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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI GRAMMATICAL DEVIATION AND ITS PHONOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN BEBE REXHA’S SONG LYRICS AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By VATMA ANGGRAINI PUTRI Student Number: 154214128 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI GRAMMATICAL DEVIATION AND ITS PHONOLOGICAL EFFECTS IN BEBE REXHA’S SONG LYRICS TITLE PAGE AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By VATMA ANGGRAINI PUTRI Student Number: 154214128 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019 ii

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(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI SO VERILY, WITH THE HARDSHIP THERE IS RELIEF WITH THE HARDSHIP THERE IS RELIEF — QS. 94:5-6 MOTTO PAGE vii

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI This thesis is dedicated to my parents, Yutrianti and Suratman and also my sister, Berlian Rahmada Romadhona DEDICATION PAGE viii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all I would like to send my deepest gratitude to my Allah SWT, who always gives me His blessing and love as well as gives me everything I need in my life especially during the process of writing this thesis. I thank Him, for He has sent me a lot of good people that make my life full of happiness. I could never ask for more. I would like to give my sincere thanks to my beloved thesis advisor Arina Isti’anah, S.Pd., M.Hum., who guided me to write my thesis. I thank her for the help given to me so I could pass through all the hard days full of confusions in writing my thesis. I thank my co-advisor Fransisca Kristanti S.Pd., M.Hum. who gave me her best to help me finishing my thesis. I also thank my academic advisors F.X. Risang Baskara, S.S., M.Hum. and Dr. Bernadine Ria Lestari, M.Sc., for the help and support given to me in these 8 semesters. I would like to thank my parents and my little sister who always give me their endless love and support. I thank my college best friends Putri, Widi, Mitha, Ayu and Mbak Uuz, The Micins in Blue Group. Without them, I would probably die in the first semester. I also thank my other best friends in Zimbabwe, Mantap Anjeng, Geng Rempong and BBS groups for the huge support in finishing my thesis. Finally, I want to thank all of my friends in English Letters Department batch 2015 and my other friends I cannot mention here for their support and help. Vatma Anggraini Putri ix

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ..................................................................................................... ii APPROVAL PAGE .......................................................................................... iii ACCEPTANCE PAGE ..................................................................................... iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY .................................................................. v LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH .. vi MOTTO PAGE ................................................................................................ vii DEDICATION PAGE ..................................................................................... viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................. ix TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................... x LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................... xii ABSTRACT .................................................................................................... xiii ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................ xiv CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .................................................................... 15 A. Background of the Study ................................................................................... 15 B. Problem Formulation ..........................................................................................4 C. Objectives of the Study .......................................................................................4 D. Definition of Term ..............................................................................................4 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE................................................... 6 A. Review of Related Studies ..................................................................................6 B. Review of Related Theories .............................................................................. 10 C. 1. Stylistics.................................................................................................... 10 2. Deviation .................................................................................................. 11 3. Grammatical Deviation .............................................................................. 13 4. Phonology ................................................................................................. 18 5. Song .......................................................................................................... 22 Theoretical Framework ..................................................................................... 23 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ 24 A. Object of the Study ........................................................................................... 24 B. Approach of the Study ...................................................................................... 25 C. Method of the Study............................................................................................ 25 1. Data Collection .......................................................................................... 25 x

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2. Data Analysis ............................................................................................. 26 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ...................... 27 A. Types of Grammatical Deviation Found in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics .............. 27 1. Omission ................................................................................................... 29 2. Deviation of Verb ...................................................................................... 37 3. Double Negation ....................................................................................... 39 4. Deviation of Noun ..................................................................................... 41 5. Deviation of Article ................................................................................... 41 7. Overgeneralization .................................................................................... 43 B. Phonological Effects of Rhyme and Meter as the Result of Grammatical Deviation in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics ..................................................................... 43 1. Rhyme....................................................................................................... 44 2. Meter ........................................................................................................ 48 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ....................................................................... 51 REFERENCES ................................................................................................ 54 APPENDICES .................................................................................................. 56 Appendix 1 ............................................................................................................... 56 Appendix 2 ............................................................................................................... 60 Appendix 3 ............................................................................................................... 63 Appendix 4 ............................................................................................................... 65 Appendix 5 ............................................................................................................... 67 Appendix 6 ............................................................................................................... 68 Appendix 7 ............................................................................................................... 70 xi

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF TABLES Table 1. The Summary of Grammatical Deviations Occur in Bebe Rexha’s songs..................................................................28 Table 2. Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha’s Songs ……................................ 30 Table 3. Omission of Article in Bebe Rexha’s Songs …….................................. 33 Table 4. Omission of Linking Verb in Bebe Rexha’s Songs...……..................... 34 Table 5. Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s Songs..…………………................38 Table 6. Double Negation in Bebe Rexha’s Songs..………………………......... 40 Table 7. Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s “I’m a Mess”....……………………………................ 45 Table 8. Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s “The Way I Are”....……………………….................. 46 Table 9. Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Noun........................................................47 xii

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT Putri, Vatma Anggraini. (2018). Grammatical Deviation and Its Phonological Effects Found in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Language is a tool that helps people to express feeling, idea, and information. In using a language, people have their own way to deliver the information to other people. In other words, everyone has his or her own style in using a language, whether in written or in spoken language. Besides, people use language for entertainment purposes as well, for example in literary works. One of the literary works is poem. In writing song lyrics, a song writer also has his or her own style. It is common for the song writers to deviate the rules of a language such as grammar. This also occurs in the songs of Bebe Rexha, an American singer and song writer. Bebe Rexha makes grammatical deviation in her songs in order to make certain phonological effects. As the result, the songs become more beautiful and appealing. This study focuses on the grammatical deviation in five songs of Bebe Rexha. Those songs are “Me, Myself and I”, “I Got You”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are” and “I’m a Mess”. The aim of this study is to find (1) the types of grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs and (2) the phonological effects as the result of the grammatical deviation occuring in the songs. The approach used to analyze the data of the study is stylistics. Stylistics is one of the linguistic branches that studies about the style in a language and the description of the purpose and the effects as the result. This makes stylistics become the appropriate approach in analyzing the data. In addition, the data is taken by using the purposive sampling strategy. Based on the analysis conducted by the researcher, there is only one type of grammatical deviation which is syntactical deviation. There are seven grammatical deviation processes in five songs of Bebe Rexha. Those are omission, deviation of verb, double negation, deviation of noun, deviation of article, deviation of preposition and overgeneralization. There are two phonological effects from the grammatical deviations, those are rhyme and meter. In rhyme, the grammatical deviation was applied in order to make the last syllable in a line rhymes with the previous or the next line. In meter, the grammatical deviation was applied to make the right metrical pattern in the song. To conclude, there is only syntactical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs after analyzing the songs using stylistics approach. The deviation create the phonological effects which are rhyme and meter. Keywords: stylistics, song, grammatical deviation, phonology xiii

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK Putri, Vatma Anggraini. (2018). Grammatical Deviation and Its Phonological Effects In Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Bahasa adalah alat yang membantu manusia dalam mengekspresikan perasaan, pemikiran, dan informasi. Dalam menggunakan bahasa, manusia memiliki cara mereka sendiri untuk menyampaikan informasi kepada orang lain untuk berkomunikasi. Dengan kata lain, setiap orang memiliki gaya mereka sendiri dalam menggunakan bahasa, baik tertulis maupun lisan. Selain itu, manusia juga menggunakan bahasa di dalam dunia hiburan seperti dalam karyakarya sastra. Salah satu karya sastra adalah puisi. Dalam menulis lagu, seorang pencipta lagu juga memiliki gaya tersendiri. Dalam membuat lagu, seorang pencipta lagu terkadang melakukan penyimpangan di tata bahasa dan ini adalah sesuatu yang biasa terjadi. Hal ini juga terjadi dalam lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha, seorang penyanyi dan pencipta lagu dari Amerika. Bebe Rexha membuat penyimpangan dalam tata bahasa di dalam lagunya untuk menghasilkan efek-efek fonologi tertentu. Hasilnya adalah lagu-lagunya menjadi lebih indah dan menarik. Penelitian ini terfokus pada penyimpangan tata bahasa dalam lima lagu Bebe Rexha yang berjudul “Me, Myself and I”, “I Got You”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are” and “I’m a Mess”. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan (1) tipe-tipe penyimpangan tata bahasa di lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha dan (2) efek-efek fonologi sebagai hasil dari penyimpangan tata bahasa tersebut. Pendekatan stilistika adalah pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menganalisis data di penelitian ini. Stilistika adalah salah satu cabang ilmu linguistik yang mengkaji gaya dalam sebuah bahasa dan menjabarkan mengenai tujuan dan efek yang ditimbulkan. Hal ini membuat stilistika menjadi pendekatan yang tepat dalam menganalisis data. Selain itu, data tersebut diambil menggunakan teknik sampel bertujuan. Berdasarkan analisis, hanya ada satu tipe penyimpangan tata bahasa di lima lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha yaitu penyimpangan sintaksis. Terdapat 7 proses penyimpangan tata bahasa yang ditemukan yaitu omission, deviation of verb, double negation, deviation of noun, deviation of article, deviation of preposition and overgeneralization. Selain itu ada dua efek fonologi dari penyimpangan tata bahasa tersebut: rima dan meter. Penyimpangan tata bahasa diterapkan di dalam lagu untuk membuat suku kata terakhir di sebuah baris berima sama dengan baris sebelum atau setelahnya dan untuk membuat pola meter yang sama. Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil yaitu hanya ada penyimpangan sintaks di dalam lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha setelah dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan stilistika. Penyimpanganpenyimpangan tersebut membuat efek-efek dalam fonologi yaitu rima dan meter. Kata kunci: stilistika, lagu, penyimpangan tata bahasa, fonologi xiv

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Language is a tool that people use to communicate with others. Language helps people to transfer the idea in their mind into words. They can produce the words through the organ of speech in order to deliver the idea to the people they are talking to. By knowing a language, someone can speak and he or she is able to be understood by others who know that language (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 4). This means that a language makes people connected from one another and becomes a tool to maintain their relationship. Language is also a science that is studied by the scientists. The study of language is called linguistics. Linguistics is defined as the scientific study of language and its structures rather than the learning of individual languages (Barry, 2009, p. 196). In linguistics there are some components that are observed by the linguists such as phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Those components are treated in different ways by the linguists even though they are actually connected. In linguistics, the style also becomes the important thing to study. “Style is the way in which a language is used in a given context by a given person for a given purpose” (Leech & Short, 1994, p. 10). Style is used in the spoken and written language. In written language, style is applied in non-literary works and also in literary works. However, “style is particularly associated with written 1

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 literary text” (Leech & Short, 1994, p. 11). The branch of linguistics that discusses the style in a language is called stylistics. Stylistics is defined as the study of style (Leech & Short, 2007, p. 11). “Stylistics is a critical approach which uses the methods and findings of the science of linguistics in the analysis of literary text” (Barry, 2009, p. 196). The literary text can be a novel, a prose, a short story, or a poetry. There are rhyme and meter which commonly applied in a poetry. This is supported by Obermeier et al (2013) that “metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry” (p. 1). A song lyrics is also possible to be analyzed using the theory of stylistics because the lyric and poetry have the same characteristic such as rhyme (Vosahlik, 2016, p. 13). Besides the rhyme, the meter is also one of the characteristics that a lyric and a poetry have. Both rhyme and meter are commonly applied in a poetry and also in a lyric. This indicates that a lyric and a poetry can be treated the same way in the analysis of stylistics. In some song lyrics, the song writer makes the lyrics without following the rules of the language. In other words, the writer of the song violates the grammar of a language that is used in writing the song. The grammatical error that the song writers make is called grammatical deviation. Grammatical deviation is “when a sentence or sentences break the rules of grammar” (Budiharto, 2018, p. 86). The song writer does not make the grammatical errors without purposes. The song writer usually violates the language rules in order to make the song becomes more appealing. The example is in the lyric of song entitled “Swalla”

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 sung by Jason DeRulo featuring Nicky Minaj and Ty Dolla $ign. There are lines in the lyric which are He copping that Valentino ain’t telling me no and the next line is I’m that bitch and he know. In the second line it should be I’m that bitch and he knows since the third singular is always followed by verb with suffix {–s}. However, the songwriter chose to use the word know in order to make the same rhyme with the previous line which ends with the word no. This makes the lines rhyme each other and make the song more appealing. In this study, Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics are analyzed since there are some predicted deviations in the lyrics. Stylistics becomes the approach that is used in order to answer the problem formulation in this study. Besides, the phonological effects from the grammatical deviation are discussed as well. The phonological effects are related to the rhyme and meter. Bebe Rexha is an American singer who is also a songwriter. Her music genre is mostly pop and RnB. Rexha does not write songs for herself. She writes some songs which are sung by other musicians such as Selena Gomez, Eminem, Iggy Azalea and other singers. However, in this study the researcher chooses five songs of Bebe Rexha, “I Got You”, “Meant to be”, “Me, Myself and I”, “The Way I Are”, and “I’m a Mess”. This is because the songs are listed in Hot 100 songs in the Billboard’s chart history according to www.billboard.com. This means her songs are listened by many people. Besides, as it is stated in www.aceshowbiz.com, an online magazine, she got 17 nominations and 5 awards for her work as a singer and a songwriter.

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 B. Problem Formulation This study discusses some problems in order to analyze the grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics. The problems are: 1. What types of grammatical deviation are found in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics? 2. How does the grammatical deviation create phonological effects of rhyme and meter in the song lyrics? C. Objectives of the Study There are two objectives of the study that are going to be analyzed based on the problem formulation above. The first objective is to find out the types of grammatical deviations that are found in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics. The second objective is to describe the phonological effects of rhyme and meter that occur in several lines in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics influenced by the grammatical deviation. The phonological effects of rhyme and meter are explained more in this study. The lines that are not deviated grammatically are not discussed in this study. D. Definition of Term There are some terms that will be repeated several times. Those terms will be used by the researcher in the analysis to provide answers to the problem. Those terms are grammatical deviation and phonological effect.

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 5 Grammar is something important to know if someone wants to be able to speak in a language. Grammar is defined as “the knowledge that the speakers have about the units and rules of their language” (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 13). The example is the rules that make the sounds are combined and becomes words, the words are combined and becomes phrases then sentences. Grammatical means that “a sentence conforms to the rules of mental grammar” (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 13). Meanwhile, grammatical deviation means that a sentence is not following the rules and violates the grammar of a language that is used. Phonology is the study of how speech sounds form pattern (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 227). In phonology, it discusses the sounds in a language which differ from one to another language. Phonological effects mean the results of the phonological phenomena in sentences or in texts. In this study, the phonological effects are found due to the grammatical deviation in the Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics.

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part reviews related studies. In this part the researcher discusses similar studies that other researchers have done. The second is review of related theories. In this part, the theories that are going to be used to discuss the study are presented. The third is theoretical framework. In the last part, the researcher explains how the theories and the reviews are used to solve the problems in this study. A. Review of Related Studies The first similar study is “Grammatical Errors and Their Effects in Rich Brian’s Songs” written by Petra (2018). The object of the study focuses on the song lyrics by Rich Brian. He chooses three songs that are written by Rich Brian, those are “Dat $tick”, “Glow Like That”, and “Who That Be”. The aims of the study are to find the grammatical deviations in Rich Brian’s songs and to find the effects of the grammatical deviations in the songs. In his study, Petra (2018) analyzes the sentences, phrases, and words in Rich Brian’s “Dat $tick”, “Glow Like That”, and “Who That Be” using the stylistics approach on the grammatical and phonological level. In his study, Petra (2018) finds out several grammatical errors which include the omission, double negative, error of preposition, error of verb, error of pronoun, and overgeneralization. The effects of 6

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 7 the grammatical errors in the songs are rhyme and meter in order to make some desired effects towards the listener of the songs. The difference between Petra’s (2018) study and this current study is that the object of the study. Even though both studies use songs lyrics, the singers are not the same. However, the approach is similar. This study will also use stylistics as the approach to analyze the problems. The second similar topic is Asmara’s (2018) study entitled Phonological Features in Robert Frost’s “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” Poems. In his study, he discusses the phonological features that are found in Robert Frost’s poems. Those two poems are Frost’s works that are obtained in the New Hampshire. The purpose of the study in Asmara’s (2018) study is to discover the phonological features in the poems that are used by Robert Frost in writing those poems. Another purpose is to discover the style that is used by Robert frost in making “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” poems. In his study, the researcher analyzes every line in the “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” poems using the stylistics approach. The phonological level of stylistics is the main approach in his study. In his study, the researcher finds the types of rhyme, the end rhyme pattern, meter, and repetition of sound which the poet used in both “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” poems. Another finding is the style that Robert Frost used in writing the poems. He states that Robert Frost has a style called rhythmical style.

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 There are similarities and differences in this study and Asmara’s (2018) study. The difference lies on the object of the study. In Asmara’s (2018) study, he chooses “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” poems written by Robert Frost as the object while in this study the researcher chooses songs by Bebe Rexha. However, the approach that is used by Asmara (2018) and the researcher of this study is the same. Both researchers choose stylistic approach. The third study is “Grammatical Deviation in President Jokowi’s Speech to the APEC CEO Summit” written by Budiharto (2018). In his study, the researcher analyzes the speech of President Jokowi. The aim of the study is to find out the types of grammatical deviation in the speech. Another aim of this study is to find out the extent of the grammatical deviation in President Jokowi’s speech related to the the speaker’s social status. In order to solve the problems, Budiharto (2018) uses the analytical descriptive method. President Jokowi’s speech in the APEC CEO Summit was observed and analyzed in order to find its grammatical deviation on the basis of the framework which uses the theory by Leech. Furthermore, he also identified the social status of the speaker by using Trudgill’s theory In Budiharto’s (2018) study, the researcher finds that there are two types of grammatical deviation in the speech. The first one is morphological deviation. This means that there are addition and reduction of morphemes incorrectly from a word (Budiharto, 2018, p.93). The second one is syntactic deviation which means it is about the pattern of the grammar arranged incorrectly. Another finding in the study is related to the social status of the speaker, or in this case is President

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 Jokowi. In his study, Budiharto (2018) states that the grammatical deviation is not only done by an uneducated person, but it can happen to educated people as well (Budiharto, 2018, p.95). According to Budiharto (2018), this againsts the theory of Trudgill about the Standard English that is used by honorable and educated people while they who do not speak in Standard English are considered as ‘poor’ and not educated. However, the theory of Trudgill is irrelevant in this case since Trudgill’s theory is about the native speaker of a language which is English. Thus, it makes Budiharto’s (2018) finding in this part becomes his weakness in his study. The study that is done by Budiharto (2018) has several differences compared to this study. Budiharto’s (2018) study chooses the speech of President Jokowi in OPEC CEO Summit as his object of the study, while in this study the researcher uses Bebe Rexha’s song as mentioned before. Even though the approach that is used in both studies is stylistic approach, Budiharto (2018) uses analytical descriptive method including the theories from Leech about grammatical deviation and Trudgill about the Standard English. Meanwhile, in this current study the researcher uses stylistic approach that will lead to the phonological matters in order to solve the problems. However, Budiharto’s (2018) study and this study discuss the same topic which is grammatical deviation. The fourth study is “A Stylistic Analysis of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” written by Shaukat Khan et al (2016). The object of the study is the poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge entitled “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”. The aims of the study are to show the special interpretive capacity of

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 the elements of the poem, bring out the interpretive potential of the semantically deviant units in the poem, point out the typographical deviations in the encoding of the poem’s unique message (Khan et al, 2016, 43). In his study, Khan et al (2016) uses the approach of stylistics to analyze the poem. The first result of Khan et al’s study is the typographical deviation that is found has marked the climax of the poem. Besides, the interpretive value in deviant parts of the poem can be concluded that it is quite high. The study of Khan et al (2016) and this study are similar due to the approach that is used. Khan et al (2016) and the researcher of this study uses the stylistics approach. The difference lies on the object of the study. Khan et al (2016) uses poem while this study uses songs. The aim of the study is also different since this study leads to the phonological effects that exist in the song while the study by Khan et al (2016) leads to semantic matters. B. Review of Related Theories In this part the researcher discusses the theories that are used in order to analyze the object of this study. The theories that are discussed in the following discussion are only the theories that are close to the problems of this study. The theories are stylistics, deviation, phonology, and also song. 1. Stylistics “Stylistics is defined as the analysis of distinctive expression in language and the description of its purpose and effect” (Verdonk, 2002, p. 4). It means the language that a writer or a speaker uses has characteristics that differentiate a

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 writer or a speaker with other writers or speakers. This is because everyone has his or her own preference in using or choosing words. Stylistics can be used to analyze a written and spoken language. Stylistics can be used to analyze a non-literary and literary text. In literary work, “it is used to show how the technical linguistic features of the literary work contribute to the meaning and effects” (Barry, 2009, p. 196). One of the examples of the technical linguistic feature is grammatical structure. A writer has his or her preference in choosing dictions for sentences used in his or her literary work. This makes every writer has his or her own style. In stylistics, there are several levels of stylistic analysis which are semantic level, syntactic level, graphological level, and phonological level (Leech & Short, 2007, pp. 101-105). Among four levels of stylistic analysis, the researcher only uses two levels: syntactic level and phonological level. The syntactic level discusses about grammar or the grammatical structure in a text. In this study it is used to analyze the lyric of Bebe Rexha’s songs. Besides, the phonological level is also used in this study. This is because phonology deals with meter and rhyme that are also needed to discuss the object of this study. 2. Deviation A linguistic deviation is “a disruption of the normal processes of communication: it leaves a gap, as it were, in one’s comprehension of the text” (Leech, 1969, p. 61). This means the language that is used by a writer or a speaker is being violated. The writer or the speaker does not follow the rules of the language and it creates the deviation.

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 Shamisa states that “there is almost no literary work that does not involve a sort of deviation from ordinary language” (Shamisa as cited in Pirnajmuddin and Medhat, 2011, p. 1329). In other words, deviation is something common in literary works including in a poem. The deviation in the literary work such as poem differentiates the daily language that people use and the language that a poet uses in a poem. In poem, it needs a strong word to deliver the ideas of the writer and the daily language is assumed to be ineffective. Therefore, according to Shamisa, the deviation in a poem is seen as something that cannot be neglected since the importance and the influence of a literary work depends on it (Shamisa in Pirnajmuddin and Medhat, 2011, p.1329). According to Budiharto (2018), Leech asserts deviations with the concept of foregrounding (2018, p. 88). Leech (1969) states that linguistic deviation is the foregrounded figure in a literary work and the language of the literary work considered as the background (1969, p.57). In other words, deviation in linguistics is related to the word foregrounding. Foregrounding is the psychological effect that rises within the literary readers (Verdonk, 2002, p.6). It means the foregrounding refers to the aesthetic effects that appear in literary works affected by the deviation. Leech (1969) also mentions eight types of deviation. Those deviations are grammatical, lexical, phonological, graphological, semantic, dialectical, register, and historical period deviation (Leech, 1969, pp. 42-52). In this study, the grammatical deviation is discussed further in order to analyze the object in this study.

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 3. Grammatical Deviation “When a sentence is ungrammatical or breaking the rules of grammar, the sentence is deviated” (Budiharto, 2018, p. 86). In other words, grammatical deviation is the term for a sentence that is grammatically incorrect or breaking the grammar rules of a language. The example is the deviations that occur in African American Vernacular English (AAVE). In AAVE, one of the distinctive grammatical features is the omission of verb be in a sentence. For example is in the sentence the soup hot. The sentence is not conforming the grammatical rules. The sentence is supposed to be the soup is hot. In grammatical deviation, there are two different features or types. Those features are syntax and morphology (Leech, 1969, p. 44). In syntax, it deals with the word pattern in sentences. In morphology, it deals with the grammar of the word. These types of grammatical deviation are the important things that the researcher tries to find. This is because the first problem in this study is to find the types of grammatical deviation in the Bebe Rexha’s songs. a. Syntax “Syntax is part of grammar that represents a speaker’s knowledge of sentences and their structures” (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 118). This means that when someone speaks in a particular language, he or she already knows the structure of the language in his or her head. The speaker knows how to combine some words into sentences. This is called the rules of syntax which require the correct word order in a language.

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 The rules of syntax depend on the language. A different language will have different rules as well. In English, it is SVO language or Subject-VerbObject language. For example is the word Sally baked a cake. In that sentence, Sally is the subject, baked is the verb and cake is the object. In grammatical deviation, syntax deals with the errors of grammar in a sentence that makes it incorrect in its structure. Besides, it also deals with syntactic rearrangement or hyperbaton (Leech, 1969, p. 45). “Hyperbaton is the freedom poets have enjoyed by custom so that he or she can make the arranging syntactic elements in irregular order” (Leech, 1969, p. 18). This creates a possibility for a poet to violate the grammatical rules such as putting a verb after the direct object. Leech (1969) also gives the example in the words he me saw that is supposed to be he saw me (1969, p. 45). There are some errors in English grammar that people make. For a poet it is common for them to make errors in order to create their literary works more aesthetic. Those errors in English grammar will be discussed in following discussion. i. Double Negation According to Blanchette (2015), double negation is “a sentence with multiple negative elements corresponding to a single semantic negation or it is also called negative concord” (p. 2). In other words, double negation occurs when two negative expressions are in the same sentence. For example is in the sentence I didn’t eat no food this morning. In that sentence there are two negatives expressions which are didn’t and no.

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 15 According to Crystal (2008) double negation in a single sentence is not acceptable in Standard English (p.324). The reason is that the listener or the reader may confuse with the meaning. For example is in the sentence I don’t eat nothing and the speaker actually means that he or she has not eat anything. However, the sentence means he or she eats something. This is because of the two negative expressions in the sentence. ii. Omission Ellipsis or omission is “a term in grammatical analysis which means an omission of a part of structure in a sentence” (Crystal, 2008, p. 166). It means that a sentence with ellipsis is not a complete sentence. The example is in the sentence Been there before as the answer of Have you ever visited that city?. The full answer or sentence is actually I have been there before. However, the subject I and the auxiliary verb have is omitted. There are several types of omission since there are several parts in a sentence. There are omission of subject, omission of article, omission of modal auxiliary, omission of linking verb, omission of preposition and omission of object. For example, in a sentence the subject is omitted then it is called the omission of subject. iii. Overgeneralization “Overgeneralization refers to the process whereby children extend their use of grammatical feature to context beyond those found in the adult language” (Crystal, 2008, p. 345). Meaning to say that overgeneralization is commonly done by children when they start to acquire a language and have not known yet certain

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 words in correct form as it is supposed to be. However, it is not only children who acquire a language. Some adults in this world also try to acquire a foreign language and they also tend to make a mistake which is overgeneralization. This is stated by Matiini (2016) that overgeneralization is the learners’ own way to make rules of the second language because of the influence of the first language (Matiini, 2016, hal. 145). The example is when someone who learns English say ‘mouses’ instead of ‘mice’. This is because commonly the plural noun in English is added a suffix which is {–s} or {–es}. iv. Deviation of Verb “Verb is a term used in the grammatical classification of words to refer to a class traditionally defined as ‘doing’ or ‘action word” (Crystal, 2008, p. 510). From the definition, it means that verb is used in a sentence to describe what the subject does. Besides, the deviation of verb means that the verb is used incorrectly. For example is in the sentence He doin’ it. The sentence is supposed to be He does it since the subject of the sentence is the third singular person. v. Deviation of Preposition “Preposition is a term in grammatical classification of words that refers to a set of items which typically precedes noun phrases to form a single constituent of structure” (Crystal, 2008, p. 383). In other words, preposition is used to connect between two nouns. The example of preposition is in, for, of, on, and so on. The example of deviation of preposition can be seen in the sentence we arrive to Jakarta. The preposition to is not correct and it is supposed to be at since the correct preposition of arrive is at or in.

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 17 vi. Deviation of Pronoun “Pronoun is the lexical category functions as noun phrase in isolation” (Trask, 1996, pp. 221-222). This means that pronoun can stand without any article. Moreover, pronoun can be a subject and also object in a sentence. The example of pronoun is they, we, I, you, she, he, me, my, mine, and so on. Those pronouns sometimes appear in incorrect way which is called deviation of pronoun. The example is in the words this is me phone. In that sentence, the pronoun me is supposed to be my since the sentence needs a possessive pronoun to show the owner of the object. vii. Deviation of Article “Article is a determiner which lacks independent meaning but serves to indicate the degree of specificity of noun phrase” (Trask, 1996, p. 21). In other words, an article is meaningless if it stands alone. In English, there are two kinds of article, which are definite article and indefinite article. The example of definite article is the and the example of indefinite article is a or an. The example of deviation of article is in the words they hid in a isolation place. In that sentence, the correct article is an since the following word is begun with vowel. viii. Deviation of Noun “Noun is defined as one of the lexical categories that denote individual physical entities” (Trask, 1996, p. 188). Commonly, noun is associated with the notion of ‘name’ and ‘thing’ (Crystal, 2008, p. 333). It means, the noun can be the subject and the object. The example of noun is dog, table, the girl, and so on.

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 The deviation of noun sometimes occurs in a sentence. The example of deviation of noun is in the sentence he eats some candy. The noun candy in the sentence is incorrect. It is supposed to be candies because the number of the candy is more than one and it can be seen from the determiner some. b. Morphology “Morphology is the branch of grammar which studies the structure or forms of words” (Crystal, 2008, p. 314). This means morphology discusses wordformation or the process to make new words. For example is the information of how a word can be formed by adding affixes which is called affixation. When the word happy is added by the prefix {-un} then it becomes unhappy. The word that is changed also changes the meaning from happy which means a good feeling into unhappy which means unpleasant feeling. 4. Phonology “Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies the sound system of languages” (Crystal, 2008, p. 365). In phonology, the speech sounds are being studied. By studying phonology, someone can differentiate which sounds that have meaning and which sounds that are meaningless in a language. For example is the word blcak is meaningless in English. However, the word black has a meaning in English which is the name of color. Besides that, phonology also deals with rhyme and also meter that is explained in following discussion. In phonology, it also studies the poetic devices which are used to analyze the literary text which is poetry. Those devices are rhyme, meter, consonance,

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 assonance, and alliteration. However, this study will only discussed the effects in rhyme and meter. a. Rhyme Rhyme, as stated by Madden (2002), is the sounds that come at the final lines when the final vowel and consonant sounds in a word at the end of one line match the vowel and consonant sounds at the end of another (2002, p. 70). This means that rhyme focuses on the nucleus and the coda in the last word of a line which similar to the last word in the previous or in the next line. “This will make the mind of the listener starts to recognize the patterns and to anticipate what will follow” (Bradley, 2009, p. 50). There are three kinds of rhyme. First is monosyllabic rhyme. The example of it is the words rat and cat. Second is disyllabic just like in the words jelly and belly. Third is multisyllabic in the words achromatic and acrobatic. Besides, “rhyme comes in numerous varieties and each has a distinct function in sound and sense” (Bradley, 2009, p. 57). First is perfect rhyme or full rhyme which words have the same vowel and also the consonants that are identical. The examples for the perfect rhyme are the words tall and call. Second is slant rhyme or imperfect rhyme which involves shared final-consonant sounds but different vowel sounds (Bradley, 2009, p. 57). The example is the word all and bowl. b. Meter Meter refers to “the measurable repetition of accented and unaccented syllables in poetry” (Arp & Johnson, 2009, hal. 1664). Madden (2002) defines meter as the pattern of stressed ( / ) and unstressed ( ˇ ) syllables in a line (2002, p.

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 71). This stressed and unstressed pattern are something important to observe in the poetry. Besides, this element is also used to observe other literary work. In this case, song is also included. According to Madden (2002) the group of syllables making up one metrical unit is called foot (p. 71). There are four types of metrical feet: iambic, trochaic, anapestic and dactylic. Those metrical feet are usually applied by poets in writing poems. Furthermore, the number of feet in each line is described as monometer, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter and octameter. i. Iambic In this iambic foot, it begins with unstressed syllable. The unstressed syllable is marked with ( ˇ ). Then it is continued by the stressed syllable. The stressed syllable is marked with ( / ). The example is: ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / 1) Shall I | compare | thee to | a sum | mer’s day ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / 2) Thou art | more love | ly and | more tem | perate From the example above it can be seen that those lines are begun with unstressed syllables shall and thou. They are followed by the stressed syllables I and art. This metrical pattern is repeated 5 times which makes 5 feet in every line.

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 21 ii. Trochaic In this foot there are two syllables as well. Those are stressed syllable and unstressed syllable. In this foot, the stressed syllable is followed by the unstressed syllable. The example is: / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ ˇ / 1) Deep in | heart-wrung | tears I’ll | ledge thee ˇ / / ˇ / ˇ ˇ / 2) Warring | sighs and | groans I’ll | wage thee The two lines are begun with stressed syllable deep and war-. They are followed by unstressed syllable in and -ring. This metrical pattern is repeated 4 times. This means there are 4 feet in every line above. iii. Anapestic Anapestic is different from iambic and also trochaic. In anapestic, it contains two unstressed and one stressed syllable. Anapestic begins with two unstressed syllable then follows the one stressed syllable. The example is: ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ ˇ / ˇ / 1) The Assyr | ian came down | like the wolf | on the fold ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / 2) When the blue | waves rolls nigh | tly on deep | Galilee It can be seen from the example above that in the first foot in every line has two unstressed syllable and it is followed by one stressed syllable. This metrical pattern is repeated 4 times that makes 4 feet in every line.

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 iv. Dactylic Dactylic has the same number of syllables with the anapestic. The difference is that in dactylic foot, it begins with one stressed syllable and followed by two unstressed syllables. The example is: / ˇ ˇ ˇ / ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ 1) Are you still | standing there | east of the | Garden of Eden or / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ 2) Were you re | lieved by the | flood that re | vised our ge | ography The example above shows that in dactylic each line is begun with a stressed syllable: are and were. They are followed by 2 unstressed syllables in one foot: you still and you re-. There are 4 feet in every line since the metrical pattern is repeated 4 times. 5. Song According to Ammer (2004), song is defined as “any piece of vocal music” (p. 389) and “lyric is the text of the song” (p. 223). The lyric in a song is similar to a poetry since both share the same characteristics which one of them is rhyme. This is supported by Vosahlik (2016) that “common feature for both lyric and poetry is rhyme” (p. 13). The writer of lyric and poetry also have their own style in creating the lyric and poetry related to the rhyme. In other words, lyric and poetry can be treated the same way in stylistics. In addition, they can be analyzed through the perspective of phonetic since rhyme is one of the phonetic devices.

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 23 Usually, a song lyric is categorized in lyric poetry. Lyric poetry is “characterized by the expression of the speaker’s innermost feelings, thoughts, and imagination” (Madden, 2002, p. 76). This makes the contents of songs mostly are telling a story and expressing the singer’s mind. C. Theoretical Framework The approach that is used in this study is stylistic approach and the level that the researcher chooses in this study is on the syntactical level or grammatical level. In this syntactical level, the theory helps the researcher to analyze the structure in the songs. Moreover, the researcher also chooses the stylistic approach in phonological level. This helps the researcher to find the possible effects of the song to the listener through the rhyme and the meter of the songs. The theory of deviation is also important in this study. The theory of deviation that focuses on the grammatical deviation helps the researcher find the answer of the first problem in this study which is about the types of the grammatical deviation. Then, the researcher analyzes the songs and makes a conclusion about the types of grammatical deviation found in the songs. Another theory in this study is phonology. The theory of phonology consists of two main theories which are rhyme and meter. These theories are used in this study to analyze the pattern of the songs including the stressed and unstressed syllable in the songs that will relate to the grammar and structure. This will help the researcher to find the answer of the second problem which is about the phonological effects of the grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs.

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY In this chapter there are three main parts to discuss. The first is the object of the study. In this part the researcher discusses the data of this study. The second is approach of the study. In this part, the researcher discusses the approach that is used to analyze the data that the researcher has collected. The third is the method of the study. In this part, it shows the way the researcher collected the data and then analyzed the data. A. Object of the Study The object in this study is the song lyrics of Bebe Rexha’s songs. As a singer and also a songwriter, Bebe Rexha is quite productive in writing and arranging songs. There are several song lyrics that she wrote and sang herself. However, in this study the researcher chose five Bebe Rexha’s songs which are placed in Hot100 in the billboard’s chart history according to www.billboard.com. Those songs are “I’m a Mess”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are”, “Me Myself and I” and “I Got You”. The lyrics of the songs are taken from www.azlyrics.com. The five songs of Bebe Rexha were chosen based on the grammatical deviation which found as well. One of the example of the grammatical deviation was clearly found in one of the song titles which is “The Way I Are”. In the title, the pronoun I was followed by an auxiliary are, however it should be followed by an auxiliary am. 24

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 B. Approach of the Study This study applied stylistic approach in analyzing the object which were the songs of Bebe Rexha. Stylistic approach was conducted in two levels: grammatical level and phonological level. “Stylistics is defined as the analysis of distinctive expression in language and the description of its purpose and effect” (Verdonk, 2002, p. 4). This means that stylistics also discusses the purpose and the effect of a certain text and in this case the text is from the lyric of Bebe Rexha’s songs. Since this study analyzed the language style in Bebe Rexha’s songs and its effects, stylistic approach was suitable for this research. C. Method of the Study 1. Data Collection This research applied a sample study as the data collection method. This means that the researcher only chose some of Bebe Rexha’s songs. In this study, the researcher chose five songs of Bebe Rexha and those songs were “I’m a Mess”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are”, “Me Myself and I” and “I Got You”. Furthermore, in this study the researcher applied the purposive sampling strategy. This required the researcher to choose what to be sampled and it had to be able to purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and central phenomenon in the study (Creswell, 2007, p. 125). In other words, the sample was not randomly chosen. In analyzing the data in this study, the researcher conducted several steps. First, the researcher chose the data which were Bebe Rexha’s songs entitled “I’m

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 a Mess”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are”, “Me Myself and I” and “I Got You” from the Billboard’s chart history. Second, the researcher found the lyrics in www.azlyrics.com. Third, the researcher observed the grammatical deviations in the lyrics. Forth, the researcher analyzed the process that made the grammar in the lyrics were deviated in order to answer the problem formulations in this study. 2. Data Analysis In order to answer the two problems, the researcher observed the lyrics of Bebe Rexha’s songs. First of all, the researcher looked for the grammatical deviations in the song lyrics. Then, the grammatical deviations were analyzed and classified into some categories based on the process that occur such as double negation, ellipsis, deviation of verb and so on. Next, the grammatical deviations in the lyrics were categorized into two types of grammatical deviation which were syntax and morphology. This was in order to answer the first problem in this study which was about the types of grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs. After answering the first problem in this study, the researcher conducted the next analysis which was phonological analysis towards the lyrics of Bebe Rexha’s songs. The researcher analyzed the rhyme and meter in the lyrics as the possible effects of the grammatical deviations that occurred in the lyrics of Bebe Rexha’s songs. However, the researcher only observed the sentences or lines in the lyrics that were grammatically deviated. The sentences which were not grammatically deviated were not discussed in this study. This was conducted in order to answer the second problem which was the phonological effects caused by the grammatical deviations in the lyrics of Bebe Rexha’s song.

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this chapter, there will be two main parts that will be discussed by the researcher. The first part discusses about the types of grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs in order to find the answer for the first problem formulation. The second part discusses about the phonological effects of the grammatical deviation which are found in the Bebe Rexha’s songs. This part is for answering the second problem formulation in this study. A. Types of Grammatical Deviation Found in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics In this part the researcher analyzes the types of grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs. There are two types of grammatical deviation which are syntax or syntactical deviation and morphology or morphological deviation (Leech, 1969, p. 44). However, in the five Bebe Rexha’s songs there is only syntactical deviation and the researcher does not find the morphological deviation in the songs. In syntactical deviation, the deviations in Bebe Rexha’s songs that are already analyzed by the researcher are categorized into seven grammatical deviation processes. Those processes are omission, deviation of verb, double negation, deviation of noun, deviation of article, deviation of preposition and overgeneralization. In this part, researcher discusses all the grammatical deviations occur in the songs based on the grammatical deviation processes. 27

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 The researcher provides the information about the grammatical deviations processes found in Bebe Rexha’s songs in the table below. Table 1. The Summary of Grammatical Deviations Occur in Bebe Rexha’s Songs No Grammatical Deviation Frequency Percentage (%) Process 1. Omission 39 78 % 2. Deviation of Verb 5 10 % 3. Double Negation 2 4% 4. Deviation of Noun 1 2% 5. Deviation of Article 1 2% 6. Deviation of Preposition 1 2% 7. Overgeneralization Total 1 50 2% 100 % The table above shows the total deviations found in five songs of Bebe Rexha which is 50 deviations. The table shows there are seven grammatical deviation processes as well. The grammatical deviation process of omission dominates the whole grammatical deviation since it has the highest percentage which is 78 %. The frequency for the omission is 39. The deviations of verb found in the songs are 5 and the percentage for it is 10 %. This makes the deviation of verb lies in the second position after the omission. The third place is in the deviation that is categorized as double negation. There are two double negations in the songs and the percentage is 4 %. The rest of the grammatical deviation processes such as deviation of noun, deviation of article, overgeneralization and deviation of preposition have the same frequency which is only 1 deviation. The percentage is also the same: 2 %. Those grammatical deviation processes is discussed in the following discussion.

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 1. Omission The omission is one of the grammatical deviation processes that is mostly found in the five Bebe Rexha’s songs. There are 39 grammatical deviations of omission found from a total 50 grammatical deviations in those five Bebe Rexha’s songs. It means that grammatical deviation of omission dominate more than a half of grammatical deviations found in the songs. The omission in the songs mostly occurs in the subject of the sentences. This means that most of the sentences in the song lyrics have no subject in them. The example is in the line Pop a couple xans with somebody in Bebe Rexha’s song “Meant to be”. In the sentence, the subject is omitted. The correct form of the sentence is I pop a couple xans with somebody. In five songs of Bebe Rexha, the researcher finds six types of omission. Those are omission of subject, omission of article, omission of modal auxiliary, omission of linking verb, omission of object and omission of preposition. The further explanation of those six types of omission is provided bellow. a. Omission of Subject The first type of omission is the omission of subject. All five songs by Bebe Rexha have the grammatical deviation in omission of subject in them. The omission of subject in the songs in total is 30 from 39 grammatical deviation of omission. Those 30 omissions of subject occur in the four songs out of five songs that are being studied. Those are “Me, Myself and I”, “I Got You”, “The Way I Are” and “I’m a Mess”. The full display of omission of subject is provided in the appendix 1. The table below only provides the sample from the five songs of Bebe Rexha.

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 Table 2. Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha’s Songs Song Grammatical Deviation Grammatical “Me, Myself and I” Get what I want when I I get what I want when I want want “The Way I Are” “I Got You” “Meant to be” “I’m a Mess” Don't want to work for it They don’t want to work for it Made it right here 'cause I'm sick with it Cudi I made it right here because I’m sick with it Cudi Can't dance but kinda grind 'em I cannot dance but I kind of grind them Roll it up 'cause we so ill We roll it up because we are so ill Lookin' like you need it We don’t have to be so guarded Tell a lie for you I would tell a lie for you No need to go nowhere fast We do not need to go anywhere fast See where this thing goes We will see where this things goes Have a drink on me cheers to the failing They have a drink on me cheers to the failing The table shows the grammatical deviations in omission of subject in five songs of Bebe Rexha. In the song “Me, Myself and I” there are 12 omissions of subject. In “The Way I Are” there are 9 omissions of subject. In the song “I Got You” there are 6 omissions of subject. Meanwhile, in “I’m a Mess” there is only one omission of subject. The subjects omitted are different in each sentence. This depends on the context of the song. This also depends on the person or people that the singer is talking to. For example is in the song “Me, Myself and I”. All the subjects in the song is I. This is because in the song, the singers which are Bebe Rexha and G-

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 Eazy want to show their expression. They want to show their mind and opinion to others. It can be seen in the line: Get what I want when I want Know I’m great Those sentences show the speaker’s or the singer’s mind about himself or herself. The correct sentences are: I get what I want when I want I know I’m great This is different from the sentence with omission of subject in the song “I Got You”. One of the sentences in “I Got You” is: Tell a lie for you The subject that is needed is I since the song is talking about the singer’s hope towards someone else. In that sentence the speaker or the singer commits to do something in the future. Therefore, the auxiliary will or would is needed after the subject I. The sentence that precedes the sentence above is I’d do the time for you or in the full form is I would do the time for you. Thus, the correct sentence for the deviated sentence above is: I would tell a lie for you The auxiliary would is used in order to keep the consistency of the sentences since in the previous sentence it uses the word would. Another example is in the song “The Way I Are” in the line: Roll it up ‘cause we so ill

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 In this song, the singer tells others about her and her friends. This means the subject is first person plural we. This can be seen from the line that after the conjunction ‘cause or because, the subject is we. Therefore, the correct subject for the line above is we. We roll it up because we are so ill The line above is the correct sentence for the deviated sentence in the lyric. In the song “I’m mess” there is only one sentence that is grammatically deviated. The deviated sentence in the lyric is: Have a drink on me cheers to the failing The correct sentence for the sentence above is: They have a drink on me cheers to the failing The subject they is chosen because in this part of the song, the singer is describing people around her which act meanly to her. This means the singer talks about the third person plural. The third person plural that is needed is they since its role is an active subject that does something. Their and them are not correct for it does not show the possession of something and it is not an object that is affected. b. Omission of Article Omission of article only occurs in one out of five Bebe Rexha’s songs. The song is “Me, Myself and I”. The further information is provided in the table below:

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 Table 3. Omission of Article in Bebe Rexha Songs Song Grammatical Deviation Grammatical “Me, Myself And as far as I can see I And as far as I can see I just need and I” just need privacy a privacy I just need space I just need a space I'm folding cake I’m folding a cake It's no debate It is not a debate The table above shows the grammatical deviation which is omission of article. The four omissions of article are found in Bebe Rexha’s “Me, Myself and I”. The four sentences are considered deviate the rules in English. This is stated by Fromkin et al (2011) in one of the sentence examples in their book that in a sentence which lack of article is ungrammatical (2011, p. 63). Meaning to say that an article cannot be omitted in a sentence. In Bebe Rexha’s “Me, Myself and I” there are four sententences that the articles are omitted. I just need privacy I just need space I’m folding cake It’s no debate Those sentences are lack of article which make them grammatically incorrect. The sentences should be added by an indefinite article since the noun is indefinite. Besides, the nouns in the four sentences are also firstly mentioned in those sentences so it needs an indefinite article a or an. The correct forms of the sentences are: I just need a privacy I just need a space I’m folding a cake It’s not a debate

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 Since all the nouns in the four lines above begin with non-vowel letter then the indefinite article that is used is a. c. Omission of Linking Verb The researcher finds two omissions of linking verb after analyzing the five songs by Bebe Rexha. The omissions of verb found in Bebe Rexha’s “The Way I Are” and “Me, Myself and I”. The table below provides the examples about the omissions of linking verb in two Bebe Rexha’s songs. Table 4. Omission of Linking Verb in Bebe Rexha’s songs Song Grammatical Grammatical Deviation “The Way I Are” Roll it up ‘cause we so ill You roll it up because we are so ill “Me, Myself and I” A Stella Maxwell right beside of me A Stella Maxwell is right beside me From the table it can be observed the sentences that are grammatically deviated. For example is in the sentence: Roll it up ‘cause we so ill In that sentence there is no verb after the subject we and before the adverb and adjective so and ill. The sentence will be correct when a linking verb is added after the subject since the sentence is followed by adverb so and adjective ill. This is supported by Fromkin et al (2011) that verb be is needed before the adjective and it acts as an auxiliary (2011, pp. 153-154). Meaning to say that there must be a verb after a subject and before the adjective or in this case is adjective that precede by adverb. Therefore, the correct sentence will be: We roll it up because we are so ill

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 The linking verb that is added is are because the subject that precedes it is we which is plural. d. Omission of Modal Auxiliary There is only one omission of modal auxiliary in Bebe Rexha song called “The Way I Are”. The omission of modal auxiliary is found in the line: I be right behind her spinal The sentence shows what the speaker is going to do in the future. The sentence above is grammatically incorrect since there is no modal auxiliary after the subject I. According to Fromkin et al (2011), “auxiliaries provide the verb with a time frame and one of them is events that occur in the future” (2011, p. 129). This means that the appropriate modal auxiliary for showing the coming events is will. Therefore, the sentence needs modal auxiliary will after the subject I. The correct form of that sentence will be: I will be right before her spinal According to the discussion above, it shows the importance of modal auxiliary in a sentence. If it is left behind then the sentence is incomplete. This makes the sentence is grammatically deviated. e. Omission of Preposition The researcher analyzes five songs by Bebe Rexha and finds one omission of preposition in one of the songs. The song is “Me, Myself and I”. The omission of preposition is in the line: Pray the Lord, my soul to take

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 In the sentence, the speaker or singer wants to say that he or she pray to the Lord. However, the sentence is incorrect because the preposition to is omitted. The correct sentence will be: I pray to the Lord, my soul to take This is supported by the rule about the verb phrase containing preposition phrase by Fromkin et al (2011) that one of the rules for the verb phrase is a verb and followed by a prepositional phrase (2011, p. 132). It is described as: VP  V PP For example is in the sentence The man sits on the bench. It explains in the following discussion: The man sits on the bench V PP The verb sit is followed by the prepositional phrase on the bench. Prepositional phrase of course needs a preposition in it so it is called prepositional phrase. In the example above, the preposition that is used is in. In the lyric of “Me, Myself and I”, the line Pray the lord, my soul to take it should be added by preposition so that it can be a prepositional phrase. The appropriate preposition for the sentence is to since it is in a phrasal verb. Pray the lord, my soul to take V N The rule is VP  V PP so the sentence should be: I pray to the Lord, V my soul to take PP The phrase to the Lord in the sentence above is the correct form for a prepositional phrase.

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 If the preposition to is omitted then it is not a prepositional phrase. This will break the rule of verb phrase VP  V PP which makes the sentence is deviated or grammatically incorrect. f. Omission of Object Omission of object is found in one of Bebe Rexha’s songs that are being analyzed in this study. It is in Bebe Rexha’s “Me, Myself and I”. The lyric in the song is: Celebrate nightly and everyone rages. The sentence is incomplete since there is no object after the verb celebrate. The verb celebrate in this sentence is functioned as a transitive verb. Transitive verb is a verb that can take a direct object (Crystal, 2008, p. 494). Meaning to say that transitive verb requires an object or more than one objects. The appropriate object for the sentence is it since a pronoun can be a direct object. The correct sentence would be: I celebrate it nightly and everyone rages The word it refers to the success and the popularity that are gained by the speaker or the singer as in the lyric. 2. Deviation of Verb There are five deviations of verb found in Bebe Rexha’s songs. From five songs that are being analyzed, the researcher only finds the deviation of verb in the song “I’m a Mess” and “The Way I Are”. The detailed information about deviations of verb that occur in the two songs is provided bellow.

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 Song “I’m a Mess” “The Way I Are” Table 5. Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s Songs Grammatical Deviation Grammatical Pretty sure he don’t Pretty sure he does not want to be wanna be my baby my baby He don’t love me He does not love me That’s what my therapist say That is what my therapist says Love me the way I are You love me the way I am Every time she dance it’s Every time she dances it is exotic exotic The table shows the deviations in each song of Bebe Rexha. In “I’m a Mess” there are three deviations of verb. Meanwhile, in the song “The Way I Are” there are two deviations of verb. From the five deviations of verb exist in the two songs, the four mistakes in verbs have third person singular as the subject. According to Eastwood (2002) third person singular has a verb form which is Sverb (p. 76). This means the verb should be added by suffix {-s}. In the song “I’m a Mess” the sentences which have the incorrect form of verb are: Pretty sure he don’t wanna be my baby He don’t love me That’s what my therapist say The first and the second sentence has he as the subject and the third sentence has my therapist. Those subjects are the third person singular which means the following verb needs to be in S-form. Therefore the correct sentences are: Pretty sure he does not want to be my baby He does not love me That’s what my therapist says

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 39 The incorrect form of verb also occurs in the song “The way I Are” in the sentence: Every time she dance it’s exotic The sentence has the third person singular as well which is she. Therefore the correct sentence should be: Every time she dances it’s exotic However, it is different from another sentence that has deviation of verb in “The Way I Are”. The sentence is: Love me the way I are In that sentence the subject is the first person singular I and it is followed by a linking verb are. Based on Eastwood’s (2002) explanation, a singular noun I is followed by an auxiliary verb am (p.105). Therefore, the correct sentence from the sentence above is: Love me the way I am This rule is also used in the title of the song which comes from the sentence above. The title of the song is “The Way I Are”. However, just like in the sentence that is corrected. It should be “The Way I Am”. 3. Double Negation There are two sentences in Bebe Rexha’s songs that contain double negation. The two sentences are in her song entitled “Meant to be” and “I’m a Mess”. The double negations in those two songs are discussed in the following table.

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 Song “Meant to be” “I’m a Mess” Table 6. Double Negation in Bebe Rexha’s Songs Grammatical Deviation Grammatical No need to go nowhere You do not need to go anywhere fast fast I don’t trust no one around us I do not trust anyone around us Crystal (2008) states that double negation in a sentence is not acceptable in Standard English (p. 324). This is because the two negative expressions affect the meaning of the sentence. This can make people who read or listen a sentence with double negative get confused because this distracts the logical structure. The sentences in the songs are: No need to go nowhere fast I don’t trust no one around us The speaker or the singer wants to deliver is actually: You do not need to go anywhere fast I do not trust anyone around us Those sentences above are the correct forms. However, when the two negative expressions are used in those sentences then the meaning will be different. Those can be: No need to go nowhere fast  You need to go somewhere fast I don’t trust no one around us  I trust everyone around us This is the reason people who read or listen to a sentence with double negation can get confused in term of the meaning.

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 4. Deviation of Noun From five songs of Bebe Rexha that are analyzed in this study, there is one song that has a deviation of noun. That deviation of noun exists in the song “Me, Myself and I”. The deviation is in the line: Plus a whole lot of tree The sentence above is incorrect. This is because the line stating there is a noun which is tree that is supposed to be in the plural form. This can be observed by looking at the adverb that is used before the word tree: a lot of. Fromkin et al (2011) explains that a plural noun should be added by suffix {-s} (p. 91). This means that the noun tree in the line needs to be added by {-s} since it becomes plural noun. Plus a whole lot of trees The sentence above is the correct form for the line in the lyric. 5. Deviation of Article There is only one deviation of article that is found among the five songs of Bebe Rexha. The only deviation of article exists in the song “The Way I Are”. It is in the sentence bellow: We can turn this dance floor to a island In the sentence above is incorrect because the article a is not the appropriate form for the noun island. The indifinite article a is used for a noun that begins with a consonant sound while an is used for a noun that begins with a vowel sound (Eastwood, 2002, p. 158). Therefore, the correct sentence for the lyric is:

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 We can turn this dance floor to an island In the sentence above, the noun island is begun with the diphthong which is /ʌɪ/ then the correct article for the noun is an. This is because diphthong is the sequence of two vowels (Fromkin et al, 2011, pp. 248-249). This means, diphthong is part of vowel as well. 6. Deviation of Preposition There is only one deviation of preposition found in the songs of Bebe Rexha. That sentence is a part of the song entitled “Me, Myself and I”. The deviation is in the sentence: A Stella Maxwell right beside of me In the sentence above there are three prepositions. Those prepositions are the word right, beside and of. The preposition beside in the sentence shows the position or it is called preposition of place. Meanwhile, the preposition of of and right are additional prepositions. Eastwood (2002) explains that it is possible to modify the preposition using right such us in right in front of the building (p. 287). However, Eastwood (2002) also explains that the use of of is only in the words on to of, out of and in front of. (p. 289). Therefore, the correct form of the senctence is: A Stella Maxwell is right beside me The additional preposition of of is not necessary in the sentence above. The preposition right in the sentence above is an addition as well but it is still allowed according to Eastwood (2002). Thus, it is correct to use it in that sentence.

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 7. Overgeneralization There is one deviation that is categorized as overgeneralization in five songs of Bebe Rexha that are being analized in this study. It is in Bebe Rexha’s “Me, Myself and I”. The sentence is: It’s no debate The sentence is incorrect because it uses the incorrect negative expression. It is supposed to be not. The correct sentence is: It’s not a debate According to Eastwood (2002) the negative expression not or n’t comes after an auxiliary (p.17). This means that the negative expression not in the sentence is supposed to be preceded by an auxiliary is. B. Phonological Effects of Rhyme and Meter as the Result of Grammatical Deviation in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics There are two phonological effects caused by the grammatical deviations in Bebe Rexha’s songs. The first effect is rhyme. The second effect is meter or the metrical pattern. These phonological effects are intended to make the songs become more aesthetic and appealing when people listen to the songs. From seven grammatical deviation processes that are discussed in this study, three grammatical deviation processes have phonological effects. Those grammatical deviation processes are omission, deviation of verb and deviation of noun. The deviation of verb and deviation of noun in Bebe Rexha’s songs are made to make the line is rhymed to previous and after the line. Besides, the

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 omission is made in order to get the right metrical pattern in the lines of the songs. Further explanation is discussed in the following discussion. 1. Rhyme The first phonological effect caused by the grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs is rhyme. Rhyme is the sounds that come at the final lines when the final vowel and consonant sounds in a word at the end of one line match the vowel and consonant sounds at the end of another (Madden, 2002, p. 70). In other words, rhyme occurs when the nucleus and the coda of two or more words in different lines match one another in the end of the lines. In her songs, Bebe Rexha deviates the grammatical rules in order to make the lines in the lyrics rhymed. The discussion bellow is provided in order to discuss the rhyme in Bebe Rexha’s songs in detail. a. Deviation of Verb The deviations of verb that create rhyme lie in two Bebe Rexha’s songs from five songs that are analyzed in this study. Those songs are “I’m a Mess” and “The Way I Are”. There is one line in each song that applies deviation of verb. The first is the line in “I’m a mess” which is That’s what my therapist say. The full lines are: Everything's gonna be alright Everything's gonna be okay It's gonna be a good, good, life That's what my therapist say From the lyric it can be seen that the grammatical deviation occurs in the last line above. The word say /seɪ/ is supposed to be says since the subject before it is a third person singular. Besides, the second line ends with the word okay

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 /əʊkeɪ/ which rhymes with the last line. This is because the word say and okay have the same nucleus which is /eɪ/ and both words do not have coda. This means that the songwriter deviates the last line in order to rhyme it to the previous line which is the second line. Table. 7 Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s “I’m a Mess” Lyric Rhyme Rhyme Pattern Everything's gonna be alright /aɪt/ A Everything's gonna be okay /eɪ/ B It's gonna be a good, good, life /aɪf/ C That's what my therapist say /eɪ/ B From the table above, it can be seen that the rhyme pattern of the lines is A-B-C-B. The word say in the fourth line and okay in the second line rhyme each other since the nucleus are the same. Besides, the first line and the third line also have the similarity which is in the nucleus /aɪ/. The second line that applies deviation of verb is in the song “The Way I Are”. The line is Just love me the way I are. Meanwhile, the full lines are: It could be anybody Tell me are you that somebody Don’t matter who you are Just love me the way I are In the last line is suppossed to be Just the way I am. This is because the subject I is followed by to be am which in the line is functioned as a verb.

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 Therefore the correct form of the line should be Just love me the way I am. However, the deviation is made in order to make the word are rhymes the previous line which ends with the word are. The phonetic transcription for the word are is /ɑ:/. This means that both are not only the same word but also have the same nucleus in order to rhyme. The following table gives the further information about the lines. Table. 8 Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s “The Way I Are” Lyric Rhyme Rhyme Pattern It could be anybody /i/ A Tell me are you that somebody /i/ A Don’t matter who you are /ɑ:/ B Just love me the way I are /ɑ:/ B The table above shows the rhyme and also the rhyme pattern of the lines in the song “The Way I Are”. The first line has the same rhyme like in the second line. Both last words have the same nucleus /i/ and do not have coda. Besides, the third line has the same rhyme like in the fourth line. Both last words share the same nucleus as well which is /ɑ:/. Both words also do not have coda just like the first and the second line. This creates a rhyme pattern which is A-A-B-B. b. Deviation of Noun Besides the deviation of verb, the deviation of noun also creates rhyme. There is only one line that creates rhyme as the effect of the deviation of noun.

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 The line exists in the song “Me, Myself and I”. The line is plus a whole lt f tree and the full lines are: As far as I can see I just need privacy Plus a whole lot of tree Fuck all this modesty The correct form for the third line is plus a whole lot of trees. This is because the word tree is meant to be plural. However, if the word tree is written in the correct form it does not rhyme with the previous and the next lines which has the same nucleus which is /i:/. The table below gives further information about the rhyme. Table. 9 Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Noun Lyric Rhyme Rhyme Pattern As fas as I can see /i:/ A I just need privacy /I/ B Plus a whole lot of tree /i:/ A Fuck all this modesty /I/ B It can be observed in the table that the last word in the first line has the sound /i:/ as its nucleus. In the third line, it also has the sound /i:/ in the last word. This means that the first and the third line have the same rhyme. In addition, the second and the fourth lines also share the same rhyme which is the sound /I/ as their nucleus. This also means that both lines are rhymed each other. This makes the rhyme pattern which is A-B-A-B.

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 2. Meter The second phonological effect as the result of the grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs is meter. “Meter is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllable in a line” (Madden, 2002, p. 71). Therefore, in this part the researcher analyzes the stressed and unstressed syllable in sentences that are deviated. The stressed and unstressed syllables in the songs are analyzed based on the way the singer sings the song and not based on the dictionaries. The researcher uses the symbol (/) to show the stressed syllable and (ˇ) to show the unstressed syllable. There are five deviated sentences in Bebe Rexha’s songs that create the right meter. All the five sentences are in the grammatical deviation process of omission which is omission of subject. The further discussion about meter in Bebe Rexha’s songs is discussed below. There are five sentences that have omission of subjects in three songs of Bebe Rexha “I Got You”, “I’m a Mess” and “Me, Myself and I”. There are three deviated lines in “I Got You”, one line in “I’m a Mess” and one line in “Me, Myself and I”. The metrical patterns of the lines are discussed in this part. The first is the omission of subject in the song “I Got You”. From six deviated lines in this song, there are some of them that are discussed below. The first is: Tell you no lies We can get lost From the two lines above, the first line is deviated. The correct form for the sentence in the first line is I tell you no lies. The subject I is needed since the singer talks to the second person you. It can be seen from the previous line in the

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 lyric that the singer or I directly talk to you as well. The first line above is deviated to make the right metrical pattern. The metrical pattern is: / ˇ / ˇ Tell you | no lies / ˇ / ˇ We can | get lost It can be seen from the two lines above that both lines have the same metrical pattern. The first line begins with stressed syllable and it is followed by unstressed syllable. This is called trochaic. The stressed syllable is tell and the unstressed syllable is you. This also happens in the second line. The stressed syllable is we and the unstressed syllable is can. Besides, there are two feet in both lines. This is because the stressed and unstressed pattern is repeated twice. From the explanation, it means that the first line is deviated in order to have the same metrical pattern as the previous line. The second example is in the following lines: Tell me all your secrets Lookin’ like you need it Those lines are in the song “I Got You”. The first line has no subject since it is an imperative sentence. The second line has no subject as well and this is a deviated sentence. The second line is supposed to be You are looking like you need it. As it is discussed above, the subject you is chosen since the singer communicate with the second person you in the song. The deviation in the sentence is in order to make the same metrical pattern as in the first line. The metrical patterns of the two sentences are:

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 50 / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ Tell me | all your | secrets / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ Lookin’ | like you | need it From the explanation above it can be observed that both sentences are bigun with stressed syllables. Then, they are followed by unstressed syllables. This means that the pattern is called trochaic. Besides, the stressed and unstressed pattern is repeated three times. It means the lines have three feet and they are called trochaic trimeter.

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this part the researcher gives the conclusion of the two main discussions as the answer of two problems. The first problem is to find the types of grammatical deviation in five songs of Bebe Rexha. Those songs are “I’m a Mess”, “Me, Myself and I”, “I Got You”, “The Way I Are” and “Meant to be. The second problem is to describe how the phonological effects are created as the result of the grammatical deviations in five Bebe Rexha’s songs. In the first problem, researcher finds that there is only one type of grammatical deviation which is syntactical deviation. In syntactical deviation, the researcher finds seven grammatical deviation processes which are omission, deviation of verb, double negation, deviation of noun, deviation of article, deviation of preposition and overgeneralization. There are 39 deviations of omission, 5 deviations of verb, 2 double negations, 1 deviation of noun, 1 deviation of article, 1 deviation of preposition and 1 overgeneralization. Therefore, the total number of the grammatical deviation is 50. Grammatical deviation process that has the highest number is omission. The omission occurs in all songs of Bebe Rexha. In this study, there are five types of omission in the songs which are omission of subject, omission of article, omission of modal auxiliary, omission of linking verb, omission of preposition and omission of object. Among the omission processes, omission of subject has 51

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 the highest frequency compared to other omission. Besides, the deviation of verb occurs in two songs of Bebe Rexha which are “I’m a Mess” and “The Way I Are”. The double negation occurs in two songs of Bebe Rexha as well. Those songs are “Meant to be” and “I’m a Mess”. The deviation of noun only occurs in “Me, Myself and I”. Just like the deviation of noun, the deviation of article only found in one song which is “The Way I Are”. The deviation of preposition and overgeneralization also occur in one song. The song is the same which is “Me, Myself and I”. The grammatical deviations in the five songs are made by Bebe Rexha on purpose. In the second problem, the researcher finds that the grammatical deviations occurs in five songs of Bebe Rexha make some phonological effects. Those phonological effects are rhyme and meter. There are two grammatical deviation processes that create rhyme which are the deviation of verb and the deviation of noun. There are two sentences that have deviation of verb in two songs. The songs are “I’m a Mess and “The Way I Are”. Besides, there is one sentence with deviation of noun in “Me, Myself and I”. The second phonological effect is meter or the metrical pattern. There is only one grammatical deviation process which is omission that creates the right meter. That omission that creates meter occurs in three songs of Bebe Rexha. The first song is “I Got You”, the second is “I’m a Mess” and the third is “Me, Myself and I”. As the final point, the researcher finds the type of grammatical deviation and the phonological effects which are rhyme and meter in five Bebe Rexha’s

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 songs. The grammatical deviations made by Bebe Rexha in her songs are intended to make her songs to be more beautiful and more appealing to hear by making the lyrics rhymed each other and by creating the same metrical pattern. Besides, this research gives a proof that stylistic approach can be used to analyze song since song is similar to poetry. In this part, the researcher suggests other researchers to conduct the different analysis with the same object in order to improve the analysis using stylistic approach. From the four levels of stylistics, other researchers can possibly use the other levels in their research. Moreover, the researcher encourages other researchers to analyze the object with theory of deviation except the grammatical deviation. It can be lexical deviation, phonological deviation, graphological deviation, semantic deviation, dialectical deviation, deviation of register and deviation of historical period. Since every researcher has the different way to analyze, the discussion in their researches would be more interesting.

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 54 REFERENCES Ammer, Christine. (2004). The Facts on File Dictioary of Music. New York: Facts on File, Inc. Arp, T., & Johnson, G. (2009). Perrine's Literature: Structure, Sound and Sense. Boston: Wadsworth Cengange Learning. Asmara, Hadrian Kusuma. (2018). Phonological Features in Robert Frost’s “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Can Stay” Poems (Undergraduate Thesis). Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta. Barry, Peter. (2009). Begining Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cutural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Bradley, Adam. (2009). Book of Rhymes the Poetics of Hip Hop. New York: BasicCivitas. Branchette, Frances Kathleen. (2015). English Negative Concord, Negative Polarity, and Double Negation (Doctoral Dissertation). City University of New York, New York. Budiharto, R. Agus. (2018). Grammatical Deviation in President Jokowi's Speech to the APEC CEO Summit. Studies in English Language and Education, 5(1), 85-96. Creswell, John W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication, Inc. Crystal, David. (2008). A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing. Fromkin, Victoria., Robert Rodman, & Nina Hyams. (2011). An Introduction to Language. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Khan, Shaukat., Sumaira Jehanzeb, Ullah Irfan, & Muhammad Irfan. (2016). A Stylistic Analysis of “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”. English Review: Journal of English Education, 5 (1), 37-48 Kramer, Lawrence. (2017). Song Acts: Writing on Words and Music. Leiden: BRILL. 54

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 Matiini, Gharizi. (2016). Overgeneralization in Singular/plural Nouns and Suffixed Nouns of IELTS Course Students. Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra,16 (2), 144-159. Leech, Geoffrey N. (1969). A linguistic Guide to English Poetry. New York: Longman Group Ltd. Leech, Geoffrey N., & Mick Short. (2007). Style in Fiction: A Linguistic Introduction to English Fictional Prose. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Leech, Geoffrey N., & Mick Short. (1994). Style in Fiction. Singapore: Longman Singapore Publisher. Madden, Frank. (2002). Exploring Poetry. London: Longman. Mayer, Rudolf., Robert Neumayer, and Andreas Rauber. (2008). ISMIR 2008: Preceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Music Information Retrieval. Philadelhia: Lulu.com Obermeier, Christian.,Winfried Menninghaus, Martin von Kopponfels, Tim Raettig, Maren Schmidt-Kassow, Sacha Otterbein and Sonja A. Kotz. (2013). Aesthetic and Emotional Effects of Meter and Rhyme in Poetry. Frontiers in Psychology Language Science 4(10), 1-10 Pirnajmuddin, Hossein., & Vahid Medhat. (2011). Linguistic Deviation in Poetry Translation: An Investigation into the English Rendering of Shamlu's Verse. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1329-1335. Petra, Aldorio. (2018). Grammatical Errors and Their Effects in Rich Brian’s Songs (Undergraduate Thesis). Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta. Trask, R. L. (1996). A Dictionary of Grammatical Terms in Linguistics. London and New York: Routledge. Vosahlik, Vojtech. (2016). The Relationshi between Poetry and Music Lyric (Bachelor Thesis). Jicoceska Univerzita, Ceske Budejovice. Verdonk, Peter. (2002). Stylistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 56 APPENDICES Appendix 1: Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha’s Songs Song Ommision of Subject Grammatical Deviation Grammatical “Me, Myself Made it right here 'cause I'm sick I made it right here and I” with it Cudi because I’m sick with it Cudi Get what I want when I want I get what I want when I want Understand what I'm speaking on I understand what I’m speaking on Got me for life I got me for life Keeps me alive It keeps me alive Say "fuck y'all" to all of y'all faces I say “fuck y’all” to all of y’all faces Celebrate rages nightly and everyone I celebrate it nightly and everyone rages Swimming in liquor I am swimming in liquor Don't want to work for it They don’t want to work for it Pray the lord, my soul to take I pray to the Lord, my soul to take Know I'm great I know I’m great Having dreams that I'm folding cake I am having dreams that I am folding a cake “The Way I Gonna live it up Are” Don't matter who you are Pop a couple xans with somebody I am going to live it up I don’t matter who you are I pop a couple xans with somebody Throw a bunch of bands arms get I throw a bunch of bands tired arms get tired Gotta use a bedroom for a closet I am going to use a bedroom for a closet Got a whole bedroom I got a whole bedroom Kiss both boobs right before I sign I kiss both boobs right 'em before I sign them 56

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 57 Song “I Got You” Grammatical Deviation Can't dance but kinda grind 'em I cannot dance but I kind of grind them Roll it up 'cause we so ill We roll it up because we are so ill Lookin' like you need it You are looking like you need it Tell you no lies I tell you no lies Always over thinkin' I am always over thinking Don't have to be so guarded We don’t have to be so guarded Tell a lie for you I would tell a lie for you Take a shot for you I would take a shot for you “Meant to be” No need to go nowhere fast See where this thing goes “I’m a Mess” Grammatical We do not need to go anywhere fast We will see where this things goes Have a drink on me cheers to the They have a drink on me failing cheers to the failing Ommision of Article Song Grammatical Deviation Grammatical “Me, Myself And as far as I can see I just need And as far as I can see I and I” privacy just need a privacy I just need space I just need a space I'm folding cake I’m folding a cake It's no debate It is not a debate Omission of Modal Auxiliary Song “The Way I Are” Grammatical Deviation Roll it up ‘cause we so ill Grammatical You roll it up because we are so ill “Me, Myself and I” A Stella Maxwell right beside of me A Stella Maxwell is right beside me

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 58 Omission of Linking Verb Song “The Way I Are” Grammatical Deviation I be right behind her spinal Grammatical I will be right before her spinal Omission of Preposition Song “Me, Myself and I” Song “Me, Myself and I” Grammatical Deviation Pray the Lord, my soul to take Omission of Object Grammatical Deviation Celebrate nightly and everyone rages. Grammatical I pray to the Lord, my soul to take Graamatical I celebrate it nightly and everyone rages Deviation of Verb Song “I’m a Mess” “The Way I Are” Grammatical Deviation Pretty sure he don’t wanna be my baby Grammatical Pretty sure he does not want to be my baby He don’t love me He does not love me That’s what my therapist say That is what my therapist says Love me the way I are You love me the way I am Every time she dance it’s exotic Every time she dances it is exotic Double Negation Song “Meant to be” Grammatical Deviation No need to go nowhere fast Grammatical You do not need to go anywhere fast “I’m a Mess” I don’t trust no one around us I do not trust anyone around us

(73) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 59 Deviation of Noun Song “Me, Myself and I” Grammatical Deviation Plus a whole lot of tree Grammatical Plus a whole lot of trees Deviation of Article Song “The Way I Are” Grammatical Deviation We can turn this dance floor to a island Grammatical We can turn this dance floor to an island Deviation of Preposition Song “Me, Myself and I” Grammatical Deviation A Stella Maxwell right beside of me Grammatical A Stella Maxwell is right beside me Overgeneralization Song “Me, Myself and I” Grammatical Deviation It’s no debate Grammatical It’s not a debate

(74) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 60 Appendix 2: Phonological Effects In Bebe Rexha’s Songs No Lyrics Grammatical Deviation Processes Omission of subject 1. No need to go nowhere fast 2. See where this thing goes Omission of subject 3. Have a drink on me cheers to the failing Omission of subject 4. Gonna live it up Omission of subject 5. Don't matter who you are Omission of subject 6. Pop a couple xans with somebody Omission of subject 7. Throw a bunch of bands arms get tired Omission of subject 8. Gotta use a bedroom for a closet Omission of subject 9. Got a whole bedroom on the private Omission of subject 10. Kiss both boobs right before I sign 'em Omission of subject 11. Can't dance but kinda grind 'em Omission of subject 12. Roll it up 'cause we so ill Omission of subject 13. Made it right here 'cause I'm sick with it Cudi Omission of subject 14. get what I want when I want Omission of subject 15. Understand what I'm speaking Omission of subject 16. Got me for life Omission of subject 17. Keeps me alive Omission of subject Phonological Effects Rhyme Meter V

(75) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 61 Lyrics 18. Say "fuck y'all" to all of y'all faces Grammatical Deviation processes Omission of subject Phonological Effects Rhyme Meter 19. Celebrate nightly and everyone rages Omission of subject 20. Swimming in liquor my liver is muddy Omission of subject 21. don't want to work for it Omission of subject 22. Pray the lord, my soul to take Omission of subject 23. Know I'm great but I’m broke as hell Omission of subject 24. Having dreams that I'm folding cake Omission of subject 25. Lookin' like you need it Omission of subject V 26. Tell you no lies Omission of subject V 27. Always over thinkin' Omission of subject V 28. Don't have to be so guarded Omission of subject 29. Tell a lie for you Omission of subject 30. Take a shot for you Omission of subject 31. And as far as I can see I just need privacy Omission of article 32. I just need space to do me Omission of article 33. Having dreams that I'm folding cake Omission of article 34. it's no debate Omission of article 35. Roll it up ‘cause we so ill Omission of linking verb 36 Omission of linking verb A Stella Maxwell right beside of me V

(76) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 62 Lyrics Grammatical Deviation processes 37. I be right behind her spinal Omission of modal auxiliary 38. Celebrate nightly and everyne rages 39. Ray the lord my soul to take Phonological Effects Rhyme Omission of object Omission of preposition 40. Pretty sure he don’t wanna be my baby Deviation of verb 41. He don’t love me Deviation of verb 42. That’s what my therapist say Deviation of verb V 43. Love me the way I are Deviation of verb V 44. Every time she dance it’s exotic Deviation of verb 45. No need to go nowhere fast Double negation 46. I don’t trust no one around us Double negation 47. A Stella Maxwell right beside of me Deviation of preposition 48. Plus a whole lot of tree Deviation of noun 49. We can turn this dance floor to a island Deviation of article 50. it's no debate Overgeneralization V Meter

(77) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 63 Appendix 3: Lyrics of “Me, Myself and I” [Chorus] Oh, it's just me, myself and I Solo ride until I die 'Cause I got me for life Oh I don't need a hand to hold Even when the night is cold I got that fire in my soul [Verse 1] And as far as I can see I just need privacy Plus a whole lot of tree, fuck all this modesty I just need space to do me get a world that they're tryna see A Stella Maxwell right beside of me A Ferrari I'm buyin' three A closet of Saint Laurent, get what I want when I want 'Cause this hunger is driving me, yeah I just need to be alone, I just need to be at home Understand what I'm speaking on if time is money I need a loan But regardless I'll always keep keepin' on Fuck fake friends, we don't take L's we just make M's While y'all follow, we just make trends I'm right back to work when that break ends [Chorus] Oh, it's just me, myself and I Solo ride until I die 'Cause I got me for life (Got me for life, yeah) Oh I don't need a hand to hold Even when the night is cold I got that fire in my soul [Post-Chorus] I don't need anything to get me through the night Except the beat that's in my heart Yeah, it's keeping me alive (Keeps me alive)

(78) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 64 I don't need anything to make me satisfied (You know) 'Cause the music fills me good and it gets me every time [Verse 2] Yeah, and I don't like talking to strangers So get the fuck off me I'm anxious I'm tryna be cool but I may just go ape shit Say "fuck y'all" to all of y'all faces It changes though now that I'm famous Everyone knows how this lifestyle is dangerous But I love it the rush is amazing Celebrate nightly and everyone rages I found how to cope with my anger I'm swimming in money Swimming in liquor my liver is muddy But it's all good I'm still sippin' this bubbly This shit is lovely, this shit ain't random, I didn't get lucky Made it right here 'cause I'm sick with it Cudi They all take the money for granted But don't want to work for it tell me now, isn't it funny? Nah [Bridge] Like ba-ba-ba-ba-da-ba Ba-ba-ba-da-ba (Yee!) Ba-ba-ba-ba-da-ba Ba-ba-ba-da-ba Ba-ba-ba-ba-da-ba Ba-ba-ba-da-ba 'Cause the music fills me good and it gets me every time [Verse 3] Yeah, lonely nights I laid awake Pray the Lord, my soul to take My heart's become too cold to break Know I'm great but I'm broke as hell Having dreams that I'm folding cake All my life I've been told to wait But I'mma get it now, yeah it's no debate Yeah

(79) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 65 Appendix 4: Lyrics of “Meant to be” [Verse 1] Baby, lay on back and relax, kick your pretty feet up on my dash No need to go nowhere fast let's enjoy right here where we at [Pre-Chorus1] Who knows where this road is supposed to lead We got nothing but time As long as you're right here next to me, everything's gonna be alright [Chorus] If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, just let it be If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, just let it be So, won't you ride with me, ride with me? See where this thing goes If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, if it's meant to be [Verse 2] I don't mean to be so uptight, but my heart's been hurt a couple times By a couple guys that didn't treat me right I ain't gon' lie, ain't gonna lie 'Cause I'm tired of the fake love, show me what you're made of Boy, make me believe [Pre-Chorus 2] But hold up, girl, don't you know you're beautiful? And it's easy to see [Chorus] If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, just let it be If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, just let it be So, won't you ride with me, ride with me? See where this thing goes If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, if it's meant to be

(80) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 66 So, c'mon ride with me, ride with me See where this thing goes So, c'mon ride with me, ride with me Baby, if it's meant to be [Bridge] Maybe we do Maybe we don't Maybe we will Maybe we won't [Chorus] But if it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, just let it be If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be (c'mon) Baby, just let it be (let's go) So, won't you ride with me, ride with me? See where this thing goes If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, if it's meant to be [Outro] If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, if it's meant to be If it's meant to be, it'll be, it'll be Baby, if it's meant to be

(81) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 67 Appendix 5: Lyrics of “I’m a Mess” [Verse 1] Everything's been so messed up here lately Pretty sure he don't wanna be my baby Oh, he don't love me, he don't love me He don't love me, he don't love me But that's okay 'Cause I love me, yeah, I love me Yeah, I love me Yeah, I love myself anyway Hey [Pre-Chorus] Everything's gonna be alright Everything's gonna be okay It's gonna be a good, good, life That's what my therapist say Everything's gonna be alright Everything's gonna be just fine It's gonna be a good, good life [Chorus] I'm a mess, I'm a loser I'm a hater, I'm a user I'm a mess for your love, it ain't new I'm obsessed, I'm embarrassed I don't trust no one around us I'm a mess for your love, it ain't new [Verse 2] Nobody shows up unless I'm paying Have a drink on me cheers to the failing Oh, he don't love me, he don't love me He don't love me, he don't love me But that's okay 'Cause I love me, yeah, I love me Yeah, I love me Yeah, I love myself anyway Hey

(82) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 68 Appendix 6: Lyrics of “The Way I Are” [Intro] I'm sorry, I'm not the most pretty I'll never ever sing like Whitney Ooh, but I still wanna dance with somebody (Tunechi) [Verse 1] So lets let all hearts bleed, 'til they turn to rust Gonna live it up, 'cause it's dangerous No, I don't wanna play the part (Amen) I just wanna dance with somebody (Amen) I just wanna dance with somebody (yeah) [Chorus] I just wanna dance with somebody I just wanna dance with somebody It could be anybody, tell me, are you that somebody? Don't matter who you are, just love me the way I are I just wanna dance with somebody I just wanna dance with somebody [Verse 2] I just wanna dance with somebody But I could never ever dance like Bobby You can dance, I'mma watch your body I just wanna stand right behind it I just want a chance with somebody Pop a couple xans with somebody Every time she dance it's exotic Throw a bunch of bands arms get tired I'm the God I just want a goddess Gotta use a bedroom for a closet Got a whole bedroom, on the private I know her body inside, out science Kiss both boobs right before I sign 'em Can't dance but kinda grind 'em Yeah, I be right behind her, spinal We can turn this dance floor to a island [Chorus]

(83) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 69 I just wanna dance with somebody (Mula) I just wanna dance with somebody It could be anybody, tell me, are you that somebody? (Tunechi) Don't matter who you are, just love me the way I are I just wanna dance with somebody I just wanna dance with somebody [Bridge] Bloody noses, speeding cars Lethal doses, desperate hearts Roll it up 'cause we so ill Heaven knows we love the thrill No, I don't wanna play the part I jupt wanna dance with somebody I just wanna dance with somebody

(84) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 70 Appendix 7: Lyrics of “I Got You” [Verse 1] I can see you hurting I've been through the same thing Baby, don't you worry, I got you I just wanna know you Tell me all your secrets Lookin' like you need it [Pre-Chorus] 'Cause I got you, you, oh You, I got you, I got you 'Cause I got you, you, oh You, I got you, I got you [Chorus] We can get high, oh, nah-nah-nah We can get low, oh, nah-nah-nah Let me be your friend Baby, let me in Tell you no lies, oh, nah-nah-nah We can get lost, oh, nah-nah-nah Take it all off, oh, nah-nah-nah Let me be your friend Baby, let me in Give it to me all, oh, nah-nah-nah [Verse 2] Tell me what you're thinkin' Always over thinkin' I just wanna love you, I got you Don't have to be so guarded Let's finish what we started It's all I ever wanted [Pre-Chorus] 'Cause I got you, you, oh You, I got you, I got you [Chorus] We can get high, oh, nah-nah-nah We can get low, oh, nah-nah-nah Let me be your friend Baby, let me in Tell you no lies, oh, nah-nah-nah

(85) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 71 We can get lost, oh, nah-nah-nah Take it all off, oh, nah-nah-nah Let me be your friend Baby, let me in Give it to me all, oh, nah-nah-nah [Post-Chorus] 'Cause I got you, you, oh You, I got you, I got you [Bridge] I'd do the time for you Tell a lie for you Yeah, baby, that's what I do I'd walk the line for you Take a shot for you Yeah, baby, that's what I do 'Cause I got you, it's true I'd die for you, I'd die for you I got you

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