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(5) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertandatangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Univesitas Sanata Dharma Nama : Karina Budiono Nomor Mahasiswa : 084214017 Demi kepentingan ilmu pengetahuan saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: THE EFFECT OF AMERICANIZATION TOWARD NATIVE AMERICANS’ PERSPECTIVE ON THEIR OWN IDENTITY AND CULTURE AS SEEN THROUGH THE CHARACTERS IN SHERMAN ALEXIE’S RESERVATION BLUES beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan, dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan memplubikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumnkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikianlah pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 25 Juli 2014 Yang menyatakan, Karina Budiono iv

(6) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no material which has been previously submitted for the award of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of my knowledge, this undergraduate thesis contain no material previously written by any other person except where due reference is made in the text of the undergraduate thesis Yogyakarta, June 24, 2014 Karina Budiono v

(7) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI with freedom, books, flower, and the moon, who could not be happy? (oscar wilde) vi


(9) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I want to express my great gratitude to Jesus Christ for His everlasting blessing. I thank for always listening my prayers and helping me during difficult time. Without His blessing, this thesis would never be finished. I also want to express my gratitude toward my parents for always giving me spirit and supporting me in many ways. I also express my deepest gratitude to my advisor, Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum., who helps me finish my undergraduate thesis. I thank for all the patience, guidance, help, and suggestion during the writing of my thesis. I also thank my coadvisor, Dewi Widyastuti S.Pd, M.Hum, for correcting my thesis and giving opinion to make it better. Also for all my lecturers in English Letters Department, thank you for teaching and giving me a lot of knowledge. Then, I am thankful to my best friends Anna, Cecil, and Vita for all their support and helps. Also to my beloved friend Jessica, I am thankful for always listening to my problem, giving great advice, and sharing a lot of happy moment. I also thank to my two little sisters for understanding me and giving me a support. Finally, all my friends from English Letters 2008, I am thank them for all the friendship we share together. Karina Budiono viii

(10) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ..................................................................................................... APPROVAL PAGE ........................................................................................... ACCEPTANCE PAGE ..................................................................................... LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PUBLIKASI……………………………………… STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY………………………………………….. MOTTO PAGE .................................................................................................. DEDICATION PAGE ....................................................................................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………... TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................. ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... ABSTRAK ......................................................................................................... CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION .................................................................... A. Background of the Study ................................................................... B. Problem Formulation ........................................................................ C. Objectives of the Study ..................................................................... D. Definition of Terms ........................................................................... CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL REVIEW .................................................... A. Review of Related Studies ................................................................ B. Review of Related Theories .............................................................. 1. Theory of Character and Characterization .................................. 2. Theory of Americanization .......................................................... C. Review on the History and Culture of Native American………….. 1. Native American Culture……………………………………… 2. Native American in Modern Time…………………………….. D. Theoretical Framework ..................................................................... CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ A. Object of the Study ............................................................................ B. Approach of the Study ...................................................................... C. Method of the Study .......................................................................... CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS A. The Characteristics of the Characters................................................ 1. The Characteristics of Thomas Build the Fire .......................... 2. The Characteristics of Victor Joseph ........................................... 3. The Characteristic of Warm Water Sisters…………………….. ix i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix xi x ii 1 1 4 4 5 7 7 10 10 13 18 18 20 23 24 24 25 26 28 28 31 33

(11) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI B. The Method of Americanization on Native American Characters .... 1. Pop Culture……………………………………………………. 2. Boarding school……………………………………………….. 3. Reservation……………………………………………………. C. The Effect of Americanization toward Native American Perspective on their Culture and Identity as Seen through the Characters ........... CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ........................................................................ BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................. APPENDIX ........................................................................................................ x 35 35 38 39 42 48 51 53

(12) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRACT Karina Budiono. The Effect of Americanization toward Native Americans’ Perspective on Their Own Identity and Culture as Seen through the Characters in Sherman Alexie’s Reservation Blues.Yogyakarta: English Letters Study Program, Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University, 2014. This thesis discusses Reservation Blues, a novel written by Sherman Alexie. The novel portrays the life condition of Native Americans who experience Americanization. The characters in the novel are Thomas Build the Fire, Victor Joseph, and Warm Water Sister. Each of the characters describes their feeling toward Native American culture and identity. In this thesis, the writer analyzed three problems. The first problem analyzed the characterization of each character in the novel. In second problem, the writer analyzed the methods of Americanization experienced by Native American. The last problem analyzed the effect of Americanization toward Native Americans perspective on their identity and culture as seen through the characters in the novel. This study applied socio-cultural historical approach in the analysis. The socio cultural historical approach is chosen since the analysis is about Native American identity and culture. The writer used theory of character and characterization and Americanization theory to analyzed problem formulation. The method used in this study is library research. The primary source is the novel Reservation Blues. The secondary sources are books and articles related to this study. From the analysis, the writer can conclude the characteristic of the characters. Thomas Build the Fire characters are as responsible, mature, calm, independent, and polite. Victor Joseph characters are rational, ill tempered, lazy, and rude. Chess Warm Water characters are confident, energetic, mature, and has strong faith in God. Checker Warm Water characters are kind hearted, stubborn, open minded, and has strong faith in God. The method of Americanization uses several ways such as reservation, boarding school, and popular culture. Based on the characteristic and the method of Americanization, the writer concludes the effect from two perspectives which are identity and culture. The effect of Americanization toward Native American perspective on their culture and identity as seen through the character is ashamed and uncomfortable with their identity as Native American. Another effect is the characters forgetting their Native American culture value that taught by their ancestor. The last effect is the characters praise American culture than their original culture. xi

(13) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI ABSTRAK Karina Budiono. The Effect of Americanization toward Native Americans’ Perspective on Their Own Identity and Culture as Seen through the Characters in Sherman Alexie’s Reservation Blues. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma, 2014 Skripsi ini menganalisis Reservation Blues, sebuah novel yang ditulis oleh Sherman Alexie. Novel ini menggambarkan kondisi kehidupan penduduk asli Amerika yang mengalami Amerikanisasi. Karakter yang ada di dalam novel adalah Thomas Build the Fire, Victor Joseph, Chess Warm Water, dan Checkers Warm Water. Setiap karakter menggambarkan perasaan mereka terhadap identitas dan budaya penduduk asli Amerika. Dalam skripsi ini, penulis menganalisis tiga masalah: Masalah yang pertama menganalisis karakterisasi dari setiap karakter yang ada di novel. Masalah yang kedua, penulis menganalisis metode Amerikanisasi yang dialami oleh penduduk asli Amerika.Permasalahan terakhir menganalisis efek Amerikanisasi terhadap sudut pandang penduduk asli Amerika pada identitas dan budaya mereka yang terlihat melalui karakter. Untuk menganalisis penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan pendekatan sosiokultural historis. Pendekatan sosio-kultural historis dipilih karena analisa yang berhubungan dengan identitas dan budaya penduduk asli Amerika. Penulis menggunakan teori tokoh dan penokohan dan teori amerikanisasi untuk menganalisa permasalahan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian kepustakaan. Sumber utama adalah novel Reservation Blues. Sumber yang kedua adalah buku dan artikel yang bersangkutan dengan penelitian ini. Dari hasil analisis, penulis dapat menyimpulkan karakteristik dari karakter. Karakter Thomas Build the Fire adalah bertanggung jawab, dewasa, tenang, mandiri, dan sopan. Victor Joseph karakter adalah berpikir rasional, pemarah, malas, dan kasar. Chess Warm Water karakter adalah baik hati, keras kepala, berpikiran terbuka, dan mempunyai iman yang kuat kepada Tuhan. Checker Warm Water karakter adalah baik hati, sedikit keras kepala, berpikiran terbuka, dan mempunyai iman yang kuat kepada Tuhan. Metode amerikanisasi menggunakan beberapa cara seperti daerah penampungan, sekolah asrama, dan budaya pop. Efek amerikanisasi terhadap segi pandang penduduk asli Amerika pada identitas dan budaya mereka yang terlihat melalui karakter adalah merasa malu dan tidak nyaman terhadap identitas mereka sebagai penduduk asli Amerika. Efek yang lain adalah karakter melupakan nilai budaya penduduk asli Amerika yang telah diajarkan oleh nenek moyang mereka. Efek yang terakhir adalah karakter lebih memuji budaya Amerika daripada budaya asli mereka. x ii

(14) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study The work of literature is a composition of story, which expresses the ideas from the author, which is a reflection of the author’s experiences or of his or her life background. According to Rene Wellek and Austin Warren, in their book Theory of literature shows that the work of literature represents life as a reality. It is a reflection of human life because the literary work contains human situation, problem feelings, and relationship (Wellek and Warren, 1996:96). Reading a work of literature can enrich our knowledge. Literature contains many themes to study. Some themes in literature which the reader can get are history, culture, identity, etc. We can learn culture and history of a country with reading a work of literature. Every country has their different unique culture. Their culture built from many generations to generations. They get their culture from their ancestors and local native. Culture according Triandis, in book Culture, Self-Identity, and Work define that “Cultures is a subjective perception of the human- made part of the environment” (Erez and Early, 1993: 41). America is one of the biggest countries, which have many cultures. It has many subcultures, which is come from native and immigrant. One of the biggest cultures in America comes from Native Americans. Their culture also can be find in American literature as stated by Kathryn VanSpanckeren in her book Outline of 1

(15) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 2 American Literature show that American literature begins with myths, legends, tales, and lyrics of Indian cultures (1994:3). Native American also contributes in modern culture, names of 27 states, river, lakes, and mountain in America. Back in the past, Native Americans had a long history, which is also part of the history of Early America. In the earlier period of America or called the New World, the white man who was also known as Christopher Columbus came and called them Indians. In the first decades of settlement in America, the Native Americans considered as a barbarian tribe who follow a forbidden religion. Columbus tried to convert the Native American Indian into Christianity. The war between Native Americans and colonist happen because of the incursions of colonist into their territory. Many of Native Americans died because of war and disease. Native Americans did not have immune system when disease like measles or smallpox attacks (Wiegand, 2009:40). In the years of 1607 until 1700, the English colonies established themselves in America. Adventurer names John Smith managed to make friend with Native Americans Powhantan, the chief of the local Native Americans. In the year of 1794, Wayne’s troops attacked Native Americans villages and destroy their cop (Wiegand, 2009:100). As the original inhabitants in North America, the Native Americans were part of the story of nation. White Americans judged the Native Americans has achieved a level of civilization. People assumed that Native Americans soon would absorb the benefit of white civilization. Many of missionary school under Protestant dominance

(16) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3 spread white culture among Native Americans tribes. Unfortunately, the white cultures had bad side effect to Native Americans particularly the alcohol effect. The alcohol made negative effect to the Native Americans and became a serious problem until now. In 1830, the congress settled the Indian Removal Act which is an act to remove Native Americans from their homeland and send them to the Mississippi River to west of the Mississippi. After the civil war, the government raised the idea to settle Native Americans to the reservation so they could end their tribal tradition and forced to adopt white ways (Archdeacon, 1983:70-71) Until now, Native Americans still live in reservations, which are ruled by united state department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian Affairs. Reservation Blues shows the life of Native Americans in reservation. The novel also describes the hard life of Native Americans that adopt the white ways and culture, which is the side effect of Americanization. This novel also tells the issue of Native Americans who maintained their own culture and their identity as Indians under the Americanization movement. This study wants to analyze the effect of Americanization toward Native Americans culture and identity. The effect can be see through how the character behaves or reacts on the reservation issue and characters life experience that they get from their lives in reservation and among white society. The analysis from the character will help to reveal the effect of the Americanization.

(17) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI B. 4 Problem Formulation In order to answer and analyze the research, the writer formulated three questions as follows: 1. How are the Native American characters described in Sherman Alexie’s Reservation Blue? 2. What are the methods of Americanization experienced by the Native American characters in Sherman Alexie Reservation Blues? 3. What are the effects of Americanization toward the Native American cultures and identity seen through the characters in Sherman Alexie Reservation Blues? C. Objectives of the Study The main purpose of this study is to answer those three questions that have been formulated above to understand the story well. The first objective question is to describe the characteristics of the characters in the story. The description of the character is use to find out how they behave toward their own identity and culture. The second objective question is to identify what kind of Americanization faced in the story. Then, the third objective question is to reveal the effect of Americanization toward Native American perspective on their identity and culture.

(18) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI D. 5 Definition of Term In order to obtain clearer understanding of the title and the analysis, the writer defines some of the keywords. 1. Americanization: Americanization in Becoming American: An Ethnic History is described as “ an idea of native people learned about America custom, values, and culture, so they will be able to merge tribal tradition with American culture and can join the majority of society” (Archdeacon, 1983:57). 2. Perspective: According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, perspective defines as a particular attitude toward something or a way of thinking about something (Hornby, 2000:943). 3. Native Americans: Generally Native Americans is described as accepted race of indigenous peoples especially in North America. Eliss Cashmore in her book Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic defines Native Americans as “the constructed category of indigenous peoples in the Americas that have survived 500 years of European and then American cultural domination, internal colonialism, holocaust-like demographic decline, and lately a limited resurgence” (Cashmore, 2004:21). 4. Native American Identity: According to Billard, the Native American identity is distinguished by certain thing, certain perception of himself in relation to the world around him. Native Americans have some their own specific identity. They stand in good relation to the earth, they stand in good relation to God, and they stand in good relation to all that is beautiful (1974:17).

(19) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 5. Culture: 6 There are various definitions of culture. One widely accepted definition of culture, stated by Clyde Kluckhohn, in book entitled Culture, SelfIdentity, and Work, defined that “Culture consist in patterned ways of thinking, feeling, reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consist of traditional (historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values” (Erez and Early, 1993:41).

(20) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW In the first part of this chapter, the writer tries to review some related studies that contain criticism and information which related with analysis. The second part, the writer also tries to review some theories that are used to answer the problem formulation. The last part, which is theoretical framework the writer, tries to explain how the theories will support to analyze the studies. A. Review on Related Studies Reservation Blues is a novel written by Sherman Alexie. Sherman Alexie is a Native American from Spokane tribes and he spent his youth in reservation. He is also a famous Native American literature author. In the book Outline of American Literature explain Sherman Alexei is the youngest Native-American novelist to achieve national fame. Alexie gives unsentimental and humorous accounts of Indian life with an eye for incongruous mixtures of tradition and pop culture. His story cycles include Reservation Blues (1995), and The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in heaven, which inspired the effective film of reservation life, Smoke Signal (1998), for which Alexie wrote the screenplay (VanSpanckeren, 1994: 152). Based on the quoted paragraph above, it is stated that Sherman Alexie is an author who has a special characteristic in writing his novel. Sherman Alexie not only writes novels but also write poems and movies scripts. His first collection of poem and short story entitled The Business of Fancy Dancing publish in 1992. His novels usually described the life and tradition of Native Americans in humorous way. 7

(21) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8 He used to mix the Native Americans traditions with popular culture to show how Native Americans adopted it. It is show from his Interview with John Purdy in his article A Conversation with Sherman Alexie Yeah, I could write about fried bread and fried bologna. And the great thing is I did not know you could combine, the traditional imagery and fried bread and fried bologna. The way I lived my life, and the way inside me, and the way I thought, which is a mix of traditionalism and contemporary (Purdy, 1997: 5). Sherman Alexie spent his youth in Indians reservation. He experienced the life in Indians reservation and how Native Americans deal with white culture. In his novel, we can find many issues about Native Americans culture, identity, how Native Americans deal with white society, and reservation life. Furthermore, we can see from the article Magic and Memory in Sherman Alexie’s Reservation Blues by Janine Richardson Alexie is criticized because his work doesn’t attend to items of concern to other Indian writers such as land rights and sovereignty. Rather, Alexie’s work speaks out against the conditions of reservation life: poverty, alcoholism, disillusionment. Alexie’s subject is the reservation and Indian culture, but more generally, with interaction with the dominant Euro American society and the human conditions they share (Richardson, 1997:40). Reservation blues is Sherman Alexie first novel and published in 1995. This novel became a national bestseller and won American Book Award. The novel tells a story about Spokane Indians from the Spokane reservation. The story shows about the modern life of Native Americans and the struggle of each individual to means to be of real Indians under the Americanization. One of review about Reservation Blues writes that

(22) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 9 Alexie’s razor sharp with is at its most poignant when dealing with Indian tradition, hope, and despair as his characters confront white religion and duplicity. All the while, Alexie dances successfully around culture clash ( The quotations show how the characters in Reservation blues react when faced with culture clash between Native Americans culture and white culture. One of the studies written by Connette, L Tracey titled Sherman Alexie’s Reservation: Relocating The Center of Indian identity In Reservation Blues, Alexie’s characters all experience some degree of transformation and connection to Indian identity. Lynn and Bird criticize Alexie for incorporating popular culture into his texts but as Alexie alludes in his interview with Dave Weich, popular culture is apparent everywhere—even on the reservation—where “social dysfunctions take on pop culture guises (Connette, 2010: 68). From the above quotation, it is described how the character experienced the changed of Indian identity. Alexei used popular culture in his novel to show how it influenced Native Americans. Moreover, Connette, L Tracey also said Alexie uses the element of popular culture to facilitate issues concerning Indian cultures today. For example, Chess accuses Victor and Junior of betraying their cultural heritage when they sleep with Betty and Veronica, two white groupies who follow the band. Thomas’s relationship with Chess sparks topics of conversation such as mixed blood Indians, which Alexie subliminally embeds as conflicting worldviews within immediate members of Indian reservation society (Connette, 2010: 40). The quotation clarified that the element of popular culture, which is part of Americanization process, becomes the main issue of Native Americans culture. Popular culture affected the process of creating identity and challenge Native Americans to survive their own culture.

(23) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 10 From all the reviews and criticism, the writer considers Reservation Blues as an appropriate novel to depict the Americanization toward the Native Americans perspective on their culture and identity. The writers will tries to study how the Americanization has effect to Native Americans as seen from characters that Sherman Alexie created. B. Review on Related Theory 1. Theory of Character and Characterization. In this study, the writer deal with the description of the characters. Therefore, the writers must understand the theory of characters and characterization. In the novel, character plays important role to represent the story. According to M.H Abrams in his book A Glossary of Literary Terms: Ninth Edition, Characters is the persons represented in dramatic or narrative work, who are interpreted by the reader as possessing particular moral, intellectual, and emotional qualities by inferences from what the persons say and their distinction ways of saying it in the dialogue and from what they do in action (2009: 42). Abrams also explains two methods for characterizing the person in a narrative: showing and telling. In showing, the author simply presents the characters talking and acting, and leaves it entirely up to the reader to infer the motives and the dispositions that lie behind what they say and do. The authors not only show the character external speech but also the characters inert thought, feelings, and responsive to events. In telling, the author intervenes authoritatively in order to

(24) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 11 describe, and often to evaluate, the motives, and dispositional qualities of the characters (2009: 43). In An Introduction to Fiction, Stanton states that the term character is used in two ways, it designates the individuals who appear in the story; and it refers to description of attitudes, interests, desires, emotions, and moral principles of the individuals. He categorized the characters into two different types: main character and minor character. Major character is a character that may dominate the whole story and is frequently presented in it. Meanwhile, the minor character is presented in order to explain and help the other character, especially the major character (1965: 17-18). Murphy in his book Understanding Unseen: An introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Students, stated about the techniques of characterization. There are nine ways to make the characters understandable in a story. 1. Personal Description The author uses this method to give description of character appearance in face, body, and the other physical appearances to help the reader visualize the character and understand his characteristic. 2. Character as Seen by Another Instead of describing a character directly, the author can describe the character through the eyes and opinions of others. This method can give the impressions of shape, cleanliness, firmness, color, etc.

(25) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3. 12 Speech The author gives the readers an insight into the character of one of the person in the book through what the people says. The character of a person can be seen from whenever he/she speak and having conversation. 4. Past Life By letting the reader learn a character’s past life, the author can give the clue to events that have helped to shape a person’s character. This can be done by direct comment by the author, through the person’s thought, through his conversation, or through the medium of another person. 5. Conversation of Others The author can also give the readers clue to a persons’ character through the conversation of other people and the things they say about her/him. People talk about other people and the things they say often give as a clue to the character of the person spoken about. 6. Reaction Give the readers clue to a persons’ character by letting the readers know how that person reacts to various situations and events. The actions are related to his or her motives or thought. 7. Direct Comment The author can describe or comment on a person’s character directly. The Author gives comments based on his point of view.

(26) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 8. 13 Thoughts The author give direct knowledge of what a person is thinking about. In this aspect, he is able to do what we cannot do in real life. He can tell the reader what different people are thinking. The readers then are in privileged position; they have, as it were, a listening device plugged into the inmost thoughts of a person in a novel. 9. Mannerism The author can describe a person’s mannerisms, habits, or idiosyncrasies, which may also tell the readers something about his character. (1972: 161-173). 2. Theory of Americanization In Multicultural American Literature, Lee states that U.S ethnicity and the literary fictions it has engendered, of necessity involves reckoning with America’s pervasive, however often contradictory, codes of whiteness. America is to be seen not only as somehow newly ethnic but in fact, and endemically, as having been ethnic from its very foundation. The true loading lies in the construction of cultural or ideological whiteness, a belief, tacit or otherwise, that America embodies, indeed simply is, a white polity and civilization ( 2003: 235-236). During the period after the end of the Second World War in Britain, Americanization had become an aspect of some general fears and anxieties about the increasing capacity of the young and the working class to participate in the slowly emerging consumer Society. Booker defined Americanization as ‘a brash standardized mass-culture, centered on the enormously increased influence of

(27) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 14 television and advertising, a popular music more marked than ever by the hypnotic beat of jazz, and the new prominence, as a distinct social force, given to teenager and the young’ (Lee , 2003:26). The use of term Americanization used in the later part of 19th century and in the early part of the 20th century. As Graham and Koed stated that Americanization indicates to a social movement whose goal was to fully assimilate people into American society or the process which people changes into Americans (1993: 24-29). This means the goal of Americanization is to make people become understand the culture and value of America so they will become a true American. The degree of Americanization according to Huebner was some people will adopt certain American method, customs, and idea. Some people will also refuse and unable to adopt the value (1906:191). People who unable to adopt the value of Americanization they will become not fully Americanized and still believe in their own national value. According to Lomawaima and Teresa McCarty the civilization of Native American simply termed as Americanization which is mandated the transformation of nations and individuals: replace heritage languages with English; replace paganism with Christianity; replace economic, political, social, legal, and aesthetic institutions (2006:4). The process of Americanization can be seen through the assimilation of religion, education, sport, American lifestyle, slang, value, and popular culture. American government used some method to Americanized Native Americans:

(28) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 15 1. Introducing Popular Culture Popular culture is also defined as mass culture. In A Dictionary of Cultural and Critical Theory, Payne stated that popular culture define as the culture of the people, as those symbolic objects and practices which somehow express or gives shape to popular beliefs, values, and traditions. In short, popular culture expresses the aesthetic, ideological, hedonistic, spiritual, and symbolic values of particular group of people; we can read those values in popular practices, texts, and objects. Popular culture then become “everyday life”, what “the people” do, ways of talking, eating, dressing, playing, working, and worshiping. Popular culture also describe activities, symbolic institutions which produce the people, a particular form of collective identity, a particular set of attitudes and values, a particular sort of recognition, a particular sense of belonging. It made popular culture become obvious implication for and effects upon the social categories of nation and race, gender and class, age and taste (Payne, 1972: 415-416). The claim that popular culture is American culture has a long history within the theoretical mapping of popular culture. It is operates under the term “Americanization”. There are two things we can say about United States and popular culture. First Popular culture has been socially and institutionally central in America for longer and in a more significant way than in Europe. Second, the influence of America culture worldwide is undoubted. The fear of Americanization is closely related to a distrust of emerging forms of popular culture (Storey, 2001: 9)

(29) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 16 Mass culture or popular culture is a threat that causes someone to lose his or her national identity. It destroys the values, traditions, taste, and dissolving all cultural distinctions. It is a culture which discourages the effort of thinking and creates its own emotional and sentimental responses. Hebdige pointed out that Americanization offer an American popular culture, Hollywood film, advertising image, packaging, clothes and music offers a rich iconography, a set of symbol, objects and artifact which can assembled and reassembled by different groups in a literally limitless number of combinations. They consume styles in images, clothes, and music in an active, meaningful and imaginative fashion, one which transforms the meaning of Americanization and converts them into distinct sub cultural tastes (Hebdige, 1988:18). 2. American Indian Education The term American Indian education to refer to the colonial education of American Indian people within school system dedicated to “civilizing” and standardizing goal. A similar term, Indian schools, has referred to the on and off reservation. Indian schools were created to civilize Native Children, to eradicate Native identities, language, and cultures. In the late 1800s, off reservation boarding schools were seen as the ideal facility to Americanize Native Individual. The Native American children were forced by government or their parent to study in boarding school. The U.S commissioner of Indian Affair suggested to use boarding school for prepares Native American children to live in American society. At boarding schools,

(30) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 17 Native American children will be introduced to English language, vocational skill, and Christianity. The Native American children would be punished for speaking their native language and practice their native culture (Lomawaima and McCarty, 2006: 447). Stone, E Sarah in the article American Indian Education: How Assimilation Decrease Retention writes that the school took away everything that resembled American Indian. The children hair was cut short, and they were forced to pull of their native clothes, and gave each child an American name. The goal of many boarding schools was to erase American Indian culture by forcing the children to participate in Anglo American tradition and activity. American Indian schools use the strict military regiment and harsh discipline in order to increase effectiveness of the forced assimilation of American Indian culture to mainstream American culture (2011: 21-23). 3. Placing Native American into Reservation After the civil war, American government raised the idea to settle down and forced Native American to stay in the permanents area as a reservation. The plan about reservation has some major goals which are to concentrate Native America population, isolate them from whites, and train Native American in agriculture. Reservation is small area of land created by America government for Native American used as a habitation. The government believe it was helping Native American from deviation, marginalization, and attempted to replace native culture with American white value. Reservations were also used as a laboratory to

(31) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 18 implement the scientifically phrased project of “elevating a race”. Reservation life was seen as necessary instruments to civilize Native American (Lomawaima and McCarty, 2006:4). The reservation system also perpetuated Native American socioeconomic position. Native American is isolated from the broader society in the government’s effort to maintain bureaucratic control and in their own attempt to preserve what is left of their indigenous culture. Individual Native American face difficult choice: to stay on impoverished reservations and try to preserve what is left of their culture or to enter a Eurocentric society that is not prepared to facilitate their upward mobility (Aguirre and Turner, 2011:180). C. Review on the History and Culture of Native American 1. Native American Culture To understand the Native American better we must know their history and life culture. Understanding their culture will help the writer to analyze this study more accurate. Sue Northey in her book The American Indian said that in the early time, America was a magnificent continent of forest, plains, deserts and mountains, where all life was wild and natural. The white man called this land the New World. The white men met a man with skins colors of burnished copper were in possession of the country. The white men called them Indians. The Indians did not know where they come from; the Indians believe that the Great Spirit had created the continent and all that was found on it to be their very own forever (1962: 2-4).

(32) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 19 Indians lived in villages and made trails through the forest, over the mountains, along lakeshores or down river valleys. These trails, connected the distant settlement, and were worn smooth and hard by the moccasined feet runners who traveled them for hundreds of years. A family, or clan, of Indians was called a tribe. There were so many tribes that it would be quite impossible to study them. The Indians lived in different sections. From east to west naturally divided into four sections; the Woodlands, the Plains, the Desserts, and the Western Mountains and Seaboard districts (Northey, 1962: 4-5). The home life of the Indians was pleasant and happy. The people were simple, proud, and generous. The fathers were kind and rarely spoke a cross words to any member of their families. They treated their wives and children with much affection and tenderness. The squaws, though often poor, were good mothers and very fond of their children; they trained them to respect older people, and to be self-reliant. The young Indian men were taught the language of tribe, its social custom, and religious ceremony. Both boys and girls not only to show skill in all the Indian arts, but they also had to learn the songs, dances, ceremonials, and beliefs of the tribal religion (Northey, 1962: 27-31). Music was a part of the everyday life of the American Indians. In the ceremonies of welcome, war, peace, trade, and all the gatherings of these sociable people, singing was the accompaniment. Throughout all time, music has presented thoughts and feelings to others. The folksongs of the people everywhere show their natural feelings. The Indians music and dances showed his feeling on many different

(33) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 20 occasions. The festival music was gay, light and happy; the feelings of the people took place in all they did; they were so grateful to the Great Spirit of Life for the goodness and beauty given to them that they tried to put it into their religious dances and music (Northey, 1962:22-23). In his native state, the American Indian was very religious. He showed a high degree of intelligence, morality, honesty, charity, and honor. He lived very close to nature and considered himself a “brother” to all living things. He worshiped many spirits such as the spirit of rain, the spirit of cold, and all manner of tribal Gods who were supposed to bring success in the hunt or on the warpath (Northey, 1962: 32). Every Native American community had medicine men and women, shamans, or priest. They had special close contact with the supernatural and have ability to communicate with the spirits. It is acquainted with a significant literature, expressed in the form of prose narratives, song, chants, magic formulas, speeches, and prayer by all Indian groups and by a few groups as puns, proverbs, and riddles. These aspects of belief constituted each community’s most treasured knowledge of the natural, human, and spiritual realms and expressed the supernatural approve ethos of each time ( (20 June 2013) 2. Native American in Modern Time The modern Native American now lived in place called reservation apart from the white people. In Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies, Some Indian tribes or nations have reestablished claims to sovereignty in homelands, while other struggles for recognition of autonomous relationships, or even as minority groups. Native

(34) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 21 American that had been moved to leave their homelands and live in the cities often referred to as “Urban Indians”, and at times lack meaningful connection to their home cultures (Cashmore, 2004: 21-22). Native American that were forcibly removed to reservations also contest the justice of their treatment, including many California Indians who have recently fought for and won stated referendums on Indian Gaming, wherein a 150 years ago their population base was eliminated upward 90 percent. These and a host of related conflicts demonstrate the viability and survival of Indians. Historical conflicts illustrate the complicated reality of most contemporary Native Americans. The five Civilized Tribes were put under the genocidal policy “Indian Removal” from their Southeastern homelands to Indian Territory. Many Reservations contains people from different “tribes” or culture, greatly complicating current social realities and nomenclature. Between 1917 and 1921, the government released a policy to destroy tribal identity that was based on Indian lands holding, by issuing fee patent to the whites who were determined to be competent to handle their own affair. Through unpaid taxes and sale to whites at a low price, more Indian lands no longer belonged to them. The 1960s and 1970s in the USA, saw a resurgence that included the American Indian Movement (AIM) and the Trail of Broken Treaties, advocating resistance, such as at Wounded Knee. These movements supported current resistance groups, including the UN Indigenous People’s Working Groups and well established sovereignty claims in the USA and Canada, with Indian peoples demanding

(35) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 22 identification as nations within nation states, rebuilding languages and cultures aster 200 years of suppression (Cashmore, 2004:22). The contemporary situations of Native Americans as the indigenous peoples of the Americas must consider themes of cultural reproduction, commodification, and education as oppression and liberation, environmental issues, globalization, and resistance, identity issues in political constructs, media, and representation. Cultural reproduction for nearly all Native American is more a questioning of resisting and cultural suppression and culturecide (Cashmore, 2004:22-23). The government tried to civilize the Native American with many ways. In another movement and one of that triumphed in terms of legislature and social policy was seethed in violence and hatred for this threatening class of people who did not have any place in a rapidly expanding European based community. Another sector that represents Native American oppression is Education. Historically, the Boarding Schools that forcefully extracted Native American children from their families for at least two years with many never returning, were clear attempts by the US and Canadian governments at ethnocide while building and oppressed racial minority. The white people also introduced alcohol to Native Americans and it became one of Native American susceptibilities. The white people also labeled Native American as lazy tribe and doomed to be obliterated by European progress and civilization.

(36) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 3. 23 Theoretical Framework The writer already mentioned some theories above that help the writer to answer the problem formulation. The theories are the theory of character and characterization, and theory of Americanization. Theory of character and characterization used to describe the characters characteristics in the story. The writer focuses on their attitudes, acts, and their speeches. Theory character and characterization used to analyze the characters in the first problem formulation. Theory of Americanization helps the writer to analyze the second and third problem formulations. This theory helps the writer to reveal the method of Americanization to Native American and the effect of Americanization through the description of characterization. In addition, the review of the Native American culture gives the writer a reference about Native American original culture before introduce to Americanization. The review about Native American in modern time helps the writer understand how white people try to Americanize Native American from time to time. By using these theories and review, the writer can complete the analysis.

(37) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY A. Object of the Study The object of this study focused on the novel Reservation Blues written by Sherman Alexei. Sherman Alexie is a popular Native American author. Reservation Blues is Sherman Alexie first novel. He is not only published novel but also poetry, short stories, and screenplay. Some of his best works are The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1994), The Business of Fancy Dancing (1992), The Toughest Indian in the World (2000), and The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-time Indian, which is his semi autobiographical novel and won the 2007 U.S National Book Award for Young People’s Literature. Reservation Blues published in 1995 and in 1996, it won the American Book Awards. The story in this novel is about the journey of the character named Thomas Builds the Fire and his friends to build a music band. The story showed the raise and falls of their band, and contains many issues about Native Americans. The story started with Robert Johnson’s arrival at a Spokane Indian reservation where he meets Thomas Builds the Fire, who leads him to a woman who lives in deep forest that the blues singer has been dreaming about, Big Mom. This ordinary woman lived hundreds of years old and incredibly wise. Thomas Builds the Fire takes Johnson to see Big Mom at WellPoint Mountain, Johnson leaves him his guitar, and Thomas sees his chance to form a blues band. 24

(38) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI B. 25 Approach of the Study The writer uses the socio cultural historical approach to analyze the problems in this study. This approach use because this study focuses on the culture, identity, and historical background. In Reading and Writing about Literature stated, that the socio cultural historical approach insists the only way to locate the real work is in reference to the civilization that produced it. They define civilization as the attitudes and actions of a specific group of people and point out that literature takes these attitudes and actions as its subject matter (Rohrberger and Woods, 1971:9). This means that the approach focus to examine the relevancy of civilization in literature work. The socio cultural historical approach contain two factors: First, accuracy in the presentation of historical facts is of value to the historian, but not necessarily to the author. Second, a work of literature might have historical significance, but not necessarily literary significance matter (Rohrberger and Woods, 1971: 11). Furthermore, the traditional historical approach to literature usually takes basis some aspect of the socio cultural frame of reference, combining it with an interest in the biographical as well as knowledge of and interest in literary history. The historical critic examined not only the work itself but also the work in relation to others by the same author or to works of similar kind. There is also a philosophy of life, which can be express and viewed in moral terms (Rohrberger and Woods, 1971:10).

(39) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 26 The socio cultural historical approach is relevant to the novel because it will help the writer to answer the problem formulations, which are related to Americanization and Native American perspective on their identity and culture. The writer will examine the Native American culture, identity, and Americanization through the characters. Therefore, this approach is important to be used in this study. C. Method of the Study The method of this study was library research. The writer read, gather some data and information from appropriate books which are related with the subject of the study. To get more useful information, the writer collected some data from internet, which was not found in the book. The primary data of the study was the novel Reservation Blues. The other data were taken from books, article, encyclopedia, journal, and dictionary. The writer also collected some important theory and approached which is used in this study. The theories were theory of characterization and theory of Americanization. The approach would use socio cultural historical approach. The first step in this study was reading and understanding the novel deeply. The writer tried to find the essential issue in the novel. In the second step, the writer decided the topic to be discussed in the study, which was the Americanization toward Native American culture and identity and tried to find references that relevant to the topic. The third step created problem formulation to analyze the topic. The writer applied the theory to answer the problem formulation.

(40) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 27 The writer used theory of characterization to analyze the character in the story. Then, theory of Americanization helped the writer to describe Americanization and it effect toward the Native American perspective of their identity and culture. The last step of this study was drawing conclusion from the analysis of problem formulation. The writer was able to draw the way of Americanization and Americanization effect as reflected in novel Reservation Blues.

(41) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS In this chapter, the writer makes analysis based on the problem formulations that are stated in the first chapter. There are three parts of analysis in this study. The first part is about how the character is described in the novel. The second part identifies Americanization experience. In the last part, the writer shows the effect of Americanization to Native American. A. The Description of the Native American Characters 1. Thomas Build the Fire Thomas is one of the main characters in the story. He is a Spokane tribe Indian and he has living in reservation since childhood. He has tanned skin; long black hair made into braids, short, and has average face. Indian women had never paid much attention to him, because he didn’t pretend to be some twentieth- century warrior, alternating between blind rage and feigned disinterest (Alexie, 1995: 4). The quotation describes that Thomas is an ordinary man with lack of appeal to attract women. He prefers to become himself better than pretends to be someone else. In the reservation, Thomas lives in the Government HUD House with his drunkard father. His house is not a nice place to live because it is half finished and lack of house furniture. “During his childhood, Thomas had slept in the half-finished basement, with two blankets for walls and one blanket for his bed (Alexie, 1995:7)”. 28

(42) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 29 Thomas childhood memories are full of many hardships. His mother died because of stomach cancer when he was a child. His father became a drunkard after his mother died. During his young age, Thomas father was a good basket ball player. Thomas father talent in basket ball became something that people in reservation appreciated and thought him as tribal hero. Thomas was left alone at home when his father got drunk in somewhere else. “He wasn’t ugly, though, just marked by loneliness, like some red L was tattooed in his forehead (Alexie, 1995:4).” Thomas has a great disappointment toward his father. The dead of his mother and being left alone with his father made him grown up as lonely and independent person. He dislikes living in reservation and tries to get out from there. Thomas is a polite person and still follows Indian tradition believes where some other Native Americans do not follow it any more. Traditional Spokane believes in rules of conduct that aren’t collected into any book and have been forgotten by most of the tribe. For thousand years, the Spokanes feasted, danced, conducted conversations, and courted each other in certain ways. Most Indians don’t follow those rules anymore, but Thomas made the attempt (Alexie, 1995:5). It shows that Thomas adopted the way of old traditional Native American. When Thomas met a stranger, he helped the stranger and began the first conversation. Peoples in reservation thought that Thomas was a stupid person because he helped the stranger. ”Thomas didn’t gamble with his money, but he did gamble with his stomach when he heated up a microwave burrito” (Alexie, 1995:12). When the other Native American in reservation like to gambling and drunk, Thomas prefers to spend his money to bought food supply and spent it in good way. He is a thrifty person.

(43) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 30 In reservation, Thomas called as misfit storyteller of the Spokane Indian Tribe. Thomas Build the Fire stories climbed into your clothes like sand gave you itches that could not be scratched. If you repeated even a sentence from one of those stories, your throat was never the same again (Alexie, 1995: 15). Thomas likes to tell tribal story to other people as the way of old Native American shared story about the past. He wants to share stories that have power to heal the negative feeling even if it seems possible because peoples do not believe it anymore. Even though people in reservation belief it is only a bullshit story, Thomas never give up when he shared his story. When face a problem Thomas will handle it calmly and maturely. Thomas actually is a Catholic but he stopped believe in Catholic after experienced an unpleasant things. You know, I quit when I was nine. I went to the church of one day and found everybody burning the records and books. Indians burning records and books. I couldn’t believe it. Even if I was just nine. These are devil’s tools! The white Catholic priest bellowed as his Indian flock threw books and record into the fire (Alexie, 1995:146). That event made Thomas lose his only pleasure during childhood. Thomas mourned for how Indian people easily burn their folk story books and Indian record books. It made him lose his faith to God. “I’ve spent my whole life being ignored. I’m used to it. If people want to hear us now, come to hear us play, come to listen. Just think how many will come if we get famous” (alexie, 1995:212). Thomas has a strong desire to leave the reservation. He wants a lot of attention and seeks a better life.

(44) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 31 2. Victor Joseph Victor Joseph is a trouble maker characters in the novel. He is a confident person. He likes wearing flashy clothes and do not really care by the way he looks. It is stated in the following quotes He bought of a closet of full of silk shirts and polyester pants and had never had any money since then to buy anything new. He hadn’t gained any weight in thirteen years, but the clothes were tattered and barely held to his body (Alexie, 1995:12). Victor is a bad boy and he usually bullies Thomas Build the Fire. “Tell me the name of your goddamned guitar, Victor said and squeezed Thomas a little harder (Alexie, 1995: 14)”. He talks in rude way and uses violence’s if his desire insatiable. Victor is jobless and does not make any money at all. He is affected by materialistic thing and has lot of money become one of his ambitions. He agrees to join Thomas band because it will give him money and fame. Victor wanted money so bad that he always spent it too quick, as if the few dollars in his wallet somehow prevented him from getting more. Money. That’s all victor talked about (Alexie, 1995; 19). He is depends his income by ask his friend to pay what he need. “I’m feeling like a beer. What do you think, Junior? Let’s knock off early and head for the tavern (Alexie, 1995: 20)”. When he gets the money, he will spend his money to buy beer and getting drunk. His drinking habits become his get away to forget problem and his jobless day. Victor grew up without a care from his family. His father died because of heart attack and his mother married again with a white men. His step father did not

(45) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 32 like to have native children. Victor often received harsh treatment from his white father. His parent often sent victor into Catholic camp or mission school. He remembered picking huckleberries with his family. He remembered climbing trees with his friend, other Indian boys allowed to stay on the reservation. Those Indian boys climbed the limbs of three every summer (Alexie, 1995: 148). As a young boy he missed to play with other Native American children in nature. In Mission school Victor was cut off from Native American culture. The priest shaved his long black hair into bald and taught him to do house work. It made him grown up as a person who did not believe in Native American culture and belief which stated in the following quotation: “oh”, Victor said, “don’t tell me she’s some medicine woman or something. That’s all bunch crap. It don’t work” (Alexie, 1995; 199). Victor has modern thought as Native American also he hate thing that sound nonsense for him. Victor also prefers to have relationship with white women than Native American women. Even though having a relationship with white women were bad in Native American women’s perception, victor still did not care: “Who say I want an Indian woman anyway? I see some good-looking white woman here (Alexie, 1995: 56)”. Victor is a person who does not care with other opinion about himself and keep doing something he likes to do.

(46) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 33 3. Warm Water Sisters Checkers and Chess Warm Water are Native American women from Flathead reservation. Checkers describes as a beautiful, hard to get, and popular woman among Native American man: “All the young Flathead men called her little miss Native American, but she still refused to listen to their courting song (Alexie, 1995:55)”. Checkers have brown skin and dark hair like the others of Native American women. Her older sister Chess Warm Water is an energetic woman, have dark eyes, her face is not as pretty as her younger sister: “Chess never considered herself beautiful, but she liked her face well enough” (Alexie, 1995:60). Chess is a confident woman and cares more about her inner than outside. It made her become more mature than her sister. Warm Waters sisters grew up in poverty condition. Warm Water sister has a little brother named Backgammon. The dead of their little brother brought miserable thing to their family. Their father became a drunker and her mother leaved them behind. Checkers and her sister have a hard life when lived together with his father. Their father rarely came back home and gave them foods. The lack of affection from her father made Checkers only date an old man: “Chess remembered that Checkers always chased the older Indian men and never even looked at the young bucks” (Alexie, 1995:104). Checkers also did not mind to falling in love with white man. Unlike his younger sister, Chess prefers to date Native American man. She has her own qualification of Native American man.

(47) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 34 She hated Indian men who chased after white women; she hated white women who chased after Indian men. We give birth to Indian men. We feed them. We hold them when they cry. They run off with white women. I’m sick of it (Alexie, 1995:81). Chess is little bit conservative for she has thought that Indian men belong to Indian women not with white women. For Chess, Indian men who chased white women only betrayed their identity. Warm water sister’s family has strong faith in their religion. They got baptized during childhood, came into church mass every Sunday, and join church chorus. God created all this. I mean, how can you look at all of this, all this life, and not believe in God? Look at this reservation. It’s so pretty. Do you think the river and the trees are mistakes? Do you think everything is accidental? (Alexie, 1995:167) From the quotation we can see that Warm Water sisters believe that God created this world. It made them does not aware about Native American belief. Checkers hate to be Native American. She dislikes how Native American loses their dignity and passion as a real Native American. For Checkers Native American now more looks like a beggar and desperate person who begging money from white people. She is jealous how white people live in comfy life and it made her slowly follow the white value. Those white women are always perfect, you know? When I was little and we’d go to shop in Missoula, I’d see perfect little white girls all the time. They were always so pretty and clean. I’d come to town in my muddy dress. It never mattered how clean it was when we left Arlee. By the time we got to Missoula, it was always a mess (Alexie, 1995:139). She fall for white beauty and forgets her won tribal beauty. She believed it would give her a proper live not like desperate live in reservation.

(48) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 35 On the other side, Chess does not mesmerized by white beauty. She is believe that each of own beauty has it uniqueness as stated in the quotation: “Chess said that we were better than those white girl any days” (Alexie, 1995:140). B. The Method of Americanization on Native American Characters Based on the novel Reservation Blues the writer explained what methods of Americanization experienced by the Native American characters. Through this ways the American government able to Americanized and plant some American value into Native American. 1. Pop Culture The Americanization also introduces through popular culture. Popular culture defines as system of attitudes, behavior, beliefs, customs, and tastes that define people in any societies. It is the entertainments, diversions, icons, ritual, and action that shape the everyday world. Popular culture is an extension of folk culture, the culture of people. The common examples of American Pop culture are sports, body image, game, music, food, drink, television, movie, and technology (Quay, 2002:301). Thomas smiled and walked into the Trading post, one of the few lucrative businesses on the reservation. It shelves were stocked with reservation staples: Diet Pepsi, Spam, Wonder bread, and cornucopia of various carbohydrates, none of them complex. One corner of the Trading Post was devoted to the gambling machines that had become mandatory on every reservation. The tribe had installed a few new slot machines earlier that day, and the Spokane’s lined up to play. Dreams of the jackpot (Alexie, 1995:12). Popular culture was introduced to Native American through television, movie, food, drink, and music. In quotation above show how the food trading place only supply

(49) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 36 junk food and gambling machine to Native America. Thomas and friend usually drink Pepsi and eat fast food. They are hardly find Native American food because many people do not cook it anymore. “I’m feeling like a beer. What do you think, Junior? Let’s knock off early and head for tavern” (Alexei, 1995:20). Victor Joseph has addicted toward beer and he like drink it until become drunk. Mass Media like television, film, and music give Native American idea about white image and American ideology. It is makes them know more about American culture and they adopts it into their daily life.” “Shut the goddamn door! Victor shouted” (Alexie, 1995:80). From watching television they can adopt American slang to their daily conversation. In daily conversation Victor Joseph and friends use cursing word to like fuck, goddamn, shit, assholes, etc. “I was wondering if you guys wanted to be in my band, Thomas said” (Alexei, 1995:28). Thomas like play music and he form a band together with Victor and Warm Water sister. He sometime covers a song from popular band or creates his own song. Thomas picks rock, country, and blues as his music genre. His purpose for form a band is to help them get out from poverty and get some popularity. “I’m McCartney and Lennon all rolled up into one, Victor said” (alexie, 1995:41). Victor Joseph idolized the Beatles and they inspired him to play well in band. Popular culture also introduced American lifestyle to Native American. The American lifestyle shows how white people spending night with party, drinking alcohol, and wearing high fashion brand.

(50) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 37 What else happened at the party? Same old things, Thomas said. People got drunk. People fought. People got pregnant in the back rooms. A couple went to jail. One got his stomach pumped. Two died in a car wreck on the way home. And there was partridge in a pear tree (Alexie, 1995:119). Thomas mother likes to throw a party and invite elder to her party. They are partying like white people do party. They drink alcohol, make some noise, and do some trouble. American lifestyles also introduce branded clothes. “She braided her hair, pulled on her best pair of blue jeans, red t-shirt, and white tennis shoes. Nike running shoes” ( Alexie, 1995:137).Checkers Warm Water prefers to pick expensive and branded clothes to wear. Wearing branded clothes give her more confidence and comfort. 2. Boarding School The second way to Americanize Native American was through boarding school. In the past, Native Americans were portrayed as noble savages or ruthless killer. They are not educated, speak different language, and live wildly in nature, therefore the U.S government plan to give them proper education. The U.S government asks Native American parents to send their children away into boarding school. The U.S government decides that keeping children at long periods away from their parents would make the best assimilation into American society. During his childhood Victor Joseph parents always send him into school. His parent wanted Victor Joseph get a nice education and learn more about religion. Victor was a hundred miles from home. He was nine years old. He was at the Mission School for the summer. His mother and real father often send him for

(51) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 38 camp. Catholic summer, Catholic summer. Victor mopped the floor (Alexie, 1995:147). The distance between reservation and boarding school are thousands of miles. They stay in dormitory and take care by priest. Thousand miles away from his parents, Victor Joseph and the other Native American kids feel sad. In school, Victor is not permitted to play in outside. The boarding school take care native children with full concentration. Attending boarding school, children left behind their Native American life style and learned a new way of living. They receive academic and vocational training in boarding school. In school they learn sport especially basketball which replace their outside activity. In boarding school Native American children did not use their native names and changed it into more American name. “My braids were cut off in the name of Jesus to make me look so white” (Alexie, 1995: 130). This also show the boarding school tried to disappear their original look with began from their appearances. Native American could not wear their traditional clothes, their traditional hairstyle were cut and could not practice their traditional belief. Victor Joseph hair shaved into bald. He is kind of shock when realize that his hair become bald. The school teaches American traditions and building up American patriotism. In here, American characteristic transmitted into Native American child to Americanize their thought. Native American children were prohibited speaking in their native language. “My tongue was cut out in the name of Jesus. So I would not speak what’s right” (Alexie, 1995: 130). Teachers teach them how to speak in English language properly.

(52) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 39 “Victor and the priest mopped up the water mopped the rest of the floor clean and put the supplies back in their places” (Alexie, 1995:148). Victor Joseph often gets punishment for his bad behavior. If Native American Children do not speak English properly teachers slap their hands with rules or give them chores. They are surrounding by English speaking community to make them learn English language quickly. Slowly they forget how to speak in native languages. Native Americans also learn American sport especially basketball. According to Luetdke sport is a mirror of America life. Basketball started as part of the nineteenth century crusade to Americanize Native American. It is used as a way to express national pride and compete feeling. “My father was Washington State High School Basketball Player on the Year in 1956. He was a good basketball player that all Spokanes wanted him to be more.” (alexie, 1995:97). Thomas father during his young was a basketball player. His father played for his high school and he got an award for best player. 3. Reservation In reservation Native American live in house that U.S government gives to them. The house has lower quality than the white people house. According to Tuner and Aguirre fewer Native American household have complete bathrooms, access to public water, public sewer, complete kitchen, and telephones (2011:160). Thomas Built the Fire, Victor Joseph, Warm Water sisters grown up in reservation. They lived in government HUD house which are every Native American get from the

(53) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 40 government. “The water pipes froze every winter, and windows warped in summer heat” (Alexie, 1995:7). The house where Thomas lives is lack of quality and has several problems. Thomas house building never really finished and it give him difficulty to live comfortable. Thomas thought about all the dreams that were murdered here, and the bones buried quickly just inches below the surface, all waiting to break through the foundations of those government houses built by the Department of Housing and Urban Development (Alexie, 1995:7). Even though reservation is a place for him to settle down, Thomas realizes that reservation is a place that sacrifices many Native American peoples and their dream. A lot of Native American has died for struggle their culture for not being affected by white people. Placing Native American in reservation made the government job to Americanized Native American become easier. The government use reservation as a medium too controls Native American life and culture. In reservation the government tries to teach the way white people live to Native American. The government wanted to change Native American wild life into a modern life. Reservation has some major goals which are one of them to control the population of Native American. The government provided medical treatment for Native Americans. Every time Thomas Built the Fire checkup in Health service clinic he gets a free condom. Another goal is to teach them about industrial and agricultural which hopefully help them to get a proper job. In matter of fact living in reservation is not easy to get steady job. Victor Joseph never gets any job and

(54) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 41 maintains his life with use his friend’s money. Thomas Built the fire also feel worry for not earn money. “He’d received some life insurance money when his mom died, but that was almost gone, and nobody on reservation ever hired him to work” (Alexie, 1995:23). Thomas only gets money from his mother life insurance. He feels insecure about his life prospect in reservation. “She and Checkers fought fires for the BIA during the summers, travelling all over the country... (Alexie, 1995:76). Warm Water sisters also do any random job and they are struggling to get more money. In the one hundred and eleven years since the creation of the Spokane Indian Reservation in 1881, not one person, Indian or otherwise, had ever arrived there by accident. Wellpinit, the only town on the reservation, did not exist on the map, so the black stranger surprised the whole tribe (Alexie, 1995:3). The reservation areas are far away from the city and sometime it is an unknown area. Native American is separated and isolated from white society and mainstream society. As the result White people hardly recognize Native American. When Thomas and his friends go out from the reservation, many of white people asked them if they are really a true Native American. “Who you talking to? The white man asked his son. This Indian. He’s rea.l” (Alexie, 1995:128). The regulation in reservation was controlled by the government. The government also controls the distribution of the food in the reservation which Native American called it commodity food. Native Americans line up to get free commodity food. “They savagely, repeatedly, opened up cans of commodities and wept over the rancid meat, forced to eat what stray dogs ignored.”(Alexei, 1995: 14).Thomas and

(55) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 42 friends hate eat commodity food. They feel it is not appropriate to eat and the taste is miserable. C. The Effect of Americanization toward Native Americans’ Perspective on Their Own Culture and Identity as Seen through the Characters In this third part the writer wants to describe the effect of Americanization toward Native American culture and identity. There are some effects that the writer finds from the analysis. 1. Ashamed and Uncomfortable with Their Identity as Native Americans Being place in reservation made Thomas Build the fire and his friends lose their spirit as the real Native American. They are bound with regulations that U.S government give to them. In reservation they live far from white society and it make them cannot socialize with white society. Hey, Kit, the waitress yelled back at the fry cook and owner of the deli. Have you seen any Indians in here? What do you mean? Kit asked. You mean from India or what? No, stupid, the waitress yelled. Indians like in the western movies. Like Geronimo. Oh, I am not seen none of those around for a long time. I saw in a book once. You are sure there are still Indians around at all? (Alexie, 1995:239). When Thomas and Chess go outside reservation white people mistake them as a people from different nationality. They think that Native American do not exist anymore.”Do you speak English?” Kit asked.” Let’s get out from here,” Chess said to Thomas.” (Alexie, 1995:239). Even though some white people recognize them as Native American, they still have assumption native American is still primitive and speak with different language. Treat as someone from the outsider and discriminated

(56) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 43 make Thomas and his friends feel they are unacceptable in white society. Thomas Build the Fire who still believe in Native American culture feel disgusting with the way of white people describe his tribe. The white people pictured Native American as a savage or old custom people through movie, stories, and song. It is hurt his pride as a Native American. The discrimination that they got from white people made them low confident and uncomfortable with their identity as Native American. Other shoppers, white people, starred as the Warm Waters tried on the shoes; Checkers saw the pity in their eyes. Those poor Indian kids have to buy their shoes in a supermarket. Both sisters cried as they paid for the essential food items and those ugly shoes (Alexei, 1995:137). Warm Water sister felt ashamed with the way white people look at them like a hopeless person. Checkers begin uncomfortable with her identity and begin imitating white people. “I just looked at that blonde hair and blue eyes and I know I wanted to look like that. I wanted to be just like one of those white girls.”(Alexei, 1995: 140). She wants to be like white people who live in a nice place, eat a good food, and dressed in a good way. She realized if she has a fair complexion and clean like white people, she will not live in reservation. It is made her more praising white people identity then her own identity. “This city’s filled up with beautiful white woman; Victor said and laughed his drunk laugh.”(Alexie, 1995:233). Victor Joseph prefers to date white woman than Native American woman. He is not interested for having relationship with Native American women. Victor Joseph act rude toward woman from his own tribe. Have a

(57) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 44 relationship with white women give Victor a pride to his identity that he can also do what white people can do. White people still have negative prejudice toward Native American. “Damn right.” Victor said. “What do you think we have in these cases? Machine guns? Bows and arrows?”(Alexie, 1995:134). Victor Joseph expresses his shame feeling in anger for white people recognize his identity as savages. He feels his identity as Native American is being despised by white peoples. 2. Forget Their Native American Culture Value Thomas Build the Fire, Victor Joseph, and Warm Water sister also has difficulty in finding job. They only get a small job which is the wage doe not enough for living. They depend on their live from food commodity and gambling. Money and poverty become a serious problem that affected their life and culture value as Native American. Because I have the money, Thomas said. He had forty two dollars in his pocket and another fifty hidden at home, much more than junior and victor had together. Victor understood the economics of the deal, how money equals power, especially on a reservation so poor that a dollar bill once changed the outcome of tribal elections. David Walks Along was elected Councilman by a single vote because he’d paid Lester Falls Apart a dollar to punch the ballot for him (Alexie, 1995:46). According to Billard, the Native American’s perception in establishing their relationship to anyone was humane. They made good relationship and appreciate each other people (1974:26). The power of money affected the cultural value of the characters. Thomas, Victor, and Warm water sisters realize how an amount of money can give them all they want and a good life. The humanity value that their ancestor taught to them is not valid anymore. They become obedient and believe toward

(58) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 45 people with have high authority. “He wanted a bigger house, clothes, shoes, and something more.”(Alexie, 1995:18). Every day they dealing with thought how to make more money for their life force. They wanted remove themselves from poverty and dream living in a good life. Thomas Build the Fire has strong will to reform his life into a better life. He created band with the other to get out from reservation life and taste a famous live. 3. Praise American Culture than Their Own Culture The growth of popular culture also has strong impact toward Native American culture. Victor Joseph and Checkers Warm Water like to imitate and praise American culture than their own culture. Victor has his addiction toward beer and his cynical behavior toward Native American belief. Slowly popular cultures remove their original culture as Native American. “New agers showed up with their crystal, expecting to hear some ancient Indian wisdom and got a good dose of Sex Pistols covers instead.” (Alexie, 1995: 41). In the past Native American had habit to tell a story about humanity, wisdom, the relationship between human and nature, etc. The purpose of telling the story from generation to next generation is to protect the cultural inheritance and remind their grand children about the culture of Native American. Thomas Built the Fire likes to tell story about reservation past and give some messages in his story. People in reservation and Victor Joseph consider Thomas story as a fake story and they do not want to hear it. “I got a better idea,” Victor added. If

(59) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 46 you can’t play the song, then you have to stop telling all your fucking story.” (Alexie, 1995:15). This present many of Native American does not tell a story anymore. Victor Joseph feel loathe with the story and thought it is ridiculous. Native American also likes to paint their body with picture of animal or symbol which is believed will give spirit protection to them. The custom of paint their body is replaced by tattoo. “There was a naked Indian woman with braids on his back and a naked Indian woman with unbraided hair on his stomach.” (Alexie, 1995: 39).One of Thomas Build the Fire friend tattoos his body with inappropriate picture because it gives him cool and modern impression. Native American spent their childhood playing in nature. They learn to recognize about the sounds and the goodness of earth. They learn to appreciate nature as their spirit protection. After being educated and believing Catholic religion, Victor Joseph and Warm Water sister forget Native American belief. Each Native American also teaches their children native language The U.S government put Native American children into a school and teaches them to be a person that can be accepted in the society. The result is many Native American children cannot speak their own native language and it made their native language extinct. Victor Joseph, Thomas Built the Fire and Warm Water sister only understand one word of native language which they use it for accost people. “It’s a shame we had to cut your hair, the priest said.” (Alexei, 1995:148). During his childhood Victor Joseph grows his hair long and braided it. Native American believed that the longer the hair they will get a more power to their body. After

(60) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 47 entering a boarding school they cut off Victor Joseph hair to look more appropriate as an educated people. “You sound like a reservation fortune cookie sometime, Victor said. You know, you open up a commodity peanut butter, and there’s Big Mom latest wisdom.” (Alexei, 1995:18). Native American used to believe in medicine woman who tell them a vision for what will happen in life. The medicine women communicate with spirit to help her to get a vision. It is help Native American decide important decision when facing important problem. After being educated Victor Joseph think as logically as white people think and take his decision not based on vision anymore. Victor Joseph learns a vision not help him in reality world because when take decision based on vision every problem become more complicated.

(61) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In This chapter the writer concludes the answers to the three problem formulations which have been analyzed. The first part of problem formulation is about the description of the character in the story. The character in the novel Reservation Blues are Thomas Build the Fire, Victor Joseph, and Warm Water sisters. Thomas Build the Fire is the main character in the novel. He is a Spokane tribe Indian who is describes as an ordinary man. He is a mature person and solves his problem calmly. He helps people in need without hesitation. Because of the hardship he experienced during his childhood he becomes an independent and strong person. He is takes care his drunken father and does not have grudge again his father for his own father not really taking care of him. He has a strong will and a diligent person. He is also a polite person and respects each other opinion. He gets angry and ashamed when white people mocking about Native American stuff. The next character is Victor Joseph. He is childhood friend of Thomas Build the Fire. Victor comes from a broken family. His father died and his mother married again with white man. During his childhood Victor often send to boarding school by his parents. He is growing up as a person who thinks rational and does not believe in Native American mystic. Victor also hates things that relate with Native American. He is rude person and like do annoying job. Victor is lazy, penniless, and jobless. 48

(62) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 49 Even though he is rude, he is a sensitive who can get annoyed easily. He spent his day with playing around, drunken beer, and chasing white women. The last characters is Warm Water sisters who are Native American women from Flathead tribe. Chess warm Water is the older sister and her little sister name Checker Warm Water. Warm Water sisters also experience a difficult live during their childhood. They lived without their mother and sometime got bad treatment from their drunken father. Chess Warm water is an energetic and confident woman. Her mature side helped her to give a wise advice toward her friend and sisters. She has a strong faith to Catholic religion. Chess is a woman who respects herself for being a Native American. In the other side, her older sister Checker Warm Water does not comfortable for being a Native American. She wanted to live in a comfort way like white people. She adores how white girl can be perfect and pretty. She always chooses the best thing for herself. Checkers has a good heart for helping a poor Native American. She is also an open minded person. Checkers is a though woman and little bit stubborn. The second part of problem formulation is how Native American experiences Americanization. The method of Americanization can be seen through popular culture, boarding school, and reservation. The first method of Americanization is through popular culture. Native American consuming Pepsi, Junk Food, listening to band song, dressing in branded cloth, and watching white people movie. The second way is through Boarding school. The U.S government sends Native American children to get the proper education. In Boarding school they learn about white

(63) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 50 culture, English language, and they dress in a proper way. The last method of Americanization is through reservation. Reservation is a permanent area where Native American settles down after the civil war. It is located thousand miles from white population. Thomas Build the Fire, Victor Joseph, and Warm Water Sister experience the life in reservation since childhood. The U.S government use reservation to control the population of Native American, limited their true activity as Native American, and cut them from outside world. The last problem is about the effect of Americanization toward Native American perspective on their identity and culture as seen through the character. The effect is that Thomas builds the Fire, Victor Joseph, and Warm Water sister feel ashamed and uncomfortable with their identity. Their life burden made them slowly forget their Native American Value. They also feel disbelief toward their Native American culture and belief. The writer concludes that the Americanization have effect to character perspective on their Identity and culture as Native American. Their perspective toward their identity is not confident with their own quality as Native American. They see white people looks and culture are more attractive than their own culture. Although they try to maintain and believe in their culture and identity, their perspective is changed by Americanization. The experiences of Americanization place white culture idea in their life and mind.

(64) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI BIBLIOGRAPHY Abrams, M.H. A Glossary of Literary Terms. Boston: Wadsworth Cengange Learning, 2009. Aguirre, Jr Betto Adal and Turner, H Jonathan. American Ethnicity: The Dynamics and Consequences of Discrimination. New York: Mc Graw Hill, 2011. Alexie, Sherman. Reservation Blues. New York: Warner Book Inc, 1995. Archdeacon, J.Thomas. Becoming American: An Ethnic History. New York: A Division of Macmillan, Inc, 1983. Billard, Jules B. The World of the American Indian. Washington D.C: The National Geographic Society, 1974. Cashmore, Ellis. Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnics. New York: Routledge Ltd, 2004. Connette, L Tracey. “Sherman Alexie Reservation: Relocating the Center of Indian Identity”. Undergraduate Thesis. Greenville: East Carolina University, 2010. Erez, Miriam and P. Christopher Early. Culture, Self-Identity, and Work. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc, 1993. Graham, L Otis and Elizabeth Koed. “Americanizing the Immigrant, Past, and Future: History and Implications of Social Movement.” The Public Historian. Vol.15 No.4 (Fall 1993), pp.24-29. Hebdige, D. Hiding in the Light: On Images and Things. London: Routledge, 1988. Hornby, As. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Huebner,G.G. “The Americanization of the Immigrant.” Annals of the American Academy. Vol.27 (May 1906), pp 191-213. Lee, Robert A. Multicultural American Literature. Edinburgh: University Press Ltd, 2003. Lomawaima, K Tsia Nina and Teresa, Mc Carty. To Remain an Indian: Lesson in Democracy from a Century of Native American Education. New York: Teachers College Press, 2006. 51

(65) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI 52 Murphy, M.J. Understanding Unseen: An Introduction to English Poetry and the English Novel for Overseas Student. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1972. Northey, Sue. The American Indian. Texas: The Taylor Company, 1962. Payne, Michael. A Dictionary of Cultural and Critical Theory. Oxford: Black Well Publishers Ltd, 1972. Purdy, John. “Crossroads: A conversation with Sherman Alexie”. Studies in American Indian Literature. Vol.9 No.4, pp.1-18. Lincoln: University Nebraska Press, 1997. Quay, Sara E. West Ward Expansion. London: Green Wood Press, 2002. Richardson, Janine. “Magic and Memory in Sherman Alexie’s Reservation Blues”. Studies in American Indian Literature. Vol.9 No.4, pp.39. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. Rohrberger, Mary and H, Samuel Woods Jr. Reading and Writing about Literature. New York: Random House, 1971. Stanton, Robert. An Introduction to Fiction. New York: Holt, Renehart, and Winston Inc, 1965. Stone, E Sarah. American Indian Education: How Assimilation Decrease Retention, Undergraduate Thesis. Boston: University of Massachusetts, 2011. Storey, John. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. London: Peason Education Limited, 2001. VanSpanckeren, Kathryn. Outline of American Literature. Washington: The United States Department of State, 1994. Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. New York: Brace and World Inc, 1956. Wiegand, Steve. U.S History for Dummies: Second Edition. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc, 2009. (11 June 2014).

(66) PLAGIAT PLAGIATMERUPAKAN MERUPAKANTINDAKAN TINDAKANTIDAK TIDAKTERPUJI TERPUJI APPENDIX Summary of Sherman Alexi’s Reservation Blues Reservation Blues is Native American literature written by Sherman Alexie. The stories take place in Spokane Indian Reservation where Thomas Build the Fire and Victor Joseph live. One day, Thomas Build the Fire helps a black man who lost in direction. The black men leave his guitar and Thomas Build the Fire takes it away. The guitar gives him an inspiration to build a band. Thomas Build the Fire is jobless person and he hardly gets a job in reservation. Reservation limit ate his life and cut out him from outside world. He wants to get out from the reservation and find a better live. He asks his friend Victor Joseph to join his band. Victor Joseph also penniless and he want a live full of money. He always thinks rational because he got education in boarding school since childhood. Warm Water sister also join the band because they only get a small wage from their previous job. They are come from the families who have strong faith in God.Their band covering the Beatles song, Aretha Franklin, and sometime they compose their own song. Slowly, their band become famous and invites too many gigs. They get a contract from music record studio and go out from the reservation. Out from the reservation they get harsh treatments from white people. The music records also cancel their contract because they act like rude people. Hopeless and lose everything, they decide to come back to their life in reservation. 53


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