9 6sigma analisa produktifitas – alfathrudie

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  Quality Improvement Quality Improvement

  & Six Sigma & Six Sigma

  

What is Quality?

What is Quality?

  Compliance Compliance pemenuhan pemenuhan with policies and procedures with policies and procedures ►

  Today, most managers agree that the main reason to pursue mengejar mengejar quality is to satisfy customers. quality is to satisfy customers.

  Total customer service and satisfaction Total customer service and satisfaction

  Delighting or pleasing customers ►

  ► Delighting or pleasing customers

  Doing it right the first time Doing it right the first time

  Providing a good, usable product Providing a good, usable product ►

  Speed of delivery Speed of delivery ►

  A study that asked managers of 86 firms in the eastern United A study that asked managers of 86 firms in the eastern United

  Eliminating waste ►

  ► Eliminating waste

  Consistency Consistency

  Perfection ►

  ► Perfection

  States to define quality produced several dozen different States to define quality produced several dozen different responses, including: responses, including:

Today, most managers agree that the main reason to pursue

  Garvin’s Dimensions of Garvin’s Dimensions of

  Product Quality Product Quality

  Performance Performance

  Features Features Durability.

  Durability.

  Ketahanan) Ketahanan) (

  ( Reliability

  Reliability Serviceability

  Serviceability Aesthetics

  Aesthetics Conformance Conformance Perceived Quality

  

Perceived Quality

  ► Performance.

  Durability.

  8 DIMENSI MUTU PRODUK [GARVIN]

  8 DIMENSI MUTU PRODUK

  Aesthetics.

  ► Aesthetics.

  Kemudahan perbaikan jika Kemudahan perbaikan jika produk membutuhkan produk membutuhkan perbaikan perbaikan

  Serviceability.

  ► Serviceability.

  Ukuran umur (lama Ukuran umur (lama pemakaian) dari suatu pemakaian) dari suatu produk produk

  ► Durability.

  Performance.

  Kesesuaian fungsi / kinerja Kesesuaian fungsi / kinerja suatu produk dengan suatu produk dengan standar yang telah standar yang telah ditetapkan. ditetapkan.

  Conformance.

  ► Conformance.

  ► Reliability. Reliability.

  Fasilitas Fasilitas tambahan diluar tambahan diluar fungsi pokok dari fungsi pokok dari karakteristik produk. karakteristik produk.

  Features.

  ► Features.

  Contoh : Contoh : akselerasi mobil, akselerasi mobil, kejelasan suara kejelasan suara handphone, dll. handphone, dll.

  Karakteristik Karakteristik kinerja kinerja utama dari produk. utama dari produk.

  [GARVIN] What Is Quality:

What Is Quality:

  A Final Perspective

A Final Perspective

   Customer’s and producer’s Customer’s and producer’s perspectives depend on each other perspectives depend on each other

   Producer’s perspective: Producer’s perspective:

   production process and COST production process and COST

   Customer’s perspective: Customer’s perspective:

   fitness for use and PRICE fitness for use and PRICE

   Customer’s view must dominate Customer’s view must dominate

  Evolution of Quality

Evolution of Quality

  

Management: Quality Gurus

Management: Quality Gurus

  ► Walter Shewart

  Walter Shewart

   In 1920s, developed control charts In 1920s, developed control charts

   Introduced term “ Introduced term “ quality assurance” quality assurance”

  ► W. Edwards Deming

  W. Edwards Deming

  

Developed courses during World War II to teach

Developed courses during World War II to teach

statistical quality-control techniques to engineers and statistical quality-control techniques to engineers and executives of companies that were military suppliers executives of companies that were military suppliers

   After war, began teaching statistical quality control to After war, began teaching statistical quality control to

  Japanese companies Japanese companies

  ► Joseph M. Juran

  Joseph M. Juran

   Followed Deming to Japan in 1954 Followed Deming to Japan in 1954

   Focused on strategic quality planning Focused on strategic quality planning

   Quality improvement achieved by focusing on Quality improvement achieved by focusing on projects to solve problems and securing breakthrough projects to solve problems and securing breakthrough solutions solutions

   Armand V. Feigenbaum Armand V. Feigenbaum

   In 1951, introduced concepts of total quality In 1951, introduced concepts of total quality control and continuous quality improvement control and continuous quality improvement

   Philip Crosby Philip Crosby

   In 1979, emphasized that costs of poor quality far In 1979, emphasized that costs of poor quality far outweigh cost of preventing poor quality outweigh cost of preventing poor quality

   In 1984, defined absolutes of quality In 1984, defined absolutes of quality management—conformance to requirements, management—conformance to requirements, prevention, and “zero defects” prevention, and “zero defects”

   Kaoru Ishikawa Kaoru Ishikawa

   Promoted use of quality circles Promoted use of quality circles

   Developed “fishbone” diagram Developed “fishbone” diagram

   Emphasized importance of internal customer Emphasized importance of internal customer

  Evolution of Quality

Evolution of Quality

  Management: Quality Gurus

Management: Quality Gurus

  

(cont.)

(cont.) Deming’s 14 Deming’s 14

  Points Points 1.

  1. Create constancy of purpose

Create constancy of purpose

  2.

  2. Adopt philosophy of prevention Adopt philosophy of prevention

  3.

  3. Cease mass inspection Cease mass inspection

  4.

  4. Select a few suppliers based on Select a few suppliers based on quality quality 5.

  5. Constantly improve system and Constantly improve system and workers workers

  6.

  6. Institute worker training Institute worker training 7.

  7. Instill leadership among Instill leadership among supervisors supervisors 8.

  8. Eliminate fear among Eliminate fear among employees employees 9.

  9. Eliminate barriers between Eliminate barriers between departments departments

  

Deming’s 14 Points (cont.)

Deming’s 14 Points (cont.)

  11.

  11. Remove numerical quotas Remove numerical quotas 12.

  12. Enhance worker pride Enhance worker pride 13.

  13. Institute vigorous training Institute vigorous training and education programs and education programs 14.

  14. Develop a commitment

Develop a commitment

from top management to from top management to implement above 13 points implement above 13 points

  

Deming’s 14 Points (cont.)

Deming’s 14 Points (cont.)

  Impact of Quality Impact of Quality

  ►

Increase in Productivity Increase in Productivity

  : :

  Productivity = Output / Input(s) Productivity = Output / Input(s)

  ►

Quality and Costs Quality and Costs

  : :

  • As quality of design increases, costs increase As quality of design increases, costs increase
  • As quality of conformance increases, costs decrease (less rework,

  As quality of conformance increases, costs decrease (less rework, complaints, scrap, etc…) complaints, scrap, etc…)

  ►

Reduction in Cycle Time Reduction in Cycle Time

  ►

Quality and Value Quality and Value

  : :

  Value = Quality / Price Value = Quality / Price

  Quality Management Quality Management

  ► Quality Management: “The process of

  Quality Management: “The process of identifying and administering the identifying and administering the activities needed to achieve the activities needed to achieve the quality objectives of an organization.” quality objectives of an organization.”

  ► What is value?

  What is value? (refer to Warren Buffet) (refer to Warren Buffet)

  8

  8 Quali ty Mana geme nt Princ ipal

  8

  8 Quali ty Mana

geme

nt

  Princ ipal Leader ship Leader ship Leader ship Leader ship Proce ss Ap proac h Proce ss Ap proac h Proce ss Ap proac h Proce ss Ap proac h Decission Decission by Facts by Facts Decission Decission by Facts by Facts Mutual Mutual Beneft Beneft Relationship Relationship with with Supplier Supplier Mutual Mutual Beneft Beneft Relationship Relationship with with Supplier Supplier Custome r Custome r Focus Focus Custome r Custome r Focus Focus System System Approa ch Approa ch System System Approa ch Approa ch Continu ous Continu ous Improve me Improve me Continu ous Continu ous Improve me Improve me nt nt Peopl e Invo lveme nt Peopl e Invo lveme nt Peopl e Invo lveme nt Peopl e Invo lveme nt

  8

  8

  PRINCIPAL PRINCIPAL Principle 1 Principle 1

  Customer focus Customer focus

  [Fokus pada Pelanggan] [Fokus pada Pelanggan]

  Perusahaan/Organisasi Perusahaan/Organisasi sangat tergantung sangat tergantung pada konsumen. Jadi pada konsumen. Jadi Perusahaan/Organisasi Perusahaan/Organisasi perlu memahami apa perlu memahami apa yang diinginkan oleh yang diinginkan oleh pelanggannya dan pelanggannya dan berusaha untuk berusaha untuk memenuhi apa yang memenuhi apa yang menjadi harapan dan menjadi harapan dan keinginan pelanggan. keinginan pelanggan. KENALI PELANGGAN ANDA KENALI PELANGGAN ANDA

   Customer’s V ice  Customer’s V ice

  [Suara Pelanggan] [Suara Pelanggan] 1.

  1. Pelanggan selalu benar

  1.

  1. Pelanggan selalu benar Pelanggan selalu benar Pelanggan selalu benar

  Principle 2 Principle 2

  Leadership Leadership

  [Kepemimpinan] [Kepemimpinan]

  ► Leader/Pemimpin harus

  Leader/Pemimpin harus menyatukan tujuan dan arah menyatukan tujuan dan arah organisasi ( Policy & organisasi ( Policy & Objectives ) secara jelas. Objectives ) secara jelas.

  ► Leader/Pemimpin harus

  Leader/Pemimpin harus menciptakan lingkungan yang menciptakan lingkungan yang mendorong terciptanya mendorong terciptanya keterlibatan segenap keterlibatan segenap karyawan dalam mencapai karyawan dalam mencapai tujuan organisasi/perusahaan. tujuan organisasi/perusahaan. Principle 3 Principle 3

  Involvement of People Involvement of People

  ► Semua jajaran

  Semua jajaran didalam organisasi didalam organisasi adalah inti dari adalah inti dari organisasi organisasi

  ► Keterlibatan mereka

  Keterlibatan mereka untuk kebaikan untuk kebaikan organisasi organisasi Principle 4 Principle 4

  Process Approach Process Approach

INPUT

  Hasil yang diinginkan menjadi lebih efisien jika Hasil yang diinginkan menjadi lebih efisien jika sumber daya dan aktivitas yang saling terkait sumber daya dan aktivitas yang saling terkait

  OUTPUT Principle 5 Principle 5

  System Approach System Approach

  1

  5

  5

  

2

  

2

  4

  4

  3

  3

  6

  6

  7

  7 INPUT

  INPUT Principle 6 Principle 6

  

Shewhart’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle

Shewhart’s Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) Cycle

  Check Do Plan Act

  CONTROL!

  Deming’s wheel (P.D.C.A.) Deming’s wheel (P.D.C.A.)

  ISO 9001 PLAN DO ACT CHECK Continuous Improvement CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT Deming’s wheel Deming’s wheel Principle 7 Principle 7

  FACTUAL APPROACH FACTUAL APPROACH TO DECISION MAKING TO DECISION MAKING ►

Factual approach to decision Factual approach to decision making making

   Keputusan yang efektif didasarkan Keputusan yang efektif didasarkan pada analisa data dan informasi pada analisa data dan informasi yang faktual, bukan dugaan dan yang faktual, bukan dugaan dan asumsi-asumsi yang tidak berdasar. asumsi-asumsi yang tidak berdasar.

  Principle 8 Principle 8

MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP

  ►

Mutually benefcial supplier Mutually benefcial supplier relationships relationships

   Organisasi dan pemasok saling Organisasi dan pemasok saling membutuhkan membutuhkan

   Kerjasama yang saling Kerjasama yang saling menguntungkan akan memberikan menguntungkan akan memberikan kemampuan untuk menciptakan nilai kemampuan untuk menciptakan nilai lebih dari masing-masing lebih dari masing-masing

Quality System Evolution

  [Evolusi sistem kualitas] [Evolusi sistem kualitas] Total Quality

  Aim for continuous improvement Management

  Involve suppliers & customers Involve all operations Performance measurement Teamwork Employee involvement Third party approvals

  Quality System audits

  Assurance Advanced quality planning Comprehensive Q. manuals Use of quality cost Involvement of non-production operations Failure mode and effect analysis Statistical process control Develop Q. Manual

  Quality Process performance data

  Control Self-inspection Product testing Basic quality planning Use of basic statistics Paperwork control Salvage

  Inspection

  [QA] [QA]

  Penyebab, akar penyebab, bukan gejala / Penyebab, akar penyebab, bukan gejala /

symptoms; mutu harus dibangun mulai dari

symptoms; mutu harus dibangun mulai dari

perencanaan proses. perencanaan proses.

  ►

Mutu tidak diperoleh dari inspeksi Mutu tidak diperoleh dari inspeksi ( (

  inspection inspection

  ) )

Quality Control yang hanya menekankan pada Quality Control yang hanya menekankan pada inspeksi adalah tipe QC yang inspeksi adalah tipe QC yang

  old style old style

( kuno/lama) dan sudah tidak zamannya lagi.

  

( kuno/lama) dan sudah tidak zamannya lagi.

  ► Basic/dasar dari pengendalian adalah Basic/dasar dari pengendalian adalah pencegahan terulangnya kesalahan/ pencegahan terulangnya kesalahan/ penyimpangan. penyimpangan.

  QUALITY in SERVICES QUALITY in SERVICES

  Dimensions of Dimensions of

  Quality: Quality:

  Services Services

   Time and timeliness Time and timeliness

   how long must a customer wait for service, how long must a customer wait for service, and is it completed on time? and is it completed on time?

   is an overnight package delivered overnight? is an overnight package delivered overnight?

   Completeness: Completeness:

   is everything customer asked for provided? is everything customer asked for provided?

   is a mail order from a catalogue company is a mail order from a catalogue company complete when delivered? complete when delivered?

  Dimensions of Dimensions of

  Quality: Quality:

  Service (cont.) Service (cont.)

   Courtesy: Courtesy:

   how are customers treated by employees? how are customers treated by employees?

   are catalogue phone operators nice and are catalogue phone operators nice and are their voices pleasant? are their voices pleasant?

   Consistency Consistency

   is same level of service provided to each is same level of service provided to each customer each time? customer each time?

   is your newspaper delivered on time every is your newspaper delivered on time every morning? morning?

   Accessibility and convenience Accessibility and convenience (Akses dan Kemudahan)

  (Akses dan Kemudahan)

   how easy is it to obtain service? how easy is it to obtain service?

   does service representative answer your calls quickly?

does service representative answer your calls quickly?

   Accuracy Accuracy (Ketepatan)

  (Ketepatan)

   is service performed right every time? is service performed right every time?

   is your bank or credit card statement correct every month? is your bank or credit card statement correct every month?

   Responsiveness Responsiveness (Kemampuan Bereaksi)

  (Kemampuan Bereaksi)

   how well does company react to unusual situations? how well does company react to unusual situations?

  

how well is a telephone operator able to respond to a

how well is a telephone operator able to respond to a

customer’s questions? customer’s questions?

  

Dimensions of Quality:

Dimensions of Quality:

  

Service (cont.)

Service (cont.)

  Services vs Products Services vs Products

  Services vs Products Services vs Products

  Two Focus on Services Two Focus on Services

  Increased market Increased market share share KONTRIBUSI QUALITY TERHADAP KONTRIBUSI QUALITY TERHADAP PROFITABILITY PROFITABILITY

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

QUALITY QUALITY (Design and conformance) (Design and conformance) Lower Lower Costs Costs Reduced Reduced waste waste Greater Greater productivity productivity Greater Greater Value Value Revenue Revenue growth growth Improved Improved margins margins Improved asset Improved asset utilization utilization

Total Quality in

  

Organization

Organization

  PENGARUH MUTU TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PENGARUH MUTU TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN MARKET MARKET SHARE SHARE

  IMPROVED SCALE

  IMPROVED

ECONOMIES ECONOMIES PRICES PRICES PROFIT PROFIT Productivity

  IMPROVED

  IMPROVED REWORK & REWORK & RELIABILITY OR RELIABILITY OR SCRAP COSTS SCRAP COSTS CONFORMANCE CONFORMANCE

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  Total Quality in Organization Organization

Total Quality in

  

Buat secara lengkap “Deming’s View of a Production System” secara detail/lengkap

(mulai dari Input=>Processes=>Outputs) perusahaan di tempat Saudara bekerja.

  Referensi Utama: Goetsch, D. L. & Davis, S. B. (2010). Quality Management for Organizational Excellence, 6 th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

  Referensi Rujukan: •Besterfield, D. H., Besterfield-Michna, C., Besterfield, G. H. & Besterfield-Sacre, M. (2003).

  Total Quality Management, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

  • Evans, J. R. & Lindsay, W. M. (2008). The Management & Control of Quality, 7 th
  • Evans, J. R. & Lindsay, W. M. (2008). The Management & Control of Quality, 7 th

  ed., Mason, OH: South-Western.

  • Foster, S. T. (2007). Managing Quality: Integrating the Supply Chain, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
  • Gryna, F. M., Chua, R. C. H. & DeFeo, J. A. (2007). Juran’s Quality Planning & Analysis for
  • Foster, S. T. (2007). Managing Quality: Integrating the Supply Chain, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
  • Gryna, F. M., Chua, R. C. H. & DeFeo, J. A. (2007). Juran’s Quality Planning & Analysis for

   Enterprise Quality, 5 th ed., New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

  Referensi Utama: Goetsch, D. L. & Davis, S. B. (2010). Quality Management for Organizational Excellence, 6 th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

  Referensi Rujukan: •Besterfield, D. H., Besterfield-Michna, C., Besterfield, G. H. & Besterfield-Sacre, M. (2003).

  Total Quality Management, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

  ed., Mason, OH: South-Western.

   Enterprise Quality, 5 th ed., New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

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