PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI

Gratis

0
0
78
9 months ago
Preview
Full text
(1)PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A QUEER STUDY ON THE STRUGGLE AGAINST HOMOPHOBIC PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION IN DUSTIN LANCE BLACK’S MILK AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of SarjanaSastra In English Letters By CHRISTIANI DWI PUTRI M. Student Number: 094214042 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014

(2) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI A QUEER STUDY ON THE STRUGGLE AGAINST HOMOPHOBIC PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION IN DUSTIN LANCE BLACK’S MILK AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of SarjanaSastra In English Letters By CHRISTIANI DWI PUTRI M. Student Number: 094214042 ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2014 i

(3) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ii

(4) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI iii

(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I honestly declare that the ideas contained in words, phrases, and sentences except the cited quotations of this thesis are stated by the writer with full awareness of degree revocation based on the fact of plagiarism. Yogyakarta, August 15th, 2014. The Writer ChristianiDwiPutri M. iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertandatangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Christiani Dwi Putri M. : 094214042 Demi pengembangan ilmupengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul A QUEER STUDY ON THE STRUGGLE AGAINST HOMOPHOBIC PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION IN DUSTIN LANCE BLACK’S MILK Beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bilaada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian lembar pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta. Pada tanggal 15 Agustus 2014. Yang menyatakan, Christiani Dwi Putri M. v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI Whatever God you believe in We come from the same one Strip away the fear Underneath it's all the same love Macklemore and Ryan Lewis Hope is never silent. Politics is theater! Harvey Milk vi

(8) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI F or t h e m, Who believein the SAME LOVE vii

(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My greatest gratitude to Jesus Christ, who always listen to all my talks. Because of His love, I can accomplish this, my undergraduate thesis. His blessing has encouraged me to finish what I have started few years ago. I would also like to address my deepest and greatest gratitude to Eduward Simanullang () and Hermina Hutagalung for their eternal love, support and trust, and Dame Rinda M. for her big support. I also deeply thank my advisor, P. Sarwoto, S.S., M.A., Ph.D., for his guidance and comments during the process of my writing. I am grateful to be one of his students. Also for my co-advisor, Adventina Putranti, S.S., M.Hum., I thank her for the comments and guidance. I also thank all the lecturers in English Department, for teaching and helping me during my study at Sanata Dharma University. My great gratitude also goes to the wonderful people: Aul, Momon, Rissa, Mbak Pipik, Boni, Putri, Nino, Ivan, Jesi, Dori, Kezia, Gita, Debby, Febi, Anik, Lolo, Samsul, Sakha, Pita, Wei, Li, Wawan, Rena, Tiara, SLP Batch V, Peer Partners, and Hipwee Team. My best gratitude to NgeneThePerv: Mbak Nina, Mas Moto, MbakWulan, Mas Anto, Mas Egi, Mas Anu, Mbak Anya, Delvin, Bani, Khalid. I thank themall for the inspiration, support, and everything. Christiani Dwi Putri M. viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………….. APPROVAL PAGE …………………………………………………………… ACCEPTANCE PAGE ……………………………………………………….. STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY ………………………………………….. LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI………………….. MOTTO PAGE …….…………………………………………………….......... DEDICATION PAGE ………………………………………………..……….. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...………………………………………………….. TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………....... ABSTRACT ...………………………………………………………………….. ABSTRAK ...…………………………………………………………………… i ii iii iv v vi vii vii ix xi x ii CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ...………………………………………….. A. Background of the Study……………………………………. B. Problem Formulation ……………………………………….. C. Objectives of the Study ……………………………………... D. Definition of Terms ...………………………………………. 1 1 4 4 5 CHAPTER II:THEORETICAL REVIEW …………………………………. A. Review of Related Studies ………………………………….. B. Review of Related Theories ………………………………… 1. Theory of Character and Characterization ……………… 2. Theory of Setting ……………………………………….. 3. Theory of Screenplay and Drama ………………………. 4. Queer Theory and Discrimination toward Homosexual… a. Queer Theory ……………………………………….. b. Prejudice and Discrimination toward Homosexual … C. Theoretical Framework ……………………………………... 7 7 9 9 10 11 13 13 18 19 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ………………………………………….. A. Object of the Study ………………………………………..... B. Approach of the Study……………..……………………….. C. Method of the Study ………………………………………... 21 21 22 23 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS …………………………………………………. A. The Character and Setting in Milk………………………….. 1. The Major Character ……………..…………………….. a. Harvey Milk ………………………………………… 2. The Minor Characters …………………………………... a. Mc Conelly …………………………………………. 25 25 25 25 31 31 ix

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI b. Anita Bryant ………………………………………… c. John Briggs …………………………………………. d. Dan White ………………………………………….. 3. The Description of Setting ……………………………… a. Physical Setting …………………………………….. b. Social Setting ……………………………………….. B. The Depiction of Prejudice and Discrimination in Milk…….. 1. The Depiction of Prejudice …………………………….. 2. The Depiction of Discrimination ……………………….. a. The Use of Offensive Words in Everyday Speech …. b. The Discrimination in Employment ………………... c. The Violent Threats toward Homosexual …………... C. The Character’s Struggle against Prejudice and Discrimination 1. Forming Castro Village Association ……………………. 2. Getting Involved in Politics and Government…………... 3. Suggesting to Homosexual to Come Out of the Closet … 32 32 33 34 34 35 40 42 44 45 46 48 49 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ……………………………………………..... 57 BIBLIOGRAPHY …………………………………………………………….. APPENDIX…...…………………………………………………...…………… 60 62 x 50 51 52

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT CHRISTIANI DWI PUTRI M. A Queer Study on the Struggle against Homophobic Prejudice and Discrimination in Dustin Lance Black’s Milk. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This undergraduate thesis examines Dustin Lance Black’s screenplay Milk. It tells about a true story of a gay politician in 1977, Harvey Milk, in his struggle against the homophobic prejudice and discrimination in the society. This study analyzes how the sexual orientation becomes a problem in a society and it encourages homosexual fight against all the negative opinion and discrimination toward them. In this study, there are three problems to be discussed. The first problem discusses the characters and setting in the screenplay. The second problem analyzes the homophobic prejudice and discrimination towards the homosexual through the character and setting. The last problem examines how the characters and setting reflect the struggle against the homophobic, prejudice and discrimination. The writer uses library research method to finish this study. The writer collects and reads some books, encyclopedia, article, journals, which contain important theories that are related to this study. The writer applies queer criticism and its relation to literary work to analyze this study. The result of this study shows Harvey Milk, as the major character, is successful to break the generalization stereotype of homosexual by getting involved in politics and he can get power to get the equality for homosexual community. This analysis also shows that the homosexual get negative treatment from the heterosexual who dislike the existence of homosexuality. The depiction of prejudice and discrimination is reflected from the minor characters, who also represent the heterosexual society in the story: McConelly, Anita Bryant, John Briggs and Dan White. The discrimination is seen from the use of offensive words to homosexual, discrimination in employment, and violent threats. Those prejudice and discrimination are related to heterosexism and homophobia, which mean the stigma of sexuality is linked to cultural norms and social institutions, as family, religion, and law. Harvey Milk sees that sexual orientation should not be a problem in society. For Harvey, every person should be treated equally without seeing the sexual orientation. xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK CHRISTIANI DWI PUTRI M. A Queer Study on the Struggle against Homophobic Prejudice and Discrimination in Dustin Lance Black’s Milk. Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014. Skripsi ini mengulas teks film karya Dustin Lance Black, Milk. Teks film ini bercerita tentang kisah nyata seorang politikus homoseksual di tahun 1977, Harvey Milk dalamperjuangannyamelawanprasangkadandiskriminasihomofobisdalamlingkunganmasy arakat. Studi ini menganalisa bagaimana orientasi seksualitas menjadi suatu masalah utama dalam masyarakat dan itu membuat kaum homoseksual berjuang melawan semua opini negative dan diskriminasi terhadapmereka. Dalam studi ini, ada tiga malasah yang akan didiskusikan. Masalah pertama mendiskusikan karakter-karakter dan latar di dalam teks film ini. Masalah yang kedua menganalisa prasangka dan diskriminasi homofobis terhadap kaum homoseksual melalui karakter dan latar. Masalah yang terakhir mengulas bagaimana karakter-karakter dan latar merefleksikan perjuangan melawan kaum homofobis, prasangka, dan diskriminasi. Penulismenggunakanmetodepenelitianpustakauntukmenyelesaikanstudiini. Penulismengumpulkandanmembacabeberapabuku, ensiklopedia, artikel, danjurnal yang berisikanteoripenting yang berhubungandenganstudiini. Penulismengaplikasikankritik queer danhubungannyakekaryasastrauntukmenganalisastudiini. Hasil dari studi ini menunjukkan Harvey milk, sebagai karakter utama berhasil mematahkan penyamarataan stereotip kaum homoseksual dengan terlibat di dunia politik dan dia mendapatkan kekuasaan untuk mengembalikan persamaan untuk komunitas homoseksual. Dalam analisis ini juga menunjukkan bahwa kaum homoseksual mendapatkan perlakuan negative dari kaum heteroseksual yang tidak menyukai keberadaan homoseksualitas. Penggambaran dari prasangka dan diskriminasi tersebut direfleksikan dari karakter-karakter minor, yang juga mewakili masyarakat kaum heteroseksual di dalam cerita ini: McConelly, Anita Bryant, John Briggs dan Dan White. Diskriminasi tersebut dilihat dari penggunaan kata-kata kasar untuk kaum homoseksual, diskriminasi dalam pekerjaan, dan ancaman kekerasan. Prasangka dan diskriminasi tersebut berhubungan dengan heteroseksisme dan homofobia, yang berarti stigma seksualitas dihubungkan dengan norma kebudayaan dan institusi sosial, seperti keluarga, agama, dan hukum. Harvey Milk melihat orientasi seksual seharusnya tidak menjadi suatu permasalahan dalam masyarakat. Bagi Harvey, setiap orang harus diperlakukan secara adil tanpa melihat orientasi seksual. xi i

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Nowadays, literary work has developed, it is not only novel, poem or prose, but also a movie can be called as a literary work, including the screenplay itself. Gerald Mast states Films are works – indeed a works of art – sequential, patterned, temporal wholes that begin and end and, progressing from beginning to end, elaborate some kind of content in some kind of style that illuminates, reflects, or reveals that content. As works, films are analogous to plays, novels, poems, and essays, the specific kinds of works implied by the general study of literature (1982: 285). It can be said, a movie or its screenplay can be analyzed as a literary work. A screenplay can be analyzed just like analyzing a play or drama. In a literary work, there must be a picture of society inside the story. Literature is reflecting norms and values which are explicitly or implicitly as an imitation of an outside world (Langland, 1984: 4). Like a play or other literary work, a movie script is an autonomous literary product that reflects the reality of human life by presenting characters with their social lives and interaction with other characters(Giannetti, 1987: 256). Society itself is a place where people can interact with others and share some values they have but still in the same border of the society’s norm. The people within society can express their thoughts and feelings which are considered as acceptable things in the society they belong to. Society also creates such unwritten conventions about whether something is acceptable or not. 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 The depiction of the explanation above is captured in a literary work. In this research, the literary work that is going to be analyzed is the screenplay by Dustin Lance Black, entitled Milk. Milk is written based on the true life of a gay politician in America, Harvey Milk, who was famous as the first openly gay politician in San Francisco in 1977. This screenplay is representing the real situation of homosexuals’ life in America in late 1970s until 1980s. During that time, homosexuals were legally and socially discriminated against in the United States. Through the characters, also the depiction of the society in this screenplay, the life of homosexual at that time and how they react toward the prejudice, discrimination of the homophobic society can be seen. In this story, Harvey Milk, was new in San Francisco, made a decision to open a business, a camera shop. He moved to San Francisco with his partner, Scott Smith, and lived in Castro District, which had the largest concentrations of homosexual residents. However, even in this “tolerant” area, the gay and lesbian community faced discrimination by local businesses, as both consumers and employees. Milk became involved in local politics and ran for public office to encourage equality and enhance the lives of working-class San Franciscans and minorities. To be elected into public office as supervisor was not easy for Milk. He got threatened by homophobic and the society itself considered that a homosexual cannot be a supervisor. Harvey Milk and his friends kept continuing to get a position in a public office. Harvey Milk was helped by some gay and lesbian people. There were Cleve Jones, AnneKronenberg, Jim Rivaldo, Dennis Peron and other gay people who volunteered to help Milk to be supervisor. They

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 kept fighting together to get sexual equality and expansion of civil liberties for gays and lesbians. For the writer, this screenplay is worth to be analyzed because it contains the idea of sexuality and its relation to the society. In general society, talking about sexuality is taboo and it is a complex subject. It is supported by the statement from Brook-Gunn and Graber (1999), stating that sexuality is a complex and controversial subject. Sexuality is an inherent part of what it means to be human and for most is an integral part of one’s individual identity. Sexuality is defined as something personal and private. On the other hand, throughout history, individual’s sexuality, and in particular their sexual behavior, has been subjected to societal control and regulation. The beliefs about sex and sexuality and how individuals come to understand their own and others’ sexuality are often influenced by the societal conventions and norms. Both the societal conventions and norms have developed to regulate and control the manifestation of sexuality. Thus, there is a tension between viewing sexuality as a private and personal issue that is under the control of the individual and viewing sexuality as a public and societal issue that is under societal control through cultural norms and societal conventions. One of the societal issues about sexuality is homosexual. For heterosexual society, homosexuality is a complete taboo. Nobody talks about it in public; nobody openly defines themselves as gay or lesbian, nor live as gay or lesbian. There is a perception in society which thinks homosexuality is a disorder of sexual, homosexuality is not normal, homosexual is against the morality. Those prejudice makes some people treat the homosexual differently. According to

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 4 Levine, in his article Gay Ghetto (1979: 202), Americans strongly prejudice against homosexuality, perceives homosexuality as a loathsome deviation. Lesbian, gay people encounter extensive prejudice, discrimination, and violence because of their sexual orientation. Gays are discriminated in employment and often fired upon discovery of their sexual orientation. They are also considered as criminals under various laws and became the subject to police surveillance. They are frequently treated brutishly by homophobic and even they got killed. Thus, gays were socially isolated from the larger society. Based on those fact and information, the writer is interested in conducting the research about homosexual and homophobic society through the screenplay, Milk. B. Problem Formulation To understand this research better, there are three problems which are used to analyze this: 1. How are the characters and the setting described in the screenplay? 2. How is the homophobic prejudice and discrimination towards the gay and lesbian described through the character and setting? 3. How dothe character and setting reflect the struggle against the homophobic prejudice, and discrimination? C. Objectives of the Study The intention of this research is to find the struggle against homophobic prejudice and discrimination as seen in Milk. This research focuses on three

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5 important objectives. The first is to find out the characters and setting in the screenplay. The second is to explore the homophobic prejudice and discrimination which is done by the society towards gay and lesbian community through the characters and setting in the screenplay. The last objective of this research is how the characters and setting reflect the struggle of gay and lesbian community against the homophobic prejudice and discrimination in their society. D. Definition of Terms There are several terms that should be defined in order to avoid misunderstanding in this research. 1. Homophobia VandenBosin Dictionary of Psychologydefines homophobia as hatred and fear of gay men and lesbian, associated with prejudice and anger focused on them. This results in discrimination on such issues as employment, housing, and legal rights and may also lead to violence. Extreme homophobia may lead to murder (VandenBos, 2007: 446). 2. Prejudice According to Dictionary of Psychology, prejudice is a negative attitude toward another person or group in advance of any experience with that person or group. Prejudice includes an affective component (emotions that range from mild nervousness to hatred), a cognitive component (assumptions and belief about groups, including stereotypes), and behavioral component (negative behavior, including discrimination and violence). They tend to be resistant to change

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 6 because they distort the prejudiced individual’s perception of information pertaining to the group (VandenBos, 2007: 723). 3. Discrimination Dictionary of Psychology defines discrimination as differential treatment of the members of different ethnic, religions, national, or other groups. It is usually the behavioral manifestation of prejudice and involves negative, hostile, and injurious treatment of the member of rejected groups (VandenBos, 2007: 287).

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORITICAL REVIEW A. Review of Related Studies In this part, the writer takes some studies, which were done by another researcher or writer related to the same screenplay, Milk. The first study is a thesis by ErniDewiRiyanti, A Study of Lexical Features of Gay Community in the Script, Milk. She focuses on the use of lexical features and it reveals that the gay community uses of taboo words which express various emotive elements and gay slang is used extensively. Her thesis indicates that In general, the words reflect the condition of the users whose egalitarian circumstances ensure intimacy within their utterances. Yet, the extensive use of taboo or swear indicates psychological condition of the characters in the script. Additionally, these words also mark a tendency of being exclusive and secretive (2012: 101). The words which are used can be related to the social condition of gay community itself in 1960-1970s, where the oppression and marginalization gave effect to shape the psychological condition of the community members. Another study is taken from a thesis by YulinarFirdayanti, Sexual Stratification in Gus Van Sant’s Milk: A Queer Study.The Firdayanti’s study explains the gay sexual stratification in the society by using queer theory. In her study, she states Milk interprets sexual stratification as the powerful tool used by both heterosexuals and gays, more specifically Harvey Milk, to legally secure their own rights as a citizen. Sexual stratification is the idea that there is a system of rank or hierarchy. As such, there 7

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 is an imbalanced power between the two sexualities since they are not ranked in the same level (2012: 40). From her study, it can be said that the sexual stratification plays an important role in society. The homosexuals are in the lowest position and it shows the imbalanced power. So, Harvey Milk’s strategy to break out the heterosexual society is by bringing out the sexuality in public. Another study is taken based on a similar topic, which talks about homophobic society. It is a study of Geraldine Skeete in Representations of Homophobic Violence in Anglophone Caribbean Literature. She examines about depictions of homophobia in some literary works which are novels and short story. Skeete argues that the homophobic attitude is connected to the social environment of the characters. Social environment that she means is the church, the law of government, family and school. Homophobic attitudes and practices in the Anglophone Caribbean stem from underlying and ingrained heterocentrismand heterosexism. Heteronormative discourses of Church, State, home and school are the underpinnings of the society‘s prejudicial and discriminatory views and actions against non-heterosexuals (2010: 3). In conclusion, these previous studies have the difference in the focus of the research compared to this study. The first study, Riyanti concerns about the lexical features which are used in gay community. In the second study, Firdayantifocuses in sexual stratification by using queer theory. This second study has similarity with this study. Firdayanti and the writer of this study use the same screenplay and same theory; queer theory, while the differences are (1) her study uses Queer Theory from Gayle Rubin about sexual stratification in society, (2) her

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 study includes the narrative and non-narrative film elements: camera shots, camera angles, which is not included in this study, (3) her study does not describe the main character, Harvey Milk, explicitly. While this study (1) analyzes the screenplay from the literature’s perspective (the characteristic of main character and the setting), (2) states about the heterosexism, homophobia in society, (3) explains the reaction of homosexuals against heterosexism, homophobic society. Then, the last study, Skeetefocuses on homophobic in Anglophone Caribbean Literature. Regarding those studies, the writer of this research goes to reveal the matter of sexual orientation of gay people as the center focus in a heterosexual society and the homosexual reaction against the homophobic prejudice and discrimination in the society. B. Review of Related Theories 1. Theories of Character and Characterization Each story in a literary work must have the character. Through the character, the reader will know the point of the story. Abrams and Harpham states in A Glossary of Literary Terms Characters are the persons represented in a dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as possessing particular moral, intellectual, and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinctive ways of saying it—the dialogue—and from what they do—the action (2009:42).

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 It can be said that the reader recognizes the character in a story as a person who has motivation and emotional feeling which are shown through the dialogue and the behavior. According to Asher Garfinkel, the characters supply hearts, soul, dimension, direction, emotion, message, and universal appeal to a story (2007: 23). It means that the character must seem real and understandable for the audience or the reader as people who might really exist. Reading a character in a screenplay requires imagination similar to reading a character in a drama. Reaskestates that there is no narration or description in a drama, instead the characterization must be portrayed through dialogue and the action on the stage(1966: 40). He also says that the characterization in a drama can be seen from some elements: the appearance of the character, asides and soliloquies, dialogue between characters, hidden narration, language and character in action (Reaske, 1966: 46-48). 2. Theory of Setting Setting is one of the important intrinsic elements of a literary work which can give the information about when and where the action occurs. By analyzing time, place, and the social environment in a literary work, the reader can understand the general locale, historical time, and social circumstances in which its action occurs (Abrams and Harpham, 2009: 330). Richard Gill (1995: 148) states A word is necessary on just how broad a term ‘setting’ is. It can be used to cover: - the places in which characters appear

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 - the social context of characters, such as their families, friends, and class - the customs, beliefs, and rules of behavior that give identity to a society - the particular locations of events - the atmosphere, mood, and feel that all the above elements create. According to Gill, it concludes that setting is not only about the physical setting or place or time, but setting is also about the general environment of the characters; social context, customs, belief, and the atmosphere or mood of the story. 3. Theory of Screenplay and Drama It is needed to be understood that film shares many similar elements with other literary works, such as novel, short story, and drama or play (Boggs, 1978: 4). Among novel, short story, and drama, film has more things in common with drama. Film presents its story completely in dramatic form, gesture, and expression, and verbally through dialogue(Boggs, 1978: 4). Barrangerstates that “Like a screenplay, a play is also given life by actors although the medium and technology are significantly different”(1994: 4). It means a screenplay and play has similarity, although they are different in technology. Related to reading a screenplay and a play, it is found that reading plays is a unique challenge. Barrangersays that As readers we must visualize all the elements the playwright has placed on the page to convey a story to us: its characters in action and conflict, its happening in time and space, and at the end, the completed meaning of all that has happened(1994: 4). His statement has similarity with the statement from Boggs (1978: 19) that says that “The screenplay requires so much ‘filling in’ by our imaginations that we

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 12 cannot really approximate the experience of the film by simply reading it.” Based on those understandings of film and drama, it is concluded that even film and drama are two different media, but they have similarity in dramatic form in their script and reading a play or a screenplay involves the reader’s imagination. To study a screenplay, it is important to understand the definition of screenplay itself. According to Trottier in The Screenwriter’s Bible, a screenplay is a unique literary form. A screenplay is written using technical jargon and tight, spare prose when describing stage directions. Unlike a novel or short story, a screenplay focuses on describing the literal, visual aspects of the story (Trottier,1998:4). Reading a screenplay needs the comprehension of screenplay terms. According to SimmplyScripts.com, these are some general terms which are needed to be understood to read a screenplay CONTINUOUS: Sometimes, instead of DAY or NIGHT at the end of a SLUGLINE/Location Description, you'll see CONTINUOUS. Basically, continuous refers to action that moves from one location to another without any interruptions in time. For example, in an action movie, the hero may run from the airport terminal into a parking garage. The sequence may include cuts, but the audience would perceive the action as a continuous sequence of events from the terminal to the lobby to the street to the garage to the second floor to a car etc. CONTINUOUS is generally optional in writing and can be dropped altogether. CUT TO: The most simple and common transition. Since this transition is implied by a change of scene, it may be used sparingly to help intensify character changes and emotional shifts. The transition describes a change of scene over the course of one frame. EXT. Exterior. This scene takes place out of doors. This is mostly for producers to figure out the probable cost of a film project.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 13 INT. Interior. This scene takes place indoors. This is mostly for producers to figure out the probable cost of a film project. V.O. Voice Over. This is the abbreviation sometimes seen next to the CHARACTER'S name before certain bits of dialog. This means the character voices that dialog but his or her moving lips are not present in the scene. Voice over is generally used for narration, such as in the beginning of The Mummy. Or, as Austin Powers would say, a character's inner monolog. The inner thought processes of the character said out loud such that only the audience will hear it. A general example of Voice Over can be seen (heard, actually) in Election or in the Sixth Season Finale of The X-Files. Those terms will be used to help the writer to read and to analyze the whole story of the screenplay. 4. Queer Theory and Discrimination Toward Homosexual a. Queer Theory The word ‘queer’ itself, as it appears in the dictionary, has a primary meaning of odd, peculiar, out of the ordinary. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality states that the term ‘queer’ was used as a slang word for homosexual in the mid eighteenth century. It connotes strangeness, and a term of homophobic abuse. It shows that gay people was marginal in society. People used to call gay people as a queer because their odd sexual orientation. Gay people also felt offended with that term (Dynes, 1990:1902). In recent years, the term queer has developed differently. Queer becomes a term that shows a movement or an act against the abuse toward LGBTQ community (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer). This fact is supported by Tyson as quoted in this following.

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 The use of the term queer can be seen as an attempt to reappropriate the word from what has been its homophobic usage in order to demonstrate that heterosexists shouldn’t be allowed to define gay and lesbian experience. The act of defining the terms of one’s own self-reference is a powerful move that says, among other things, “We’re not afraid to be seen”, “You don’t tell us who we are—we tell us who we are!”, and “We’re proud to be different!” Or, as the popular queer slogan sums it up, “We’re here, we’re queer—get used to it!” As gay men and lesbians have learned, the term is a tool for oppression, but it’s also a tool for change. Furthermore, some lesbians and gay men have adopted the word queer as an inclusive category for referring to a common political or cultural ground shared by gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, and all people who consider themselves, for whatever reasons, nonstraight (2006: 334). Nikki Sullivan who cites from Cherry Smith’s statement also says that queer defines a strategy and attitude which articulates a radical questioning of social and cultural norms, the notion of gender, reproductive sexuality, and the family (2003: 43). To get a better understanding of queer theory, the difference of lesbian, gay and queer studies need to be understood. Edgar and Sedgwick (2005: 321) states that queer theory emerges from gay/lesbian study’s' focus of the social construction of categories of normative and deviant sexual behavior. It is also supported by Tyson (2006: 322-336), who states that basically, lesbian, gay and queer studies discuss about homosexuality, liberation movements, and the relationship between same-sex, while the thing which differentiate those studies are: 1. Lesbian study examines both hetero-homosexual female desire and must deal with psychological, social, economic, and political oppression

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 fostered not only by patriarchal male privilege, but also by heterosexual privilege as well. 2. Gay study examines about hetero-homosexual male desire, but this study doesn’t tend to focus on efforts to define homosexuality. It involves responses to drag (the practice of dressing in women’s clothing), camp (a form of irreverence, artifice, exaggeration and theatricality), and deals with the issue of AIDS. 3. Queer study examines not only about gay and lesbian but also bisexual, transgender, prejudice and discrimination toward homosexuality, sexgender system, civil rights struggles, and asserts gender roles and sexual identity as socially constructed and performed rather than essential and “natural”. From those differences, the focus of each study is clearly understood. Then, queer theory expands its interest which has a political critique of anything that falls into normative and deviant categories, particularly sexual activities, and identities, which is also automatically, to be linked to the defense of the politics of gay and lesbian in the face of repression and homophobia (Edgar and Sedgwick, 2005: 321-322). Another definition of queer theory, which is used for this research is from TamsinSpargo. He states that queer theory describes a diverse range of critical practices and priorities: readings of the representation of same-sex desire in literary texts, films, music, images; analyses of the social and political power relations of sexuality; critiques of the sex-gender system; studies of transsexual

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 and transgender identification, of sadomasochism and of transgressive desires(1999: 9). It can be said that queer theory does not only analyze about the same-sex relationship, but it also analyzes the transsexual and transgender identity. According to Tyson (2011: 175), to understand the queer theory in a literary work, it is a must to have understanding about some definition related to homosexual life. Those concepts are used to examine about gay life in a text and the problem which they have in heterosexual society (Tyson, 2011: 175-177): 1. Heterosexism Heterosexism is institutionalized discrimination against LGBTQ people. It is based on the belief that heterosexuality is the natural sexual orientation. This matter is starting in social institutions as the family, education, religion, and the law enforcement system. 2. Homophobia Homophobia is the fear and loathing of homosexuality. Homophobes (homophobic people) hate LGBTQ people because homophobes are uncertain about their own sexuality and they are trying to prove that they are heterosexual. 3. Homosocial bonding Homosocial bonding is the depiction of same-sex strong emotional. The term homosocial was popularized by Eve Sedgwick in her discussion about male homosocial desire. The word homosocialdenotes same-sex friendship of the kind seen in female- or male-bonding activities.

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 Homosocial activities are simply same-sex bonding activities. Going to a movie, playing cards, preparing a meal, fixing cars, or any other activities which performed by two or more members of the same sex can be included in homosocial activities. 4. Homoerotic imagery Homoerotic imagery consists of erotic visual images that imply same-sex attraction or that might appeal sexually to a same-sex reader. The homoerotic images can be found in literature, paintings, sculpture, film, and photography. To analyze a literary work using queer criticism, Lois Tyson also states that there are seven points that will help the reader to understand the text: 1. What are the politics or ideological agendas of specific gay, lesbian, or queer works, and how are those politics revealed in, for example, the work’s thematic content or portrayals of its characters? 2. What are the poetics (literary devices and strategies) of a specific lesbian, gay, or queer work? What does the work contribute to the ongoing attempt to define a uniquely lesbian, gay, or queer poetics, literary tradition, or canon? 3. What does the work contribute to our knowledge of queer, gay, or lesbian experience and history, including literary history? 4. How is queer, gay, or lesbian experience coded in texts that are apparently heterosexual? (This analysis is usually done for works by writers who lived at a time when openly queer, gay, or lesbian texts would have been considered unacceptable, or it is done in order to help reformulate the sexual orientation of a writer formerly presumed heterosexual.) 5. How might the works of heterosexual writers be reread to reveal an unspoken or unconscious lesbian, gay, or queer presence? That is, does the work have an unconscious lesbian, gay, or queer desire or conflict that it submerges (or that heterosexual readers have submerged)? 6. What does the work reveal about the operations (socially, politically, psychologically) of heterosexism? Is the work (consciously or unconsciously) homophobic? Does the work critique, celebrate, or blindly accept heterosexist values? 7. How does the literary text illustrate the problematic of sexuality and sexual “identity,” that is, the ways in which human sexuality does not fall neatly

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 into the separate categories defined by the words homosexual and heterosexual?(2006: 341-342) Based on Lois’ statement, the writer decides to use queer criticism to answer the problem formulation of this research. The writer uses the perspective of queer criticism because the writer wants to understand the gay character in the screenplay and his life as homosexual in a heterosexual society. From this perspective, the attitude of the heterosexual society toward the gay people can be seen and this perspective also helps the writer to understand the struggle of gay community to achieve the equality in the society. b. Prejudice and Discrimination toward Homosexual Queer theory and discrimination are closely related. Discrimination comes up from the prejudice itself. According to Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination, prejudice is the attitude which is considered to be an evaluation of a social group. Prejudice itself is related to the way people think and feel about the other people or members of certain group. Prejudice is commonly a negative attitude toward another person and it includes negative feelings, stereotyping, and discrimination. The prejudice itself is based upon stereotypes. Stereotypes are as belief and opinion about the characteristics and attributes, and also the behaviors of members of certain groups. The stereotypes and prejudice may result in discrimination (Whitley, 2010: 11-12). Still, according to Whitley on Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination, discrimination is about treating people differently from others based primarily on membership in a social group. Discrimination itself refers to

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 the negative or unfair manner toward others (2010: 12, 370). Discrimination consists of unequal and harmful treatment in different ways. There is discrimination that visible or less visible, hidden, purposeful and often maliciously motivated. The examples of extreme cases of discrimination are the murder of Matthew Shepard, a gay man who was beaten and left to die on a fence in Wyoming, and the murder of James Byrd, a Black man who was chained to the back of a truck and dragged along a road in Texas until he died. This harmful act often receives national attention, is illegal and generally condemned. Not only violence, making someone’s race or sexual orientation as a joke is included to the act of discrimination (Whitley, 2010: 372). This research concerns about the prejudice and discrimination toward gay people. Many times gay people face the problems and stereotypes as other minority groups, according to McCarthy in Handbook on Critical Issues, he mentions that there are four stereotypes widely still accepted in society: - That all homosexuals are attracted to children and adolescents and wish to have physical contact with them. That all male homosexuals are effeminate and lack the typical male characteristics of courage, aggressiveness, and strength. That all homosexuals are sexually active. That all homosexual can change their orientation merely by willing to do so and by cultivating heterosexual friendships (1984:183-184). Those stereotypes of gay people producean unfair image of all homosexual persons. Those stereotypes lead to the discrimination and negative attitudes toward homosexuals. Gay people frequently get sexual assaults, beating, murder, and unfair treatment in employment. c. Theoretical Framework

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 The writer uses four theories to answer the problems of the research. The theories are theory of character and characterization, theory of setting, theory of prejudice and discrimination, and queer theory. The first theory is theory of character and characterization. It is chosen to analyze the characters in the screenplay. Second, theory of setting is written as related theories in order to find the setting of the story which reflects the society at that time and it reveals how society treats the homosexual. Third, theory of screenplay and drama is chosen to help the writer in reading a screenplay as reading a drama. The fourth is queer theory which is used to understand the matter of sexual orientation that can affect the life of minor community, particularly homosexual, and this theory also helps to reveal how gay community reacts against the discrimination in the society and political ground of gay community to get social justice. In this theory, the writer also puts the explanation about prejudice and discrimination to analyze the forms of prejudice and discrimination toward homosexual in the society.

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of this study is the movie screenplay entitled Milk, which was written by Dustin Lance Black, an American screenwriter, director, film and television producer, and LGBT rights activist. The screenplay consists of 104 pages, while the movie itself runs for about 128 minutes. The movie was released in 2008 in the United States and it has won several awards, including Academy Award (2009), Independent Spirit Awards (2009), GLAAD Media Award (2009), Writers Guild of America (2009) and many more. For the screenplay itself, it also has won several awards, including Academy Awards, Best Original Screenplay (2009), Writers Guild of America, Best Original Screenplay (2009), American Film Institute (AFI) Awards (2008), Film Independent's Spirit Awards, Best First Screenplay (2009) and many more. Milk is a biographical movie based on the life of a gay rights activist and politician Harvey Milk, who was the first openly gay person to be elected to public office in California, as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1977. The story begins in New York City, where a 40-year-old Milk ponders what steps he can take to make his life more meaningful. Eventually, Milk makes the decision to relocate to the West Coast, where he and his lover, Scott Smith, found a small business in the heart of a working-class neighborhood. Empowered by his love for the Castro neighborhood and the success of his business, Castro Camera, Milk somewhat unexpectedly begins to 21

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 emerge as an outspoken agent for change. With a growing support system that includes Scott and a young activist named Cleve Jones, Milk decides to take a fateful leap into politics, eventually developing a reputation as a leader who isnot afraid to follow up his words with actions. In short order, he is elected as the supervisor for the newly zoned District 5, though this seeming triumph is in fact the catalyst for a tragedy that starts to unfold as Milk does his best to forge a political partnership with Dan White, another newly elected supervisor. Milk serves San Francisco well while lobbying for a citywide ordinance protecting people from being fired because of their orientation and rallying support against a proposed statewide referendum to fire gay schoolteachers and their supporters; he realizes that this fight against Proposition 6 represents a pivotal precipice for the gay rights movement. Over time it becomes apparent that Milk and White's political agendas are directly at odds, a revelation that puts their personal destinies on a catastrophic collision course. B. Approach of the Study In analyzing the topic of this research, the writer uses the perspective of queer criticism. The explanation from Lois Tyson about queer criticism and its relation to literary work is applied on this research. He states thatqueer criticism in a literary work examines the depiction of gay isolation in heterosexist world, the positive portrayal of homosexual characters, and the importance of gay or lesbian community (Tyson, 2011: 178). This shows that queer criticism is about

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 23 understanding the life of gay people and the way of heterosexual society deal with the homosexual. C. Method of the Study The method of this study is library research. There are two sources that are used, the primary source is the movie screenplay by Dustin Lance Black, Milk, and the second sources are taken from books related to the study, theory, approach, and internet sources. The second sources which are considered as important sources for this study are A Glossary of Literary Terms (9th edition) by M. H. Abrams and Geoffrey Galt Harpham, Understanding Plays by Milly S. Barranger, How To Analyze Drama by Christopher R. Reaske, Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination by Bernard E. Whitley, Handbook on Critical Sexual Issues by Donald G. McCarthy, Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide by Lois Tyson, Using Critical Theory: How to Read and Write About Literature (2nd Edition) by Lois Tyson, A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory by Nikki Sullivan, Encyclopedia of Homosexuality by Wayne R. Dynes, Postmodern Encounters: Focault and Queer Theory by TamsinSpargo, Cultural Theory Key Concepts by Andre Edgar and Peter Sedgwick. There were few steps to get the main point of the screenplay. The first step was reading the screenplay for several times. Reading the screenplay for several times was done to get deeper understanding of the characters, settings and other important notions of the screenplay. The second step was collecting references as much as possible which related to the topic. This step was to include reading the studies and theories focused on characters and characterization,

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 24 setting, homophobic prejudice and discrimination, gay community, sexual orientation, and queer theory. The references were taken from books, internet, and the movie itself. The third step was answering each questions of problem formulation by using the theories and approach which was taken before. Then the final step was writing the findings and the conclusion of the problem formulation.

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the writer discusses further about the topic based on problem formulation. Therefore, this chapter is divided into three major parts. The first part discusses the description of characters and setting in the screenplay. The second part focusses on the prejudice and discrimination through the character and setting. The third part analyzes the character and setting that reflect the struggle against discrimination. A. The Characters and Setting in Milk In this screenplay, the writer takes two intrinsic elements as the keys of the topic, characters and setting. For the characters in this screenplay, there are major character and minor characters. 1. The Major Character a. Harvey Milk The character of Harvey Milk is the focus of the story. Harvey Milk represents the homosexual community who fight against homophobic society. Harvey Milk is an American gay political leader who was born in a Jewish family. He is an early Jewish migrating to San Francisco. He used to live ‘in the closet’ in New York City because he is afraid to lose his job in The Great American Insurance Company. When he meets Scott Smith, his lover, he admits that he is a discreet (Black, 2008: 5). After he moves to San Francisco, he becomes an openly 25

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 gay man. In San Francisco, he opens a camera shop on Castro Street. He thinks that the camera shop could be the place for gay to share their ideas together. Then, Milk involves in local politics and runs for public office to encourage equality and enhance the lives of working-class San Franciscans and minorities. He has a signature every time he makes public speech, “I’m Harvey Milk and I want to recruit you”. He is a charismatic leader who has the incredible oratory skill to call out his opponent while arguing for equal rights. Those characteristics of Harvey Milk are explained below. i. Charismatic Milk is described as a charismatic person because he can change the atmosphere of certain situation by his speech and his charm. He is naturally able to influence other people and attract the attention and admiration. He could bring the calm in an angry mob at City Hall. The people is listening to him as he gives a speech. Because of his ability to control the mass, there is no big chaos or riot. His charm as a gay leader reaches to the Director of the Coors beer boycott in California, Allan Baird. This straight union man meets Harvey to ask for help to boycott Coors beer in Castro. Then, Harvey succeed in getting Coors out of all the gay bars in San Francisco in a week. From his reputation as a charismatic gay leader, he gets the unions and allies to fight against inequality. By his charisma, Milk is able to unite the gay community in San Francisco. One of his way to gather the homosexual in San Francisco is by making a party to celebrate Castro Street Fair. Then, a man on the street greeted him, “Thanks for the party Mr. Milk!” (Black, 2008: 11), Harvey responds it by

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 thanking him for joining the Castro Village Association. He inspires other homosexuals to come out of the closet and fight against Proposition 6, proved by a call from a young teen from Minnesota. YOUNG TEEN I voted today against Prop Six... Thank you, Mr. Milk. HARVEY MILK No. You did this all by yourself. YOUNG TEEN I don't think I'd be alive right now without you, sir. (Black, 2008: 91-92) This young teen is in a wheelchair. The script shows that he called Harvey a year ago because his parent was planning to take him to a hospital, to cure him because he is gay. This young teen sees the news about Harvey in newspaper in Minnesota. This shows that Harvey Milk has a powerful image so he can affects a handicap young teen to leave Minnesota and live openly as homosexual in Los Angeles. ii. Perceptive and Smart Harvey Milk is also identified as a perceptive and smart individual. He could see the opportunity to make something for homosexuals. One of his ways is opening a small business, a camera shop on Castro Street. By opening a camera shop, he believes that the store can be a place for gay people to hang out and share idea. He also expects that it would be the best place to assemble the supports to run as a supervisor. He does not onlyrun a camera shop, but he also perceives the opportunity to gather the supports from the straight people by helping Allan Bird to boycott Coors beers in Castro. When Allan Bird meets him, Harvey directly

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 28 asks for his support and then they agree to support each other. It is proven by the following conversation: HARVEY MILK Well, you seem to have noticed that my kind of people drink a lot of beer. If we're going to fast for your sake, I think we should get to deliver some of it when you win this fight, don't you? ALLAN BAIRD (incredulous) Is that what you really want? HARVEY MILK And allies. I'll have Coors out of every bar in the Castro by the end of the week. Deal? ALLAN BAIRD (nods, sincere) Thank you Mr. Milk (Black, 2008: 14). His other perceptiveness is proven by having a brilliant idea to fight against Proposition 6. His idea is bringing out the sexuality in the public sphere to gain public recognition, so people can vote against Proposition 6. Some of his gay activist friends think that his idea is too dangerous because it is a right to privacy, but Harvey says, “Privacy's our enemy. You want real political power? Let's tell the truth for a change. Starting here. If there's anybody in this room, right now, who hasn't told their families, their friends, their employers... Do it. Now” (Black, 2008: 63). He notices something that the others do not notice about it. iii. Empathetic and Sympathetic In one night, Harvey gets a call from a handicap teenager from Minnesota. At the same time, there is a chaos in San Francisco because of a bad press about homosexuals. The boy asks for help from Harvey and Harvey feels pity for the boy. Then, Harvey gives him a suggestion to run away and tries to calm the boy down. Harvey says, “There's nothing wrong with you. Listen to me.

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 You don't have to hurt yourself, okay?” then he suggests, “Get on a bus. Go to the next biggest city. New York, San Francisco, LA, or even Minneapolis. It doesn't matter. Just leave. You won't be alone. There are people out here just like you who will welcome you and love you. You're not sick. You're not wrong. God does not hate you. Just leave.” His words shows that he understands the condition of the boy. When the call ends, Harvey feels overwhelmed because he feels he has to do something for people who have this kind of situation. His words show his characteristic as empathetic and sympathetic person who able understand how someone else feels. His empathy and sympathy are also shown when Cleve Jones comes to Harvey’s shop at the election night. Cleve Jones comesinto Harvey’s store after his trip to Europe and that night, Cleve Jones cries because he just broke up with his lover. Harvey stays with him all night, even though that night is the night before the election. HARVEY MILK You’re going to meet the most extraordinary men, the sexiest, brightest, funniest men, and you’re going to fall in love with so many of them, and you won’t know until (MORE) the end of your life who your greatest friends were or your greatest love was (Black, 2008: 31-32). iv. Brave Harvey Milk shows bravery. He does something with his heart and he does not care about himself. At the beginning of the story, it is clearly seen that he realizes that he is a target of many people who hate homosexuality. However, he does not care about all the threats that he gets. He also braves to challenge John

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 Briggs in public debate about Proposition 6. He shows no fear in his movement because he has a strong motive to help gay people to get equality. He is courageous enough to stand for his beliefs in the presence of adversity. Milk proves his passion by fighting for the Gay Rights movement at a time when there is little political support or interest. His determination to gain justice for his community is demonstrated by his resilience when running for office three times. He never gives up to get a position in the government so he could help the minorities to get justice. He says to Cleve Jones and Scott Smith, “Winning isn't my strong suit” and “I keep telling you, it's not just about winning.” From those words, Harvey shows that he does not care about winning. Harvey Milk sees the inequalities in his world and works to increase equality for minorities. v. Optimistic Harvey Milk has a strong optimism that one day all people will get equality and justice. His optimism is seen from his speech when he deals with big riot between gay and police. HARVEY MILK And I say, we have to give them hope! --Hope for a better world... Hope for a better tomorrow... Hope for a better place to come to if the pressures at home are too great... Hope for the worker who awakens from the American dream to find that all the jobs have left the country... We gotta give em’ HOPE! (Black, 2008: 38-39) His speech about hope shows that he has a dream that all is going to turn out well. His hopefulness and optimism is depicted again in front of angry mob at City Hall. The mob is angry with the public statement from Anita Bryant and John

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 Briggs that will make homosexuality illegal in states. Harvey, as a city supervisor, has to make the protesters calm, quiet, and peaceful. HARVEY MILK We have a choice to make. The fight is at our doors. We must either go back in the closet and shut it tight, or fight... History shows (MORE) that if we continue to fight, we... will... win (Black, 2008: 69-70). It shows his concern about fighting against Proposition 6 that will make homosexual’s life miserable. He believes that if the homosexuals unite and continue to fight, they will have a big success in history. 2. The Minor Characters The writer finds that there are four minor characters in the story. These four charactersare also antagonist characters that have different opinion, different manner from the major character. They also represent the heterosexual society that dislike the presence of homosexual. a. McConelly McConelly is a neighbor of Harvey Milk. He owns a bar across Milk’s camera shop. He shows negative manner toward Harvey and Scott when Harvey greets him. He does not introduce his name or even say ‘hello’ to Harvey. He vividly shows his unacceptability of Harvey and Scott’s presence when Harvey wants to join The Eureka Valley Merchant's Association. McConelly also shows his strong belief to God and law by saying, “There's man's law and there's God's law in this neighborhood and in this City” (Black, 2008: 8). He can also be described as rude person by calling Harvey and Scott as ‘your kind’ and giving a threat to Harvey and Scott if they try to open a business in the neighborhood.

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 MCCONNELLY I don't think your application will be approved, Mr. Milk. This is a family neighborhood. Your kind are far more welcome on Haight Street (Black, 2008: 8) b. Anita Bryant Anita Bryant is a runner up of Miss America in 1970 and very famous around 1970-1980s. Besides joining the beauty pageant, she also joins politics in Florida’s government. She becomes a conservative opposition and proposes an initiative to ban non-heterosexual in employment and it is based on the basis of sexual orientation, homosexuality. Through her speech, she can be described as a strong religious person and family oriented person. Her strong belief in Christianity is proven from her saying: ANITA BRYANT I give thanks for all of our foot soldiers of God here in Wichita. But we must push on. Look what happened to Sodom and to the world of Noah. Onward Christian soldiers! (Black, 2008:34) She clearly expresses her hatred toward homosexual community. She also viewsthat homosexual want to recruit young people into homosexual’s lifestyle because they cannot reproduce. Her thought shows her conventional idea about family. c. John Briggs John Briggs is a California State senator. He is 47 years old and he is the initiator of Proposition 6 which strongly announces his hatred of homosexuality throughout every county in California. He believe that people who

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 are homosexual or who support the homosexual are wrong and must be dismissed from society. JOHN BRIGGS My proposition promises to protect our children from these gay perverts and pedophiles who recruit our children to their deviant lifestyles, including the ones who (MORE) do it in our public schools. It's time to root them out (Black, 2008: 57-58). d. Dan White Dan White is an Irish, a former cop from District 8 in San Francisco. He comes from a conservative Catholic neighborhood. He is depicted as a nice and handsome family guy with a wife and a baby. He is also one of the elected supervisors in San Francisco, and it means that he works together with Harvey in City Hall. Dan White shows a certain attitude toward Harvey. At first, he tries to be a nice co-worker by inviting Harvey to his son’s s christening, then White and Milk agree to support each other interest in City Hall. However, there is a conflict between Harvey and Dan. Harvey disagrees with Dan’s initiative about Psychiatric Center. Then, it makes Dan changes his side against Harvey’s in City Hall. He feels Harvey as his opponent. It is depicted from the conversation between Harvey and Dan. Dan grabs Harvey. It's threatening. A new side of Dan. DAN WHITE I'll vote against your Queer Law. I'll get Quentin against it. HARVEY MILK It'll still pass. You can't keep alienating yourself here, Dan. DAN WHITE I gave you a chance, Harvey. I really did. You blew it. You really blew it (Black: 2008: 66).

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 It shows his character as inconsistent person. His inconsistencyis also shown when he asks his job back after he resigns. The major rejects his request and it makes White angry, then shoots the major and Harvey Milk. 3. The Description of Setting Based on the theory of setting by Gill, analyzing the setting is about analyzing the physical world, time, social environment of the characters in the literary work itself. The writer divides the analysis of setting into two parts, the physical setting and the social setting. Understanding those elements exposes the image of the whole story and it will be easier to understand the condition during 1970-1978. a. Physical setting Generally, this story happens in San Francisco, particularly Castro Street in Castro District. Castro Street is a well-known gay area in San Francisco. In Castro Street, there are many gay bars. This area also becomes the first target of police to raid. In Castro Street, there is also Castro Camera. Castro Camera is a small business owned by Harvey Milk and his partner Scott Smith. This shop is not only a shop, but also it is a place for gay people to hang out, to discuss their ideas, and to share their stories. It is proven from Milk’snarration, “And people started hanging around our store. Not customers. Activists, kids, folks who needed a home away from home... (Black, 2008: 12). This store also becomes the

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 beginning of Harvey’s career in politics. Harvey and his friends manage the campaign and political meeting in this store. INT. CASTRO CAMERA - ANOTHER NIGHT Harvey, Jim & Dick, Scott, Danny and Dennis debate the merits of working within "the system" versus dropping out. Everyone is talking over each other... (2008: 15) The description above shows Harvey’s political activity with his friend. They do debate over a system in government. It shows that this store is not only a business place, but also a place for them to gather their voice. b. Social Setting Analyzing the setting is not only about the physical setting, but also about the social condition of the story (Abrams, 2009: 330). The social environment can be seen from some aspects, such as the manner of society, the belief, and the law of the society. From those aspects, the character of the society will be revealed and it helps the writer to analyze the second and third questions in problem formulation. In this story, the writer finds that Castro District is an Irish Catholic neighborhood.As Harvey says, “The new place for us refugees was this run down Irish Catholic neighborhood in Eureka Valley” (Black, 2008: 7). This shows that the religion of most people in the Castro is Catholic. Related to religion, the writer also discovers that the society highly values their religion, Christian and Catholic. It can be seen from the action of Anita Bryant, the runner up of Miss America in 1970, and John Briggs, California State Senator. Both Anita Bryant and John Briggs always mention ‘God’ when they make statement on public about

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 homosexual. When Anita Bryant wins the election in Florida, she makes statement in public, “Tonight the laws of God and the cultural values of man have been vindicated” (Black, 2008: 34). John Briggs also shows similar action when he proposes the Proposition 6. A stranger yells at him and he responds, “Sir, you can argue with me, but you cannot argue with God” (Black, 2008: 58). Another description showing that both of them are Christian is seen from Harvey’s speech (Black, 2008: 81), “Senator, as a Christian it's interesting that you don't seem to understand what Christ was about.” Harvey says that utterance when they have public debate about Proposition 6 in California. Closely similar to Anita Bryant and John Briggs, McConelly and Dan White as the part of Castro community, mention ‘God’, ‘church’ when they call Harvey, a homosexual. McConelly says, “There's man's law and there's God's law in this neighborhood and in this City” (Black, 2008:9). Dan White also says, “Harvey, our society can't exist without the family, without the church” (Black, 2008: 73). From the beginning of this story, it is obvious that there is hatred toward homosexual in the society. Not only San Francisco, but also most of the cities in United States dislike the homosexuality. The heterosexual society has a cordial dislike toward homosexual. It is proven by the speech from Scott Smith when he hasa conversation with Harvey about the political decision of Harvey’s to open a business association for gay people in San Francisco. Scott says, “Harvey. It's just like every other city in this country. People hate us. Big surprise” (Black, 2008: 10). Another proof showing that the society rejects the homosexuals is from the speech of Anita Bryant when she wins the election. Anita Bryant says, “Gays can't

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 reproduce, so they must recruit young people into their lifestyle...” (Black, 2008: 34). Based on her words, her point of view about homosexuality is about the concept of family. She thinks that homosexual cannot have a family because they cannot reproduce a child. It is strengthened by some of the speeches which show the hatred JOHN BRIGGS My proposition promises to protect our children from these gay perverts and pedophiles who recruit our children to their deviant lifestyles, including the ones who (MORE) do it in our public schools. It's time to root them out (Black, 2008: 57-58). DAN WHITE Harvey, our society can't exist without the family, without the church (Black, 2008: 73). JOHN BRIGGS Mr. Milk, we don’t allow people who believe in practicing bestiality to teach our children, and the reason we don’t is because it is illegal. But it’s not illegal to be a homosexual in California. HARVEY MILK And your law goes even further. Any school employee who even supports a gay person will be fired— JOHN BRIGGS True. But, gay people don't have children of their own. If they don't recruit our children, they'd all die away. That's why they want to be teachers, to encourage our children to join them (Black, 2008: 81). From those descriptions and speeches, it is implied that the religious norms are still well-maintained in this society. The society considers homosexuality as deviant, sickness, abnormality, and a sin in religion. Those perceptions cause unequal treatment in society toward homosexual. In the screenplay, the police clearly expresses offensive treatment when there is a murder in the street by calling the victim “fruit” and “trick”. In homosexuality, “fruit” and “trick” refer to prostitution.

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 COP The “fruit” was walking home with his “trick” when they were jumped. REVEAL: Harvey picks a blood stained whistle up off the street, the man’s last attempt to call for help. COP (CONT'D) (from the victim's wallet) Name's Robert Hillsborough. Did you know him? HARVEY MILK He used to come into my shop. Are there any witnesses? COP Just the "trick." Jerry Taylor. HARVEY MILK Jerry wasn't a trick. They were lovers. COP Call it what you will. He's our only witness and he says he can't identify the attackers. HARVEY MILK There'd be a dozen witnesses if they thought you boys had any real interest in keeping them safe. COP You’re the Mayor of Castro Street now, right Harvey? You really wanna help? Get your people to show some discretion on the streets, huh?(Black, 2008:20-21) From the conversation between Harvey and the police above, it can be seen that the police, as the official organization that should protect the people and solve crime, shows unequal treatment by ignoring the witness and the murderer. Then, throughout the story, the name of the murderer has never been mentioned. The police perceives gays as a non-human or non-living objects since he mentions homosexual as the word ‘it’. Another negative manner of the society is shown by a neighbor of Harvey, McConelly who has a liquor store across the street of Milk’s camera shop. Harvey is trying to be nice, but McConelly responds him suspiciously. Harvey extends his hand. McConnelly shakes, but is wary.

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 HARVEY MILK (CONT'D) I want to join the, um... What is it? The Eureka Valley Merchant's Association. I want to help in any way possible. I'm no interloper. A Jew perhaps, but I hope you'll forgive that. McConnelly looks from Harvey to Scott in the window. MCCONNELLY I don't think your application will be approved, Mr. Milk. This is a family neighborhood. Your kind are far more welcome on Haightstreet. HARVEY MILK (trying to keep it friendly) What "kind" do you mean, sir? MCCONNELLY (not playing along) The Merchant's Association will have the police pull your license if you open your doors. SCOTT SMITH Based on what law? MCCONNELLY There's man's law and there's God's law in this neighborhood and in this City. The San Francisco Police force is happy to enforce either. HARVEY MILK (toMcConnelly as he walks away) Thanks for the warm welcome to the neighborhood!(Black, 2008: 9) McConelly represents the neighbor around that area who hates the homosexual by saying, “This is a family neighborhood. Your kind are far more welcome on HaightStreet.” It shows his hatred to Harvey and Scott as a gay couple. He rejects them to live in the neighborhood. By looking at the depiction of the society, it can be understood that there are two categories of societies in this story, the heterosexual and the homosexual. The existence of homosexual is not acceptable in the heterosexual society. However, the homosexuals do not hesitate to show their sexual identity as homosexual in public because they share similar feeling as homosexual. A lot of homosexuals live in San Francisco and they can express themselves as an open

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 homosexual. It can be understood from the speech of Harvey Milk when Harvey moves to San Francisco. HARVEY MILK In those days, San Francisco was the place where everyone wanted to go... To drop out... To fall in love... (Black, 2008: 6) Harvey's CAMERA focuses on TWO CUTE, YOUNG, HIPPIE BOYS WALKING PAST, one puts his arm over the other. To Harvey's eyes it's a very new site. It's overt. Thrilling. (Black, 2008: 7) For Harvey, a new comer in San Francisco, seeing young boys walk around with their partners without having any fear is exciting, interesting, and spine-tingling. He never sees that picture in New York. Later, there is a Castro Street Fair where lot of homosexuals attend it. Castro Street fair is founded by Harvey Milk to attract more customers to the area. This Castro Street fair shows the homosexual community’s existence in the society. Harvey and Scott are in the crowd and they are not afraid to show their affection. EXT. THE CASTRO - DAY The street is shut down for the first ever Castro Street Fair. The crowd is mostly gay, the majority congregate outside Toad Hall bar (Black, 2008: 11) Harvey spots Scott in the crowd and PULLS HIM TOWARD HIM, KISSING HIM ON THE MOUTH. It's quite the show. They step back out onto the street where an Irish band is now playing. Gay men watch. Some clap. Harvey grabs Scott and spins him through a sharp waltz. OFF the pair at home in their new neighborhood (Black, 2008:12). B. The Depiction of Prejudice and Discrimination in Milk

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 Previously, the writer defines the characters and the setting of the literary work that are discussed in this analysis. Then, this second part explains how the characters and setting in Milk show the discrimination toward homosexual. The description of social setting shows that the society is divided into two categories, heterosexual and homosexual. It is obvious that there is hatred from the heterosexuals to homosexuals. The writer discovers the intense dislike to homosexuals refers to heterosexism and homophobia. According to Tyson, heterosexism is institutionalized discrimination against LGBTQ people which is based on the belief that heterosexuality is the natural sexual orientation. This matter starts in social institutions as the family, education, religion, and the law enforcement system (Tyson, 2011: 175). Thus, the writer finds that the heterosexual society has the belief that homosexuality is against the value of family, religion and law system. The explanation of heterosexism reveals that certain sexual orientation is being stigmatized by social institutions, as family, religion and law. It is supported by the statement of Michael Warner. In the everyday political terrain, contests over sexuality and its regulation are generally linked to views of social institutions and norms of the most basic sort. Every person who comes to a queer self-understanding knows in one way or another that her stigmatization is connected with gender, the family, notions of individual freedom, the state, public speech, consumption and desire, nature and culture, maturation, reproductive politics, racial and national fantasy, class identity, truth and trust, censorship, intimate life and social display, terror and violence, health care, and deep cultural norms about the bearing of the body (1993: xiii). Warner’s statement shows that the stigmatization of sexuality is related to deep cultural norms and social institutions. Social institution can be a family, religion,

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 and law. Thesocial institutions make a generalization about sexual orientation and it has to be followed by the society. The depiction of heterosexism and homophobia in this screenplay is clearly seen from the minor characters, McConelly, Anita Bryant, John Briggs, and Dan White as the representation of the heterosexual society. Their speeches, dialogues, and actions show their dislike of homosexuality because it is against their belief and the law. The writer finds that those characters always speak about family neighborhood, God, and law. They believe heterosexuality is the normal sexuality and the other is wrong. They have homophobia which refers to individual’s fear or dread of homosexuality (Tyson, 2010: 176). To give a clearer analysis about the fact that heterosexism and homophobia may result prejudice and discrimination, the writer divides the explanation into two parts. The first explanation is the depiction of prejudice and the second explanation is about discrimination as seen in the screenplay. 1. The Depiction of Prejudice As stated before in chapter II, prejudice, discrimination and stereotype are closely related to each other. Prejudice and stereotype are related to the way of thinking of people toward other people. Prejudice always defines its victims negatively, blanketing them with stereotypes that hide from view their individual humanity. Commonly, prejudice and stereotype contain the negative feelings and those may result discrimination (Withley, 2010: 10-12). Whitley also states that discrimination consist of unequal and harmful treatment in different ways and it is based on the membership in a social group and it can be visible or less visible,

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 hidden, purposeful and maliciously motivated (2010: 370). This explanation from Whitley is the base of the analysis to reveal the prejudice and discrimination toward homosexual. From reading this screenplay, the writer sees that in 1970s, homosexuality was seen as sin and deviant behavior in United States. It is supported by the statement of Yang cited from Withley (2010: 482) that in those years about twothirds of the U.S. population believed homosexuality was always wrong. Public opinion toward homosexualwas always negative and it causes rejection from the society. To avoid rejection in society, the homosexuals were forced to live in discreet. If some people discovered about their sexual orientation, they would lose their job and they were often considered as criminal. Inside the story, the heterosexuals view homosexuals as deviant and sick. They perceive that homosexuality is unconventional sexual orientation. For heterosexual, homosexuality is against their belief, law, and it is unacceptable in society. They also consider that homosexuals are pervert, pedophiles, and homosexuals want to recruit the heterosexual children to be homosexual. Those negative feelings are expressedby the minor characters, Anita Bryant and John Briggs. Anita Bryant makes a speech in public over her election victory in Florida. Over her victory, she makes a rule that gays can be removed from their job and prosecuted if their lifestyle is uncovered (Black, 2008:34). She says, “Gays can't reproduce, so they must recruit young people into their lifestyle...” (Black, 2008: 34). The same matter is revealed from John Briggs, a California Senator. He proposes a petition to fire all gay teachers and anyone who supports the

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 homosexual. He says that homosexual is pervert and pedophiles and gay wants to recruit the heterosexual children to be a homosexual (Black, 2008: 57). Those images of homosexual from Anita Bryant and John Briggs are similar to the statement from McCarthy in Handbook on Critical Issues. He states that the society still accept the negative generalization of homosexual that homosexuals are interested in having physical contact with children and adolescents, thenhomosexuals can change the other orientation by cultivating heterosexual friendships (1984: 183-1984). Beside those negative images, the writer also finds that homosexual cannot have their own children or they cannot have a family because they cannot reproduce. This negative opinion can be related to the heterosexual society’s opinion about the concept of family. For heterosexuals, a family must consist of a man, a woman and their child. Because of that concept, the heterosexual considers that homosexual is against the normativity and against the religion. This prejudice is seen from the religious society that still follows the conventional norm. From the explanation above, it shows the prejudice of the society toward homosexuals. They consider that homosexuals are deviant and sick. They think homosexuals are attracted to children (pedophile) and homosexuals are pervert. They also see that homosexuality is contagious and immortal. The last prejudice is that homosexual cannot reproduce and cannot have a family. 2. The Depiction of Discrimination

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 As mentioned before, prejudice and stereotype may result discrimination. The writer finds that the homosexual get discriminated from heterosexual. The way of the heterosexual society treats the homosexual is referring to visible discrimination. Discrimination in this screenplay is seen from the behavior of the minor characters and the societytreat the homosexual in every aspect in life. a. The use of offensive terms in everyday speech In this screenplay, the writer finds that people use offensive terms to call homosexual. People often called a homosexual as queer, faggot, trick or fruit. Around 1970s, those terms were offensive words for homosexual. People who were afraid to be close to homosexual used to say these words to mock a homosexual.It is seen from the attitude of Dan White, a rival of Harvey Milk in City Hall. DAN WHITE I'll vote against your Queer Law. I'll get Quentin against it (2008: 66). DAN WHITE Now you need something from me. You want my me to join in with the Queers on this Prop Six business? HARVEY MILK We prefer the word "gay," Dan. Just as I'm sure you prefer the word, "Irish-American" to "Mick."(Black, 2008: 73) It is seen that Harvey dislikes the word queer and prefer to be called as gay. Other offensive words that are used are fruit and trick. According to Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, fruit and trick refer to slang offensive term for homosexuals and those terms refer to prostitutes. Fruit refers to disparaging terms

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 for male homosexuals. Trick refers to slang term for a casual sex partner and it reflects the high visibility of promiscuous lifestyle or sexual pluralism among male homosexuals. These offensive words are spoken by a police in San Francisco when he investigates a homicide in Castro Street, “The “fruit” was walking home with his “trick” when they were jumped” (2010: 20). Harvey, who is in the criminal location, insists to say that the victim was with his lover, not with a trick. b. The discrimination in employment Discrimination toward homosexuals happen in employment. The homosexuals will lose their job if the working place discover their sexual orientation. Homosexual also cannot run a business in the neighborhood. McConelly, Harvey’s neighbor,shows his rejection when Harvey wants to join The Eureka Valley Merchant's Association by saying MCCONNELLY (not playing along) The Merchant's Association will have the police pull your license if you open your doors. SCOTT SMITH Based on what law? MCCONNELLY There's man's law and there's God's law in this neighborhood and in this City. The San Francisco Police force is happy to enforce either (Black, 2008: 8). From this dialogue, it is seen that there is a legal law in society which refuses homosexuals to open a business and police will force to close their business. Discrimination in employmentcan also be found from Harvey and Scott dialogues when they met for the first time in New York:

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 SCOTT SMITH You're afraid of the cops? HARVEY MILK I'm just discreet. I know a lot of people here. If they found out,I could lose my job (Black, 2008: 5). Their conversation shows that Harvey, as homosexual in New York, should live in discreet because he will get fired if the company find about his sexual orientation. Another evidence of this discrimination is capturedin a legal law to ban homosexuals in employment in Florida. Florida Gay Right is dismissed by Anita Bryant as she wins the election in Florida. Having the negative opinion about homosexuals, she makes decision to ban gays from their jobs if their sexual orientation is uncovered. The similaraction is revealed from John Briggs. He proposes a Proposition 6. According to Pickett L. Brent in The A to Z of Homosexuality (2009: 33), Proposition 6 was an initiative on California State Ballot in 1978. It was commonly known as The Briggs Initiative because it was sponsored by John Briggs. This initiative banned gays and lesbians, or anyone who supported gay rights from teaching in public schools in the states JOHN BRIGGS My proposition promises to protect our children from these gay perverts and pedophiles who recruit our children to their deviant lifestyles, including the ones who (MORE) do it in our public schools. It's time to root them out (Black, 2008: 57-58). Later, Milk invites Briggs to have a public debate about the Proposition 6. In the debate, Briggs implies that homosexuality is a disgusting sexual practice and it is illegal. JOHN BRIGGS

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 48 Mr. Milk, we don’t allow people who believe in practicing bestiality to teach our children, and the reason we don’t is because it is illegal. But it’s not illegal to be a homosexual in California. HARVEY MILK And your law goes even further. Any school employee who even supports a gay person will be fired— JOHN BRIGGS True. But, gay people don't have children of their own. If they don't recruit our children, they'd all die away. That's why they want to be teachers, to encourage our children to join them (Black, 2008: 81). From Briggs’ saying, he worries that homosexual will dominate the heterosexual society. He wants to protect the heterosexual society by making homosexuality illegal under the law system. This wave of hatred will massively affect homosexuals in California. This proposition frightens the homosexual and they do not want to this proposition to be a legal law in states. This initiative becomes a big threat for homosexuals. They could lose their jobs and it could make a big riot. HARVEY MILK We were really genuinely frightened by Proposition Six, and with the backlash gaining strength, we were very pessimistic. We didn’t think there was any chance we could beat it. What we hoped to do was to organize to the point that when we did lose, there would be a revolt... That all hell would break lose (Black, 2008: 82). From Harvey’s utterance, it is understood that Proposition 6 is threatening the life of homosexuals. c. The violent threats toward homosexuals The violence is one of the extreme discrimination. The homosexuals cannot have freedom to express themselves in society because the threats from

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 homophobic person. The evidence on the screenplay is seen in the homicide of a gaywho walk with his lover in the Castro Street. The criminal of the homicide has never been on trial. It seems that the police does not care about the case because the victim is homosexual. The violent threat is also drewto Harvey Milk. Harvey gets two dead threats from stranger. The first threat is a letter from a stranger. He receives the first threat when he runs as supervisor. It is picturing a stick figure of Harvey being tortured with bullets, knives, fires and there is a mysterious message says, “Harvey Milk will have a dream journey and nightmare to hell, a night of horror. You will be stabbed and have your genitals, cock, balls, prick cut off” (Black, 208: 22-23). The second threat is a postcard to Harvey on Gay Parade in San Francisco. It says, "You get the first bullet the minute you stand at the microphone" (Black, 2008: 78). Those dead threats show the emotion of intense dislike to Harvey, as homosexual. The threats also indicate the restrictionupon homosexual’s life in society. C. The Character’s Struggle Against Prejudice and Discrimination As mentioned before, queer theory has a political critique of sexual orientation and it is automatically linked to the defense of politics of homosexuality in the face of repression and homophobia (Edgar and Sedgwick, 2005: 321-322). This part shows the defense of homosexual against discrimination and homophobia from the character of Harvey Milk.

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 Because of the prejudice and discrimination in society toward homosexuals, Harvey Milk, as a homosexual, feels that he needs to do something to get back the equality for all people, not only homosexuals, but also the minor society. Harvey, as the main character, has positive characteristic that reflect the struggle against prejudice and discrimination in society. The writer finds the character of Harvey Milk breaks the prejudice and discrimination in society. Then, there are three ways that Harvey Milk uses. The first way is making a Castro Village Association, the second way is getting into the system of government, and the third way is suggesting to all homosexuals to come out of the closet. 1. Forming a Castro Village Association Harvey experiences the rejection of his application to join Eureka Valley Merchant Association, a business association for Eureka neighborhood. From this rejection, he feels that homosexuals need a gay-friendly business so that their existence is warmly welcome and no longer closeted. Later, he forms Castro Village Association, a gay business association. As perceptive and smart person, he notices the opportunity to create something meaningful for homosexual community. HARVEY MILK We'll form our own business association! Start with the gay owned businesses... We'll take down the addresses of every customer that comes in for a roll of film. We'll ask them what they want to see done here... what they want changed... We'll get money rolling into this neighborhood. Revitalize it... (Black, 2008: 10)

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 51 From his utterance,his concern about gay business is seen. He wants to restore the economic problem in the Castro neighborhood. He becomes the president of Castro Village Association. Milk's first foray into politics is proven by organizing the homosexual community's businesses into a merchant's association, the Castro Valley Association (CVA), the gay community's first truly autonomous source of political power. As the president of the CVA, Milk organizes boycotts and pickets in support of many of the city's largest unions, gaining the gay community valuable and lasting allies. 2. Getting involved in politics and government His bravery to get involved in politics and government is begun from a riot in one of gay bars in the Castro. He experiences a big fight. In that crowd, the police beats the homosexuals and makes a big chaos between the police and gay. Harvey, Scott and other gays run up to the crowd and try to save other gays. After that fight, Harvey thinks there should be someone in the government to protect gays’ interest. HARVEY MILK ...if we had someone in the government who saw things the way we see them, the way the black community has black leaders who look out for their interests-SCOTT SMITH You're gonna run for Supervisor, is that the idea? HARVEY MILK (half-joking) I could go right for mayor, but I think I should work my way up to it... You'll be my campaign manager(Black, 2008: 16). This kind of struggle in a response to the brutality of police toward homosexuals and unequal treatment of society to homosexual. Milk knows that the only way to

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 achieve equality would be for a gay person to be elected to public office. Afterwards, Milk gets involved in local politics and run for public office to encourage equality and enhance the lives of working-class San Franciscans and minorities. In his fighting to run as city supervisor, Harvey encourages homosexuals to fight against all the discrimination toward them. HARVEY MILK No. That you need to do what you're good at. Be a prick. Fight City Hall. Fight the cops. Fight the people who made you come here to do what you do (Black, 2008:19). His way to get the justice for homosexuals is seen from his success in City Hall to get San Francisco Gay Rights Ordinance. It ensures that a person who already has a job cannot be fired for their sexual orientation. HARVEY MILK I'm proposing a citywide ordinance. It ensures that a person who already has a job can't be fired for their orientation (Black, 2008: 54). San Francisco Gay Right Ordinance raises Milk’s popularity in the states. He also chooses a strategy to gain his popularity by making a dog mess into a legal law. He requires every dog owner to clean up their dog mess otherwise they will be fined. His idea is accepted at City Hall and it influences the member of City Hall in voting San Francisco gay right ordinance. 3. Suggesting to all homosexual to come out of the closet At this point, the writer finds that Harvey always suggests to all homosexuals to come out of the closet and be visible. What Harvey does is similar

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 53 tothe statement about queer theory. Queer theory concerns about sexual identity and its relation to the society. His suggestion to come out of the closet is depicted from his speeches in public. When Anita Bryant makes a legal law for homosexual, Harvey Milk makes strongly opposition. In a massive crowd on Castro Street, Harvey leads the crowd to the City Hall and makesa public speech. At that time, he becomes a public attention because of his speech. He cancontrol the protesters, calm them down, and follow what Harvey said. HARVEY MILK (CONT'D) I am here tonight to say, we will no longer sit quietly in our closets. We must fight. Not just in the Castro, or San Francisco, but everywhere the Anitas go. Anita Bryant did not win tonight. Anita Bryant has brought us together... She is going to create a national gay force! (The crowd ROARS) And the young people in Richmond, Minnesota, or Jackson, Mississippi, or Woodmere, New York... Who are coming out and hearing Anita Bryant on television telling them that they're wrong, they're sick, that there is no place for them in this great country, in this world... They're looking to us for something tonight... (his big moment, realizing his true mission) And I say, we have to give them hope! (Black, 2008: 38) His suggestion appears when Harvey Milk and other gay activist gather in a meeting to make a public rejection of Proposition 6. They have a political infighting with Democratic Party Establishment about Anti-Briggs Initiative flier and poster. Harvey does not agree with the statement of the flier, "Proposition Six is an affront to Human Rights. An invasion of the State into the private lives of California citizens." For Harvey, it is important to put the word ‘gay’ on the flier

(67) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 54 to make public understand the effect of Proposition 6. Later, Harvey leaves the meeting and holds his own meeting with the young gay activists. He has a big idea, which is coming out of the closet to the entire state. HARVEY MILK (CONT'D) If we're gonna convince the 90% to give a shit about us 10%... We have to let 'em know who we are. (his big new idea) Everybody's coming out. The entire state. No matter where they live. DICK PABICH "Come out, come out, wherever you are!" HARVEY MILK I'm serious. (beat, the room gets quiet) We're going to tell everyone in the state to come out. Every gay doctor, lawyer, teacher, dog catcher... We have to leave the ghetto, let all those people out there know that they do know one of us. And if people won't step out of the closet, we open the door for them. ANNE KRONENBERG Jesus. SCOTT SMITH The whole state is not San Francisco. HARVEY MILK Clearly, Scott. JIM RIVALDO It could be dangerous. There is such a thing as a right to privacy. HARVEY MILK Privacy's our enemy. You want real political power? Let's tell the truth for a change. Starting here. If there's anybody in this room, right now, who hasn't told their families, their friends, their employers... Do it. Now (Black, 2008: 62-63). Harvey’s idea makes other homosexuals surprised because it can make a big publicity in states. For Harvey, it is better to tell the truth to get a change in public. There is no such thing called privacy for Milk. He experiences living in the closet for long time and it makes him to live in anxiety. HARVEY MILK (CONT'D)

(68) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 55 My name is Harvey Milk, and I want to recruit you. I want to recruit you for the fight to preserve your democracy. Brothers and sisters, you must come out. Come out to your parents. I know that it is hard and will hurt them but think about how they will hurt you in the voting booth! Come out to your friends, if they indeed are your friends. Come out to your neighbors, to your fellow workers. Once and for all, break down the myths, destroy the lies and distortions. For your sake. For their sake. For the sake of the youngsters who are becoming scared by the votes from Dade to Eugene. On the Statue of Liberty it says "Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to be free." In the Declaration of Independence it is written "All men are created equal and are endowed with certain inalienable rights." For Mr. Briggs and Mrs. Bryant and all the bigots out there, no matter how hard you try, you cannot erase those words from the Declaration of Independence. No matter how hard you try, you cannot chip those words from off the base of the Statue of Liberty. That is what America is. Love it or leave it. (Black, 2008: 79) Harvey’s speeches show his concern about coming out of the closet to get justice in society. He believes in the Declaration of Independence, which said all men are created equal. For him, all people should be treated fairly without seeing the gender, class, or sexual orientation. Harvey’s idea becomes an inspiration for other homosexuals to come out. Lot of closeted homosexuals decide to come out, even a reverend, a priest, decides to come out and reveal his sexual orientation. DICK PABICH People are coming out, though. We met with groups in Bakersfield, Redding, a dozen people showed up in a library basement in Fresno asking for our support if they came out. Last Sunday, the Reverend of St. Mary's came out to his entire congregation...(Black, 2008: 82) The change in society is seen when Proposition 6 Vote day is being held in United States. The polling shows people vote against Proposition 6. Then, it

(69) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 56 makes huge victory for homosexual, especially for Harvey Milk. He considered himself as a ‘homosexual with power’. HARVEY MILK To the gay community all over this state... my message to you is... so far a lot of people joined us and rejected Proposition Six, and now we owe them something... We must destroy the myths once and for all, shatter them. We must continue to speak out... and most importantly, most importantly, every gay person must come out. (cheers) Tonight... Tonight it is clear that everyone out there does know one of us. And now that they do, they see we are not sick... they can feel we are not wrong... and they know we should have a place in this great country and in this world... A message of hope has been tosent to all the young people out there... to all those afraid of this wave of hate... to all those who have lost their homes and their hometowns... tonight we know there is a place for us! My brothers and sisters... we can come home again! (Black, 2008: 93) For him, telling about sexual orientation is the way to get attention of society. Milk firmly believes that the only way for homosexuals to break down all prejudice and discrimination is for homosexuals to make themselves visible: to come out of the closet, and get into the consciousness of the nation. Harvey Milk’s struggle portrays the queer strategy and attitude that Cherry Smith stated before. He fights the social and cultural norms that always construct the sexuality, reproductive sexuality, and the family. Also, there is a positive image of homosexual through Harvey’s action to get back the equality in society. He strongly believes that every human is created equally and it does not depend on the race, sexual orientation or class in society.

(70) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In this research, the analysis is divided into three parts and each parts answer the problem formulation of this research. The first finding is about the description of the characters and the setting in the screenplay. There are major character and minor characters in this story. The major character, Harvey Milk is described as charismatic, perceptive and smart, showing empathy and sympathy, brave and optimistic. He is charismatic becauseof his charm to influence lot of people to unite against the discrimination in society. He is also perceptive and smart because he can see the opportunity to make something for his community. He shows great empathy and sympathy.He expresses sincerity and integrity to help other gay people who need his help. He is also brave by showing no fear against the discrimination without thinking about winning. He is an optimistic person by keep telling to public about giving hope for all people. Still in first finding, there are four minor characters. They are McConelly, Anita Bryant, John Briggs, and Dan White. Those four minor characters refer to the heterosexual community that dislike the existence of homosexuals. They have negative manner to the homosexual and they try to put homosexuality illegal under the law and the society. Besides telling about the characters, the writer also describes about setting of this screenplay, which is divided into two parts: physical setting and social setting. From those two aspects of setting, it is found 57

(71) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI that this story is set in San Francisco in 1970-1978. From the physical setting, the writer 57

(72) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 58 finds that the lot of homosexual like to hang out in Harvey’s store, Castro Camera in Castro District. Castro Camera is the beginning of Harvey’s career in politics and the place where he gathers the vote for him to run as supervisor. Then, the social setting in this story shows that the society still well-maintain the values of family, religion, and system of law. The society is divided into two categories, heterosexual and homosexual. It can be seen thatthe homosexuals can express themselves as free and open homosexual in Castro. The second part shows the depiction of prejudice and discrimination toward homosexual. The depiction of prejudice and discrimination is reflected from the minor characters: McConelly, Anita Bryant, John Briggs, and Dan White. Anita Bryant and John Briggs say that homosexualsare sick, pervert, pedophile who want to recruit heterosexual children to be a homosexual. The discrimination is seen from the use of offensive words to homosexual, discrimination in employment, and violent threats. Those prejudices and discrimination are related to heterosexism and homophobia, which means the stigma of sexuality is linked to cultural norms and social institutions, as family, religion, and law. The third part finds the struggle of Harvey Milk against prejudice and discrimination. Harvey Milk realizes that he needs to do something for his community. He makes a change by forming his own business association (Castro Village Association), getting involved in politics, and suggesting to homosexual to come out of the closet. All his struggle is also influenced by his bravery, charisma, and smart character. Then, there is positive change in society which is

(73) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 59 seen from the support to San Francisco Gay Right Ordinance and the failure of Proposition 6. From the analysis of Dustin Lance Black’s Milk screenplay, the writer concludes that Harvey Milk wants to show to the heterosexual society that a homosexual should be treated equally in every aspect of life: employment, education, and politics. Harvey breaks the generalization stereotype of homosexuality by getting involved in politics and becoming the first openly gay politician in America. Because of his struggle, Harvey can get the power similarto heterosexual. His success in politics is influenced by his strong motivation and his characteristics as a brave, smart, and charismatic person. His bravery to break the normativity encourages people to follow his path. Harvey Milk sees that sexual orientation should not be a problem for a society. For him, a homosexual should not be afraid to declare his or her sexual orientation, similar to a straight person freely announces his or her self as a heterosexual.

(74) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAHY Abrams, M. H and Geoffrey Galt Harpham. A Glossary of Literary Terms (9th edition). Boston: WodsworthCengage Learning, 2009. Anonymous. Glossary of Screenwriting Terms. (May 25th, 2014) Barranger, Milly. S. Understanding Plays (2nd Edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1994. Black, Dustin Lance. Milk. (December 12th, 2014) Boggs, Joseph M. The Art of Watching Films. Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company Inc., 1978. Monterey: The Dynes,Wayne R. Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York: Garland, 1990. Edgar, Andre and Peter Sedgwick. Cultural Theory Key Concepts. London: Routledge, 2005. Firdayanti, Yulinar. “Sexual Stratification in Gus Van Sant’sMilk: A Queer Study”. Allusion. Vol. 1 No. 1 (February 2012), pp. 34-42. Garfinkel, Asher. Screenplay Story Analysis: The Art and the Business. New York: Allworth Press, 2007. Gianetti, Lois. Understanding Movies. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1987. Gill, Richard. Mastering English Literature. London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1995. Langland, Elizabeth. Society in Novel. Chapel Hill: The University of North California, 1987. Levine, Martin P. “Gay Ghetto” in Gay Men: The Sociology of Male Homosexuality. Ed. M. P. Levine. London: Harper and Row, 1979. Mast, Gerald. “Literature and Film” in Interrelations of Literature. Ed. Jean Pierre Barricelli. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1982. McCarthy, Donald G. Handbook on Critical Sexual Issues. New York: Doubled and Company, 1984. Reaske, Christopher R. How to Analyze Drama. New York: Monarch Press, 1966. 60

(75) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 61 Riyanti, ErniDewi. “A Study of Lexical Features of Gay Community in the Script, Milk”. Master Thesis. Yogyakarta:Sanata Dharma University, 2012. Skeete, Geraldine. “Representation of Homophobic Violence in Anglophone Caribbean Literature”. Caribbean Review of Gender Studies. Issue 4 (2010). (March 19th, 2014) Spargo, Tamsin. Postmodern Encounters: Focault and Queer Theory. New York: Totem Books, 1999. Sullivan, Nikki. A Critical Introduction to Queer Theory. New York: New York University Press, 2003. Trottier, David. The Screenwriter’s Bible: A Complete Guide to Writing, Formatting, and Selling Your Script. California: Silman-James Press, 1998. Tyson, Lois. Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide. London: Routledge, 2006. Tyson, Lois. Using Critical Theory: How to Read and Write about Literature (2nd Edition). London: Routledge, 2011. VandenBos, Gary R. Dictionary of Psychology. Washington DC: American Psychological Association (APA), 2007. Warner, Michael. Fear of Queer Planet: Queer Politics and Social Theory. Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1993. Wright, Les. “San Francisco” in Queer Sites: Gay Urban Histories since 1600. Eds. David Higgs. London: Routledge, 1999. Whitley, Bernard E. and Mary E. Kite. Psychology of Prejudice and Discrimination. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2010.

(76) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX SUMMARY OF DUSTIN LANCE BLACK’S MILK The story begins with the narration from Harvey Milk. He records a journal of his political activities and to be played in the event of his assassination. Then, flash back to 1970, when Milk was at his 40 years old, met his lover, Scott Smith in New York. Both of them decided to throw off the closet life and move from New York to San Francisco. In San Francisco, Milk finds a new life as a free and openly gay with Scott. Milk sees a chance to open a business in Castro, then he opens a camera shop, Castro Camera. Across the shop, there is McConelly,Harvey greets him nicely and asks about Eureka Valley Merchant, but McConelly gives a negative answer to Harvey. From that negative manner and talks, Harvey thinks to form a business association for homosexuals. Later, he forms Castro Village Association and throw Castro Fair, which is purposed to attract more customers into the neighborhood. Since that day, few young men like to hangout in his store, they talk about politics, arts or just for checking cute guys and it is the beginning of Milk’s entourage in his political movement. One day, Allan Bird comes to the store and asks for help from Harvey to get Coors beer out of all the gay bars. Harvey agrees with that, but he asks something from Allan Bird, it is a gay union and allies from Allan Bird. Both of them agrees and later, Harvey and his followers are successful to get Coors out of the bars. 62

(77) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 63 Later, there is a riot in Castro Street. The cops start to raid the gay bars in Castro Street and it makes a big chaos in the neighborhood. Milk and his followers run into the crowd and get involved in the fight with the cops. From that chaos with the cops, Harvey thinks that the homosexual community needs someone in the government to protect them from any harm. Then, he runs to be a candidate for San Francisco City Supervisor. The camera shop, Castro Camera, becomes the home of gay activist movement in San Francisco and his lover, Scott Smith, as his campaign manager. During his campaigns, he has to face many disheartening battle against police violence, threats on his life, and an initiative from Anita Bryant to legalize a law to dismiss homosexual in employment. When there is a riot, Milk becomes the peace-maker.Holding together the efforts of the movement takes a huge toll on Milk’s personal relationship with Scott, and the relationship does not survive. In his third and final campaign, in November 1977, under the new campaign manager, AnneKronenberg, Milk wins a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and becomes America’s first openly gay person voted into office. In the same election, Dan White also becomes a city supervisor for a conservative district, District 8. City Supervisor White, a married Irish Catholic from a conservative section of San Francisco and a former cop, is the odd man out on the board of supervisors; even Milk, an openly gay man, is more accepted and has more support on the board. It makes White in a vulnerable position and he is struggling with his own homophobia and homoerotic feelings.It is also combined

(78) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 64 with his great pressure from his constituents. This matter makes tension between these two men in City Hall. Later, John Briggs, a California Senator, makes Proposition 6 (a California initiative to legalize the firing of gays and lesbians and their supporters from the school system). This Proposition 6 makes controversy in the United States. Harvey Milk, as a gay politician, must make big movement against this proposition. In San Francisco, he proposes gay law ordinance to protect people who already has a job so they cannot be fired for their sexual orientation, then his proposition passes and is agreed by other supervisors and Mayor Moscone. His fight is not over yet, he has to fight against John Briggs and Anita Bryant. Then, Harvey invites John Briggs into a public debate about Proposition 6. Harvey uses his incredible oratory skills to call out his opponent while arguing for equal rights.Harvey assembles more votes from other gay activists and gay community in all over America to fight against Proposition 6. To get more sympathy from public, he suggests for everyone to come out of the closet and tell about their sexual orientation. This makes his friends surprised and follow his suggestion. Finally, Harvey makes a big victory by winning the vote against Proposition 6. Later, just a year after the election, in November 1978, White resigns from his office as city supervisor. Shortly after, he attempts to rescind his resignation, but San Francisco Mayor George Moscone disagrees. White is unable to contain his troubled spirit, and he assassinates both Milk and Mayor Moscone.

(79)

Dokumen baru