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(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS SEEN THROUGH ANIMAL-RELATED EXOCENTRIC COMPOUND WORDS AN UNDERGADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By FRANCISCO DIMAS HADHY MURTI Student Number: 104214086 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS SEEN THROUGH ANIMAL-RELATED EXOCENTRIC COMPOUND WORDS AN UNDERGADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By FRANCISCO DIMAS HADHY MURTI Student Number: 104214086 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 ii

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A S arj ana S as tr a Undergraduate Thesis I DI OpI ATI C EXPRESS10NS SEEN THROUGH RELATED EXOCENTRI C COM[ POUND WORDS ANI 卜I AL‐ l t rま ′、 盛: t F D■ 3. Ri a Lest a五 , M, S. J unc 16, 2014 Advl soF D「 . Fr . B. Al i p、 Co‐ Ad宙 soF M. Pd. . M. A. J ul l l e 16, 2014

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A Sarjana Sasta Undergraduate Thesis I DI OPI I ATI C EXPRESS10NS SEEN THROUGH ANI 】ⅦAL‐ RELATED EXOCENTRI C COpI POUNDヽ VORDS By FRANCI SCO DI 卜 I AS HADHY Ⅳl St udent Number : 104214086 URTI Def endcd bef or e t he Boar d of Exami ncr s on J ul y 21, 2014 and Dccl ar ed Acccpt abl e BOARD OF EXAMI NERS Nrme Chairperson Dr. Fransiskus Xaverius Siswadi, M.A. Secretary Agatha Bernadetha Sri Mulyani, M.A. Ph.D. Mernber 1 Anna Fitriati S.Pd., M.Hum &{ember 2 Dr. B. Ria Lestari, M. Member 3 Dr. Fr, B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A. S. Yogyakarta, July 25, 2014 Faculty of Letters Dharrna University Dean _X. Si s、 vadi , lV M. A.

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEPI ENT OF ORI CI NALI TY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis Yogyakarta, ldy 21, 2014 Dimas Hadhy Murti V

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEPI BAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJ UAN PUBLI KASI KARYA I Lン I I AH UNTUK KEPENTI NGAN AKADEMI S Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama : Francisco Dimas Hadhy Murti Nomor Mahasiswa : 104214086 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul TDIOMATIC BXPRESSIONS SEEI{ THROUGH ANIMAL.RELATED EXOCENTRIC COMPOUND WORDS Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya" Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal?l JluJi2AI4 Dimas Hadhy Murti Vl

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all, I want to thank God for helping me finish this thesis. My huge gratitude to my thesis advisor Dr. B. Ria Lestari, M. S. who gives me significant guidance and instructions for this last semester and to Dr. Fr. B. Alip, M.Pd., M.A. as a co-advisor who gives me noteworthy advices to improve this thesis. I also want to give enormous thanks to Adventina Putranti S.S., M.Hum as my academic advisor for these years I spent in Sanata Dharma University. My gratitude also goes to all the lecturers and staffs in English Letters Department. I would like to give appreciation for my family: my father, my sister, and especially my mother who always prays and encourages me to finish this thesis. I would also devote this thesis to my dearest and cherished Hanifah Rizky Apriliani who always accompanies and becomes my partner for this last four years. I also want to credit some of friends who help me throughout the years in this university. First of all, I want to show my indebtedness to my ‘twin sister’ Ni Kadek Septi Ratnasari who was always there eagerly to give me valuable support and assistance to make our thesis achievable. I would like to express my thankfulness to Cory, Brigita, and Tola who were willing to put up with me and become what I can consider as, my precious friends. Last but not least, I extend gratitude to all the class C of 2010 English Letters for these past years together and I am sorry that I am unable to get closer to each and every one of you. Francisco Dimas Hadhy Murti. vii

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………… APPROVAL PAGE …………………………………………………………….. ACCEPTANCE PAGE ……………………………………………….………... STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY …………………………………………… LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………. TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………. ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………….. ABSTRAK ……………………………………………………………………….. ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………… A. Background of the Study …………………………………………….. B. Problem Formulation ………………………………………………… C. Objectives of the Study …….……………………………………........ D. Definition of Terms ………………………………………………….. 1 1 3 3 4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ………………………………… 6 A. Review of Related Studies …………………………………………… 6 B. Review of Related Theories ………………………………………….. 8 C. Theoretical Framework ………………………………………………. 15 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY …………………………………………… A. Object of the Study …………………………………………………... B. Approach of the Study ……………………………………………….. C. Method of the Study ………………………………………………..... 16 16 16 17 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS ……………….. 20 A. Types of the Animal-Related Exocentric Compounds ………………. 20 B. Animal-Related Exocentric Compounds as Idiomatic Expressions seen from the Origin of the Words ……………………………………….... 36 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ………………………………………………… 41 BIBLIOGRAPHY ………………………………………………………………. 43 APPENDIX: Exocentric compounds data and the meanings from dictionary …... 45 viii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT DIMAS HADHY MURTI, FRANCISCO. Idiomatic Expressions Seen Through Animal-Related Exocentric Compound Words. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. Compounding is a process that puts together two different previously existing words that will be identified as one unity, and from these words a new meaning is created. An exocentric compound is one out of two types of compounds based on the meaning, aside the endocentric compound. An exocentric compound is a type of compound when the last component cannot determine the meaning of the entire compound words. This thesis will discuss the relation between exocentric compounds and idiom through animal-related exocentric compound. The research problems of this thesis are the types of meaning found in animal-related exocentric compound and the categorization of animal-related exocentric compound as an idiomatic expression. The research is done through purposive sampling by collecting the data from Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. The data are 32 animal-related exocentric compounds. The data were categorized into three categories: exocentric compounds which have metaphorical meaning, exocentric compounds which function as proper nouns and exocentric compounds which also stand as idiomatic expressions. Exocentric compounds which also stand as idiomatic expressions are analyzed further through the historical, cultural, and social aspects of the idioms to explain the transformation of exocentric compound into idiomatic expressions. The classification of the data into three types of meaning found that there are three proper nouns, thirteen metaphors, and sixteen idiomatic expressions. From the analysis of the origin of the idiom, there are some reasons which cause animal-related exocentric compound develop into idiomatic expression, some of them are animal characteristics, historical and cultural phenomenon, and also the activities by human in relation to the animals. From the analysis it can be found that exocentric compounds can develop into metaphors and then idiomatic expressions when the meaning no longer needs to be associated with the literal meaning but understood as having permanent meaning to address something different. ix

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK DIMAS HADHY MURTI, FRANCISCO. Idiomatic Expressions Seen Through Animal-Related Exocentric Compound Words. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Kata majemuk adalah sebuah proses yang menyatukan dua kata yang berbeda yang telah ada sebelumnya dan akan diidentifikasi sebagai satu kesatuan, dan dari kata majemuk ini sebuah makna baru tercipta. Kata majemuk eksosentris adalah salah satu dari dua jenis kata majemuk berdasarkan maknanya, selain kata majemuk endosentris. Kata majemuk eksosentris adalah jenis kata majemuk yang komponen terakhir tidak menentukan makna dari seluruh kata majemuk tersebut. Skripsi ini akan mendiskusikan hubungan antara kata majemuk eksosentris dan idiom melalui kata majemuk eksosentris berunsur nama binatang. Permasalahan yang akan diketengahkan dalam skripsi ini adalah jenis-jenis makna yang ditemukan dalam kata majemuk eksosentris berunsur nama binatang dan penggolongan kata majemuk eksosentris berunsur nama binatang sebagai idiom. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui purposive sampling dengan mengambil data dari Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Data yang dipakai adalah 32 kata majemuk eksosentris berunsur nama binatang. Data dibagi menjadi tiga kategori: kata majemuk yang berfungsi sebagai metafora, kata majemuk yang berfungsi sebagai nomina, dan kata majemuk yang juga berfungsi sebagai idiom. Kata majemuk yang berfungsi sebagai idiom akan dianalisis lebih jauh melalui aspek sejarah, budaya, dan sosial untuk menjelaskan perkembangan kata majemuk eksosentris menjadi idiom. Klasifikasi data menjadi tiga jenis makna menyimpulkan terdapat tiga nomina, tiga belas metafora, dan enam belas idiom. Melalui analisis asal makna dari idiom tersebut, terdapat beberapa alasan yang membuat kata majemuk eksosentris berunsur nama binatang berkembang menjadi idiom yaitu karakteristik binatang itu sendiri, fenomena sejarah dan budaya, dan juga aktifitas manusia yang berhubungan dengan binatang tersebut. Dari analisis tersebut juga menemukan bahwa kata majemuk eksosentris dapat berkembang menjadi metafora dan kemudian idiom ketika makna yang terkandung tidak lagi dikaitkan dengan arti sebenarnya tetapi dipahami memiliki makna permanen untuk merujuk pada hal yang berbeda. x

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study There are varieties of morphological processes in English language which can change the word structure, either by making an internal change or by adding some new element to the word structure, in order to create a new meaning. Some of these processes are: affixation (the addition of an affix), cliticization (attachment of function word), internal change (substitution of one vowel), suppletion (substitution of unrelated form), stress & tone placement (change of stress), and compounding (O’Grady, Dobrovolksky, and Katamba, 1997: 138-144). One of the most important word formation processes is compounding. Compounding is a process that put together two different previously existing words that must be recognized as one element and from these words a new meaning is created. As one of the two types of compounds words, exocentric compounds catch the attention of the writer because of the completely different meaning produced from the combination of the words, unlike endocentric compounds which still retain the meaning of the head component. Therefore, at first the analysis was conducted to analyze deeper about compounding process and more importantly exocentric compounds, such as the rules of combining words, the kind or form of words that can be combined, the pluralization in exocentric compounds, how the meaning of exocentric compounds can be understood, etc. 1

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 However, Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, stated that “(exocentric) compounds reveals other meaning relations between the parts, which are not entirely consistent because many (exocentric) compounds are idiomatic” (Fromkin, Rodman, and Hyams, 2003: 133). This challenging statement arise a question that perhaps the meanings of all exocentric compounds can also be categorized as idiomatic expressions. After learning more about idiomatic expressions, which in fact a semantic field that is different from the morphological field of compounding process; it is found that there are some idiomatic expressions that are also in the form of compounds. Idioms are very similar in structure to ordinary phrases except that they tend to be frozen in form and do not readily enter onto other combinations or allow the word order to change. (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206) Based on the descriptions and explanations of exocentric compounds and idiomatic expressions, it can be realized that both of them are closely related to each other. For example: white house, red neck, and black sheep, can be categorized as exocentric compounds but not all of them can be categorized as idiomatic expressions. This topic is worth studying and interesting to the writer because from the conclusion later the writer can categorize the meaning of exocentric compounds to some categories and the reason behind its categorization as an idiomatic expressions metaphors, or proper nouns.

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 The reason of choosing animal-related exocentric compounds is only to specify and narrow down the number of the data because there are supposedly millions of exocentric compounds in the dictionary. If for instance the data is changed to any kind of exocentric compounds, for example anatomy-related exocentric compound, the conclusion will still the same. This thesis discussed compounding as one of the morphological processes and more narrowly, the relation between exocentric compounds and idiomatic expressions. The writer found a deeper relation between the two objects: the history, the description, the use, and the significance in everyday conversation. B. Problem Formulation Based on the above explanation, the research problems of this study are formulated as follows: 1. What are the types of meaning found in animal-related exocentric compound words? 2. What can determine an animal-related exocentric compound word as an idiomatic expression? C. Objectives of the Study In accordance with the above research problems this study is aimed at these research objectives. The first objective is to identify the types of meaning of some animal-related exocentric compound words. The second objective is to identify the

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 animal-related idiomatic expressions which are different from the other animalrelated exocentric compounds. D. Definition of Terms Exocentric Compound is a type of compound when the rightmost component cannot determine the meaning of the entire compound words. Like endocentric compound, exocentric compound is a word which has more than one stem. It is produced by compounding: a word formation process that attaches two or more lexical elements together to express a larger word. It can be written as one or more words or joined by a hyphen. Exocentric compound is the combination of lexical categories (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions) and the resulting compound words are nouns, verbs, or adjectives. The meanings of the exocentric compounds are interrelating that a new meaning are created, which is different from the meaning of each individual word (Katamba, 1993: 174). Thus it can be concluded that, the meaning of exocentric compound is the result of a process known as compounding and the meaning cannot be determined by the head (O’Grady, et al, 1997: 155). Idiom comes from Latin word idioma (special meaning). Idioms are a combination of words that create a phrase or sentence and express a figurative meaning that cannot be guessed from the meaning of its individual words. Idioms are phrases that do not adhere to the Principle of Compositionality, that is, whose meaning is not from the combination of the meanings of its individual words. Idiomatic expressions have to be learnt as a whole unit to fully understand the

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 meaning. The figurative meaning must be understood in regard to a common use of the expression that separates from the literal meaning or definition of the words which it is made (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 220). Idiomatic expressions is a fixed phrase, consisting of more than one word, with fixed figurative meaning that must be learned and cannot be inferred from the meanings of the individual words. Therefore, it can be said that idiom is the combination of words which has a very special and unique meaning different from the meaning of the independent word, or even from the meaning of the combined words altogether (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205-207).

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter present reviews of related studies on similar topics of compound words and idiomatic expressions done by other researchers, review of some related theories on compounding, idioms, metaphors, and proper nouns that are applied in this thesis, and elaborate theoretical framework of the present thesis. A. Review of Related Studies 1. Clara Agustina Marwati’s A syntactic analysis on English compound nouns This undergraduate thesis tries to see compounds from the point of view of syntax. She discusses the element of compound nouns and the syntactic relations of compound nouns. The meanings of compound nouns are classified into compound nouns that can be paraphrased or cannot. From the classifications, three categories of compound nouns are found: transparent combination, opaque combination, and exocentric compound. This study also finds that there are eight elements of compound nouns. They are noun-noun, verb-noun, adjective-noun, preposition-noun, adverb-noun, adjective-noun-noun, noun-noun-noun, and noun-adjective-noun. The writer also conclude that there are some rules which are not applied in forming compound nouns and the syntactic relations can be identified from paraphrasing the compound nouns that are made into noun phrases. The noun phrases which are 6

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 7 analyzed shows that there are five kinds of relations: complement-head, attributehead, specifier-head, adjunct time-head, and adjunct place-head. Marwati’s analysis is relevant to the present thesis because the compound words discussed in this present thesis are animal-related and the whole data are compound nouns which have noun as the head. The similarities are the present thesis also uses compound nouns as the object of the study. However, the focus of the present thesis is different from the above study because this thesis analyzes the relation of the meaning of the compound noun with idiomatic expressions and what can define a specific noun compound as an idiomatic expression. 2. Frederick J. Newmeyer’s The Regularity of Idiom Behavior in Lingua, v. 34 In his article, Newmeyer tries to see idioms not from the semantic aspect but from morphology and syntax aspects. He discusses that there is far more regularity to the construction of idioms than is generally believed. The syntactic aspect of an idiom can be predicted from the meaning of its literal equivalent. This article tries to explain the transformational feature of idioms and also a transderivational limit on idiom by considering that the lexical items of which idioms are composed have identical entries to homophonous lexical items in their literal sense. To analyze the transformational feature, cyclic rules are used: passive, unspecified object deletion, conjunct movement, subject raising, tough movement, and there insertion. However, Newmeyer also remarks that even though idiom can be considered as a lexical unit,

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 the claim that idioms only reliable as semantic unit shows the difficulties to see its transformational feature. Newmeyer’s analysis is relevant to the present thesis because he consider that an idiom to be a series of element for which the semantic interpretation is not a compositional function of the formatives of which it is composed. This present thesis is different from Newmeyer’s article in some aspects, although it is similar in dealing with idiomatic expressions. The difference lies in the type of the data, Newmeyer concerns only with what he stated as full idioms for which the constituent contains no formatives whose ordinary lexical meaning contributes to the semantic interpretation such as kick the bucket, toe the line. This present thesis concerned more on what he stated as semi-idioms, where at least one formative contributes its ordinary lexical meaning, as the data. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theories of Compounding The definition of Compound is a word formation process “by combining two already existing words.” (Katamba,1993: 174). From the definition, it can be concluded that at least two independent words, that have their own meaning by itself, can be put together to create a larger word that have its own meaning which is different from the initial words. There are some principles in the structure of English compounds (O’Grady, et al, 1997: 153-154):

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 Compounds can be found in all the major lexical categories such as nouns -the most common type of compounds-, verbs -quite infrequent compounds-, and adjectives. The most element compound is N+N, followed by Adj+N, and V+N. As seen in the examples provided below, the first member or the leftmost morpheme is always a modifier of the second or the dependent, e.g.: dog house (N+N), cry wolf (V+N), black bird (Adj+N). The rightmost morpheme determines the category of the compound word, or it can be said that the lexical category of the last member of the compound is the same as that of the entire compound. In other words, it acts as the head of the compound from which most of the syntactic properties of the compound are derived. For example, dog house is a noun because its right component (house) is belongs to noun. Once formed, compounds can be combined with other lexical categories to create still larger compounds, e.g.: dog food box. Compound words can contain more than two words. But a compound word never has more than two components. For example, the words dog and food were joined together to create the compound word dog food. Then the compound dog food, now considered as one component, joined with the word box to create the compound word dog food box and therefore still composed of two components. Once formed, compounds can be combined with other words to create still larger compounds, e.g.: Stone Age cave dweller. The basic compounding operation is thus always binary, although repetition of the basic operation in generates a compound word may result in more complex individual

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 forms. As seen in the above examples, the entire compound always consists of two components, each of which may itself be a compound. Compound can be written sometimes as single words or sometimes as separate words or sometimes joined by an intervening hyphen, e.g.: bookworm; swansong; sabre-toothed. There are no strict rules of these forms because it varies with the usage and the time-span of the compounds. New compounds usually written as separated words. When it is used in a sentence the compounds has a hyphen. As the compound becomes more common, the compound is written as one word. Compounding may also interact with derivation. The morphemes of a compound are often themselves derivationally complex, and sometimes, though not often, a compound may serve as the base of a derivational affix, e.g.: abominable snowman. In English, one of the distinguishing features of compounds is concerning tense and plural markers. Both of them cannot be naturally attached on the first element or morpheme. The way to added tenses and plural markers is to the compound as a whole in last component or element, e.g.: bird house(s). But there are some exceptions. e.g.: swordsman. There are two types of compound related to the meaning of the compound itself (O’Grady, Archibald, Aronoff, and Rees-Miller, 2010: 120-124). - Endocentric Compounds is when the rightmost component determines the meaning of the entire compound words. This is the most cases found in English compounds. For example, white house is a type of house.

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 - Exocentric Compounds is when the rightmost component cannot determine the meaning of the entire compound words. These appear in a smaller number of cases found in English compound. For example, white collar is not a type of collar, it have another figurative meaning. A very striking difference between English endocentric and exocentric compounds sometimes shows up in cases where the head is a word like tooth, foot, or man, which has an irregular plural form, e.g.: policemen, walkmans. Therefore, the endocentric compounds still employ the usual irregular plural form, the exocentric compounds permit the plural suffix (-s) 2. Theories of Idiom Idiomatic expressions are phrases or sentence whose meaning is not clear from the meaning of its individual words and which must be learnt as a single unit. There are some rules to identify idiomatic expressions (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206207). Idiomatic expressions can appear as a combination of words, or as a combination of phrases, or as a combination of clauses, or as a combination of sentences, e.g.: black sheep; grain of salt; call it a day; you can say that again. Idiomatic expressions can contain two meanings, the literal meaning and the figurative meaning, e.g.: black sheep (a sheep that has black color or a not respectable member of certain group). Not all idiomatic expressions can be translated word by word. The result of the word by word translation will change the meaning or even become meaningless, e.g.: kambing hitam in English are scapegoat not black sheep.

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 Some idiomatic expression also cannot be displaced or rearranged. The arrangement is permanent, e.g.: high and dry (not dry and high). The Principle of Compositionality is a principle which stated that the meaning of phrases and sentences is determined by the meaning of the individual morphemes and words they contain, together with the syntactic structure of the larger expression (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 220). Based on the definition of both the Principle of Compositionality and Idiomatic Expressions it can be seen that these term are very distinctive. Therefore to analyze whether or not a compound is an idiom, the accuracy of the meaning to the principle can be used to identify the compound words because idioms are phrases that do not adhere to the Principle of Compositionality. 3. Theories of Metaphor The definition of metaphor according to Fromkin, who states that: A metaphor is an expression that ordinarily designates one concept -its literal meaning- but is used to designate another concept, thus creating an implicit comparison. (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204) Fromkin elaborates that as one of the principal parts of the semantic study it is essential to understand and use metaphor in everyday communications to communicate efficiently and effectively. There are some principles of metaphors (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204-205). Metaphors cannot be interpreted literally or it may appear anomalous. The structure of the metaphors can also be ambiguous but leads the listeners to think that in that context the literal meaning of the sentence is implausible thus there should be another

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 interpretation of the meaning. For example, walls have ears is certainly anomalous, but it can be interpreted as meaning “you can be overheard even when you think nobody is listening” Not all metaphors are anomalous when understood literally because there are also some metaphors that have acceptable literal meaning thus make the sentence have both the literal and metaphorical meaning. For example, John is a tiger can be interpreted literally to refer to a type of large animal of the cat family. The metaphorical meaning is that John is a fierce man who resembles a tiger. Metaphors, like idiomatic expressions, do not adhere to the Principle of Compositionality. But unlike idiom which completely unattached to the principal, metaphors expand it as a result when the literal meaning of the sentence is unacceptable, the listeners widen it based on semantic properties that are inferred and create some kind of similar comparison, for example: My new car is lemon. The imagination widen in this case may relate to the semantic property that lemon possesses which is “tastes sour”. As a result, metaphorically the sentence has meaning of a newly purchased car that frequently breaks down and needs continuous repairs. Metaphors also have a strong cultural component. Hence, there are some metaphors which appropriate from one culture but improper for another culture. This also set up many expressions which now have been taken literally may originate as metaphors because of the cultural influences. For example, my car is lemon may not be understood in a culture that lacks both cars and lemons.

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 3. Theories of Proper Noun Fromkin describes proper nouns as a language’s shortcuts to name people, places, institutions, or entities. (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 185). The main function of proper nouns is to distinguish one individual from another. Proper nouns have no descriptive content even though it is one of the referring expressions. In some context proper nouns may apply to some individuals or things, yet it is usually used as if the references were unique and different from each other (Hoffmann, 1995: 192-193). Some rules of proper nouns (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 185-187): Proper nouns are different from most words in the language in that they usually have little meaning, or sense, beyond the referral, thus it only used to refer to a specific object or entity. For example, New Zealand refers to an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, east of Australia. Proper nouns refer to unique objects or entities within the context. It may be an existing object, e.g.: Sanata Dharma University. The object may also be extinct, e.g.: Tyranosaurus Rex. This includes the fictional entities, e.g.: Lemuell Gulliver. As a result of this, proper nouns are definite, which means they refer to a unique object that the speaker and listener are concerned with. Proper nouns in English are not in general preceded by “the”. There are some exceptions, such as the names of rivers, ships, erected structure, and twitter account names, e.g.: the Nile, the Queen Mary, the Chrysler Building, @thewillsmith. Proper nouns cannot usually be pluralized, because they are generally referred to unique

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 objects, though they can be plural. There are exceptions when used in particular circumstances, e.g.: the John Smiths refer to the family of John Smith. Proper noun can be preceded by an article if the resulting noun phrase is followed by a modifying expression such as a prepositional phrase or a sentence, e.g.: The Paris of the 1920s. Proper nouns cannot generally preceded by adjectives because adjectives have the purpose to narrowing down the reference, but proper nouns already refer to something that is already narrowed down, thus it is unnecessary to add adjectives. Some exceptions: young John to distinguish between two people named John. C. Theoretical Framework The related studies and theories presented above, the definitions of exocentric compound words, idiomatic expressions, metaphors, and proper nouns, have given contribution for the present thesis. The theory about two types of compound by O’Grady, Archibald, Aronoff, and Rees-Miller are applied to the analysis as the basic type of compounding according to the meaning. The theories on the arrangement of compound such as the head as the meaning, and the plural forms are used to differentiate endocentric and exocentric compound. The theories of idiomatic expressions by Fromkin are used to analyze whether or not the compound data are idioms as it observe the meanings accuracy to the Principle of Compositionality. The theories of metaphors and proper nouns are used to distinguish some meaning of exocentric compounds that cannot be categorized into idiomatic expressions.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter presents a discussion of the research procedures and the way the analysis of the study is conducted. The discussion includes the object of the study, the approach used in the study, and the method of the study. A. Object of the Study The linguistic elements analyzed were exocentric compound which are related to animal. Therefore, the data mostly consisted of compound words which are compound nouns, either N+N, Adj+N, or V+N. The compound words taken were just limited to two words compounding. Thus it just consisted of one constituent. B. Approach of the Study The approaches used in analyzing the linguistic elements are morphological and semantic approach. The morphological approach is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation, or implied context (Katamba, 1993: 7-8). The research used a morphological approach because compounding is a part of word formation process that deals with words and part of speech. This research also used a semantic approach. A semantic approach is the approach to study the meaning of linguistic elements (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 173). The 16

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 semantic approach is used because this thesis relates the compound words with idiomatic expressions based from the meaning. The morphological approach was used in the first part to analyze the compound words. After that, the semantic approach was used to identify the idiomatic expressions C. Method of the Study 1. Data Collection The method used in this study is a sample study, specifically purposive sampling method. A purposive sampling is a data collection method which purposively takes a part of the population of interest or sub-collection selected from the population that considered appropriate for the study. (Hansen, Hurwitz, and Madow, 1953: 4-5). This method is used when the population is large, thus using the sample of the population is considered to be sufficient. The population of this research is all the animal-related exocentric compounds recorded in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. The research was in a purposive sampling by taking a number of animal-related exocentric compounds from the dictionary. The purposive sampling was chosen since it only takes some exocentric compounds from the total population in the dictionary. In the pre-collection activity, preparation was made for the whole process of data collection. The target data were in the form of animal-related exocentric compound nouns and only in the form of two words compounds. The aim preferred was around thirty compound nouns.

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 The source of the data collection was an English dictionary, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. The reason behind the choice of this dictionary was because this dictionary was complete enough for the content of compound words. Furthermore many students of the English Department of Sanata Dharma University are using the edition of this dictionary; so it was easier to look for reference of this research. The first step is looking up exocentric compounds in each alphabet in the dictionary. Since it was time consuming to analyze the whole dictionary from A to Z, the initial plan is to take only two samples in each alphabet. But the writer is aware that there are certain alphabets which contained small number or even not at all animal-related word entry, for example the alphabet A contained the word entry of alligator, alsatian, animal, ant, ape, but none of them include an exocentric compound in the entries. Therefore, the data were taken from other alphabets that possess a large number of animal-related word entries to provide different kinds of exocentric compounds. If certain animal entry is already used, the other exocentric compounds of the same entry are no longer included as the data. For example, the entry cat contains some exocentric compound namely cat burglar, cat’s eye, and scaredy cat but only one of them is included as the data. The last is making a list of the collected exocentric compounds alphabetically which also include the meaning: Bird Brain Dark Horse Cry Wolf Noun + Noun A stupid or silly person A person who hides facts, especially special Adj + Noun personal abilities Verb + Noun To pretend there is danger and call for help

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 2. Data Analysis After the data collected were set in a table, the first problem formulation will be analyzed. The primary step of the analysis is explaining the form and meaning of each exocentric compounds. Second is analyzing the type of exocentric compound, from the meaning, based on the theories of idioms, metaphors, and proper nouns. The data were then divided into three categories: the exocentric compound which has metaphorical meaning, the exocentric compound which functions as proper nouns, and the exocentric compound which also stands as idiomatic expressions. The hypothesis of what could constitute the exocentric compound also obtained from the classification of each data to the types of exocentric compound. In analyzing the second problem, the theories of idioms are used again to reveal and identify the reason why idiomatic expressions are very different from the other exocentric compounds. The historical, cultural, and social aspects of the idioms in the data are used to explain the transformation of an exocentric compound into idiomatic expression.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter will show the outcome of the analysis. The theories presented in the reviews section are used in this part of the thesis. This chapter will be divided into two subchapters based on the two problem formulations. The first subchapter is to identify the types of meaning of the exocentric compounds. The second subchapter is to relate the exocentric compounds and idiomatic expressions. The data are 32 animal-related exocentric compounds from Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Animal-related endocentric compound is not included as the data. Animal-related here means that the exocentric compounds contained animal names as one of the components. The data is arranged alphabetically as of the animal component in the compounds. For example, white elephant is positioned before scape goat because alphabetically elephant is placed ahead of goat. A. Types of the Animal-Related Exocentric Compounds Based on the analysis, the answer to the first problem, the types of meaning found in animal-related exocentric compound words, is as follows: there are three types of meanings found in animal-related exocentric compounds. The three types are proper nouns, metaphors, and idiomatic expressions. From the 32 animal-related exocentric compounds in the data, there are three proper nouns, thirteen metaphors, and sixteen idioms. 20

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 1. Proper Nouns Proper noun is a name of a person, place, institutions, etc, written with a capital letter at the start (Hornby, Crowther, Kavanagh and Ashby, 1995: 929). There are three animal-related exocentric compounds in the data that the can be categorized into proper nouns: a. Blue Bottle This is an example of Adjective+Noun compound. The rightmost component of Blue Bottle does not determine the meaning of the entire compound word because it does not refer back to the actual thing. But the compound also does not contain a figurative meaning. Theory of proper nouns stated that proper nouns are different from any other words because they have little meaning beyond the referral (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 187). Therefore Blue Bottle can also have a meaning of blue colored bottle but in this case it refers to a specific animal, which is a large noisy fly with a blue body. The name comes from the shape and color of this insect which has the shape like a bottle and has blue color. b. Big Foot This is an example of Adjective+Noun compound. Big Foot is a large creature like an ape which some people believe lives in America. The literal meaning is an enormous feet. But in this case, the rightmost component of Big Foot does not determine the meaning of the entire compound words because it does not refer back to a foot. Theory of proper nouns acknowledged that proper noun can refer to unique

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 objects or entities within the context. It may be an existing object, extinct, and also fictional entities (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 187). The compound got its name from the impression that this creature has gigantic feet. c. Brim Stones This proper noun is an example of a Noun+Noun compound. The rightmost component of Brim Stones does not determine the meaning of the entire compound word because it does not refer back to some kind of stones. This compound neither has the literal meaning of brim-colored stones nor have a particular figurative meaning. Brim Stones is a type of yellow butterfly. Theory of proper nouns confirmed that proper nouns are definite, which means they refer to a unique object that the speaker and listener are concerned with (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 187) since this compound is also used to describe sulfur but in this case is a name for certain species of yellow butterfly. 2. Metaphors Metaphor is the imaginative use of a words or phrase to describe something as another object in order to show that they have the same qualities (Hornby, et al, 1995: 734). There are thirteen animal-related exocentric compounds in the data collection that can be categorized into metaphors: a. Bear Hug The theory of compound stated that compounding process can be composed of noun combining with a noun. The meaning is an act of holding somebody strongly

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 and tightly in one’s arms. Based on the meaning, the rightmost component still determines the meaning, so bear hug is still a type of hug. But, as the theory of metaphors stated, the literal meaning is used to designate another concept to create implicit comparison (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205). This action is supposedly not done by bear but because of the tight hug which resembles bear. Therefore, the action of bear is compared to the same action by human being. b. Bird Brain This is an example of N+N Compound. Based on the dictionary, bird brain is used to refer to a stupid or silly person. The theory express that there are some metaphors that have acceptable literal meaning (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204), so bird brain can also be used to describe the brain part of birds. The idea came from the fact that birds have very tiny brains, so it is used to describe unintelligent or brainless person. c. Cat Burglar The theory of compound stated that the most commonly found compounding process is from the combination of two nouns. This term is used to designate a burglar who enters houses by climbing up walls to steal things. Based on the meaning from the dictionary, the rightmost component still determines the meaning, so cat burglar is still a type of burglar. The theory stated that metaphors cannot be interpreted literally or it may appear anomalous (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205). It is

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 anomalous because cats cannot be burglars, but it can be interpreted as a burglar who acts like cats which usually steal things such as foods. d. Dog Days This compound is also an example of a Noun+Noun compound. Dog days means the hottest period of the year. Based on the meaning, the rightmost component still determines the meaning, thus dog days still referred to the usual days. But it is not matching the true literal meaning of days for dogs, thus they contain some metaphorical meaning. This compound is an example of how metaphors have a strong cultural component (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205). Dog days came from the history from the Romans who related the hot weather with the Dog Star, Sirius. During summer months the star Sirius rises and sets with the sun which was believed by the ancients that this alignment rising and setting extra heat to the weather. e. Eagle Eye This compound is a Noun+Noun compound. The meaning from the dictionary is a keen and close attention especially to small details. Based on the meaning, the rightmost component still determines the meaning, so eagle eye is still related to eyes, sight and an action of seeing. This compound solidifies the theory that not all metaphors are anomalous when understood literally (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204). The literal meaning is an eye of an eagle. But it is used to refer to something besides the literal meaning. It came from the famous trait of eagle which is said to have keen eye.

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 25 f. Flea Market This compound is N+N compound. Flea market is an outdoor market that sells old and used goods at low price. The rightmost component still determines the meaning, so it is a type of market. The theories stated that when the literal meaning is unacceptable, the listeners can widen the semantic properties and create a similar comparison (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205). The history of flea market is varied but some said it is a common English phrase from the French "marché aux puces", literally translating to "market where one acquires fleas". g. Frog Man This compound is N+N compound. The meaning based on the dictionary is a person who swims wearing a rubber suit, flippers, and an oxygen supply so that he or she can stay under the water. Like flea market above, the listeners can widen the semantic properties and create a similar comparison (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205), so frog man refers to man who wears the swimming suit and resembling a giant frog. h. Panda Car This is N+N compound. It is used to describe a small police car. Based on the meaning, the rightmost component still determines the meaning. But it does not contain the literal meaning of car for pandas. The theory stated that when literal meaning is unacceptable, the meaning can be expanded from the literal to metaphorical to generate a similar comparison (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204). Thus compare the black-white fur of panda to the black-white color scheme of a police car.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 i. Stag Party This is an example of Noun+Noun compound. Stag party is a party for men only, especially one for a man just before he gets married. As the meaning imply, the rightmost component determine the meaning of the whole compound. But the theory mentioned that the literal meaning of metaphors can be ambiguous or unclear (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204-205). Therefore, this compound is not referring to a party only for stag, but referring to men-only party as stag is a male deer. j. Swallow Tail This compound is N+N compound. As a result noun is the lexical category of this compound. It is used to refer something which has a deeply forked tail. The rightmost component still determines the meaning of tail, thus it has an acceptable literal meaning of the tail of a swallow (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204). But, swallow tail can be used to refer to any objects which have the tail part resembling swallow’s tail such as coats. k. Turtle Neck This compound is N+N compound. This term is used to describe a garment with a high part fitting closely round the neck. Even though the rightmost component still determines the meaning, it also contains some metaphorical meaning. The literal meaning that refers to the neck of turtles is used to designate another concept and create an implied comparison (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205). Turtle neck refers to a shirt

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 that gets its name for the collar, which can be elongated or drawn back, like the neck of a turtle. l. Weasel Word Noun is the lexical category of this compound because the form is Noun+Noun. Weasel word is a statement that are deliberately not clear, used when one wishes to avoid committing oneself to a definite statement. The rightmost component still determines the meaning as it is used to express words, phrases, or sentences. But the meaning is anomalous and cannot be interpreted literally (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 205) as utterances by weasel. The term comes from belief that weasels sucked the contents from eggs to leave only the empty shells. Therefore, the statements can be considered to be empty and have no meaning. m. Zebra Crossing This is an example of Noun+Noun compound. Zebra crossing is an area of road with broad white lines painted on it, at which vehicles must stop if people wish to walk across. Based on the meaning from the dictionary, the rightmost component still determines the meaning, so this is still a type of pedestrians crossing in the streets. But the literal meaning of the combined words is unacceptable (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 204) as it is not a crossing for zebras. The name came from the unique characteristic of black-white stripes on the road which resembles zebra stripes.

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 3. Idiomatic Expressions Idiom is a phrase or sentences whose meaning is not clear from the meaning of its individual words and which must be learnt as a single unit (Hornby, et al, 1995: 589). The difference from the examples of metaphors above is the rightmost component of metaphors still constitutes the meaning, whereas idioms are not. There are sixteen animal-related exocentric compounds in the data that can be categorized into idiomatic expressions. a. Eager Beaver The theory of idiom stated that idiomatic expressions can appear as a combination of words (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). This idiom is a combination of adjective and noun. Eager beaver is used to describe a keen and enthusiastic person who works very hard. Based on the meaning, the rightmost component determines the lexical category which is a noun. But the meanings of the entire word are not based on the rightmost morphemes. The meaning does not adhere to the Principle of Compositionality, in which the meaning cannot be obtained from the combination of the meanings of the individual words. Example: The new assistant always works late, she is a real eager beaver. b. Fatted Calf The theory of idiom stated that idiomatic expressions can appear as a combination of words. This is an example of adjective and noun idiom. Fatted calf is a symbol of festive celebration for someone’s long-awaited return. From the meaning,

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 the rightmost component determines the lexical category which is a noun. But the definition of idiomatic expressions stated that the figurative meaning of idioms cannot be guessed from the meaning of its both words (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). Therefore, this compound also does not refer back to the actual calf. Example: When Bob got back from college, his parents killed the fatted calf and threw a great party. c. Cash Cow The theory of idiom stated that idiomatic expressions can appear as a combination of words. This idiom is a combination of noun and noun. The meaning from the dictionary is a business unit that generates unusually high profit margins. This compound is not a type of cow, so the rightmost component does not determine the meaning. Refers back to the Principle of Compositionality, the meanings cannot be inferred from the meaning of each word in the compound, but had to be understood as a single figurative meaning (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). Example: Their new smart phone model has become the cash cow for that company. d. Crocodile Tears The theory of idiom stated that idiomatic expressions can appear as a combination of words. This is an example of adjective + noun idiom. The meaning of this compound is used to address an insincere expression of sorrow. The rightmost component does not express the meaning because it is not only limited to express an action of crying but it can be used to show grief and sadness without weeping in

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 tears. Once again this compound has to be learnt as a whole unit to fully understand the figurative meaning (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). Example: When her cousin died, she shed crocodile tears because everyone knows she actually hated him so much. e. Eating Crow The theory of idiom stated that idiomatic expressions can appear as a combination of words. This is an example of the combination of verb and noun. The meaning is humiliation by admitting wrongness after taking a strong position. From the meaning, the rightmost component does not determine the meaning, so this is not a type of crow. The meanings based on the dictionary imply again that these compounds do not follow the Principle of Compositionality which is one characteristic of idioms (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 207). Example: You’ll have to eat crow if he is proved right. f. White Elephant This compound is composed of adjective and noun. White elephant is a possession that is useless or troublesome, especially one that is expensive to maintain or difficult to dispose of. Based on the meaning on the dictionary, this rightmost component of this compound does not used to describe a real elephant, even though this compound also have an acceptable literal meaning to describe an albino elephant. Refers back to the Principle of Compositionality (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 220), the

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 meanings cannot be inferred from the meaning of each word in the compound, but had to be understood as a single figurative meaning. Example: That enormous wardrobe your mother gave us has been nothing but a white elephant. g. Scape Goat This idiom is an example of compound words composed of verb and noun (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). Scape goat is a person who is punished for the faults of somebody else. Despite that this compound is also a noun compound, the head does not explain the meaning of the whole unit as this compound does not refer to the animal goat. The figurative meaning of this compound must be understood separately from the literal meaning. Example: They simply wanted to find a scape goat to blame for that economic crisis. h. Red Herring This is an example of adjective and noun compound. Red herring is a term to describe facts or events that lead people’s away from the main point. Based on the meaning above, the rightmost component once again does not determine the meaning of the whole compound (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206), so this is not a type of herring. Moreover in reality there are no red colored herrings. Example: The evidence about the missing gun, which the police spent so much time searching for, turned out later to be only a red herring because it was not the murderer’s weapon.

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 i. Dark Horse This compound is an example of adjective and noun compound. The meaning is used to explain a person who hides facts, especially special personal abilities. The rightmost component of this compound is a noun, but the head does not describe the meaning of the whole word. Based on the explanation of the meaning, this term is intended for human being and not refers back to the animal horse. Although this compound has an acceptable literal meaning of a dark-furred horse. Yet again the meaning must be understood along with the common use that is different from the definitions of the words it is made (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206-207). Example: She was the dark horse in the tournament because many people do not expect her to win. j. Lion’s Share This compound word is an example of compound consisted of two nouns. Lion’s share is a term to illustrate the largest part of something when it is divided. Based on the meaning, the rightmost component of share determines the lexical category which is a noun. But the meanings of the entire word are not based from the meaning of the combined words altogether. The meaning also does not adhere to the Principle of Compositionality since the meaning is not originated from the combination of meaning of both words in the compound (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 220). Example: When his salary was divided, his wife always got the lion’s share.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 k. Monkey Business Noun is the lexical category of this compound because this compound is formed by noun and noun. The meaning from dictionary is a Suspicious or dishonest activity or behavior. The rightmost component does not determine the meaning of the whole compound, so this is not a particular type of business for monkey. The theory of idioms stated that the figurative meaning of idioms cannot be guessed from the meaning of its words (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). Example: He seems to be involved in some kind of monkey business with that firm. l. Pork Barrel This compound is once more an example of Noun+Noun compound. The meaning based on the dictionary is a term for government money spent on local projects in order to win votes. As the meaning imply, the rightmost component does not determine the meaning because it has nothing to do with a barrel contain pork. Even though it is used to describe the literal thing in the past, once more the compound does not obey the Principle of Compositionality as the meaning is not from the combination of meanings of the words (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 220). Example: Many politicians were believed to use pork barrel politics in that election to make sure that they will win. m. Rat Race As a compound consists of two nouns, noun is the lexical category of this compound. The meaning from the dictionary is a way of life on which everybody

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 competes fiercely to be more successful than everybody else. Based from the meaning, the rightmost component does not determine the meaning, so this is not a particular kind of race for rats. In this case it is used to describe an entirely different situation. Refers back to the theory of idioms which does not applying the Principle of Compositionality (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 220), the meaning had to be understood as a single figurative meaning and cannot be inferred from the meaning of each word in the compound. Example: He grew tired of the rat race in the city and now retired to live in the country. n. Black Sheep This compound is an example of Adjective+Noun compound. Black sheep is a person who is strongly disapproved of by other members of his or her family. The meaning from the dictionary implied that the meaning is not based on the rightmost morphemes. The meanings of this compound cannot be inferred literally from the meaning of the words in the compound, because this compound also contained an acceptable literal meaning which is sheep that has black fleece, it had to be understood as a single figurative meaning (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). Example: His brother has always been the black sheep of the family because he has been in prison several times.

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 o. Swan Song This compound is also an example of Noun+Noun compound. As a result noun is the lexical category of this compound. Based on the dictionary the meaning is a person’s last work or act before retirement or death. From the meaning, this compound is commonly not only used to describe an actual song but also to refer to any kind of art such as painting, dance or even acting performance. This compound yet again has to be learnt as a whole unit to fully understand the figurative meaning (Fromkin, et al, 2003: 206). Example: The actor’s performance in that movie proved to be his swan song, because he retired from the film industry after that. p. Cry Wolf The theory of compound stated that although the number of Verb+Noun compound is very small, compounding process can be composed of verb combining with a noun. The meaning of Cry wolf is to pretend there is danger and call for help when it is no needed. The meanings still cannot be inferred from the meaning of each word in the compound because based on the meaning the use is not only limited to cry for the danger of wolf. The compound contains a figurative meaning that exceptionally different form the literal meaning. Example: She’s cried wolf so often about her children’s health that no-one believes her any longer.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 B. Animal-Related Exocentric Compounds as Idiomatic Expressions seen from the Origin of the Words Based on the analysis, the answer to the second problem, what can determine an animal-related exocentric compound word as an idiomatic expression, is as follows: exocentric compounds can become idiomatic expressions when the figurative meanings are predetermined that the history of the actual meaning is no longer relevant and it can be applied as a figure of speech. Almost all compound words begin with the literal meaning or endocentric compound when the meaning can be obtained from the meaning of its head. For example, an endocentric compound of dark horse has the meaning of horse which has black hair-coat. Then it develops into exocentric compound in which contained a particular figurative meaning that cannot be inferred from the meaning of its each word. For that reason, exocentric compound of black horse has the meaning of a person who hides special personal abilities. From the collected data of animal-related exocentric compound word, it can be seen that metaphors originated from the literal meaning or as endocentric compounds as well. Then these terms became metaphors when they are used by people to compare or associate the literal meaning to describe something when it seems similar in a particular situation. For example, the literal meaning of eagle eye is to refer the eye parts of eagles. But then the meaning is expanded when this term are used to compare someone who has keen and close attentions especially to small

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 details around him or her. As a result when it is used as metaphors, people can associate the comparison to the actual meaning of an eye of the eagles. The meaning of the English-language idioms also originated from the original use of literal meaning and then expanded to the implied figurative meaning as people know nowadays. This means that there are some idioms which have acceptable literal meaning, such as black sheep, dark horse, and white elephant. There are some reasons which cause animal-related exocentric compound develop into idiomatic expression, some of them are animal characteristics, historical and cultural phenomenon, and also the activities by human in relation to the animals. Similar to the examples of metaphors from the data collected (bird brain, eagle eye, etc), the characteristics of certain animals sometimes become the basis in the creation of idiomatic expressions. Eager beaver, monkey business, and black sheep are idioms based on the characteristic of animals. The term eager beaver comes from beavers which have the characteristics of always enthusiastic and industrious when build their house or when looking for food. Therefore, the word beaver itself are associated with the connotation of hard-working, self-disciplined, and organized. Monkey business gets the meanings from monkeys that are often depicted to be an intelligent animal which can understand or even often trick human. The implications of monkeys are playful, mischievous and deceitful in this term used to describe an act or behavior that will cause disadvantage to some people. Black sheep comes from a situation when 25% possibility a sheep will produce a black lamb. The term is used as

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 an idiom because black wool are considered to be useless compare the usual white wool The historical and cultural phenomenon can be categorized further into three parts. The first is idioms based on Biblical references or tales such as fated calf and scape goat. The idiom fatted calf gets its meaning from a story in the Bible, specifically the parable of the prodigal son by Jesus Christ in the New Testament (Gospel of Luke 15:11-32) about a father who killed a young fatted cow in order to celebrate and welcoming the return of his son whom the father has not seen for a long time and thought he was already dead. Scape goat derived from the story in the Old Testament (Leviticus 16) when a goat is used in the ritual by Aaron and then sent into the desert to be sacrificed and carry the sins of the Israelites. Therefore, the goat will carry the punishment. The second is idioms from fables or stories such as crocodile tears, lion’s share, swan song and cry wolf. Crocodile tears originated from tale that crocodile was once presumed to weep bitterly, either to attract the attention of potential victims (Hakluyt’s Voyages, 1600) or while eating them (Mandeville’s Travels, 1400). As a famous story-teller, Aesop’s fables are very well-known throughout the ages. Some story became familiar that it creates a long-lasting terms that can be applied to everyday life. Lion’s share derives from fable which tells a story about the greedy lion that always wants to gets the entire food and does not want to share it with other animals which went hunting together with him. Similar to the Lion’s share story, Cry wolf also comes from Aesop’s fable The Boy Who Cried Wolf, when a shepherd boy

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 entertain himself and keeps tricking people into believing that a wolf is attacking his flock of sheep by crying wolf to see the panic he causes in the community, the boy tricks the people so many times that when a real wolf actually appears, the people don't believe his cries for help and the wolf killed all his sheep. Swan song refers to ancient beliefs that swans, which usually having been silent during its lifetime, will produces and sings a wonderful song once in the moment just before their death. The last is from a particular culture such as cash cow from India and white elephant from Thailand. The people of India are often offering money to the temple idols in the form of cows. Cash cow comes from Indian folktale about a sacred cow that had the ability to instantly produce whatever a person wished for. White elephant in Thailand were traditionally treated like royalty. The idiom receives the meaning when the kings were accustomed to give white-skinned elephant to nobles he dislike, because the cost to conserve the elephant was likely would ruin them. The activities by human in relation to the animals also happen to set up some idiomatic expression such as eating crow, pork barrel, red herring, dark horse, and rat race. Eating crow came from the bad taste of crow when it is eaten, in the same way that being proved wrong might be emotionally hard to swallow. Pork barrel derives from American history, when slave people received a barrel containing salted pork from the authorities as a payment to their support. Red herring came from a herring which is kippered, salted, and smoked until it becomes red. The scent of red herring which have been dragged across the trail of the scent of other animal could also distract the hunting dog. The idiom dark horse began from horse racing to

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 describe a horse that its performance is unknown to gamblers and thus would be difficult to place betting odds on. The use of rat as a scientific experiment in a laboratory creates the term rat race from image of the futile efforts of the rat trying to escape while running around a maze or in a wheel. Therefore, the developments of compound words into idiomatic expressions are like this. First, two different words were joined together to make a bigger word which contains the literal meaning from the combination of the words. This is an endocentric compound. After that when people learn the connotation of some words, these compound words are used as a term to describe something else. This is when the head component of the compound no longer expresses the meaning of the whole compound. Afterward the exocentric compound are used as a comparison, to describe something by conjure up an image of something entirely different from the actual things. This process of transferring the meaning is called metaphors. When these metaphors are no longer associated to the actual things, meaning to say that people no longer needs to recall the actual things when these terms is used, these terms becomes idiomatic expressions when the meanings are permanent that people no longer needs to know the history of the actual meaning but can grasp or understand the meaning as it is. From the explanation of the history of some animal-related idiomatic expression, it can be seen that idioms need a very long time to become the state as it is today. Therefore, it is safe to say that in the upcoming years or even centuries, new idiomatic expressions will be established. And it can also emerge from the metaphors that we know now when the metaphors are no longer seen as a comparison.

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION We now will return to the initial questions of the problem formulated in the first chapter and try to answer them based on the analysis results and discussions. Both exocentric compounds and idiomatic expressions have some similar properties in the combinations of words, phrases, and clauses; formed from the combination of lexical elements such as adjective, verb, and noun; cannot be rearranged and displaced; the meaning contained can be literal and figurative; have to be understood in a whole to understand the meaning. Idiomatic expression and exocentric compound which have regular and ordinary syntactic structure are necessary to put their meanings in the lexicon because of their semantic unpredictability. Based on the analysis results and discussion of the types of animal-related exocentric compound it can be conclude that not all exocentric compounds can be categorized as idioms. The answer of the first problem, the types of meaning found in the exocentric compound, there are three types of meaning of the exocentric compounds. The first is proper noun which is names of some brand or product. Next is exocentric compound which contain metaphorical meaning to the real objects or things in real world. The last is exocentric compound which contain figurative meaning that expands into idiomatic expression when the meanings cannot be inferred from the meaning of each word in the compound, but had to be understood as having a single meaning. 41

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 The answer of the second problem is animal-related exocentric compounds can develop into idiomatic expressions when the meanings are permanent and predetermined that people no longer needs to know the actual meaning but can understand the meaning as it is. Based on the analysis results and discussion of exocentric Compounds as idiomatic expressions seen from the origin of the words, it can be seen that there are some basis or grounds that established exocentric compounds into idiomatic expressions. In terms of animal-related exocentric compounds this source are the characteristics of the animal, historical or cultural phenomenon related to that animal, and the activities conducted by humans in relation to certain animals. These findings conclude that endocentric compounds can develop into exocentric compounds which include proper nouns. These exocentric compounds, then, expand its meaning into metaphors when used as a comparison. These metaphors yet again reach the point where it become idioms when the meaning are already fixed in people’s mind and no longer associated to the literal meaning but understood as having permanent meaning to address something different.

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Barnhart, Debra. “What Does it Mean to Have "Eagle Eyes"?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. April 17, 2014. (www.wisegeek.com/what-does-it-mean-to-have-eagle-eyes). May 12, 2014. Ellis-Christensen, Tricia. “What are the Dog Days of Summer?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. May 11, 2014. (www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-dog-days-of-summer). May 12, 2014. Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman and Nina Hyams. An Introduction to language, 7th edition. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth, 2003. Hansen, Morris H., William N. Hurwitz and William G. Madow. Sample Survey Methods and Theory - Volume II Theory. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1953. Hoffmann, Th. R. Realms of Meaning - An Introduction to Semantics. London: Longman, 1995. Hornby, A.S., Jonathan Crowther, Kathryn Kavanagh and Michael Ashby. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. Katamba, Francis. Morphology. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993. Kayne, R. “What is a Cat Burglar?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. April 19, 2014. (www.wisegeek.org/whatis-a-cat-burglar). May 12, 2014. Kirkpatrick, E.M. and C.M. Schwarz. Dictionary of Idioms. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited, 1993. Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. Metaphors we Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003. Makkai, Adam, Maxine Boatner and John Gates. Handbook of Commonly Used American Idioms. New York: Barron’s, 2004. Marwati, Clara Agustina. “A Syntactic Analysis on English Compound Nouns.” Thesis. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University, 2006. 43

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 McMahon, Mary. “What is a Flea Market?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. May 2, 2014. (www.wisegeek.com/what-isa-flea-market). May 12, 2014. McMahon, Mary. “What Is a Zebra Crossing?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. April 23, 2014. (www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-zebra-crossing). May 12, 2014. Newmeyer, Frederick J. “The Regularity of Idiom Behavior”. Lingua. Vol. 34. (1974): p. 327. O’Grady, William, John Archibald, Mark Aronoff and Janie Rees-Miller. Contemporary Linguistics an Introduction. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin, 2010. O’Grady, William, Michael Dobrovolksky and Francis Katamba. Contemporary Linguistics an Introduction. Hong Kong: Longman Asia Ltd., 1997. Pryor, Devon. “What are Turtlenecks?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. April 19, 2014. (www.wisegeek.com/whatare-turtlenecks). May 12, 2014. Tatum, Malcolm. “What Is a "Bird Brain"?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. May 6, 2014. (www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-bird-brain). May 12, 2014. Thibodeaux, Wanda Marie. “What Is a Weasel Word?”. Wise Geek - Clear Answers for Common Questions. Conjecture Corporation. April 10, 2014. (www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-weasel-word). May 12, 2014. Venefica, Avia. “Bull Symbols and the Meaning of the Bull”. Animal Totem Meanings and Animal Symbolism. n.p. nd. (www.whats-your-sign.com/bullsymbols). April 22, 2014. Venefica, Avia. “Hawk Animal Totem and Symbolic Hawk Meaning”. Animal Totem Meanings and Animal Symbolism. n.p. nd. (www.whats-your-sign.com/ symbolic-hawk-meaning). April 22, 2014. Venefica, Avia. “Animal Symbolism: Meaning of the Ram”. Animal Totem Meanings and Animal Symbolism. n.p. nd. (www.whats-your-sign.com/animalsymbolism-ram.). April 22, 2014. Wilkinson, P.R. Thesaurus of Traditional English Metaphors. London: Routledge, 2002.

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Table: Exocentric compounds data and the meanings from dictionary Bear Hug Noun + Noun Eager Beaver Adj + Noun Bird Brain Blue Bottle Noun + Noun Adj + Noun Fatted Calf Adj + Noun Cat Burglar Noun + Noun Cash Cow Noun + Noun Crocodile Tears Noun + Noun Eating Crow Verb + Noun Dog Days Noun + Noun Eagle Eye Noun + Noun White Elephant Adj + Noun Big Foot Adj + Noun Flea Market Noun + Noun Frog Man Noun + Noun Scape Goat Verb + Noun Red Herring Adj + Noun Dark Horse Adj + Noun Lion’s Share Monkey Business Panda Car Noun + Noun Noun + Noun An act of holding somebody strongly and tightly in one’s arms A keen and enthusiastic person who works very hard Stupid, silly A large noisy fly with a blue body A symbol of festive celebration for someone’s long-awaited return A burglar who enters houses by climbing up walls A business unit that generates unusually high profit margins The insincere expression of sorrow Humiliation by admitting wrongness after taking a strong position The hottest period of the year Keen and close attentions especially to small details A possession that is useless and often expensive to maintain A large creature like an ape which some people believe lives in America An outdoor market that sells old and used goods at low price A person who swims wearing a rubber suit, flippers, and an oxygen supply so that he or she can stay under the water A person who is punished for the faults of somebody else Facts or events that lead people’s away from the main point A person who hides facts, especially special personal abilities The largest part of something when it is divided Suspicious or dishonest activities or behavior Noun + Noun A small police car 45

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 Pork Barrel Noun + Noun Rat Race Noun + Noun Black Sheep Adj + Noun Stag Party Noun + Noun Brim Stones Swallow Tail Noun + Noun Noun + Noun Swan Song Noun + Noun Turtle Neck Noun + Noun Weasel Words Noun + Noun Cry Wolf Verb + Noun Zebra Crossing Noun + Noun Government money spent on local projects in order to win votes A way of life on which everybody competes fiercely to be more successful than everybody else A person who is strongly disapproved of by other members of his or her family A party for men only, especially one for a man just before he gets married A type of yellow butterfly A deeply forked tail A person’s last work or act before retirement or death A garment with a high part fitting closely round the neck Statements that are deliberately not clear, used when one wishes to avoid committing oneself to a definite statement To pretend there is danger and call for help when it is no needed An area of road with broad white lines painted on it, at which vehicles must stop if people wish to walk across

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