completion of some tasks may require the use of various strategies used repeatedly, the successful completion of others may depend on the use of just a few strategies, each strategy is only used once but successfully.

a. Types of Strategies

  There are actually many possible reading strategies to choose from. Sarig in Cohen (1990: 91) classifies strategies into four basic types. They include:

  1. Support strategies Types of reading acts that are undertaken to facilitate high level strategies. For example, skimming, scanning, skipping, marking the text, and using glossary.

  2. Paraphrasing strategies Decoding strategies to clarify meaning by simplifying syntax, finding synonyms for words and phrases, looking for prepositions or basic ideas, and identifying the function of potions of the text.

  3. Strategies for establishing coherence in text The use of world knowledge or clues in the text to make the text intelligible as a piece of connected discourse, for example, looking for organization, using context, and distinguishing the discourse functions in the text (such as introduction, definition, exemplification, and conclusion).

  4. Strategies for supervising strategies use Conscious strategies for checking ongoing self-evaluation, changing the planning and executing of task, identifying misunderstandings, and remediating when reading problems are found. O’Malley and Chamot (Ellis, 2003: 536) distinguish strategies in accordance with the information-processing model, based on their research. Strategies can be cognitive, metacognitive, social, and affective strategies. Cognitive strategies refer to the steps or operations used in problem solving that require direct analysis, transformation or synthesis of learning material. They have an operative or cognitive-processing function, e.g. translation, deduction, elaboration, transfer, and inferencing. Translation is making use the first of language as a base for understanding and/or producing the second language. Deduction is consciously applying rules to produce or understand the second language. Elaboration means relating new information to other concepts in memory.

  Transfer is using previous acquired linguistic and/or conceptual knowledge to facilitate a new language learning task. And inferencing means using available information to guess meanings of new items, predict outcomes, or fill in missing information. Metacognitive strategies make use of knowledge about cognitive processes and constitute an attempt to regulate language learning by means of planning, monitoring, and evaluating. Such strategies allow learners to control their own cognition by coordinating the planning, organizing, and evaluating. Social strategies concern the ways in which learners select to interact with other learners and native speakers, e.g. asking questions to clarify social strategies serve to regulate emotions, motivation, and attitudes, e.g. strategies for reduction of anxiety and for self-encouragement.

b. The Importance of Reading Strategies

  Reading strategies are very important in reading comprehension. They facilitate readers who want to read efficiently. A reader who has determined what he expects to gain from his reading should select reading strategies which best suit his particular purpose (Kustaryo, 1988: 4). If he is reading a novel or a magazine for pleasure, he would obviously not use the same kind of reading strategies that he would use in reading a book of science, linguistics, mathematics, biology, and other subjects.

  Reading is very complex and progresses from very poor reading habits to better ones. It requires a high level of effort and concentration. It is more than just a visual task.

  A reader must not only see and identify the symbols in front of him but also must be able to interpret what he needs, associate with his past experience, and project beyond this in term of ideas, judgments, applications, and conclusions. These reading necessities should be trained to improve the reader’s reading abilities. Readers should know some reading strategies that they need for their college work. They should be sure that suitable strategies are used to facilitate their rapid understanding of the reading materials.

  Different types of reading materials call for different reading strategies. In any reading task, a reader should be flexible in using these strategies, meaning that the strategies should be appropriately chosen. They should fit with the aim of reading. This appropriateness will help his reading and give positive effects, that are, the objective he wants to obtain, to get some information, to get the main idea, to understand the whole

  Research has shown that the strategies one uses in reading in a target language may be similar to the ones one uses for reading in his native language. This may be good or bad depending on the kind of reader he is in his native language. For learners who are poor readers in their native language, the reading of language target language material may produce similar problems. According to Levine and Reves (Cohen, 1990: 74), if the target language trains such learner in the use of the reading strategies, the learning of the target language may provide an opportunity for them to strengthen their reading skills altogether, which has been found to have positive backwash effect on native language reading.

  It has been thought that readers decrease their use of strategies in target language reading once the level of language is beyond their language proficiency. It now appears that readers may read on, drawing on their reading strategies, but possibly with little or no comprehension because of the excessive linguistic (Sarig in Cohen, 1990: 74). In other words, rather than give up on a reading passage if it makes demands beyond their level of language, non-native readers may well continue reading, drawing on their reading strategies to compensate for a lack of proficiency.

2. Reading a. Nature

  Reading is the ability to make sense of written or printed symbols. The reader uses the symbols to guide the recovery of information from his or her memory and subsequently uses this information to construct a plausible interpretation of the writer’s message (Mitchell, 1982: 1). A reader involves himself or herself in learning to read and reading to learn, he or she engages the whole organism, not only the mind, in complex, purposeful processes by coordinating emotional, cognitive, psychomotor abilities.

  Biglmaier, as quoted by Horst G. Taschow (1985: 24), calls emotion, cognition, and psychomotor abilities as the dimensions of reading and describes each dimension in terms of its major criterion. Thus, emotion is connected with interest, cognition with understanding, and psychomotor abilities with certainty, fluency, and speed. Emotion is characterized by reading interest. Interest is one of the affective factors that develop and maintain the desire for reading. Understanding involves interpretation, assimilation, accommodation, adaptation, and equilibrium. Cognition or the act of knowing depends on perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, judging, and reasoning, all of which lead to understanding. Reading understanding means grasping the ideas represented in print and apprehending clearly the nature and subtleties of the reading content and becoming thoroughly familiar with them.

  Psychomotor abilities are characterized by reading certainty, reading fluency, and reading speed which defines the reader’s state of being almost free of doubt in processing graphphophonic, syntactic, and semantic information and being able to process them fluently and expeditiously. Reading certainty can be expressed through handling new, unknown, and difficult words in isolation and in context and through using them in oral and written responses and communications. Reading fluency: in writing can be described as being able to form letter without interrupting the stroke of the pen from the beginning to the end of a word. Quality in written word fluency is expressed in agility or mental action and nimbleness of thought, comprehension, and resourcefulness in completing and composing stories, solving problems, and initiating and working out new ideas. Speed is we determine whether the reader’s mind attaches meaning with the same speed as the eye’s race along and down the printed lines. Reading certainty, fluency, and speed, which constitute the psychomotor reading abilities, support and strengthen the reader’s progress from a dependent, outside-regulated reader to an independent, self disciplined reader.

  Without this abilities, reader find it burdensome if not self-defeating to process print. But when reading certainty, reading fluency, and reading speed work together with the reader’s emotion and cognition, the reader’s whole organism engages in reading to extract meaning from text effectively, efficiently, and economically, meaningful and experiential learning.

  Reading is an active set of skills. According to Eskey in Cohen (1990: 75), reading has been viewed as a continual interaction of identification skills and interpretive skills. Identification skill is the recognition of words and phrases and the grammatical signal required for the simple decoding of the text. Interpretive skill is the higher-level skill that allows for meaningful reconstruction of a text as unified, coherent structure of meaning. In this interactive model, readers are seen to use their previous knowledge of form (the alphabet, words in context, rhetorical form to identify the visual cues and their expectations about the conceptual structure of the text (cultural, subject matter, pragmatics) in order to perform a personal reconstruction of the meaning of the text.

  Reading is a receptive language process. It is a psycholinguistic process in that it starts with a linguistic surface representation encoded by a writer and ends with meaning which the reader constructs (Goodman, 1988: 11). During the reading process, readers construct a meaningful representation of text through an interaction of their conceptual and linguistic knowledge with the cues that are in the text. The reader uses minimal syntactic, and semantic cues) assist readers in sampling, confirming, correcting, and rejecting the predictions they make about the message (Barnitz, 1985: 4).

  According to the research reported in Spiro, Bruce, and Brewer as quoted by Barnitz in Reading Development of Nonnative Speaker of English (1985: 4), there are at least three essential elements of an adequate model of reading. First, reading is multileveled in that native readers use various levels of a language simultaneously to access meaning. Readers use their knowledge of the world and their pragmatic, discourse, syntactic, morphological, and phonological knowledge in constructing and reconstructing meaning. Secondly, reading is interactive in that the reader’s comprehension is “driven” by the knowledge structure or “schemata” of the reader and the specific content and linguistic in the text. All the levels of background knowledge (social, linguistic, conceptual, etc) interact simultaneously as readers construct a meaning of a text. Thirdly, reading involves the generation of hypotheses as readers make predictions about the meaning of a text. These predictions will be confirmed or rejected as reading proceeds.

  Quoted by Barnitz (1985: 6), Goodman and Burke wrote that psycholinguistic research on reading implies that reading instruction should provide opportunities for students to discover the process of the total orchestration of language and conceptual skills with an emphasis not only on the meaning intended by the author and reader, but also on the strategies for constructing meaning or a text. A language must be studied in process.

  There are two kinds of information used in respective language. First, the language structure which is the grammar, or set of syntactic relationships that make it possible to express highly complex messages using a very small set of symbols. The concepts and conceptual sentences. Meaning is the end product of receptive language.. Readers bring meaning to any communication and conduct themselves as seekers of meaning.

  According to Carrell, Devine, and Eskey (1988: 16), readers employ five processes in reading. The brain is the organ of information processing. It decides what tasks it must handle, what information is available, what strategies it must employ, which input channels to use, where to seek information. The brain seeks to maximize information it requires and minimize effort and energy used to require it. The five processes in reading are:

  1. Recognition-initiation The brain must recognize a graphic display in the visual field as written language and initiate reading.

  2. Prediction The brain is always anticipating and predicting as it seeks order and significance in sensory inputs.

  3. Confirmation If the brain predicts, it must also seek to verify its prediction. So it monitors to confirm or disconfirm with subsequent input what it expected.

  4. Correction The brain reprocesses when it finds inconsistencies or its predictions are disconfirmed.

  5. Termination The brain terminates the reading when the reading task is completed, but meaning is being constructed, or the meaning is already known, or the story is uninteresting or the reader finds it inappropriate for the particular purpose. At any rate, termination in reading is usually an open option at any point. These processes have an intrinsic sequence. Prediction precedes confirmation which precedes correction. Yet the same information may be used to confirm a prior prediction and to make a new one.

b. Comprehension

  Comprehension is frequently mentioned in cognitive and educational psychology, as well as, of course, the pedagogical literature. There is often an assumption in the literature that it is the goal of reading process (Urquhant, 1998: 84). Strategies appear to have come into reading research via psychology, where they were used to describe how an organism sought to attain its goals. In both reading research and practice a focus on strategy has had the effect of making the whole operation more learner-centered.

  According to Davis as cited in Smith and Johnson (1980: 13), one can have good reading comprehension if she or he has: (1) knowledge of word meaning, (2) ability to select the appropriate meaning of a word or phrase in the light of its contextual setting, (3) ability to follow the organization of a passage and to identify antecedents and references in it, (4) ability to find the main thought of a passage, (5) ability to answer questions that specifically answered in the passage, (6) ability to answer questions that are solved in the passage, but not in the word in which the questions are asked, (7) ability to draw inferences from the passage that determine its tone and mood, (8) ability to recognize the literary devices used in the passage, (9) ability to determine the writer’s passage or point 4 and draw inferences from the passage or point 7 are used to identify the participants’ comprehension, and also give appropriate title.

  Before 1970s, the focus of attention among people concerned with reading in education was “decoding”, whereas, it moves to “comprehension” in 1970s. A focus on comprehension is in line with our feeling that it is what reading is about, i.e. getting information from written text. Rayner and Pollatsek, as cited by Urquhant (1998: 85), give definition and description of comprehension that it equals “the meaning of the text” that is being read. They would mention here the notion that the ideal comprehension consists of the recovery of author’s meaning. They do not think that it can be doubted that readers often strive to do this. When one can understand the meaning of texts, she or he can purpose the main idea and draw conclusion, moreover, give appropriate title.

  The component of comprehension is composed of a large number of skill segments at the literal, interpretive, critical, and creative levels. Many readers find the communication process between writer and reader to be complex because of the number of factors. Some readers at all learning levels find that they cannot comprehend what has been written because they lack experience for the words and concept presented. In the reading process, the readers are required to determine what the text says accurately.

  Therefore, the ability to recognize words helps the reader in the identification process.

  Good readers are better than poor readers at recognizing words automatically. It is because the identification process may occur automatically after much practice. The more skillful a reader, the more automatic the identification process is. When word recognition is automatic, a reader can focus his or her attention on the higher-level sentence integration and the semantic processing. Thus, we can differentiate word recognition as

  There are many factors that influence reading comprehension ability. They can be intelligence, lack of vocabularies, motivation, and interest. Intelligence, as usually reflected in IQ (Intelligence Quotation) rate, is proved to have influence upon one’s level of reading ability. Moyle (1968: 50) who called intelligence as general ability, stated that who seem to be poorly endowed with general ability have for more difficulties in mastering the process of learning to read than to do those who are well-endowed. There is a strong relationship between intelligent and word recognition and comprehension. One who has below average level of intelligence will probably find difficult in dealing with comprehension activities.

  The second factor is lack of vocabulary mastery. Lie Kim San (1985: 67) in his research finds that lack of vocabulary is one factor causing readers have poor English reading comprehension. When they attempt to comprehend a text containing a number of unfamiliar words, they cannot understand it. Those unfamiliar words block them to understand the context of the text. They cannot begin to read with full of understanding until they have been thought to overcome the unknown words. In reading comprehension, a reader must be able to attach some kind of meaning or understanding to the words. Those who have little experience with vocabularies will face difficulties in comprehending them (Cushenberry: 1985: 61-63). The success of reading activity is partly determined by the knowledge of vocabulary that will be used in the reading process.

  According to Wieners and Bazerman (1985: 3), reading has a close connection with vocabulary as they state “To read well, you need strong vocabulary. To build strong vocabulary, you need to read well”. And since the authentic English text often uses because they do not know the meaning of some words. In fact, there are ways to help readers keep reading when they face new words. In order to find out the meaning of new words, one does not really need a dictionary. He or she can do it by using sentences around the unfamiliar word.

  The third factor is motivation. It is not surprising that motivation, that is a positive attitude about learning, should be considered an important part of the reading content. It is a key to any learning. Positive motivation is essential since it provides greater effort, encouraged concentration, and increased cooperation with those involved in the instruction process (Alexander, 1983: 375). It also gives the reason why that a student reads the whole reading assignment or just read a few lines, that he is he is full attention or just with half of his heart and also that he reads actively or just reads without thinking much about it.

  The last factor that influences comprehension is interest. Reader’s interest will determine the level of motivation and involvement in accomplishing an English reading task. A great interest of English or other topics can influence to what extent the reader will succeed in reading the text. The reader comprehends better when he read passages discussing topics of high interest to them. There are two possible reasons for this, namely: (1) he knows more about the topics, and (2) he is personally motivated to read.

  Lado (1987: 5), writes another factor of comprehension that can be seen as a hindrance. It is a person who learns a foreign language will tend to use his mother tongue.

  Beside, he also says that whether it is easy or not to learn a foreign language depends on the structure of his mother tongue too: are the patterns a like, the same, or very different in type, from the foreign language he learns? The differences in structure may cause

  There are two approaches in reading processing purposed by Mitchell (1983: 106) that may be taken by readers. They are Bottom-up Processing and Top-down Processing.

  Bottom up analyses begin with the stimulus, for example, the text or bits of the text. The reader begins with word by word to semantic and syntactic rules to assign a meaning of a sentence. We can say in other words that with the first kind of interaction, the processing starts with raw input and passes through increasing refined analysis until the meaning of the text is eventually determined. Top-down processing is produced when decisions made at the higher levels in processing system are used to guide choices at lower levels. In order to analyze the text in this way, the reader has to draw upon his knowledge of the world and his knowledge of structure of the sentences.

  A further limitation arises when we consider the interaction between readers and texts that makes up the reading process. There has been for some time a consensus in the field of reading theory about the general outlines of the relationship between reader, text, and comprehension, though, of course, details vary. Readings may differ in the case of readers from different culture, either ethnic or professional, or in the case of the same reader at different times, with different knowledge or different preoccupations.

  Interpretations are such differing readings, which are generally not under control of the readers.

  The reading product may also vary according to a dimension controlled by reader’s purposes. The reader may decide to glimpse at the text, extracting gist, or work conscientiously through it satisfying himself that he has made sense of all of it. Such variations are labeled comprehension.

  Interpretations, on the other hand, are variations brought about in the reading testing. Interpretation and knowledge of the world has a relationship in that one can have good interpretation if she or she involves his or her knowledge of the world in interpreting a language. Therefore, connecting knowledge of the world is one of the strategies that can be used in the reading tests.

  There are three types of reading comprehension purposed by Harris (1947: 134). The first type is literal comprehension. This level of comprehension represents the minimum of involvement on the part of the reader. It is simple understanding of the words and ideas of the author’s message is received but not examined, evaluated, or utilized in anyway. The second type is interpretive comprehension. At this type of comprehension, the reader not only knows what the author said about goes beyond that simple knowledge, it involves an effort to grasp relationship, compare facts with personal experiences, understand sequences, see cause and effect relationships, and generally interpret the message. It requires a more active participant on the part of the reader. The last type of comprehension is applies comprehension. This type of comprehension requires the reader does more than merely receiving and interpreting the message. The reader evaluates the author’s ideas, either accepting or rejecting them or applying them to some new situation. In some cases, the author’s message is designed to produce some application. For example, the author’s message is received, understood, and utilized in some way, mentally and physically.

  3. Non English Students Non-English students learn English for academic purposes. This involves English for academic study needs. EAP accounts for a large amount of ESP activity. A further field of study and those who are already expert, perhaps via the medium of their own language. The general consensus is that the concerns of EAP are not specific to English, but that many students are aiming at a higher level of academic achievement through English than in their first language. Thus they are learning academic strategies for the first time through English and they may subsequently try to apply what they have learnt to operations in their first language. For example, reading in an academic context.

  Reading is probably the most generally needed skill in EAP worldwide. An important question is how far success in reading is helped by practice in the other language skills. Activation of knowledge of the language through writing to speaking can feed back into reading. However, very often there is too little time on a course to do more than focus on (silent reading and little motivation to do so (Robinson, 1991: 102). For many disciplines, much if not all of the basic material is available in the students’ first language, which is also the medium of instruction. The need of English is limited to the skill of reading and the content of the texts is likely to be discussed in the first language.

  A second issue in EAP reading is how far knowledge of the topic can compensate in linguistic difficulties in reading a text. Particular structure and types of vocabulary appears to be the cause of most difficulties in reading. Related to the issue, it is important to teach grammar to aid reading. In order for the teachers and students not to spend too much of a reading class in studying grammar, it is important to identify the purpose for which a text needs to be read. In an influential article, Johns and Davies (Robinson, 1991: 103) suggest that in EAP, texts are vehicles for information not linguistic objects. They suggest a methodology for studying written texts, such that the focus is on the information in them and not primarily on the linguistic forms used to realize that think, not just manipulate language. It is most appropriate for the students to read is not ready-prepared textbooks but extracts from the textbooks and articles supplied by their specialist departments or faculties (Armanet and Obese-jecty in Robinson, 1991: 103). Robin and Thompson in Urguhant (1990: 87) define the characteristics of good language learners. Good language learners should be creative developing a feel for the language by experimenting with its grammar and words. They use their memories and other memory strategies to recall what have been learned. They use their linguistic knowledge, including knowledge of the first language in learning the second language, but they have to be aware that knowledge of the first language can always be applied in the foreign language, e.g. structure. In reading, they use contextual cues to help them in comprehension. They may learn to make intelligent guesses by relating any information in the text and their knowledge of the world. Good learners may learn production strategies to fill in gaps in their own competence. Learners should be careful in choosing strategies. The strategies should suit to the problem of the reading ability.

  4. Strategies and Reading Comprehension in EAP Reading in a second language or foreign language is similar to the understanding of reading in general, in the sense that it requires active participation of the reader.

  However, reading in second or foreign language becomes more difficult for the learners because of the lack of vocabulary and structure of the language. Specific terms that relate to their study which cannot be found in the dictionary can also mean lack of vocabulary. Since reading in EAP do not pay attention and provide much grammar teaching activities, it may be made the learners have limited knowledge of structure.

  Strategies have important role in reading EAP. They facilitate the readers to read efficiently. Strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or tasks, modes of operation for achievement a particular end, planned designs for controlling manipulating certain information. A reader who has determined what he expects to gain from his reading should select a reading strategies which best suits his particular purpose. It is important because reading comprehension is not reading the whole text without understanding any idea inside the text. It is more than just a visual task. Comprehending a text is an active thinking process which depends not only on the comprehension skill but also on one’s experiences and knowledge. Relating background knowledge either knowledge of the structure or knowledge of the world can be mentioned as strategy. In reading comprehension, a reader must be able to attach some meaning or understanding to the words in the text. Lack of vocabulary can make the learner cannot read with full understanding. To overcome their problems, readers need to provide themselves with strategies to facilitate them to comprehend the text.

  Different types of reading materials call for different reading strategies. In any reading tasks, a reader should be flexible in using strategies, meaning that the strategies should be appropriately chose, they should fit the aim of this reading. This appropriateness will help his reading and give positive effects, such as, the objective he wants to obtain, to get some information, to get the main idea, to understand the whole material, and other purposes, can be achieved (Kustaryo, 1988: 4).

B. Theoretical Framework When talking about reading, the reader must be able to understand meanings.

  expected the result. Comprehending a text is an active thinking process which depends not only on the comprehension skill, but also on one’s experiences and knowledge. As a code analysis, reading ability is a communication process between the reader and the writer.

  Reading involves emotion, cognitive, and psychomotor abilities. The reader involves the three of them to extract meaning from text efficiently, effectively, and meaningfully. Therefore, success in reading requires various skills and strategies so that the reader can catch both the explicit and implicit message of the text. It is not easy to read English texts. The readers need to apply strategies to catch up the idea of the texts content. The strategies are used to facilitate the reading comprehension toward the texts.

  There are four types of strategies, in accordance whether they are metacognitie, cognitive, social, or affective (Ellis, 2003: 536). Metacognitive strategies deal with pre- assesment, pre-planning, evaluation of language learning activities. These strategies allow readers to control their own cognition by coordinating the planning, organizing, and evaluating of the learning process. Cognition strategies have an operative-processing function. Social strategies serve to regulate emotion, motivation, and attitude. Affective strategies include the actions which the readers choose to take in order to interact with other learners and with native speakers.

  Sarig (Cohen, 1990: 91) categorizes strategies into four basic types. The types are support strategies, paraphrasing strategies, strategies for establishing coherence in text, and strategies for supervising the strategies used. Support strategies are types of reading act that are undertaken to facilitate high level strategies. Paraphrasing strategies decode strategies to clarify meaning by simplifying syntax, finding synonyms for words and Strategies for establishing coherence in text refer to the use of world knowledge or clues in the text to make the text intelligible as a piece of connected course. And Strategies for supervising strategies use are conscious strategies for checking ongoing self-evaluation, changing the planning and executing of task, identifying misunderstandings, and remediating when reading problems are found.

  Comprehension is a product of reading. It involves not only the reader’s skills but also the reader’s background experience and knowledge. There are three criteria of comprehension presented in this research. Davis (Smith and Johnson: (1990: 13) mentioned nine comprehension criteria. Two of them are ability to find the main thought of the passage and ability to draw inferences from the passage. The two abilities then are included in the criteria of comprehension in this research. There are three criteria in this research. The criteria are ability to identify title, ability to locate main idea and ability to draw accurate conclusion.

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methodology and the steps to do the research to answer

  the research questions empirically. It covers five sections. The first section is method. In the method, the writer writes the methodology that she uses in doing this research. The second section is research participants. The research participants presents who the participants are. The next section is research instrument. Here, the writer discusses what the instrument she uses to get the data. Section number four is data recording that presents how the data are gained. And the last section is research procedures that present the step in doing the research.

  A. Method

  It was qualitative research by making observation of the phenomena, and classifying data. The research was on three non-English department students. The phenomena that the writer was going to search were on the reading strategies that were used by them in reading English texts. The research started with purposes to find out the reading strategies used by the students. To achieve these purposes, personal observation, tests, and interview were done. Then, all instrument used were expected could answer the questions what strategies were used by them.

  B. Procedures of Data Acquisition and Analysis

  The research procedures which the writer conducted in this research were:

  1. Identifying the setting and participants

  2. Determining the texts which were appropriate for the participants’ problem

  3. Constructing tests to see the participants’ comprehension

  4. Administering the tests

  5. Observing and interviewing

  6. Analyzing the data

  a. Highligting categories

  b. Coding

  c. Summarizing categories

  d. Integrating data (observation and interview)

  e. Interpreting 7. Drawing conclusion.

  C. Research Participants

  The participants of the research were the non-English students from Gadjah Mada , Atmajaya, and Sanata Dharma University. The number of the participant was three students. They are considered enough to represent other students. The first participant studied at the Medical Faculty of Gadjah Mada University, the second participant studied at Atmajaya University and took Management Program, and the third participant studied at the PGSD program of Sanata Dharma University.

  C. Research Instruments

  There were three kinds of instruments used in this research. Those were tests, observation, and interview.

  1. Tests The tests were written tests. There were six different written tests for six meetings.

  The number of the tests was considered enough to identify the students’ reading strategies and comprehension. Each test consisted of a text followed by questions.

  The questions were identifying title, locating main idea, and drawing conclusion. The tests were used to identify the participants’ comprehension in reading English text.

  The tests were administered to the students six times. The students got a text in each meeting and they only had 30 minutes to do the test. The tests were not scored since they were only for identifying the participant’s comprehension. The tests were analyzed whether their answers on identifying title, locating main idea, and drawing conclusion were correct or not. Correct answers mean comprehension. In this research, the reading activities used are intensive reading and comprehensive reading. It is intensive reading because the texts given are short texts that require detail understanding. And it is comprehensive reading because in the process of their reading comprehension, the participants need their background knowledge.

  2. Observation The observation was done at the same time as the students did the tests. This was to identify the participants’ behavior during doing the tests. The result of the observation was used to support the result of interview.

  3. Interview The interview was done to get information about the participants’ strategies. In this interview, the writer asked the participants about anything related to how they comprehend the texts. The interview would lead the writer identify the strategies had been used by them. The interview was done after the participants finished doing the tests. The interview was not limited by time.

D. Data Recording

  The data recording using interview was done after the writer administered the tests. The interview was whether the participants used the strategies or not. Then, they explain the functions. The data recording using tests was done in six different times. The three participants did not do the tests` in the same place and time since they had different activities. The time allocation was 30 minutes for each test. The writer analyzes it after the tests were complete. The test result was recorded in a form of table.

CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS This chapter presents the implementation of what have been described in chapter III and adjusted with emergent issues. This chapter discusses the presentation of research

  finding and discussion of the result of data analysis. It consists of four main sections. The first section concerns with the data from interview, the second section deals with data from observation, the third section discusses the data getting from the tests and the last section concerns with other data related to the topic discussed.

A. Data from Interview

  In this section, the data are taken from the interview of the participants in six meetings. The interview was on what they did to comprehend the texts. This section is divided into two subsections. The first subsection presents the data presentation of the strategies and the second subsection presents the data interpretation of the strategies.

1. Data Presentation

  This part discusses patterns of strategies that were used by the participants in the six meeting. The strategies that were used by the participants are as follow: a. Participant 1

  P1 used ten strategies. The tenth strategies were reading between the line, rereading, consulting dictionary, guessing, connecting sentences, connecting knowledge of the world, translating, reading in detail, taking note, and marking.

  b. Participant 2

  In the tests, P2 used eight strategies. The eighth strategies were reading between the line, consulting dictionary, taking note, guessing meaning, connecting to knowledge of the world, rereading, reading in detail and connecting sentences.

  c. Participant 3 After considering the data from interview on strategies above, the writer found eight strategies that had been applied by P3 in her reading tests. The strategies were reading between the lines, consulting dictionary, taking note, guessing meaning, rereading, connecting sentences, reading in detail and connecting her knowledge of the world.

2. Data Interpretation

  The data presentation of strategies that were used by the participants can be interpreted as follow:

  a. Reading between the lines

  Reading between the lines is support strategies. The three participants used this strategy, though it was not in all tests. They used it to find the topic or theme of the texts and to find the key words.

  b. Detailed Reading

  The participants often used this strategy. They used it to find the main idea and to answer the questions. They also used it after they read the texts and were failed to comprehend the texts.

  c. Consulting Dictionary

  Consulting dictionary is paraphrase strategy. It is cognitive strategy, called translation. The participants used Indonesian as a base for understanding a second language, in this case English. All participants consulted dictionary frequently. This strategy was the most used frequently by the participants. It meant that consulting dictionary was very important for them in reading English texts.

  d. Translation

  Translation is also paraphrase strategy. It is cognitive strategy. Participant 1 used this strategy she understand Indonesian well rather than English, so that she used Indonesian to facilitate her in understanding English.

  e. Marking

  Only P1 that applied marking. It is support strategy. She marked sentences, because she thought that the sentences were important.

  f. Taking note

  The participants applied taking note, especially they took note the meaning of words that had been consulted in the dictionary. It is also support strategy.

  g. Connecting to the knowledge of the world

  It is strategy for establishing coherence in text. The participants applied connecting to knowledge of the world in reading text six. The participants admitted that they had ever read the same topic as text six. Therefore, they applied their background knowledge to help them comprehend the text. Connecting to knowledge of the world is cognitive strategy. It is called transfer. It means that the participants used their previous acquired linguistic and or conceptual knowledge to facilitate a new language learning task. It is also called elaboration. It required the participants to relate new information in as quoted by Cohen (1990: 85), classified this strategy into schemata. It can be content schemata if the participants involved the system of factual knowledge, values, and cultural convention in the reading for meaning. It also can be language schemata if they involved their grammar, spelling and punctuation, vocabulary, and cohesive structure.

  Schemata can be textual if it involved rhetorical structure of different modes of text, for example recipes, letters, fairy tales, research papers, and science books. The participants mostly used content and language schemata in reading text six. They applied the strategy to help them comprehend the text content or understand the idea of the text. According to Wilson (Taschow, 1985: 29), knowledge of the world is essential in order for a reader to connect information from the text to that already stored in the reader’s head. They interact simultaneously to construct a meaning of a text.

h. Connecting Sentences

  Connecting sentences is also strategy for establishing coherence in text. The participants used this strategy when they guessed the meaning of unfamiliar words.

i. Guessing

  This strategy is strategy for establishing coherence in text. Here, guessing meaning of words mean identifying the meaning of the words using context. It includes in inferencing. The participants used available information to guess meaning of new items, predict out comes, or fill missing information. They also connected the previous or the next sentence to predict the meaning. The participants used this strategy to identify the meaning of words without consulting dictionary. For many non-native readers, included the participants, using context means using the word or words immediately preceding the word and possibly following it, while the real clues to meaning may have

  j. Rereading

  Rereading is strategy for supervising the strategies used. When the participants recognized that there had been failure to understand a portion of text, then they could also select one or another fix up strategy. Like rereading, the participants used another strategy previously to comprehend the text, but when they were not sure with their comprehension, they read the text again. Rereading was used by the participants to check their comprehension and to answer the questions.

  B. Data from Observation

  The observation was done during the participants were doing tests. Based on the observation, P1 often opened dictionary and wrote the translation of the texts during the tests, except in test 6. P1 also marked several words in meeting 5. Meanwhile, P2 usually opened dictionary and wrote some meanings of the words after she consulted dictionary in test one to five. Whereas, P3 also seemed to consult dictionary in meeting one to six. In test 6, she took notes of several words.

  C. Data from Tests

  Like the first section, this third section is also divided into two subsections. The first subsection is data presentation of the tests result. The data is from the six tests. The data presented in a form of table. The second subsection discusses the data presentation of the tests result.

1. Data Presentation

  The data presented in this part concern with the participants’ comprehension in test consisted of three questions that required the participants to identify appropriate title, locate accurate main idea, draw accurate conclusion. The participants’ answers were not always exactly the same as the key answer. So, when the participants’ answers had the same idea as the key answer, their answers were correct. The participants’ answers and

  

  the key answer can be seen in the appendices. The check ( ) indicates that the answers are correct. The more frequent the check occurs, the better the participants’ comprehension. Table : The tests results.

  Sequences Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Test 5 Test 6 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 P1 P2 P3 Identifying title

   Locating main idea

   Drawing conclusion

   2.

   Data Interpretation The tables of the tests result above can be interpreted descriptively as follows.

a. Text 1

  The first test is about female mosquito. It talks about why she bites human and how she finds the victims and bites them. The best title for the text is Female

  

Mosquito. P1 and P2 gave correct answers, even; P1 gave detail answer that was

Female Mosquitoes, the Night Biter. Whereas, P3 gave inaccurate title. Its title was

Mosquito. The main idea of the text is Female mosquito bites at night to nourish her

  eggs. P1 and P3’s answers were correct, though P3’s answer was rather different

  from the key answer. P1 and P3’s answers were The female mosquitoes bite human

  because they need human blood to nourish their eggs and The Female Mosquito is the night biter. In locating the main idea, P2 gave inaccurate answer. Her answer was Victim’s female mosquitoes. The conclusion of the text is Female Mosquitoes are the night biter. P1 and P2’s answers were correct. P1 concluded Only the female mosquitoe that bite human, the male drinking nectar from flowers, and P2 wrote People will be victim female mosquitoes on the night. Though rather different, but

  those have the same idea. Whereas, P3’s answer Female mosquitoes is more dangerous than male mosquitoes was incorrect.

b. Text 2

  Adoption is the topic of the second text. The text talks about adoption of foreign children, why they adopt them, and their treatment to their adoptive foreign children.

  The best title for this text is Foreign Children Adoption, the appropriate main idea is

  adoptive parents have the same treatment toward adoptive child whether she is foreign or not, and the adoptive child’s happiness and success are determined by the amount of love and attention he receives is the appropriate conclusion. The last

  paragraph concludes the whole text. In reading this text, the participants’ comprehension was quite the same. They were able to identify appropriate title but were not able to locate accurate main idea and draw conclusion. P1 gave Foreign

  Children Adoption as the title. Adoptive parents of foreign children have many experience should be considered in adopting foreign children was her main idea, but

  it was incorrect. And she drew conclusion that Many reasons, experience, and conclusion was incorrect. P2 gave this text Adoption of foreign children for the title. She wrote How to adopted foreign children as the main idea. Her answer was different from the key answer, and it mean that it was incorrect. While, her conclusion was If we want to adoptive a child, we must really give them attention like

  ourself children. Her answer was incorrect. Adopted Foreign Children was the title

  that P3 gave for the second text. And she located that Couple adopt foreign children

  because there are not enough babies available for adoption in United State as the

  main idea. And her conclusion was Adopted children is one solution to get a

  children. Her answers on the main idea and conclusion in reading this text were

  incorrect. After noticing the participants’ answers, these indicate that the participants did not really comprehend what the text is about, though they could give appropriate title. Nevertheless, P3 tried to answer them using her own words. This text needs good comprehension, since the whole text is really important. The participants had to be really careful in answering the questions, because the text can be confusing if they did not comprehend it well.

c. Text 3

  Text number three is about gorilla. This text tells about Africa, especially about the expeditions on gorillas. All participants were able to identify the title. The best title for third text is Gorilla. In locating main idea, only P1 that failed to identify accurate main idea. The main idea of this text is Gorilla is something of a paradox in

  African scene. P1’s answer was Some studies still not give many information about gorilla’s life; P2’s answer was Why gorilla is very famous/paradox; and P3’s answer

  was the gorilla is something of a paradox in the African scene. But, in drawing

  mystery, we still know very little about it. P1 answer was the quite same as the key

  answer, that was We still know very little about gorillas. Here, P2 did not give any conclusion of this text. While, P3’s conclusion was Gorilla is the same as human.

  Her conclusion on this text was incorrect.

d. Text 4

  Text number four is about famine in Africa. The best title for text number four is

  Famine in Africa. In reading this text, P1 and P2 could identify the appropriate title,

  even; P1 used her own words to identify it. P1’s answer was Starvation in Africa, while P2’s answer was Famine in East Africa. P3’s answer was incorrect, that was

  East Africa. In locating the main idea, unfortunately, the three of them could not

  locate it well. The appropriate main idea is Famine in Africa was caused by lacking

  of rain and bad government management of scarce resources. Here are P1, P2, and

  P3’s answers; Famine in Africa cause starvation and undernourishment, Famine can

  be avoid if we pay attention from the first phenomenon, and In much of East Africa in 1984. None of the answers above match to the key answer on the main idea of the

  fourth text. Only P1 that could make accurate inference. The best conclusion is the government complicated the famine. P1’s answer was Some African governments

  have bad work on the management of the starvation and undernourishment in their country. Government must give attention to safety people was P2’s answer. The last

  paragraph discusses it. Though, she tried to answer by using her own words but her answer was incorrect. P3’s answer on the main idea of this text was Rain or water is

  very needed to many people. Her answer was also incorrect. Here, P3’s answers on

  the three questions were unsatisfied. Her answers were all incorrect. It means that P3 words to express their answers in identifying title, locating main idea, and drawing conclusion though their answers were not all correct.

  e. Text 5 The fifth text is about the sun’s energy, its usage to earth, and its disturbances.

  The best title for this text is The sun’s Energy, the main idea is The Sun is the source

  of life for people on Earth, and the conclusion is Sunspots are the major disturbance of the sun’s outer region, so that only small part which can be used by earth. In

  reading the fifth text, P1 comprehension was better than P2 and P3. Here, only P1 that could give appropriate answers on the title and main idea. Her answers on the title and main idea were The sun’s energy and The sun produce large quantities of

  energy that have many important roles for life. P2 and P3’s answers on the title were Sun is the source of life and Star. While, P2 and P3’s answers on the main idea were There is many thing can be learned from the sun and Our sun is just an ordinary star, not special in anyway. P2 and P3’s answers on both the title and main idea were

  incorrect. In drawing conclusion, no one of them could draw accurate inferences. The P1, P2, and P3’s answers were; the energy emitted by the sun is very important

  for life, human life etc. needs of sun’s energy, and everybody need light to his life/ energy.

  f. Text 6

  Season is the topic of the last text. It is about seasons on earth, the characteristics of each season. In reading this text, the participants need to relate their background knowledge and relate one sentence to the others. None of the participants could not either locate main idea or draw conclusion. P1’s comprehension is again better than

  four season, the main idea is the four season characteristics, and the conclusion is the four season cycles in a year. In identifying title, only P1 that could give accurate

  title even used her own words. Her answer was Four season in Sub-tropic Countries. P2 and P3’s titles were Spring and Spring season. Their answers were incorrect. Here, the participants’ answers on the main idea and conclusion. P1’s main idea was

  there are four seasons, summer, autumns, winter, and spring in subtropic countries

  and the conclusion was In subtropic countries there are four seasons, while in tropic countries only two seasons. P2’s answers on the main idea was Spring in Europe.

  She did not draw conclusion in this text. P3’s answer on the main idea was Spring is

  beautiful and colorful, and the conclusion was Spring is more beautiful than other season. In doing the test, only P1 that connected one part of the text to the other,

  whereas P2 and P3 seemed only read the text without comprehending it.

  The test result shows that the comprehension of the three participants was different. The participants were better in identifying title but in locating main idea and drawing conclusion, their comprehensions were poor.

D. Other Data

  This subsection presents the participants’ opinion about themselves and other persons’ opinion about them. The data was got from the interview of them in six meeting.

  a. Participant 1 P1 thought that she was good in English compared to her friends. Her marks were also good. She did not think that English subject that she learned in the university was difficult. She quite understood it. Her friend also gave opinion that P1 English was good, especially her vocabulary. She often got good marks. Her marks were between 7-9. She was clever. She believed that she was not only good in English but also in all subjects.

  b. Participant 2 According to her opinion, P2 was also good in English. She often got good marks.

  But sometimes, what makes English difficult was its grammar and vocabulary. Her mother said that she was clever. She often got good rank in her class. She had ever had scholarship to enter her college. This scholarship considered her marks of economics, math, social, Indonesian and English. Her cumulative indexes were more than 3.

  c. Participant 3 According to her, P3’s English was good. It was several years ago, when she was in senior high school, there was an English teacher that lived in her house for about two years. During living there, P3 learned English a lot from the teacher. Therefore, she often got good marks in English subject. Though getting good marks, she sometimes also found some difficulties. They were vocabulary and grammar mastery. Other opinion came from her friend from the same subject at university. Her friend told that she was not really good in English. She was not careful in reading so that she sometimes missed the main points. Her English marks were not really satisfying. She got six to seven in English.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND OTHER FINDINGS This chapter presents the conclusions of the study, other findings,

  recommendations for the researcher and students. Conclusions conclude the data analysis and also answer the research questions. Other findings present some findings that do not include in the conclusions. And recommendation presents to whom the research result is recommended.

A. Conclusions From the result of the research, a grand conclusion from a problem was drawn.

  The conclusions also answer the research problem. The problem is what the patterns of non-English students in reading English texts are. The conclusion are: a. Participant 1

  In reading the sixth tests, P1 used ten strategies. The tenth strategies were reading between the line, rereading, consulting dictionary, guessing, connecting sentences, connecting knowledge of the world, translating, reading in detail, taking note, and marking.

  b. Participant 2 In the tests, P2 used eight strategies. Those strategies were reading between the line, consulting dictionary, taking note, guessing meaning, connecting to knowledge of the world, rereading, reading in detail and connecting sentences.

  After considering the data from interview on strategies above, the writer found eight strategies that had been applied by P3 in her reading tests. The strategies were reading between the lines, consulting dictionary, taking note, guessing meaning, rereading, connecting sentences, reading in detail and connecting her knowledge of the world.

B. Other Findings In doing this research, there were other findings that were considered important.

  The findings were:

  1. The three participants had different comprehension in reading the six texts. They were better in identifying the title of the texts, even P1 could give appropriate title in all texts. In locating main idea, none of them could locate appropriately in text 2, 4, and 6. For drawing conclusions, P3 was not able to do this in all tests. P1’ comprehension was the best among the other two participants, and P3 had the poorest comprehension.

  2. The participants’ grammar was not good. Sometimes, they did not use correct to be, adjectives or nouns. It was also seen when they wrote regular plural form.

  They did not add s. The other grammatical mistake was when they wrote past tense. They did not notice whether the words were in present or in past form.

  3. The participants were able to answer the questions using their own words, though, their answers were not always right. They did not only quote the sentences or words in texts. It meant that they tried to comprehend the text. But, they might have different interpretation for the incorrect answers.

  4. The participants were not careful in writing the vocabularies. They sometimes, wrote incorrect vocabularies.

C. Recommendations

  There are two recommendations presented here. The first is for students and the second is for further research.

  1. For students Reading is important. In reading comprehension, one can be said to comprehend the text she or he reads if she or he can identify title, locating accurate main idea, and drawing accurate conclusion. It needs strategies to comprehend the content. Comprehension can be achieved by stressing different strategies and by choosing suitable strategies.

  2. For further research Since the research was on strategies and comprehension, it needs more understanding and good analysis on them so that the research will be completely satisfying.

  

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psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and Learning to Read. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

  

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Children to Read. Madison Addition – Wesley Publishing Company.

  

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Teaching in a Language Communicative Context. New York: Teacher College Press

Urquhant, A.H., and C.J. Weir. (1998). Reading in a Second

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  APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1: TEST MATERIALS

  

TEST I

Read the text below then answer the questions that follow! If you wake up one night after watching a Dracula movie on television and feel a tingling

sensation in your neck, chances are it’s not the Count but a female mosquito. You have no need to worry

about the male, who devotes his time to drinking nectar from flowers and helping propagate more

mosquitoes. The female is the night-biter, she needs your blood to nourish the hundreds of eggs she will

breed in the month or two that she lives. The mosquito has probably been drawn to you by a stream of

exhaled carbon dioxide “downwind” from your sleeping place. She has followed your carbon dioxide to its

source, where she now circles until she finds a good landing place on which to do her body works. If you

have been a sleep, you may be stirred by her rapid wing beat as this little swooping helicopter settles in on

you. The noise is your last chance of escape, for she will land on you so gently you will probably not feel

her.

  As she drives her pointy snout into your skin, she injects a small amount of saliva into the

puncture to keep your blood from coagulating. It is the remains of this saliva that leaves you with an itching

welt after she has made her departure. The itch may wake up, but by now its too late. You, like many

people, have been the victim of the female mosquito’s search and attack. You might as well go back to

sleep, for if she has drunk her fill she will not attack again. Your other course of action is to turn on your

bedroom light and search her out to take your bloody revenge. Remember, though that your lights may

entice other female mosquitoes, and you could become a victim once again.

  1. What is the best title for this text?

  2. What is the main idea of the text?

  3. What is your conclusion of the text?

  1.1 TEST II

  Read the text below then answer the questions that follow! From 1980 through 1986, approximately forty thousand families in the United States adopted

foreign children. Like most adoptive parents, those who choose foreign infants are usually physically-

unable to have biological children of their own, however they want a child in order to deepen their feeling

their feeling of family and to be able to pass their values to descendants. Couples adopt foreign children

because there are not enough babies available for adoption in United State or because they want to help a

child form other country.

  In many ways the experience of adoptive parents is the same whether or not the child is foreign; in

fact, it is shared by all parents. The fact that the child is not genetically related to the parents, and so will

not take after them physically, is minor; it does not determine the quality of the emotional bonds between

family members. Parents of adopted children, like most others, are devoted to their son and daughters. They

help them learn how to get along with the world, they take care of them when they are sick, and they wait

up for them when they are late. Also, adopted children react like many others; as they grow up, they

complain that their parents interfere too much in their lives, but once they are mature, they recognize how

much they owe their parents. Despite all these similarities, families which include adopted foreign children,

face some unique challenges. For example, if the children are Asian or African, they may encounter racial

prejudice. The parents must be willing to frankly talk over any problems that arise from this prejudice or

from any confusion the child might feel about being different from other members of the family. In

addition, the parents must find a way to teach the children about his or her ethnic heritage.

  Some people object to adoption between races on the grounds that it is usually impossible for

adoptive parents to give a child an intimate understanding of his background, if it is different from their

own. There is not yet enough evidence to measure the validity of this argument. However, many specialists

are persuades that a child’s happiness and success are determined primarily by the amount of love and

attention he receives. In this respect, adopted children are among the most likely to be satisfied with their

lives.

  1. What is the appropriate title for the text?

  2. What is the main idea of the text?

  3. What is your conclusion of the text?

  

TEST III

Read the text below then answer the questions that follow! The gorilla is something of a paradox in the African scene. One thinks one knows him very well.

For a hundred years or more he has been killed, captured, and imprisoned in zoos. His bones have been

mounted in natural history museums everywhere, and he has always exerted a strong fascination upon

scientists and romantics alike. He is the stereotyped monster of the horror films and the adventure books,

and an obvious (though not perhaps strictly scientific) link with our ancestral past.

  Yet the fact we know very little about gorillas. No really satisfactory photograph has ever been

taken of one in a wild state, no zoologist, however intrepid, has been able to keep the animal under close

and constant observation in the dark jungle in which he lives. Carl Akeley, the American naturalist, led two

expeditions in the nineteen-twenties, and now lies buried among the animals he loved so well. But even he

was he able to define the exact social pattern of the family groups, or indicates the final extent of their

intelligence. All this and many other things remain almost as much mystery as they were when the French

explorer Du Chaillu first described the animal to the civilized world a century ago. The Abominable

Snowman who haunts the imagination of climbers in the Himalayas is hardly more elusive.

  1. What is the appropriate title for the text?

  2. What is the main idea of the text?

  3. What is your conclusion for the text?

  

TEST IV

Read the text below then answer the questions that follow! In much of East African in 1984, there was no rain. Because of that lack of rain, complicated by

bad government management of scarce resources, there was a famine. By the end of the year, more than

  

300,000 people had started on had perished from diseases related to undernourishment. At first, the rest of

the world knew little about the problem, but finally reports of the disaster began to spread. The

governments involved protested that many of the reports were exaggerated, but both journalists and

medical personnel confirmed their validity.

  The shortage of food was only the beginning of the problem. When other countries began to

contribute food, it could not always be used up fast enough. Doctors discovered that some children had

forgotten how to eat because they had done without food for so long. Both children and adults had

problems digesting food after so much time without it. In addition, some African governments delayed or

prohibited shipment of food to needy areas for political reasons. Some ethic groups received less food, for

example, because of conflicts with their country’s rulers. In some places, the management was so poor that

wheat rotted on boats while people did without even one daily meal.

  1. What is the best title for the text?

  2. What is the main idea of the text?

  3. What is your conclusion for the text?

  

TEST V

Read the text below then answer the questions that follow! Our sun is just an ordinary star, not special in any way. But to the people on earth it is the source

of life. The nuclear reactions that go on in the inner areas of the sun produce large quantities of energy.

This, energy is emitted in all directions in the form light and heat radiation. Only a small part of the

radiated energy is used by our planet, Earth, for warmth and the development of life forms. Green plants

have the ability to use some of the sun’s visible radiation to produce food.

  The radiant energy emitted by our sun is not constant but varies slightly in predictable cycles.

Astronomers have long known about sunspots, which are major disturbances of the sun’s outer regions.

Statistical analysis of data concerning sunspot activity indicates a fairly well-defined frequency of

occurrence. A full theoretical understanding of sunspot activity is not currently available, but scientists

hypothesize about the nature of the instabilities of the sun’s atmosphere.

  Stars are more than light in a dark night. They are varied and complex factories of our world.

Carbon, which in one form is a diamond, is an essential substance contained in all living things. The carbon

in our bodies and in our oil was manufactures by the sun.

  1. What is the best title of the text?

  2. What is the main idea of the text?

  3. What is your conclusion of the text?

  

TEST VI

Read the text then answer the questions that follow! Snow? What is it? What does it look like? How do we feel when is snowing? These are common

questions of people who live in tropical countries, such as Indonesian who have never been in Europe

during wintertime. There are four seasons, summer, autumn, winter, and spring, are not familiar to most of

us who live in countries which have only two seasons, dry and wet seasons.

  In countries north of the equator, such as European countries, Canada, United States of America, th rd

the seasons generally begin between the 20 and 23 of the month; spring in March, summer in June,

autumn in September, and winter in December. The ones which lie on the south of the equator, such as

Australia, New Zealand, and most of South America countries have the seasons at the opposite time In

January when people in Europe feel cold because of snow, it is hot in Australia and New Zealand.

  The temperature in summer is nearly the same as the one in our dry season. In summer the weather

is familiar to us. To most people, it is usually time for vacation. They go to beaches. Sometimes, it is too

o hot in summer. The temperature can reach higher than 35 C. The people suffer from heat waves. After about three months of summer, autumn comes. The green leaves of trees become drier and

drier. The wind blows hard and it is cool. Because of the of the wind, the dry leaves fall on to the ground

leaving the branches bare.

  The wind blows harder and harder, and it becomes colder and colder. Snow starts to fall. The earth

is now covered by the snow. Everything is white and boring. It is wintertime. People have to wear jackets

and overcoats. They often have to wear four to five layers of clothes starting from thermal underwear, and

quite often with raincoat. There is much rain during the winter. The temperature sometime drops many

degrees below zero. Inside the buildings people use heaters to make the temperature warm.

  After some month suffering from cold weather, by the end of March people then welcome early

spring with joy. Spring is beautiful and colorful. We can see many different colors of flowers blooming and

beautifully everywhere. The leaves are happy to greet the springtime. They start growing on the branches.

It seems new life of nature begins. The nature is now preparing it self to do the next cycle of the seasons.

  1. What is the best title for the text?

  2. What is the main idea of the text?

  3. What is your conclusion for the text?

  APPENDIX 2:

  INTERVIEW OF PARTICIPANT 1

  INTERVIEW OF PARTICIPANT 1

  1. Text 1

  W : Apa yang kamu lakukan untuk memahami text ini? P : Kalo aku yang penting tahu arti katanya, kalo udah tau, baru digabung-gabungkan.

  Soal to be, grammar, kata penghubung ngga terlalu aku perhatikan. W : Apa kamu mengerti setiap kata dalam text ini? P : Tidak, aku buka kamus.

  W : Apa yang kamu lakukan lagi? P : Aku biasanya menterjemahkan kalimat-kalimatnya. W : Kenapa? P : Kalo aku jadi mudah memahami bacaannya. Jadi kalo ada kalimat yang lupa dan ngga tau artinya ak tinggal liat catetnnya saja. Kalo jawab pertanyaan tinggal menyimpulkan catetannya tadi.

  2. Text 2

  W : Apa yang kamu lakukan untuk memahami text ini? P : Aku membaca garis besarnya aja, tapi ada beberapa kata sulit yang aku ngga tau artinya.

  W : Trus apa yang kamu lakukan? P : Buka kamus, cari artinya. W : Berapa kali kamu baca teks ini? P : Beberapa kali. Kayak waktu ada pertanyaan tentang main idea, aku baca berkali-kali, soalnya bingung.

  W : Dibaca lagi semua? P : Ngga, garis besarnya aja, kalo ketemu kata kuncinya, baru tak baca detail.

  3. Text 3

  W : Gimana caramu memahami baccan ini? P : Aku baca sekilas, kalo ada kata-kata sulit, aku liat kamus. Ada kalimat yang bikin aku bingung. Paragraph dua kalimat ketiga. Lies buried itu dikubur atau hidup bersama. W : Trus biar tau artinya gimana? P : Tak hubung-hubungkan dengan kalimat sesudah atau sebelumnya, tapi aku masih bingung juga.

  W : Trus kesimpulanmu, lies buried itu apa? P : Aku tebak aja , dikubur. W : Buka kamus ngga? P : Yang ini ngga, soalnya aku udah tau buried itu dikubur, tapi karena ada lies-nya aku jadi bingung.

  W : Text sebelumnya kamu translet. Yamg ini ya ngga? P : Iya, tak tulis juga sebagian.

  4. Text 4

  W : Bisa memahami bacaan ini? P : Bisa. W : Ngga ada kata-kata sulit? P : Ada sih, tapi tak kira-kira aja artinya. Kalo buka kamus suka lama. W : Contohnya ap ayang dikira-kira? P : Contohnya, under-nourishment. Aku tau nourish itu ada hubungannya dengan vitamin atau gizi. Jadi kalo under-nourishment itu paling artinya kurang gizi. W : Cara kamu baca text ini bagaimana?

  P : Aku baca sekilas, tapi kayaknya semua penting, trus tak baca teliti. Paragraph dua aku agak bingung, jadi tak ulang-ulang bacanya.

  5. Text 5

  W : Caramu memahami bacaan ini bagaimana? P : Yang ini aku tulis, terjemahkan. Ya ngga mesti sekalimat penuh, intinya aja.

  W : Ini teksnya digaris? P : Ya, karena aku pikir itu penting, jadi tak garis. W : Ada kata-kata yang ngga tau artinya? P : Beberapa, kayak sunspot. Sebenarnya aku udah punya perkiraan artinya tapi aku buka kamus juga.

  6. Text 6

  W : Gimana bisa memahami bacaannya? P : Bisa. W : Mudah ya? P : Kayaknya udah pernah baca yang topiknya sama. W : Bisa cepat jawab pertanyaannya? P : Ngga juga. Bingung ngasih judul, main ideanya. W : Kenapa? P : Kalo menurutku semua paragrafnya penting, jadi sulit mencari intinya.

  W : Trus jawab pertanyaannya bagaimana? P : Aku ulang-ulang terus bacanya.

  APPENDIX 3:

1.1.1 INTERVIEW INTERPRETATION OF PARTICIPANT 1

  INTERVIEW INTERPRETATION OF PARTICIPANT 1

  1. Test 1

  P1 thought that the most important thing in reading English text was that she knew the meaning of the words. After knowing the words, then, she combined them to find the meaning of the sentences. She did not think about the to be or grammar. To find the meaning of the words, she usually opened dictionary (CD). In reading this text, she was translating the sentences (T) at the same time she was reading. She also wrote the important thing of the sentences (TN). This made her easier to understand the main idea of each paragraph. This way, according to her was effective since she had written the important idea, so that in answering the questions she only concluded what she had written.

  2. Test 2

  In reading text 2, first, P2 only read the text between the lines (RBL) to find out the topic. She found that the text had several difficult words. To overcome this problem, she consulted dictionary (CD). It was an effective way to find the meaning of the words. She read the text again (RR) about main idea. She read the text between the lines, but when she found the key words, she read the text in detail

  (DR). Then, she wrote the meaning of important sentences (T), so that, she would not forget the meaning of the words.

  3. Test 3

  P1 found that text 3 was rather difficult. She read it between the lines (RBL) to find the key words. After finding the key words, she read it in detail (DR) and

  translated (T) it. She wrote the translation in a piece of a paper. It was to help her understand the text. If she forgot the text content, she only read the translation.

  There were some difficult words that she did not understand, so that she looked for

  the meaning of them in the dictionary (CD). But there was a sentence that still

  made her confused though she had known the meaning of each word in the sentence. The sentence was “Carl Akeley, the American naturalist led two expeditions in the nineteen-twenties, and now lies buried among the animals he loved so well”. Here, she was confused about the meaning of lies buried. She was confused whether the meaning was dikubur or tinggal. She had already known the meaning of buried, but then, the word buried was preceded by lies. To find the meaning of the words, she linked them to the previous and the next sentences (CS) but she was still confused. Finally, she guessed the meaning of the words (G). They meant dikubur.

  4. Test 4

  According to P1, she understood text 4 quite well. There were only a few difficult words. To find the meaning of the words, she guessed (G) them. It was done in order not to waste time. For example, the word undernourishment. She knew the word nourish related to vitamin or gizi. So, she guessed that undernourishment meant kurang gizi. In reading this text, she read it between the lines (RBL) to find the key words. After finding the words, she read more detail (DR) and tried to

  translate (T) some sentences that she thought rather confusing to understand. She

  was rather confused to find the main idea of paragraph 2, so, she read it more than once (RR).

  5. Test 5

  P1 wrote the translation (T & TN) of text 5 to help her comprehend the text easier. Not all the sentences of the text that she wrote were complete, but sometimes she only wrote the main idea of the sentences. She also marked some sentences (M) because she thought that the sentences were important. There were some difficult words that actually she had already known, but to make sure the meaning of the words, she consulted dictionary

  

(CD). The meaning of the words that she had thought more or less was the same as what

were written in the dictionary.

  6. Test 6

  Text 6 was familiar to P1. She had ever read the same topic. Though it was familiar to her, it did not mean that she could answer the questions easily. She thought that each paragraph was important, so that it made her difficult to find the main idea of each paragraph. So, to answer the questions, she had to read the text again and

  

again (RR) and also connected her knowledge of the world (CKW). Since having

  ever read the same topic, she applied her previous knowledge to understand the text. This way also helped her in answering the questions.

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