The victorian concepts of nature and the creation of dystopian ecology in H.G Wells` the War of the Worlds And Garrett Putnam Serviss` Edison`s Conquest of Mars - USD Repository

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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI THE VICTORIAN CONCEPTS OF NATURE AND THE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY IN H.G WELLS’ THE WAR OF THE WORLDS AND GARRETT PUTNAM SERVISS’ EDISON’S CONQUEST OF MARS A THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement to Obtain the Magister of Humaniora (M.Hum) In English Language Studies By Aditya Cahyo Nugroho 146332024 THE GRADUATE PROGRAM OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI THE VICTORIAN CONCEPTS OF NATURE AND THE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY IN H.G WELLS’ THE WAR OF THE WORLDS AND GARRETT PUTNAM SERVISS’ EDISON’S CONQUEST OF MARS A THESIS Presented as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement to Obtain the Magister of Humaniora (M.Hum) in English Language Studies By Aditya Cahyo Nugroho 146332024 THE GRADUATE PROGRAM OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE STUDIES SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA 2019 i

(3) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A THESIS \ THE VICTORIAN CCNCEPTS OF NATI]Rf, AND THE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY IN E.G WELLS' THE WAR OF THE WORLDS AND GARRETT PUTNAM SERYISS', ,EDl.SOiY',S CONSUEST OF MARS ffi ,\ ^\ ,\ Aditya Cahyo 146332{ Paulus Sarwoto. Ph.D. Thesis Advisor Yogy*karta 4 January 2019 ii

(4) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A THESIS TIIE VICTORIAN CONCEPTS OF NATURE AJYD TIIE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY IN H.G WELLS' THE WAR OF TITE WOKLDS AND GARRnTT PUTNAM SERvISS',-ElrSOrr"S CONgUEST OF MA&S Presented by I Before Thesis Qru.*.'-' Chairperson Secretary N{cmbers : l. Dra. Theresia Enny Anggraini, Ph.D. 2.Dr-. Tatang Iskarna 17 Januar-v 20 I 9 Program Director [Jnivcrsin' ) i itt Subanar. S.J.

(5) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Aditya Cahyo Nugroho NIM : 146332017 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: THE VICTORIAN CONCEPTS OF NATURE AND THE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY IN H.G WELLS’ THE WAR OF THE WORLDS AND GARRETT PUTNAM SERVISS’ EDISON’S CONQUEST OF MARS beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di intemet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu maninta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan.ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 31 January 2019 Yang menyatakan Aditya Cahyo Nugroho vi

(6) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI STATEMENT OF WORK OF ORIGINALITY This is to certif,i that all ideas, phrases, sentences unless otherwise stated, are the ideas, and sentences of the thesis writer. The writer would understand the fuIl consequences including degree cancellation if he took somebody else's ideas, phrases, or sentences without proper references. Yogyakarta, 3 | J anuary 2019 Aditya Cahyo Nugroho .\

(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LEMBAR PERNYATAAI{ PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di barvah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma: Nama : Aditya Cahyo Nugroho NIM :146332011 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul: THE VICTONAN CONCEPTS OF NATURE A]{D THE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY IN H.G WELLS'THE WAR OF THE'IT/ORLDS AND GARRETT PUTNAM SERVISS' EDISO,^/T CONQUEST OF MARS beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di intemet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu maninta ijin dari saya maupun memberikan royalty kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pernyataan.ini yang saya buat dengan sebenarnya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal: 31 January 2019 ,\ Yang menyatakan Aditya Cahyo Nugroho \/1

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My first and foremost gratitude goes to the Almighty God, Jesus Christ for his love and guidance throughout my study. This thesis is dedicated to my beloved parents, my late father (+) R. Bernadus Budi Sardjono and my mother Bernadeta Widiyanti who teach me parts of this life, give me love and support me fully so that I can be here. I also thank my brothers Benediktus Anton Harmoko and Vincentius Andi Haryanto, S.Sn., M.Sn. who always help and support me during my study. I also give my gratitude to my advisor, Paulus Sarwoto, Ph.D. for his guidance and insight during the writing of this thesis. I would like to give my sincerest acknowledgements to Dra. Novita Dewi, M.S., M.A.(Hons.), Ph.D. and Dra. Theresia Enny Anggraini, Ph.D., who devoted to the reading and evaluation of this thesis. I also want to express my gratitude to Dr. Tatang Iskarna, who is willingly give his time and be my examiner. I want to express my gratitude, respect and appreciation to all lecturers in English Language Studies Graduate Program for their inspiring and passionate teaching during my study. I want to thank the staff of ELS-GP mbak Marni, pak Mul, pak Sugeng for their helping hands. I would like to thank all of my friends in English Language Studies batch 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, the Zaituners, my friends from IRB and all of my colleagues in literature stream across batches, Indra, Ruly, Pras, Anggi, mas Tama, mbak Teti, mbak Anis, Melani, Dian, Angel, Sophie, mbk Desca, Zico, Yo, Mike, Windri, Anin, Masao and Imamu. vii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI Lastly, I would like to give my gratitude for those who helps during the writing of this thesis but I cannot mention individually. Thank you, good bye and see you when I see you. viii

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS THESIS TITLE ...................................................................................................... i APPROVAL PAGE .............................................................................................. ii THESIS DEFENCE APPROVAL PAGE .......................................................... iii MOTTOS .............................................................................................................. iv STATEMENT OF WORK OF ORIGINALITY ................................................ v LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS .............................................................. vi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... vii ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................ viii ABSTRAK .............................................................................................................. ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1 A. Background of the Study ............................................................................ 1 B. Research Questions .................................................................................... 12 C. Benefits and Significance of the Study..................................................... 13 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW................................................................................... 15 A. The Prior Studies of H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars ........................................... 15 B. Theoretical Review .................................................................................... 23 1. Ecology in Literature ............................................................................... 23 2. Speciesism and Pessimism as Concepts .................................................. 28 3. Science Fiction ........................................................................................ 32 4. Dystopia .................................................................................................. 35 C. Theoretical Framework ................................................................................ 37 CHAPTER III THE VICTORIAN SPECIESISM AND PESSIMISM .................................... 39 A. The Values of Speciesism and Pessimism in Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars ...................................... 41 1. The Similarities of Speciesism and Pessimism in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars .............................................................. 43 2. The Difference Values of Speciesism and Pessimism in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars ................................................. 51 CHAPTER IV THE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY ........................................... 56 A. Dystopian Ecology In H.G Wells’ The War Of The Worlds ................. 57 B. Dystopian Ecology In Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison Conquest Of Mars............................................................................................................. 68 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION.................................................................................................... 76 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 82 vii

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT Aditya Cahyo Nugroho, 2018, The Victorian Concept of Nature and the Creation of Dystopian Ecology in H.G Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars:. Yogyakarta: The Graduate Program in English Language Studies, Sanata Dharma University. This thesis explores the occurrence of dystopian ecology in H.G Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars due to the application of the Victorian concepts of Nature in the novels. This thesis uses ecocriticism, dystopian ecology and science fiction as the theories while speciesism, pessimism are the concepts. Ecocriticism is used to raise and introduce the ecological criticism that can be seen in the novels, while dystopian ecology is used to answer the ecological destruction which happened during the aliens and human invasion in both novels. This thesis uses the concept of speciesism and pessimism to make a sequential analysis of the novels Since the novels are about science fiction and talk about human and non-human (aliens), then the third theory of science fiction is also applied. The concept of speciesism and pessimism help answering the philosophical question of their values in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars. The similar values of speciesism and pessimism shared by both novels are the anthropocentrism issues and the bias position of the non-human (the Martians); both novels also share the same position of the Martians as the suppressor and the oppressor. The different values shared by both writers are the causality of the invasion and subject representation in both novels where human and the Martians share interchangeable representations. Based on the theories and concepts, this thesis concludes that there is a dystopian ecology that happened in the novels namely the imbalanced relationship between human and nature (non-human), the human-centered ideology and the ignorance of a human with the sustainability of the non-human (nature). In order to avoid that dystopian ecology, human need radically change their perception and treatment toward nature (non-human) whether in real life or via literary works. Keywords: Dystopian Ecology, human, non-human, Speciesism, and Pessimism . viii

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK Aditya Cahyo Nugroho, 2018, The Victorian Concept of Nature and The Creation of Dystopian Ecology in H.G Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars Yogyakarta: Program Pascasarjana Kajian Bahasa Inggris, Sanata Dharma University. Tesis ini mengeksplorasi kemunculan ekologi dystopian dalam H.G Wells’ The War of the Worlds dan Garrett Putnam Servis’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars disebabkan oleh penerapan konsep tentang alam pada masa Victoria. Tesis ini menggunakan konsep ekokritik, ekologi dystopian, dan fiksi ilmiah sebagai teori sedangkan spesiesisme, pesimisme sebagai konsep. Ekokritik digunakan untuk mengangkat dan memperkenalkan kritik ekologis yang dapat dilihat di dalam kedua novel tersebut, sedangkan ekologi dystopian digunakan untuk menjawab kehancuran ekologis yang terjadi selama invasi alien dan manusia dalam kedua novel tersebut. Tesis ini menggunakan konsep speciesism dan pesimisme untuk membuat analisis berurutan dari novel sehingga dapat mejawab terjadinya ekologi distopia di dalamnya. Semenjak kedua novel bercerita mengenai fiksi ilmiah dan berbicara tentang hubungan manusia dan non-manusia (alien), maka teori ketiga yaitu fiksi ilmiah diterapkan. Di sisi lain konsep spesiesisme dan pesimisme menjawab pertanyaan filosofis tentang nilai-nilai spesiesisme dan pesimisme yang terkuak dalam The War of the Worlds dan Edison’s Conquest of Mars. Kesamaan nilai dari speciesism dan pesimisme yang didapat dari kedua novel tersebut adalah masalah antroposentrisme dan posisi bias dari non-manusia (makhluk Mars). Perbedaan nilai-nilai yang disuguhkan oleh kedua penulis adalah kausalitas invasi dan representasi subjek dalam kedua novel di mana manusia dan Mars berbagi representasi yang dapat dipertukarkan. Berdasarkan teori dan konsep diatas, tesis ini menyimpulkan bahwa telah terjadi ekologi distopia di dalam kedua novel tersebut yang diebabkan oleh hubungan yang tidak seimbang antara manusia dan alam (non-manusia), antroposentrisme dan ketidakingintahuan manusia terhadap keberlanjutan kehidupan non-manusia (alam). Untuk menghindari ekologi distopia itu, manusia perlu secara radikal mengubah persepsi dan perlakuan mereka terhadap alam (non-manusia) baik dalam kehidupan nyata maupun di dalam karya sastra. Kata Kunci: Ekologi Distopia, Manusia, Non-Manusia, Spesiesisme dan Pesimisme ix

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION “Man is the most insane species. He worships an invisible God and destroys a visible Nature. Unaware that the Nature he is destroying is this God he is worshipping” – Hubert Reeves A. Background of the Study Nowadays, in the era of globalization and industrialization, the relationship between human and nature has been on the edge of the iceberg. Human has shown their superiority towards nature. Therefore some questions have arisen to acknowledge that situation, for examples; human, who are we? Do we as a human know or notice our rule in this world? Do we be the dominant one? These are the questions we should ask ourselves, to reconsider the relationship between human beings and the wider world, especially the environment. As summarized by Erin James, environment, stemming from the Old French term environner (“to surround”), environment commonly means the surroundings situation or condition where a sentient lives, typically denote the surroundings or conditions in which an organism lives. Customarily, that environment refers to nonhuman nature which mostly known as the wilderness.1 Several scholars have discussed the dichotomy between human and the nature surrounding them. Firstly, as in Raymond Williams’ depiction of nature, “nature is perhaps the most complex word in the [English] language”. 2 The complexity of the word relates to our understanding of problems within it. Several questions can be addressed; such as Is it possible to live in harmony with nature? 1 Erin James, The Storyworld Accord: Econarratology and Postcolonial Narratives. (Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2015), p.243. 2 Raymond Williams, “Ideas of Nature” in Essay (n.p :,1976), p.219. 1

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 Is human a part of, or apart from, nature? By answering the questions, this thesis explores the relationship between human to nature and vice versa in a particular way, how both influence each other in the scope of reverential ecology reading. Which to say, as long as the history has recorded, humans often feel indifferent toward nature. For them, nature is something considerably seen as a ‘normal’ thing, when it goes right, humans forget it, when it goes wrong, they worry about it. Although several critics arise the objection of the distinction relationship of human-to-nature and vice versa, more critics still possess differentiation of the term “nature.” David Abram in his book, The Spell of the Sensuous, suggests the term nature as “more-than-human”.3 The other critic, Cheryll Glotfelty exposes nature as “nonhuman”.4 The terms “more-than-human” and “nonhuman” indicates nature as a distinct entity and surpasses human in peculiar ways or the sacredness of nature which is associated as supernatural or meta-human. The binarism between human and nature generates changes in the natural world. Unfortunately, these natural changes cause devastation on nature itself, as Donald Hughes says that trace to our historical ecology, humans have related issues in multiple ways to the Earth’s existences; some of these ways promise a sustainable balance with them, while others are destructive.5 The examples of destructive actions as in Hughes explanation are “polluted water and air, acidic precipitation, diminution of the ozone layer, global warming, the spread of radioactive materials, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, extinction 3 David Abram, The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World (New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 1996), p.35. 4 C. Glotfelty& H. Fromm, The ecocriticism reader: Landmarks in literary ecology. (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 1996), p.xix. 5 Donald Hughes, What is Environmental History (Colorado: Willey & Sons, 2015), p. 255.

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 of species, soil erosion, overpopulation”.6 These destructions that illustrate human superiority arises out of the fact that they are earth’s only perfect creature. As Joseph Meeker discovers, though human lacks the ability to photosynthesis and fly, their superiority brain can make "great epic poems and mediocre office memos."7 This uniqueness has made differences between human and other earth’s creatures. Due to their superiority, humans have to take responsibility for what they have done. Historically speaking, human are categorized as an aggressive species. It can be seen from the history of human and nature relationship; the most significant issue is the publication of Charles Darwin’s Origin of the Species in the 19th century. In his explanation of the book, Darwin stated that Homo Sapiens was ensnared into the web of nature which became a part of nature not apart from nature. On the Origin of Species situated human and nature in the same ecological context; whereas human, plants, and animals in the same qualified condition of life.8 They shared the same cooperative ecological protector as one unity. On the other hand, in his later explanation of the book, he concluded a different conclusion on how “survival of the fittest”9 is justified, actual compulsory to take it for granted the ruthless exploitation of nature for human needs. He explicitly said that We can so far take a prophetic glance into futurity as to foretell that it will be the common and widely spread species, belonging to the larger and 6 D. Hughes, What is Environmental History, (p. 255. Joseph W. Meeker, The Comedy of Survival: Literary Ecology and Play Ethic (Arizona: University Arizona Press, 1997), p. 3. 8 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (Harvard: John Murray, 1873), p.56. 9 C. Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, , p. 61. 7

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 dominant groups within each class, which will ultimately prevail and procreate new and dominant species.10 The above quotation explore that the dominance and exploitation of nature are the product of invasion, either nature or human. In other words, it is commensurate as the biological and social invasion. The species that intrude into others’ habitat are considered as an invasive species which explained by Lewis H. Ziska and Jeffrey S. Dukes in the book Invasive Species and Global Climate Change. They asserted that include invasive species are “plants, animals or microorganisms not native to an ecosystem, whose introduction has threatened biodiversity, food security, health or economic development”.11 Though the above explanation exposes on plants, animal or microorganisms as the invasive species, it can also be stated that human also an invasive species because they are not native to an ecosystem, and their existences threathening the other biodiversity. There are some evidence to classify human as an invasive species. The mission of Apollo 13 (where human step the moon for the first time) stated that a human is a curious species which wants to know to explore everywhere to show off their existences. Human has already done their inavision since the beginning of their existence, while during the Industrial Revolution their ruthless explouitation has changed the fate of all Victorian people from “the Romantic ideal” to more “Pesimisstic ideal”. That pessimistic point of view that has narrated the changes in the relationship between Victorian people and nature since then nature in the Victorian era used as an object of satisfying human needs. Another result of human dominancy is how natural environments are subjected to 10 11 C. Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, p. 444. Lewis H Ziska and Jeffrey S. Dukes, Invasive Species and Global Climate Change (Oxford: CABI, 2015), p. ii.

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 5 a relentless expropriation in ongoing plunder and massive ravage just as mercilessly as the colonized people themselves. When the European started to expand their territory into the third world’s countries largely using military forces, followed by a rationalist policy of conquest and possession, then the catastrophes occur. As Ania Loomba states, “military violence was used almost everywhere ... to secure both occupation and trading ‘rights:’ the colonial genocide in North America and South Africa was spectacular”. 12 The shrinkage of human invasion to the natural world also reflected in political and economic philosophies. Due to that economic philosophies Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels have argued, for example, equated the exploitation of nature with the exploitation of workers. Thus, Engels wrote: ''The earth is the first condition of our existence. To make it an object of trade was the last step toward making human beings an object of trade".13 What was even bizarre than the barbarity exercised on the indigenous peoples at the Imperial time were the acts of ecological dexterity over nature, with the continuous consequences to affect the entire planet until today. By the end of the 19th century, the Victorian Era, “most of the Earth had been parcelled out to one metropolitan power or another”.14 This Victorian period can be stated as the successful era in the British Empire, when the rise of the nation pointed by the industrial revolution and the technological development. These advancements 12 Ania Loomba, Colonialism/Postcolonialism. 2d ed. (London: Routledge, 2005), p. 112. Friedrich Engels in Larry L Rassmussen Earth-honoring Faith: Religious Ethics in a New Key (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), p. 166. 14 John Bellamy Foster, The Vulnerable Planet: A Short Economic History of the Environment (New York: New York University Press, 1999), p. 87. 13

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 6 make England be the pioneer of the economic changes. As C.F.G Masterman explains in the preface to The Condition of England that: I believe there are possibilities as yet undreamt of, for the enrichment of the common life of our people, and that in another century men and women—and children—may be rejoicing in experience better than all our dreams. I am not pessimistic, but I am anxious, as I believe all the thinking men of today are anxious, when they realize the forces which are making for decay (viii).15 In spite of the positive side of British advancement, it has negative aspects in it. The industrial revolution in England starts the economic reaction of countries over the globe. It triggers countries’ grouping based on economic strata. In The Norton Anthology of English Literature, Stephen Greenblatt relies on the argument that during the industrial age, England has become the wealthier country with enormous income than other countries. This statement triggers condition to enable them to gain influence toward market over the globe. Greenblatt, et al. explain: leadership in commerce and industry was being paid for at a terrible price in human happiness, that a so-called progress had been gained only by abandoning traditional rhythms of life and traditional patterns of human relationships……a sense too of being displaced persons in a world made alien by technological changes that had been exploited too quickly for the adaptive powers of the human psyche (ibid).16 Therefore, the reaction towards this provision is quite diverse, from the aristocracy class, writers, and commoners. Many writers of this era do not agree with the industrial policy; which latency said on the unpleasant harmony of human relationships. Its overt allusions to imperialist practices, which led many 15 16 C.F.G Masterman, The Condition of England (London: Faber & Faber, 2012), p. viii. Stephen Greenblatt, The Norton Anthology of English Literature (New York: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc, 2018), p. 1025.

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 7 critics such as Warren Wagar in H. G. Wells: Traversing Time which points out, “to regard Wells’ tale as a devastating critique of European imperialism”.17 This thesis seeks to explore how literature is employed by selected Victorian authors to question the changing relationship between human and the non-human, the changing process, which results in two paradigms of Victorian concept on nature, that are speciesism and pessimism. Peter Singer coins the term "speciesism" in his book Animal Liberation; he says that “speciesism is a prejudice or attitude of bias in favor of the interests of members of one’s species and against those of members of other species”.18 Moral worth cannot be based on a biological factor such as species, just as it cannot be based on race or minorities. According to Singer, “it should be obvious that the fundamental objections to racism and sexism . . . apply equally to speciesism. If possessing a higher degree of intelligence does not entitle one human to use another for his or her own ends, how can it entitle humans to exploit nonhumans for the same purpose?”. 19 Avoiding those speciesism, racism or sexism, it required to treat other beings as equal to others because they have the right to life. The other concept of nature that appears in the Victoria era is “pessimism” which is related to the term humanity. The Victorian Age witnessed a radical transformation in the representation of the natural world described in the literary works, from the inspirational and benign to hurtful and competitive. The idea of human dictated the bucolic, the figurative nature's treatment as a kind of the 17 Warren Wagar, H.G. Wells: Traversing Time (Connecticut: Weslyan University Press, 2004), p. 54 18 Peter Singer, Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. (London: Harper Collins, 1975), p. 6. 19 P. Singer, Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals, p. 6.

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 divine entity was indifferent to nature. Nature no longer exists as an environment but as the autonomous agent on the other living beings. This new, pessimistic model can be seen in poems like Alfred, Lord Tennyson’s In Memoriam (183738), an elegy to his friend, with lines like “Nature, red in tooth and claw,” which evoke a blood-thirsty conception of the world. Therefore the distinction between human and non-human (nature) need to be clarified, so forth the analysis of the problem is needed. There are two objects on this study which embracing human and non-human relationship, the first one is H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worldswhich published in 1898 and the second one is Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars published six weeks after the final chapter of The War of the Worlds. Those two objects considered as a science fiction novel. The first novel is one of the H.G. Wells’ books collection, the others such as The Time Machine (1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man (1897) and many more. This research uses The War of The Worlds as one of the research objects. This novel was written during the Victorian era, whereas technological advancement became the main theme in England. Therefore, the late Victorian revival of romance, replete with inhuman invasions, monstrosities, and degenerations became obsessed with such threats at the very moment when England no longer faced a significant military threat or imperial competition from its European rivals. The second novel is Edison’s Conquest of Mars (1898) which was written by Garrett Putnam Serviss (an astronomer and a sci-fi novelist) and circulated in the same period with The War of the World but different area, not in England but

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 in America, it is a sequel of an unauthorized version of The War of the Worlds by unknown writer entitled Fighters from Mars and considered as an altered version of Wells’ The War of the Worlds. Garret Putnam Serviss was an American astronomer who was also a writer focused on science fiction theme even though he was a lesser-known novelist. The novel was about the revenge of human to the Martian lead by Thomas Alfa Edison, and it was only six weeks apart from the final chapter of Wells’ The War of the Worlds.20 It is commonly known that the genre of those novels is categorized as science fiction, which is a genre that tells about the futuristic concept of upcoming events that in this thesis relate to human and nature relationships. The human and nature relationships are very closely related to human and human relationships because when their relationship corrupted, then it will impact to the condition of nature, for example, the use of machines in the factories and its waste disposal. As long as human operate machines and dispose the waste aimlessly and intensively, nature will be poisoned. According to Rene Descartes in Discourse on Method, the figure of the human has a distinguished natural place from machines and animals where it shares with all other human beings a unique and common essence, of meaning in the historical as which called “human nature”.21 Descartes’ statement emphasizes that the world of human and nature is secluded, whereas the line between human and nature blurred for the advance of science and technology. 20 Thomas Hockey, Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (New York: Springer, 2007), p. 1072. 21 Rene Descartes, Discourse on Method (London: Hackett Publishing, 2012), p. 45. “Human nature” is the way classical humanism perceives human beings that human have some kind of invariable quality within us that makes us human.

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 Cary Wolfe in Animal Rites addressed that literary criticism tends to treat non-human appearing in literary texts as a symbol for some human social issues, such as ethnicity, gender, or colonialism.22 Timothy Clark further elaborates the problem: In most canonical literary texts, the place of non-human life is both pervasive but unseen. It is simply so uncontroversial as to make alternative readings centered on animals seem almost like a change of discipline. Any study of text on the non-human always becomes a study of humanity in some sense. . . . At the same time, once the issue of animal exploitation is raised about a text, it immediately becomes obvious in ways that may leave little more to say.23 As mentioned above, nonhuman in canonical literary texts is often used to address other oppressed groups, such as women or ethnic minorities. Wolfe considers this as an extremely problematic act because when the discourse of species is used to highlight the mistreatment of these social others, it automatically requires that we take for granted the “institution of speciesism,” which embraces the ethical acceptance to kill animals based on their species.24 Therefore, if the interpretation of non-human suffering which told in a literary text as an analog for social problems, then it can be agreed with the assumption that pain in non-human has no intrinsic value and it only becomes a matter of significance when used as a symbol for human suffering. Wolfe’s concern is not simply for nonhuman, but for human others as well, because as long as this humanist and speciesist structure of subjectivization remains intact, and as long as it is institutionally taken for granted that it is all right to systematically exploit and kill nonhuman animals simply because of their species, then the humanist discourse of species will always be available for 22 Cary Wolfe, Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory (Chicago: University Chicago Press, 2003), p. 124. 23 Timothy Clark, Ecocriticism on the Edge: The Anthropocene as a Threshold Concept (New York: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2015), p. 187. 24 C. Wolfe, Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory, p. 7.

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 use by some humans against other humans as well, to countenance violence against the social other of whatever species – or gender, or race, or class, or sexual difference.25 Therefore, to question the humanist theories and the discourse of species is very important, not just regarding non-human equality, but from a strictly humanrelated aspect as well. The economic leadership and technological mastery trigger the unamiable relationships, which has lead human forget about the nature, as they will only concern about themselves. Therefore, The War of the Worlds reflects the idea of ecological concerns for the technological mastery of the British Dominion towards the ecological situation in the third world countries. In The War of the Worlds, Wells presents the depiction of Martian domination towards the Earth where it changes the condition of the Earth. The arrival of the Martians is a representation of the British invasion vis-à-vis the third world countries such as India, South Africa, etc. In other words, The War of the Worlds is a medium of ecological criticism vis-à-vis the British invasion which is in line with the materialism. There is a kind of differentiation in animal studies, which admits that killing human life is worse than killing a mouse for laboratory research. Although the issue is not unproblematic, it is a poor excuse to rely on the humanist ideology that allows cruelty to nonhuman beings. The problem that speciesism creates is that when members of other species primarily considered as “other than human,” that is, based on what they are not, instead of what or who they are, people see and consequently treat other species not as individuals but as a single mass. 25 C. Wolfe, Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory, p. 8.

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 This thesis aims to depict the Victorian concepts of nature which portray the dystopian ecology in the novels. Do the concepts of speciesism and pessimism share the same value in both novels? Thus the question needs to be answered through the connection between technological used in the novels. In relation, this research wants to compare the invasion between species, human and alien (nonhuman) which of the species deal huge impact on nature or environment. In sum, the exploitation of nature, the destruction of the environment and the socioeconomic-cultural changes due to the species’ invasion and associated with the technological advancement period expressed through The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars create the different association on the meaning of invasive species. B. Research Questions This thesis looks at the idea and concept of speciesism and pessimism that causes dystopian ecology of nature, reflected in the novels. Although the texts share the different point of view in writing, they have the similarity in common which is science fiction. Science fiction itself always dealt with the future forecast by technology. Based on the background information above, this study focuses on the issues concerning with the advancement of technology which creates a different level of relationship between human and nature (non-human). The thesis questions formulated as follows: 1. How are the Victorian concepts of nature regarding speciesism and pessimism depicted in H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars?

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 2. How do the Victorian concepts of nature regarding speciesism and pessimism create the dystopian ecology in H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars? C. Benefits and Significance of the Study This research is conducted with the goal to read the different ways in which The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars address the question on speciesism and pessimism and the creation of dystopian ecology in the novels. The goal of this research is looking for the incidents of speciesism and pessimism mirrored in the novels, which incidents committed by the characters, the narrator, or the text itself, and whether or not they expressed critically. The other goal, through the analysis of the two discourse objects composed for the reign of dystopian ecology in H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars. The discourses found out that the problem of dystopian ecology is caused by the centrical humanist values on it. In theoretical point of views, this thesis is eager to increase the theoretical knowledge and knowing the anthropocentrism attitudes. The significance of this research is the possibility to change the attitudes of human towards nonhuman in written texts and consequently in real life as well. This research eagers to encourage readers as well as researchers to question their way of reading the relationship between human and non-human, and hopefully improve the status of non-human species as the literary object, and consequently moral subjects as well. Along with the reading of the non-human as an allegory for human social issues, this thesis also addresses the non-human as non-human

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 and focus on the relationships between different species; not only between human and non-human but also between human.

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter divided into two parts, the first part summarizes the prior research of H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest Mars. The second part discusses The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest Mars in the view of ecological reverence to analyze the standpoint of the human role in the natural world. A. The Literary Studies of H.G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars Many literary critics in this field of criticism have mapped a history of nature’s exploitation which led and caused by the destructive habits of human thought regarding the environment. These thought processes have founded on the continuing belief that is echoed by Lance Newman in Marx's Ecology: Materialism and Nature. He states that the philosophical attention on the introduction to ecocriticism is allegedly materialist concern with the environment aligned with historical changes, in which “people were meant to exercise dominion over nature, or that nature is a passive receptacle of the fertilizing human mind, or that limitless growth is the essence of human social destiny”.26 Those above explanations help this study to emphasize the human dominion over nature basically based on the materialistic point of view. This dominance of nature was originally a necessity to survive even though as the society developed, the passion for controlling nature remains. Simon Estok describes this fear of and needs to control nature as “an adaptive strategy that is 26 Lance Newman, Marx's Ecology: Materialism and Nature (New York: John Bellamy Foster, 2000), p. 205. 15

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 now perhaps as useful for our survival as other long obsolete adaptations: the appendix, the tailbone, wisdom teeth, and so on”.27 Even though Estok states that the fear and the needs to control nature as an adaptive strategy to survive, it is not commonly well accepted, considering many things that have been ruled out by the subsequent statement, for example, other beings existences. Our adaptive behavior soon or later has led to the destructive habits that largely contribute to today’s ecological crisis. Today’s ecological crises apparently can be traced to the western tradition or religion coined in the Bible. This affirmation conceptualized in the Genesis which says, “And God said, Let us make man in our image, like us: and let him have rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and the cattle, and over all the earth and over every living thing which goes flat on the earth”.28 It is a kind of justification for western people to explore and exploit nature. Therefore, those explanations strengthen the justification that since the earth is created the human has a different position, separated from nature, therefore, they can control it. It is known that western science, philosophy, and religion teach that human is the center of the earth, which rivers, trees and animals (non-human) are for human; in conclusion, their existence is for a human. Human only considers nonhuman based on their economic value or instrumentalist attitude. Many of scientists or even the environmentalist use their rational scientific human-centered reason to protect the natural world (rivers, forests, and animals) by conserving, preserving and taking care of their condition, but the actual reason behind that 27 28 Simon C. Estok, The Ecophobia Hypothesis (London: Routledge Publisher, 2018), p. 31. King James Bible, (Gen 1: 26)

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 17 action is because the human can use them gradually for their benefit. The example is forestation, the purpose of forestation is to preserve the forest from extinction, but the actual reason is for human health benefit. There are a lot of examples which show the actual reason for natural world preservation. The preservation and conservation of the natural world illustrate the old paradigm held by a human based on their perspective and hypocrisy. The old paradigm of human and nature relationship depended on the superiority of human beings which makes a kind of superiority complex in their relationship, about human rule the earth. Glen Love in his influential essay “Revaluing Nature” spots on the old paradigm of a modern society that “human domination of the biosphere is an overriding problem”.29 Therefore, this old paradigm of this problem needs to be changed through the discovery of new language of respect and reverence for nature, which is different with Darwinian concept of “natural selection and the survival of the fittest”30 that all species must compete with each other to survive. It is not about a competition of the species but connectivity, interdependency, and reciprocity of mutual relationship between the human and natural world (species). In Social Darwinism, Darwin said that human or species will always compete in the world and those who are strong, wealthy and powerful can win; that is the idea of “the fit of the fittest”.31 This idea comes from the old paradigm thought that rise from the imperialistic values. The novel The War of the Worlds reflects these destructive habits of thought, by reinforcing an imperialistic perspective that strengthens human Glen. A Love, “Revaluing Nature” Western American Literature 5.. 23 (tahun): 203 C. Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, Or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for, p. 5. 31 C. Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, , p. 5. 29 30

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 superiority over and separates from nature. Regarding the situation in the Victorian era, Victorian readers were encouraged to feel detached from nature and lose any sense of responsibility regarding the damage they were inflicting upon it. In concordance with the previous statement, Prince Albert speech in Spielvogel reflects that British economic success is because of the divine will. “In promoting [the progress of the human race], we are accomplishing the will of the great and blessed God”.32 Supporting above explanation, Barri Gold writes that “instead of pursuing a ‘deep’ ecology among the Victorians, we may look for a kind of ‘social’ ecology…the roots of environmental problems in social problems”. 33 It was Victorian society’s belief in their separation of nature that allowed for the continued exploitation of the landscape for technological advancement and needs consumption whereas the act of imperialism of British Empire also leads to another ecological destruction. It is obvious that most of the British Empire which, as a specific manifestation of anthropocentric thought and systematically exploit and reshape the local peripheries ecosystem for the welfare of the center. John Bellamy Foster and Brett Clark state that social Darwinism is “robbing the periphery of its natural wealth and exploiting ecological resources”34, which according to them went hand in hand with the “genocide inflicted on the indigenous populations” 35 ; and “undisguised looting, enslavement, and murder”36 were turned into a capital in the 32 Jackson Spielvogel, Western Civilization 7th ed (London: Cengage Learning, 2014), p. 713. Barri Gold, “Energy, Ecology, and Victorian Fiction,” in Literature Compass 9. 2 (2012): 217. 34 John Bellamy Foster and Brett Clark, The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2010), p. 189. 35 J. B. Foster and B. Clark, The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth, p. 188. 36 J. B. Foster and B. Clark, The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth, p. 189. 33

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 dominating center. These passages illustrate the conception of nature from a Victorian perspective. Since the nature controlling was a priority for the British economic welfare, they disregarded the environmental consequences of their actions unless of course, their economic interests were at risk. For instance, massive deforestation and soil erosion on the Malabar Coast, because of “silting up of commercially important harbors”37 in the mid-19th century, convinced the East India Company to consider setting up a forest-protection system. They did so, however, not for ecological reasons but because “forest conservation and associated forced resettlement methods ... became a highly convenient form of social control”.38 Similarly, the progressive deforestation on the Canary Islands, Madeira and Barbados had resulted in the loss of fertility of the soil which demanded conservation policies to be implemented. Apart from deforestation, whose adverse effects on the climate is well known today, contamination of water and air, and “pollution caused by extractive and productive processes”, 39 led to the loss of biodiversity, the extinction of plant and animal species, which disturbed natural balancing of the biological regions over the world. Moreover, the exploitation of the native people that mostly are the guardians of the environments resulted in socioeconomic issues on such scale that even today their legacy, as international problems, is not resolved. 37 Jonathan Bloom and Sheila S. Blair (eds), Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 11. 38 J. Bloom and Sheila S. Blair (eds), Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: ThreeVolume Set, p. 12. 39 J. B. Foster and B. Clark, The Ecological Rift: Capitalism’s War on the Earth, p. 193.

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 John Miller further explores the correlation between environmental changes and the underlying ideological perspective in his essay “Postcolonial Ecocriticism and Victorian Studies.” He expresses his concern that “the nineteenth century comprised a pivotal state in global environmental history that brought dramatic ecological change to many regions of the world in the same moment that it forged momentous political shifts”40 and when considering this we must address who can defend the nature. H.G Wells concludes “If the Martians can reach Venus, there is no reason to suppose that the thing is impossible for men”.41 He asserts that this invasion of Venus’ landscape is comparable to the colonialism of the period, where “the transportation, both intentional and unintentional, of a vast array of ‘portmanteau biota’: animals, plants, and pathogens that in many cases dramatically reshaped the ecologies they entered”. (WW, 179) The narrator in the War of the Worlds recognition of the interconnectivity of humanity and nature mirrors an argument by eco-Marxists like Raymond Williams, who discusses that “the conquest of nature, the domination of nature, the exploitation of nature” is “derived from real human practices and relations between men and men”.42 As the narrator recognized within his premises that the way society was governed changes humanity’s relationship with its surroundings. Supported by Michael Lowly statement “From Marx to Ecosocialism,” that “the economy as “embedded” in the social and natural environment”.43 To summarize, John Miller, “Postcolonial Ecocriticism and Victorian Studies,” Literature Compass 9.7 (2012): 476. 41 H.G. Wells, The War of the Worlds. (New York: Limited Editions Club, 1964), p. 179; All subsequent references to this work, abbreviated WW, will be used in this thesis with pagination only. 42 Raymond Williams, Problems in Materialism and Culture (London: Verso, 1980), p. 84. 43 Michael Lowy, “From Marx to Ecosocialism,” Capitalism Nature Socialism 13. 1 (2002): 122. 40

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 21 the correlation between economic growth and ecological exploitation is intertwined. In his other novel entitled The Island of Dr. Moreau, Wells as stated in John Glendening magnify the relationship between humans, animals, and environment which often demonstrates how our biological receipt perceives other creatures form, mutate our way of thinking about ourselves and planet. He describes that “the novel’s treatment of the relationship between humans and animals are uncertain as there can be no absolute or essentialist gap between them”. 44 Glendening’s opinion evokes our awareness of the biological relationship between humans and animals. Therefore it can encourage that humans are not in a different position with nature itself which become permeable. The other critique or it can be called “revelation” comes from the Holy Father, Pope Francis. In his Laudato Si, which encourages people to reverse their thought towards nature. Pope Francis explains that “The biblical texts are to be read in their context, with an appropriate hermeneutic, recognizing that they tell us to “till and keep” the garden of the world”.45 The letter intends to ensure the role of the human in preserving the world, how the words like “till and keep” are being used to stimulate humans’ activities of preserving nature. “Tilling” and “keeping” are a mutual relationship between human and nature. In one hand humans are having obligatory to preserve nature, while nature keeps humans’ life. Moving into the other object of the study Edison’s Conquest of Mars, which well known as an altered version of The War of the Worlds. The author, Garrett 44 John Glendening, "Green Confusion": Evolution and Entanglement in H. G. Wells's "The Island of DoctorMoreau". Victorian Literature and Culture, 30. 2 (2002): 575. 45 Encyclical Letter “Laudato Si’”, retrieved from cf.Gen 2:15 (http://www.vatican.va/content/dam/francesco/pdf/encyclicals/documents) (2015)

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 Putnam Serviss as in Thomas Hockey’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, although he was an astronomer, he was better known as a sciencefiction idol than the astronomical figure. That recognition comes because of how Serviss’ writing subjectively applies the science fiction theme. For example “Astronomy with an Opera Glass (1888; 2nd ed., 1896), was perhaps the best of the lot. The second, Serviss’s Pleasures of the Telescope (1901), is another gem”.46 Through his astronomical recognition in his writing, he has popularized astronomy around the United States and even the world. Due to the object of this thesis is two science fiction novels which are related to ecological criticism, then it is important to recognize the connection between these two. Thus science fiction seems to “predict” the future primarily because the future is always the standpoint from which we read and (re)interpret it. As stated by Suvin, science fiction is “a diagnosis, a warning, a call to understanding and action, and—most importantly—a mapping of possible alternatives”. 47 Meanwhile, Fredric Jameson considers that science fiction is ironic, managing “to demonstrate and to dramatize our incapacity to imagine the future”.48 Hence, it can be said that science fiction is the future assumption that cannot be predicted, but can be observed. The related studies that have been discussed above only reviewed on the major axis of the issues, whether on the materialistic point of view or ecocentric point of view. Therefore, there is still a terra incognita on the specific issues that I 46 Thomas Hockey, Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (New York: Springer, 2007), p. 1073 47 Darko Suvin, “Estrangement and Cognition.” Speculations on Speculation: Theories of Science Fiction. Eds. James Gunn and Matthew Candelaria (Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2005), p. 31 48 Frederic Jameson, “Progress Versus Utopia: or, Can We Imagine The Future.” Science-Fiction Studies 27(1982): 153.

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 23 want to elaborate on this research. The specific issues on this research are distinguishing the ecological concepts of the Victorian era, which are speciesism and pessimism using reverential ecology. Further elaboration of this perspective is discussed in the subsequent sections. B. Theoretical Review 1. Ecology in Literature Discussing ecology in literature cannot be separated from the original concept of ecology as a scientific concept. This section bridges the present disparity between ecology as a science and ecology as a romantic idealism about nature, not only for intellectual reasons but for the sake of robust public policy. In this case, the use of Ecological Criticism or Ecocriticism is important as the background framework of this thesis. Ecocriticism launches a call to literature to connect to the issues of today’s environmental crisis. In other words, ecocriticism directly concerned with both nature; in this case, natural landscape and the environment which are natural and social urban life. The attempt to synthesize natural phenomena with literary criticism raises conceptual problems in ecology itself. Glen A. Love in Practical Ecocriticism: Literature, Biology, and Environment identify various modes of the ecological disaster that takes place in the physical environment. The environmental devastation consequent upon the colonization involving social and cultural transformations has altered representations of nature in Postcolonial cultures and literature. 49 Love’s assertion aptly summarizes the debate regarding the application of the ecological concept in literature. 49 Glen. A Love, Practical Ecocriticism: Literature, Biology and Environment (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003), p. 35.

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 24 The term ecocriticism itself, firstly evocated by William Rueckert in 1978 addresses two main points, ecology and literature. He advocates “the application of ecology and ecological concepts to the study of literature” (107).50 Rueckert focuses on examining literature and ecological concepts from an interdisciplinary point of view where literature scholars analyze the environment and discuss possible solutions for the improvement of the contemporary environmental condition and examine the different ways literature treats the subject of nature. Meanwhile, Glotfelty’s definition in The Ecocriticism Reader (1996) is that ecocriticism is “the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment”.51 Further elaboration by Lawrence Buell defines eco-criticism as “a study of the relationship between literature and the environment conducted in a spirit of commitment to environmentalist praxis”.52 Most eco-critics previously mentioned explores human’s perception of wilderness, and how it has changed in history and whether current environmental problems are accurately represented or even mentioned in popular culture and modern literature. Other disciplines, such as history, economics, psychology, philosophy, and biology are also considered by ecocritics to be possible or potential contributors to eco-criticism. Hence, although the main concern of ecocriticism is human and non-human such as nature, it can be interpreted from the different discipline. Ecocriticism is historical, as it not only pays attention to nature’s current state but also to human’s development in different ages they live. William Rueckert, “Literature and Ecology” in Cheryl Glotfelty and Harold Fromm, The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology (Georgia: The University of Georgia Press, 1996), p. 107. 51 W. Rueckert, “Literature and Ecology”, p. 18 52 Lawrence Buell, Writing for an endangered world: Literature, culture, and environment in the US and Beyond (Cambridge, MA and London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press., 2001), p. 20. 50

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 The idea of ecocriticism applied in literary critics plays an important role in the process of human’s exploration of finding the balance between human-to-human and nature. Especially in the modern era, the ecological crisis has become a global intention. As stated by Wei in “The Study of the Rising Green Literature— Ecological Criticism,” “if the main problem in the 20th century is the race, then the most pressing problem in the 21st century is the global environment”.53 The increasingly serious crisis which mainly manifested in the destruction of ecological balance and damage of environment triggered unprecedented attention to the environment and society. The awareness of ecological thinking affects many fields of society. Nearly all liberal arts have a cross-discipline with ecologies, such as ecocriticism, ecophilosophy, ecological ethics, eco-politics, eco-socialism, eco-sociology, ecological anthropology, ecological psychology, eco-literature, ecological art, and ecological economics with the limitation of insufficiently developed science and technology at the previous era, where environmental problems not seriously treated. Literature scholars and critics hope to solve the problem through the researchers in philosophy and anthropology. Under this special background, ecocriticism was born, a manifestation of people’s need for preventing and relieving eco-catastrophe in the form of literary criticism. Lynn White Jr proposes that the root of Western society’s tendency to see humans as something apart from nature is the Judeo-Christian thought and that the biblical assertion that God created the earth, animals, birds, and fish for man's 53 Q. Q Wei, “The Study of the Rising Green Literature—Ecological Criticism.” Foreign Literature, 3 (2002): 35.

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 benefit continues to influence an anthropocentric view of nature. White explains that our beliefs “…..are almost universally held not only by Christians and neo-Christians but also by those who fondly regard themselves as post-Christians. Despite Copernicus, all the cosmos rotates around our little globe. Despite Darwin, we are not, in our hearts, part of the natural process. We are superior to nature, contemptuous of it, willing to use it for our slightest whim”.54 Relate to the above explanation; it can conclude that ecocritics suggest that human’s literature should be responsible for the ecological crisis because literature itself is one of the deep causes of the ecological crisis. In some literary works, writers describe the large fortune people gained from nature. This impression inspires people’s idea of tapping natural resources. Literary writers and critics must remold literature and literary concept to stop crime against the ecological environment and to atone for man’s crime. Eco-critics have come to an agreement that the mission of ecocriticism is to explore how human’s thought, culture, science, lifestyle, and social development mode influence or even determine human’s negative attitude towards nature and thus lead to ecological crisis. The target of ecocriticism is a revolution in thought and culture, furthermore in the mode of production, science research, lifestyle, and mode of development, finally a new civilization harmonious with nature. Even though to lay our modern concept of nature at the feet of Christianity oversimplifies the issue. In an essay that examines characterizations of nature, Ted Benton describes the many forces that reshaped “nature” in Western thought from it's been seen as a God-given resource for man, to an object of scientific 54 Lynn White Jr., “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis.” The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology (Georgia: University of Georgia, 1996), p. 12.

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 27 investigation and a romanticized ideal that inspires awe.55 He traces the shifting paradigm of human conception toward nature from the medieval and Renaissance into Victorian Era. While previously human life with harmony toward nature, the increasing empiricism and rationalism change the ecocentric outlook into anthropocentrism. As illustrated by Benton, several thinkers such as John Locke considers uncultivated land to be wasteful, as God gives the command to humankind to cultivate the land. Ecocriticism investigates the textual depictions of nature in literature. The depictions include the shifting meanings of “nature,” “environment,” and “wilderness,” and the role of science in nature writing. Ecocriticism also addresses the cultural connections between the environment, culture, and art, as well as connections between the environment and such issues as ethnicity, gender, religion, and race. The relationship between human, society, and nature in the scope of economic and cultural matters is the focus of those ecological types. According to Arne Naess in “The Shallow and The Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: A Summary” there are two distinctions in ecology based on value organisms’ position, which is shallow and deep ecology. According to Dent in his online interview, shallow ecology is related to the matters of humankind, while deep ecology is related to the philosophical concept of the relationship between human 55 Ted Benton, “Humans and Nature: From Locke and Rousseau to Darwin and Wallace.” In The SAGE Handbook of Environment and Society. Ed. Jules N. Pretty, et al. (Los Angeles: SAGE, 2007), p. 37.

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 and nature. 56 The dialogue between human and nature represent in the below narration. 2. Speciesism and Pessimism as Concepts In this thesis, the dialogical reading of the non-human is not only as an allegory for human social issues but also to address the non-human as a sentinels which different with human. The focus also lies on the relationships between different species; not only between human and non-human but also between human. The thesis examines what kind of incidents of speciesism and pessimism the text contains, whether or not they expressed openly. The starting point of the novels, the first novel solemnly expresses on the invasion of non-human (which allegorically represent human invaders) to human. The second novel empathically speaking on the invasion of human to non-human violently and aggressively (refer to the first novel). I will also find out how the human and nonhuman opposition addressed in the novel for the sake of pessimism. Therefore, the following subchapter will describe both concepts (speciesism and pessimism). 2.1 Speciesism One of the key terms related to human – nature relationship especially connected with the concept of humanism is speciesism. The term first coined by the British psychologist namely Richard D. Ryder in his essay entitled “Experiments on Animals” on the prelude of Stanley, Roslind Godlovitch and John Harris’ Animals, Men and Morals. He wrote in the essay that the scientists seek to have speciesism both ways: they confirm on the validation of animal experiments as the similarity between human and non-human, while proposes 56 Arne Naess, “The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: A Summary”. Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy and the Social Sciences 16 (1973): 34.

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 morality as the base of differences.57 He argued that speciesism is as illogical as racism, writing that "species" and "race" are both vague terms, and asked: "If, under special conditions, it were one day found possible to cross a professor of biology with an ape, would the offspring be kept in a cage or a cradle?”.58 While in the perspective of Peter Singer, speciesism is “a prejudice or attitude of bias in favor of the interests of members of one’s species and against those of members of other species”.59 As an example, Singer (qt. in Wolfe, Animal Rites) points out the hypocrisy of using animal as test subjects in medical and cosmetic research, exposing them to pain and suffering and forcing them to live in captivity, whereas treating a mentally handicapped person with an even lower mental capacity the same way would be unthinkable.60 (34) Here, the basis for moral subjectivity is not a higher level of consciousness, an ability to communicate or feel pain, but simply the membership of a biological species. Different from Singer’s ideas on speciesism, Camilla Kronqvist in her article Speciesism – Arguments for Whom? States that speciesism is not merely configured the factual differences but mostly concern about the superiority of the human to the non-human (animals or aliens).61 She figures out that Singer has made the wrong interpretation of speciesism, Richard D Ryder, ‘Experiments on Animals’, in S. & R. Godlovitch & J. Harris (eds.), Animals, Men and Morals (New York: Taplinger, 1972), p. 14 58 R. D. Ryder, ‘Experiments on Animals’, in S. & R. Godlovitch & J. Harris (eds.), Animals, Men and Mora p. 16 59 Peter Singer, Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. (London: Harper Collins, 1975), p. 6. 60 Cary Wolfe, Animal Rites: American Culture, the Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory. (Chicago: University Chicago Press, 2003), p. 34. 61 Camilla Kronqvist, “Speciesism – Arguments for Whom?” Articles: Ethics, Agency & Love for Bryn Browne, ed. University of Wales Lampeter: Department of Philosophy. (2010): 4. 57

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 Regarding speciesism, humanism has two sides: “an inclusive side, according to which all humans are first-class moral patients, and an exclusive side, according to which only humans are first-class moral patients”. 62 For example, in the past, the Western tradition on which the humanist ethics based has justified phenomena such as slavery and the crusades on the basis that the people involved, who killed, oppressed, and exploited, were not classified as human. According to Singer “It should be obvious that the fundamental objections to racism and sexism . . . apply equally to speciesism. If possessing a higher degree of intelligence does not entitle one human to use another for his or her own ends, how can it entitle humans to exploit nonhumans for the same purpose?”.63 Moral worth cannot be based on a biological factor such as species, just as it cannot be based on race or gender. 2.2 Pessimism The Victorian Age validated a fundamental alteration in artistic representations of the natural world from inspirational and benevolent to malignant and competitive. No longer was nature simply an environment; it was an autonomous agent that could exact its will on living beings. This new, pessimistic model can be seen in poems like Lord Alfred Tennyson’s In Memoriam, an elegy of nature, with lines like “Nature, red in tooth and claw,” which evoke a blood-thirsty conception of the world. The other example that promotes the decreasing ambiance of nature is a poem by Matthew Arnold entitled Dover Beach, which reads, 62 Paola Cavalieri, The Animal Question: Why Nonhuman Animals Deserve Human Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 70. 63 Peter Singer, Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. (London: Harper Collins, 1975), p. 6.

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 For the world, which seems To lie before us like a land of dreams, So various, so beautiful, so new, Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light, Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain64 The advancement of scientific knowledge in the mid-Victorian era shook the religious faith of the people. There was also a sharp conflict between religion and science since the spirit of inquiry and criticism, skepticism and religious uncertainty, spiritual struggle and unrest are to be found in the thought and literature of the Victorian age. Thus established order, faiths, and beliefs, traditions and customs, were losing their hold on the minds of the people, and the new order of things had not yet been established. The human had lost his mooring in God, Religion, and Nature. It was for the first time, says David Cecil, that, “conscious, considered pessimism became a force in English literature”.65 Therefore, the effect of geological and biological discoveries profoundly affected the look and temper of human as well as intellectual activity during the Victorian period. Thus, that thought came from the doctrine of evolution, where Charles Darwin propounded in his book, On The Origin of Species that the world was not created by God, but evolved gradually. 66 The evolutionary theory of Darwin completely revolutionized the contemporary views about human and society. Since then the faith in the Biblical view of human, religion, and nature was replaced by the Darwinian theory of evolution through the struggle for existence. It results in an atmosphere of doubt and skepticism, which do not know 64 Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach and Other Poems (Massachusetts: Courier Corporation, 1994), p. 32. 65 David Cecil, Thomas Hardy the Novelist (Redditch: Read Books ltd., 2008), p. 87. 66 C. Darwin, The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, p.107.

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 the right of contentment in life. This harsh, fatalistic language is a reflection of what is commonly called Victorian pessimism. 3. Science Fiction In the late twentieth century, science fiction has become the major theme in most of the literary works. Science fiction co-opted the logic of science in tropes like artificial intelligence, robots, space travel, warp speed, and genetic engineering to imagine peace and the path to it. John W. Campbell quote in Pablo Santoro Domingo in “Science Fiction in Spain: A Sociological Perspective,” science fiction author and editor for Astounding Stories, equated imagining the future to predicting it. Campbell and other authors argued that science fiction’s legitimacy was not only in the genre’s application of science and its logic to create plausible plots but also in its ability to predict the future with scientific reasoning. 67 Since these influential authors presumed science fiction would predict what would happen in the twentieth century, its legacy has been to offer foresight for much of its audience. According to Sheryl Hamilton in “Traces of the Future: Biotechnology, Science Fiction, and the Media,” science fiction is widely understood as “a prosocial knowledge with predictive power.” 68 Some critics seem to agree that science fiction has predictive abilities. Elyce Rae Helford in “(E)raced Visions: Women of Color and Science Fiction in the United States” argues, “science fiction Pablo Santoro Domingo, “Science Fiction in Spain: A Sociological Perspective.” Science Fiction Studies 33. 2 (2006): 324. 68 Hamilton, Sheryl N. “Traces of the Future: Biotechnology, Science Fiction, and the Media.” Science Fiction Studies 30. 2 (2003): 273. 67

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 is about the future, new options and new ways of thinking.”69 Darko Suvin in “Estrangement and Cognition” sees twentieth-century science fiction as “a diagnosis, a warning, a call to understanding and action, and—most importantly— a mapping of possible alternatives.”70 (2005, 30) A future could certainly be a welcome possible alternative to whatever problems influence society at the time of science fiction is constructed. By identifying particular works as “speculative,” there is, therefore, a degree of correlation with Margaret Atwood’s definition of speculative fiction as works about “things that really could happen”71 given the continuation or slight alteration of already observable social conditions. However, speculative fiction also has a wider use within this thesis, which aligns with a desire to recognize, as discussed above, the increasingly fictional science aspects of contemporary existence. As the topic of this research is the connection between the natural world and science fiction, then the next sub-chapter will explain it. 3.1 Science Fiction and Nature The early development of the scientific revolution was marked by the pursuit of inventions, discoveries, and brought a new worldview. A mechanistic approach, which Robert Hooke describes in his Micrographia: “we may perhaps be unable to discern all the secret workings of Nature, almost in the same manner as we do those that are the productions of Art, and are managed by Wheels, and Elyce Rae Helford, “(E)raced Visions: Women of Color and Science Fiction in the United States.” In Science Fiction, Canonization, Marginalization, and the Academy. Eds. Gary Westfahl and George Slusser (Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 2002), p. 131 70 Darko Suvin, “Estrangement and Cognition” Speculations on Speculation: Theories of Science Fiction. Eds. James Gunn and Matthew Candelaria (Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2005), p. 30. 71 Margaret Atwood in Slawomir Kuznicki, Margaret Atwood's Dystopian Fiction: Fire Is Being Eaten (Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011), p. 17 69

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 Engines, and Springs, that we devised by human Wit”.72 This will to know the “secret workings of Nature” inspired a new conceptualization of the world and a new relationship between humankind and natural phenomena. Darko Suvin’s definition from his 1972 essay “On the Poetics of the Science Fiction Genre” has probably proved to be both the most enduring and controversial. Suvin succinctly characterizes science fiction as “a literary genre whose necessary and sufficient conditions are the presence and interaction of estrangement and cognition, and whose main formal device is an imaginative framework alternative to the author's empirical environment”. 73 It is this combination of cognition and estrangement which, according to Suvin, then differentiates science fiction from other generic forms, notably fantasy: The estrangement differentiates it from the ‘realistic’ literary mainstream of 18th to 20th century. The cognition differentiates it not only from myth but also from the fairy tale and the fantasy. The fairy tale also doubts the laws of the author's empirical world, but it escapes out of its horizons and into a closed collateral world indifferent toward cognitive possibilities. It does not use imagination as a means to understand the tendencies in reality, but as an end sufficient unto itself and cut off from the real contingencies.74 Suvin’s definition is the most effective illustration of science fiction which deduce from the “empirical environment.”75 Luckhurst notes how science fiction might be seen, culturally, as “a literature of technologically saturated societies. A genre that can, therefore, emerge only relatively late in modernity, it is popular literature that concerns the impact of Mechanism...on cultural life and human 72 Robert Hooke, Micrographia: Or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made bymagnifying glasses (London: Early English Books Online, 1665), p. 4 73 Darko Suvin, “On the Poetics of the Science Fiction Genre” in College English, 32. 3. (2010): 372. 74 D. Suvin, “On the Poetics of the Science Fiction Genre” , p. 375. 75 D. Suvin, “On the Poetics of the Science Fiction Genre” , p. 373.

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 subjectivity”.76 Adam Roberts adds to this definition by elaborating on the precise philosophical nature of such an encounter: My conclusion is that SF is better defined as ‘technology fiction’ provided we take ‘technology’ not as a synonym for ‘gadgetry’ but in a Heideggerian sense as a mode of ‘enframing’ the world, a manifestation of a fundamentally philosophical outlook. [...] To the extent that SF enters into the discourse of ‘science’ (as it frequently does) the best way of theorizing this is as a Feyerabendian proliferation of theories rather than a notional uniformity or ‘truth.’77 In this way, science fiction might be seen as a genre that does not fetishize technology, but rather imagines how the world may be seen from a particular technological or scientific perspective. Thus, science fiction would not only present itself as the most appropriate form to examine these changes in the structure of society, but its method of unpacking the interaction between technology, nature, and the society would also disseminate amongst other modes of representation not exclusively categorized as ‘science fiction.’ 4. Dystopia As the focus of this thesis is on the creation of dystopian ecology which related to the existence of ecocriticism. Therefore when talking about dystopia in dystopian literature; it draws very pale and desolate picture of future society and it also describes a lethal flaw that leads to great suffery and finally brings up antiutopia. Nonetheless, there must be no confusion between dystopian literature and post-apocalyptic literature. Differently, post-apocalyptic literature mainly deals with the devastation of war and the termination of the human race due to mass 76 Victoria Margree, Daniel Orrells, and Minna Vuohelainen (Eds) Richard Marsh, popular fiction and literary culture, 1890-1915: Rereading the fin de siècle (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2018), p. 77. 77 Adam Roberts in Leisa A. Clark, Amanda Firestone, Mary F. Pharr (Eds), The Last Midnight: Essays on Apocalyptic Narratives in Millennial Media (North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publisher, 2016), p. 219.

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 weapons’ destuction. While in the dystopian literature, the focus on the flaws of human society like injustice and unfair treatment towards the undefended or unprotected beings. Michael D. Gordin, Helen Tilley, and Gyan Prakash in their introduction entitled “Utopia and Dystopia beyond Space and Time” are careful to point out that despite the name, dystopia is not simply the opposite of utopia as "[a] true opposite of utopia would be a society that is either completely unplanned or is planned to be deliberately terrifying and awful. Dystopia, typically invoked, is neither of these things; rather, it is a utopia that has gone wrong".78 4.1 Dystopian Ecology The representative reading uncovered the important role that the environment has played in the creation of utopian and dystopian regimes thought through the ages. While each utopia and dystopia has its own aesthetic and political orientation contextualized within the concerns and fears of its era, there is a preoccupation throughout these utopian and dystopian fictions with the threat of environmental destruction and collapse. The texts may provide young people with an entry point into real-world problems. Utopian and dystopian literature may encourage readers to think about the roots of social and political issues in new ways, or even think about these issues for the first time. Greg Garrard points out in his chapter entitled “Apocalypse,” “the realization that the world is not about to end, and that human beings – namely contemporary youth – like the environment, are likely to survive even if our constructed civilization does not”.79 Michael D. Gordin, Helen Tilley, and Gyan Prakash, “Utopia and Dystopia beyond Space and Time” in Utopia/Dystopia: Conditions of Historical Possibility (Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2010), p. 2. 79 Greg Garrard, Ecocriticism (London: Routledge, 2012), p. 107. 78

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 Dystopia seeks to shock its readership to radically change the current human position in political, social and mental. Supposing that human does not change, the future will desolate and looks grim. The interests are like the utopian condition for human, whereas it is the dystopian condition for the non-human or natural world. The foreground reason behind that slogan is the survival of human species itself. Utopia and dystopia are the bound systems of nature, cannot be separated. M. Keith Booker in The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism states that “what might be one person's utopia, when closely scrutinized, can be another's dystopia”.80 Dystopia, ironically, often arises from a society that strives for utopia. This truth stretches back to Sir Thomas More's Utopia , which cites that a utopia is a place or condition that has never been experienced and no one knows the ideal condition of utopia, while dystopia is a place that so horrible and chaos, nobody will live there.81 As humans continue to struggle with sustainability, their habit and the technological mastery impact the climate change and has a double-edged impact not only to survive but also become the root of environmental problems, the dystopian literature can induce the research on ecocritical analysis. C. Theoretical Framework In order to answer the related questions in problem formulation, the arrangement use of theories are needed. There will be three theories and two concepts that are going to be used to analyze the ecological phenomenon which is dystopian ecology. The three theories that going to be used are first, the theory of 80 M. Keith Booker, The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism (Michigan: Greenwood Press, 1994), p. 3 81 Sir Thomas More, Utopia (Redditch: Read Books Ltd., 2013), p. 3

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 ecocriticism is used to answer the first problem formulation regarding to the ecological phenomenon. For the second theory, the researcher uses dystopian ecology to acknowledge and referring the environmental destruction that lead to the creation of dystopian ecology. While, the third theory is science fiction and nature; since the novels are include in science fiction genre than it is important to notice the relationship between science fiction and nature in the novels. Albeit, the two concepts are speciesism and pessimism. The researcher uses speciesism to answer the first question in research questions which deal with the application of speciesism in both novels. The way speciesism occurs in the novels and the effect of it to the environment or nature. By adding the concept of speciesism, the researcher wants the readers to acknowledge the existence of nonhuman (nature) that still be neglected by them. Accordance with Peter Singer explanation that speciesism happens due to the prejudice attitude towards other species. The second concept is pessimism; this concept deals with the human perception toward nature and its surroundings. The perception that the wildlife and nature are dangerous and hazardous, so that they feel insecure and pessimistic with the nature and environment around them. Here, pessimism was emerged by the Darwinian concept of human evolution during the Industrial Revolution. So forth, the spirit of pessimism can be seen through the dialogues in the novels. By doing so, the dystopian ecology can be observed.

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III THE VICTORIAN SPECIESISM AND PESSIMISM This chapter mainly focuses on two Victorian concepts of nature; namely speciesism and pessimism in the novels. The analysis elaborates the denunciation of speciesism and pessimism in H.G Wells The War of the World and Garrett Putnam Serviss Edison’s Conquest of Mars. The discussion of speciesism and pessimism is merely describing the speciesism and pessimism depicted in the novels. By describing these two concepts, it is hoped that the analysis can provide some insight into how these novels either strengthen or subvert the concepts. These concepts were applied during the Victorian era whereas the Industrial Revolution started. The novels were written in the Victorian era and are intricately connected within the socio-historical contexts of the Victorian society. Known as the successful era of the British Empire, also the Victorian era has become the role model in which many countries seek to emulate. The most significant marker in the Victorian era was the Industrial Revolution. This revolution triggered the rising demand for the substantial economic necessity for the higher economic position. It is illustrated by The Editors Encyclopaedia Britannica that the Industrial Revolution has changed several aspects of British people life namely technological, socioeconomic and cultural. “The start of mass-production in factories, further lead into the designation of Nature as mere commodities. It can be asserted that the Industrial Revolution leads into the heightened desire for the mastery of Nature.”82 82 “Índustrial Revolution”, Event, The British Empire, britannica.com/event/Industrial-Revolution 39

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 The reign of Queen Victoria was synonymous with the conjugation of nature due to the Industrial Revolution, in which mostly because of the quest of the Industrial materials (such as iron, tin, steel, and oil) or raw materials. Victoria’s reign was associated with the spread of British Imperialism. While the word Imperialism mostly known as a situation whereas stronger countries or societies suppress the weaker ones, that is not as simple as that. Alejandro Colás notes that “like other key concepts in the social sciences” imperialism “is a category of meaning which carries historical baggage” that “is constantly contested and reaffirmed”.83 One can go further than this: along with the words “capitalism,” “class,” “socialism” and “revolution,” imperialism is one of the defining political terms of the twentieth century. John A. Hobson, a radical liberalist whose theories provided the bedrock for the later theorization of imperialism, assert that this new imperialism differs very much from the old visions of empire. He illustrated this perspective in his book Imperialism: A Study (1975): First in substituting for the ambition of a single growing empire the theory and practice of competing empires, each motivated by similar lusts of political aggrandizement and commercial gain; secondly, in the dominance of financial or investing over mercantile interests.84 Hobson argues that the internal conditions of European capitalism had resulted in a class of economic “parasites” coming to prominence, centered mainly in the finance sector. 85 Therefore imperialism in the new era deals with the capital belongings and capital controls. It became central to a series of political and economic struggles in particular. 83 Alejandro Colas, Food, Politics, and Society: Social Theory and the Modern Food System (California: University of California Press, 2018), p. 3. 84 John Atkinson Hobson, Imperialism: A Study (Redditch: Read Books Ltd., 2013), p. 34. 85 J. A.Hobson, Imperialism: A Study, p. 48.

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 Singer’s concept of speciesism foregrounds the interconnectedness between colonialism and the subjugation of nature. In the explanation of speciesism, there are some dialogical scrimmages which influence my understanding of speciesism in general. Long ago, Peter Singer defines speciesism as “a prejudice or attitude of bias in favor of the interests of members of one’s species and against those of members of other species” (p. 6).86 It exhibits the bias, and allow the human to interact and manipulate nature. These prejudices resemble the act of forming and taking, which resulting atrocities (e.g., resemblance to racial slavery, institutional oppression of women, and the Holocaust) and its consequences to improve our awareness of the moral implications of our treatment on nature. In this way, we can realize (1) that we are exploiting nature on an unprecedented scale. (2) That because we continue exploiting nature even as we study how wrong slavery and the Holocaust were, we have not yet solved the underlying issues in our thinking and practices that allow mass, systematic violence, and exploitation to happen; until we do, the violence is bound to continue. The next subchapter serves deeper discussion on the concept of speciesism and pessimism. A. The Values of Speciesism and Pessimism in Wells’ The War of the Worlds and Serviss’ Edison’s Conquest of Mars The discussion in this part focuses on two specific terms of the research, speciesism, and pessimism. Elaborating these concepts is needed to trace the historical roots of ecological crises. The relationship between human and nature (non-human) illustrates how human lived in the constant struggle; the human has 86 P. Singer, Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals, p.6.

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 been the prey of nature, through wild animals, natural disasters and plagues. With domestication, urbanization, and industrialization, humans have succeeded not only in adapting to nature but in adapting nature to man, (by satisfying their own social needs). This view is later debated as human realized that they are the first casualty of their pyrrhic victory over nature: “being conquered, the world is finally conquering us” as Michel Serres stated. 87 First a prey, then a predator, a man ought to become a “creative protector”: not only protecting nature from himself but protecting himself from his desire of exploitative domination.88 Serres’ statement is echoed by Peter Singer’s speciesism that addresses how prejudice between species has made human underestimates other species. I first became aware of the concept of speciesism as a result of reading H.G Wells, The War of the Worlds, which serve the different anomaly of human and aliens relationships, whether or not the aliens in the novel described as the horrible thing which does not look like human nor animals. In Animal Liberation, Peter Singer argues that almost all of us are speciesists, unjustifiably favoring the interests of humans over the similar interests of other animals. Differ with the speciesism brought by Peter Singer which pointing on the diverge capacities between human and non-human, in this research the speciesism deals on the oppression within human and human to non-human species. By this point, the concept of speciesism can provide important insight for this study. The values of speciesism and pessimism are foregrounded as the theoretical framework for the analysis. The below section will analyze the values of speciesism and pessimism in specific courses. The section will divide into two 87 88 Michel Serres, The Natural Contract (Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1995) p. 12. M. Serres, The Natural Contract, p. 14.

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 sub-analyses, both of them are the comparison between those concepts. Firstly, the similarities between speciesism and pessimism in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars is elaborated. Here, the similarities talk about the nondifferent status of speciesism in the novels. The non-different status means that the values of speciesism stated in the novels share the same acknowledgment on what the speciesism talk. Secondly, the differences between speciesism and pessimism in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars is explored to substantiate the relationship between human and nature which are separate to each other. 1. The Similarities of Speciesism and Pessimism in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars In this sub-subsection, the analysis illustrates the speciesism and pessimism values in the War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars. Based on the reading, this thesis formulates two main values, the anthropocentric worldview and secondly is the biased position of the non-human. Subsequent paragraphs will provide a more detailed analysis. 1.1 Anthropocentric issues in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars Since the time of the creation, most of the people still believe in the scripture’s teaching of Human and Nature which mainly assert the separation and divide between them. Based on Judeo-Christian thought and the biblical assertion that God created the earth, animals, birds, and fish for man's benefit, this belief continues to influence a human-centric view of nature. In my understanding, this worldview is not only held by Christians but also other beliefs or religions. In

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 which according to Lynn White in an article entitled “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” that “Despite Copernicus, all the cosmos rotates around our little globe. Despite Darwin, we are not, in our hearts, part of the natural process. We are superior to nature, contemptuous of it, willing to use it for our slightest whim”.89 In line with the narrative explication above, human in western or developed countries tends to develop a sense of separation from nature for various reasons. Although the Industrial Revolution is considered as the defining point, the anthropocentric worldview can be traced since the Enlightenment which brought with it feelings of domination over nature. With the increasing focus on a scientific and empirical approach to nature came developments in science and technology. It can be traced from this notion, Carolyn Merchant in “Reinventing Eden: Western Culture as a Recovery Narrative” wrote that “The controlling image of Enlightenment is the transformation from desert wilderness to the cultivated garden.”90 Many of these discoveries further enhanced people’s abilities to control or transform nature into the pristine gardens present in the biblical story of Adam and Eve. The value that a person places on the environment may play a role in whether or not they view themselves as part of or separate from nature. Kara L. Lamb (1996) in The Social Science Journal proposed that the term Lynn White Jr., “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis.” The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology (Athens, GA: U of Georgia, 1996), p. 12. 90 Carolyn Merchant, Reinventing Eden: The Fate of Nature in Western Culture (London: Routledge, 2013), p. 137. 89

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 “anthropocentric”91 be used to describe individuals who place themselves in an ethical state above nature. She compared these individuals with biocentric people who place all life at an equal level. Lamb stated that the value we place on nature would affect how we view ourselves in connection with nature. The situation illustrated in preceding paragraphs is also reflected in both the War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars. One pivotal symbolism regarding the anthropocentric worldview is the figure of the Martians. Their depiction particularly illustrates the horror and grotesque portrayal of the nonhuman entities. “Octopuses.” said he. “that’s what I call ‘em.92 And this Thing I saw! How can I describe it? A monstrous tripod, higher than many houses….a walking engine of glittering metal. (WW, 14) Was he like a man? Yes and no. He possessed many human characteristics, but they were exaggerated and monstrous in scale and detail. His head was enormous, and his huge projecting eyes gleamed with a strange fire of intelligence. His face was like a caricature, but not one to make the beholder laugh. 93 This passage emphasizes the physical characteristic of Martian which differs from a human. On Edison’s Conquest of Mars, although the Martians are portrayed as human, it is only –human like-, with a similar appearance but different in size and face look. It is also exemplified in WW that the Martians more closely resembling animals rather than human. They are human with animal qualifications; the monstrous tripod or octopus-like creature. They have bodiless head nearly four Kara L. Lamb, “The problem of defining nature first: A philosophical critique of environmental ethics” The Social Science Journal 33. 4 (1996): 478. Coba dikoreksi sendiri belum betul. Ini jurnal. 92 H.G Wells, H.G Wells – The Complete Works (Massachusetts: Longmeadow Press, 1984), p. 34; All subsequent references to this work, abbreviated WW, will be used in this thesis using pagination only. 93 Garrett Putnam Serviss, Edison's Conquest of Mars by Garrett P. Serviss. With An Introduction by A. Langley Searles, Ph. D. (Los Angeles: Carcosa House, 1947), p. 67; All subsequent references to this work, abbreviated ECM, will be used in this thesis using pagination only. 91

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 feet across, having a V-shaped two eyes, beak-like mouth; and two parts of eight 'almost whip-like' tentacles, grouped around the mouth, referred to as the 'hands.' Those quotations and explanations strengthened the feeling of human superiority amongst non-human, as the Martians are not categorized as human through their peculiar characteristics. The other similarity of human superiority can be traced in the fascinating response the humans have regarding the Martians technological advance. The narrator remarks, The Martians seem to have calculated their descent with amazing subtlety—their mathematical learning is far more than ours—and to have carried out their preparations with well-nigh perfect unanimity. (WW, 8) italics “the Government at Washington, announcing that Queen Victoria, the Emperor William, the Czar Nicholas, Alphonso of Spain, with his mother, Maria Christina; the old Emperor Francis Joseph and the Empress Elizabeth, of Austria; King Oscar and Queen Sophia, of Sweden and Norway; King Humbert and Queen Margherita, of Italy; King George and Queen Olga, of Greece; Abdul Hamid, of Turkey; Tsait'ien, Emperor of China; Mutsuhito, the Japanese Mikado, with his beautiful Princess Haruko; the President of France, the President of Switzerland, the First Syndic of the little republic of Andorra, perched on the crest of the Pyrenees, and the heads of all the Central and South American republics, were coming to Washington to take part in the deliberations, which, it was felt, were to settle the fate of earth and Mars.” (ECM, 16) The narration above illustrates human interference or human domination towards nature. The gathering of the dominant human alliance represents the human passion for controlling nature, in which each nation want to grasp and exploit nature by exclaiming the natural resources through technological development. By the hand of humanity, they want to take control of nature. In harmony with those conquering, and warmongering, the advancement of technology is also fueled by the Industrial Revolution. Due to the historical background which started with the Industrial Revolution occurred in England, has

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 become universally recognized; therefore all of the nations want to increase their influences, so they expand their territory by conquering and exploiting the new land (the third world countries). The Martians technological advance represents the Western technological advancement that they employ to explore the New World, such as ships, weapons, guns, etc. Whereas the technological advancement in the Novels especially in The War of the Worlds lays on the spaceships that they use to conquer the Earth. Their sophisticated technological progress can be seen in the first coming of the Martians to the Earth. Henceforth, narrated as follow, The Thing itself lay almost entirely buried in sand, amidst the scattered splinters of a fir tree it had shivered to fragments in its descent. The uncovered part had the appearance of a huge cylinder, caked over and its outline softened by a thick scaly dun-colored incrustation. It had a diameter of about thirty yards. (WW, 14) Other than the Martian’s technological advancement which vastly more developed than the humans possessed, they also have peculiar characteristics that differ with a human. As in the previous explanation, the Martians represents the Western “Conquistador” then the peculiar characteristics also applied to them. This differentiation appears as whenever humans are unable to perceive an unknown entity; then human always relate “the unknowing object” as a nonhuman based on their orientations. In the Edison’s Conquest of Mars, the anthropocentrism issues are also addressed in the way individual plan something horrible to destroy the Martians in their planet due to their vengeance. To revenge the Martians’ destruction towards Earth, a human has built some enormous technological advancements. Edison’s inventions have been the central theme of

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 the vengeful reprisal in Mars. His design of “flying ship” uses "principle of electrical attraction and repulsion." I had myself been one of the occupants of the car of the flying Ship of Space on that night when it silently left the earth, and rising out of the great shadow of the globe, sped on to the moon. Mr. Edison simply wished to demonstrate the practicability of his invention and to convince, first of all, himself and his scientific friends that it was possible for men—mortal men—to quit and to revisit the earth at their will. That aim this experimental trip triumphantly attained. (ECM, 7) The other illustration of human illustration portrayed in Edison’s Conquest of Mars is the appointment of the United States as the leader of the nations of Earth. In this case, those appointment underlines that there is self-interest of the writer as an American people and also represent the power dominancy amongst other countries. The United States naturally took the lead, and their leadership was never for a moment questioned abroad. (ECM, 15) Although the Alliance is first intended for the defensive purpose, later on, their preparation is earmarked for the offensive assault. They do not want to wait for the Martians attack, but they want to attack first. Also, this attack is fueled by the previous attack launched by the Martians. They possessed a mysterious explosive, of unimaginable puissance,…. The victims of this ferocious explosion were numbered by tens of thousands, and the shock, transmitted through the rocky frame of the globe, was recorded by seismographic pendulums in England and on the Continent of Europe. (ECM, 3) Concerning with the attack, Mr. Edison has built the “disintegrators,” these “disintegrators” are the weapon that inflicts enormous damage when used. It is a little object dissolve, which result in the vanishing of an object when hit by the weapon. In some ways “the disintegrators” have a different presentation, first

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 as a weapon itself and second as the representation of the oppressor tools to divide the nation. The above expression on human thought about the Martians, on how they are describing the Martians characteristics just like non-human or close to the animal description. By that way, human confirms their superiority amongst the Martians whom they designated as the non-human. Following section further illustrates the biased position of non-human viewed from the human’s perspective. 1.2 The Bias Position of Non-Human Species in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars The earth scientists have in recent years even created a name for this new era in the history of our planet; the Anthropocene, the age of the human. We humans are and will forever be part of the biosphere; connected to nature both in our demand for life-supporting services and through the fact that we as dominant actors exercise a strong influence on the system. Humans are both dependent and dominating at the same time. Therefore, the position of non-human possession also exists in a blurry area, whether they in place of human or animal. In the previous chapter, the characteristics of Martian are portrayed either as human-like or animal-like. Accordingly there are no formal presentations of the Martians in both novels. In The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars, nonhuman classify as human alike, not human or animal. The aliens in both novels are mostly the representation of human suffering that is employed as symbolism. The biased position of aliens also stated on how the writer of the novels puts the aliens either as suppressor or oppressor. The War

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 50 of the Worlds reports that the aliens come to the Earth to exploit and conquer it, due to its natural resources and the people. Val Plumwood in “Environmental Ethics” stated in The Sage Handbook of Environment and Society says that: Human supremacism in its strongest forms refuses ethical recognition to non-humans, treating nature as just a resource we can make use of however we wish.94 The blurry area of non-human and human relationship has made a gap in the understanding of the non-human existence in this world. As the conception of the non-human stand is created by human, the negative stigma of the non-human is viewed from the human’s perspective. This view is reflected in the Victorian poems, as the central theme that emerges in the era was the fear of nature, which can be seen in Tennyson’s poem In Memoriam. The poem mainly reviews the relationship between nature, god, and science, nevertheless, in the poem, the nature of nature is portrayed as something different and oddly. Oddly means dangerous and harmful for human, the cruelty of nature is the main idea behind one of the phrases; “Nature, red in tooth and claw.” The phrase represents the nature or non-human as something that hazardous and needs to be avoided or eradicated. Even though nature or nonhuman us saw as the dangerous being, a human cannot live without nature. They still need it, to fulfill their needs and protection. Therefore, the relationship between human and non-human shall not be interrupted and destructed. The biased position of the non-human is the result of human superiority that human proud. It embraces the dichotomy of non-human that is with human, physical and psychological — the differentiation between the effect of how the 94 Val Plumwood, “Environmental Ethics” The Sage Handbook of Environment and Society , 10. 17 (2007): 255.

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 51 non-human becomes the object of suffering. This condition is a part of the utilization of nature as the representation of human social and economic situation. 2. The Different Values of Speciesism and Pessimism in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars In the previous subchapter, the similarities between speciesism and pessimism which determined by the characterization of the human and the Martians, so forth in this subchapter the analysis begin with the contrastive elements of the novels which are the external elements. Both extraneous factors are talking about the historical background of the novels and the representation of that. The causality phenomenon in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars are related to the cause and effect occurs in the novels. The cause and effect in the novels phenomenon are dealing with the human and non-human; the Martians. The second differences are about the representative object served in the novels. The representation deals with the “human” and “non-human.” 2.1 The Causality in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars Relate to the above explanation on how the sameness of the Martians is located in the intrinsic element of the novels such as the characteristics and characterizations of human and non-human (Martians). The characteristics building, which commemorates the human prejudice to the non-human has made some gap between human and non-human. Therefore in this subchapter, the causality act that provokes the Martians to come to the Earth and Edison’s reasons behind his conquest of the Mars are going to be discussed.

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 First, causality term came from Aristotle definition on the theory of causality stated in Physics II and Metaphysics IV and also in Phaedo. The statement said that “the causes of each thing; why each thing comes into existence, why it goes out of existence, why it exists”.95 Therefore this subchapter will analyze the different causality phenomenon depicts in the novels. In WW the reason for the aliens’ invasion due to the Earth natural resources which represent the human seek of needs and new shelters. The same red weed as in the book is shown, but the exact nature is further worked out. The aliens are shown to harvest humans and use their blood for food, as well as turning their bodies into liquid fertilizer, which looks like blood and is copiously present around red weed. “the red weed grew with astonishing vigor and luxuriance. It spread up the sides of the pit by the third or fourth day of our imprisonment, and its cactus-like branches formed…” (WW, 169). This depiction of red weed reinforces the representation of the aliens as invaders, looking to enslave human as food source. The artilleryman, not unlike the curate, interprets the situation in the worst possible way, and is quick to accept the fall of human civilization: [I]nstead of our rushing about blind, on the howl, or getting dynamite on the chance of busting them up, we’ve got to fix ourselves up according to the new state of affairs. That’s how I figure it out. It isn’t quite according to what a man wants for his species, but it’s about what the facts point to. And that’s the principle I acted upon. Cities, nations, civilization, progress – it’s all over. (WW, 132) The artilleryman predicts a future where human turn into livestock, pet, and animals for the Martians. Nevertheless, most of them are happy with the condition and become the slave under the Martians, but the one who seeks 95 Andrea Falcon, “Aristotle in Causality” in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy derived from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-causality/ (2015)

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 freedom will fight, with the risk of a clash of horror. The artilleryman is a clear adherent of Social Darwinism, favoring the strong while wishing to exclude the weak. 2.2 The Subject Representations in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars Afterward, knowing the causality of the Martians invasion and the human invasion, which approximately done as a result of the will to dominate. In this subchapter, the representation of human and non-human are being discussed. The idea behind this differences is located in the different occupation of human and non-human in the novel The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars. Human and non-human in those novels are represented differently throughout the novel. In The War of the Worlds, human represent as the suppressor in the story, meanwhile, in Edison’s Conquest of Mars human represent as the oppressor, and the Martians as the supressor. All in all the object representations of the novels portray the domination of Martians to the human and human to the Martians. The suppressor and oppressor act in the novels summarized in the condition of Earth and Mars within the time of invasions. The irrational fear of Martians due to a mass massacre of human can be seen from these dialogs, “The fear I felt was no rational fear, but a panic terror not only of the Martians but of the dusk and stillness all about me.” (WW, 32) and the devastation act of Martians to erect human from the Earth, All about me gathered the invisible terrors of the Martians; that pitiless sword of heat seemed whirling to and fro, flourishing overhead before it descended and smote me out of life. (WW, 37)

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 54 There are a lot of examples that elaborate the cruelness of Martians to the human, on how human become their object of invasion. The destruction merely not only to destroy humanity but also take control of it. It was the first time I realized that the Martians might have any other purpose than destruction with defeated humanity. (WW, 154) Accordingly in Edison’s Conquest of Mars, the representation of human and alien are irreversible. All in all, it is the representation of human superiority against nature. Following the last Martian Invasion in The War of the Worlds, Edison as the chairman of the “Avengers” collects world’s best scientist, inventors and gather all the Nations of Earth to build a massive space armada. It is like the mission of the European countries to find resources for their industrial needs which called “to conquer another world.” All the nations, then, must now conjoin. They must unite their resources, and, if necessary, exhaust all their hoards, to raise the needed sum. (ECM, 15) Then they try to make a trip to the moon using that spaceship, and they find that the moon composed of diamonds and the asteroids made of gold. The technological advancement that the Earthlings create mainly for the benefit of the human only. The technological mastery just for co-opting the Mars planet and destroy the entity within. Specifically, the Earthlings show off their ability to build enormous space armada that can be used as the means to take over and destroy the Martians. These magnificent crystals, some of which appeared to be almost flawless, varied in size from the dimensions of hazelnut to geometrical solids several inches in diameter….and worth untold millions..(ECM, 49) Let us ourselves turn conquerors and take possession of that detestable planet, and if necessary, destroy it to relieve the earth of this perpetual threat which now hangs over us like the sword of Damocles. (ECM, 10)

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 Those are the subject representations of both novels, which hand in hand they share different postulate of human and Martian's presentation. In The War of the Worlds human and Martians represent the invasion of human to another human in advance of territorial expansion (looking for a new settlement). Differently with Edison Conquest of Mars, human and Martian represent the human technological advancement for conquering and possessing the natural resources.

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV THE CREATION OF DYSTOPIAN ECOLOGY “White man came across the sea He brought us pain and misery He killed our tribes, killed our creed He took our game for his own need” – “Run to the Hills’- Iron Maiden Many environmentalists are promoting and working hard to make people realize that they need to protect the environment, they need to preserve nature. Nevertheless, it is kind of pragmatic effort which based on the utilitarian and anthropocentric point of view. They often say, “Protect and preserve the forest, cause human cannot survive without them.” It is ok as far as it goes, but ultimately it is human selfishness. At first, this selfishness begins with the human interest but then moves on to talk about specific interests American interests, British interests or national interests. Those interests have condemned the human priority above all beings. The interests are like the utopian condition for human, whereas it is the dystopian condition for the non-human or natural world. The foreground reason behind that slogan is the survival of human species itself. Utopia and dystopia are the bound systems of nature, cannot be separated. M. Keith Booker in The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism states that “what might be one person's utopia, when closely scrutinized, can be another's dystopia”.96 Dystopia, ironically, often arises from a society that strives for utopia. This truth stretches back to Sir Thomas More's Utopia , which cites that 96 M. Keith Booker, The Dystopian Impulse in Modern Literature: Fiction as Social Criticism (Michigan: Greenwood Press, 1994), p. 3. 56

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 57 a utopia is a place or condition that has never been experienced and no one knows the ideal condition of utopia, while dystopia is a place that so horrible and chaos, nobody will live there.97 In place of controlling, owning or possessing, humankind participates in the process of the intricately woven web of life, acting no longer as masters or stewards of nature; instead as participants and co-creators of nature. This chapter is related to the previous chapter, since it deals with the impact of speciesism and pessimism which resulting the dystopian ecology in each novel. A. Dystopian Ecology In H.G Wells’ The War Of The Worlds In the earlier dystopian fiction, such as George Orwell’s Nineteen EightyFour, the authoritarian government uses threats and physical violence to settle their citizens. The use of apparatus as the tools or means to enforce supremacy is the invisible dystopian condition of the era. Examples of dystopian fiction tend to use the critical approach to expose the government manipulation on the inabilities and errors as the cause of their dystopian life. Dystopias seek to open up the imagination by heightening the shock of the consequences of a broken system. The postwar syndrome that society got mostly inspire the authors to write based on their experiment with form and subject. While in their writing they use dystopian as portray of the current condition, the imagination vehicle with large-scale social in technology and identity. Depending on the particular interests of the author, those decisions could be sociological, biological, psychological, and always to some degree political. The dystopian ecology of The War of the Worlds mainly pointed out on the social problem within the human, the quest for new settlements and new 97 Sir Thomas More, Utopia (Redditch: Read Books Ltd., 2013), p. 3

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 58 civilizations. The War of the Worlds mostly focuses on the act of forced taking on land and possession of others. Those narrations are based on the historical facts that the British Empire willingly expand their territory to strengthen their position in the world domination. One of the examples is the shipment of a hundred thousand people to their colonies due to land density. Hamish Maxwell-Stewart in “Convict Transportation from Britain and Ireland 1615 – 1870”, states “the approximately 36,000 women and 204,000 men transported from the British Isles, between 1661 and 1870, although at least 70,000 men and women were transported from British colonies in South and South-East to Indian Ocean penal settlements”.98 In conjunction with the Martians, they hover to invade Earth due to the dying state of Mars; they attracted by the warm climate, precious resources, and water resources. The exodus applied the way Britain was portrayed as an exhausted continent in quest of promoting the New World. Those narrations show the need for a new settlement for the British people. Even though the spreading of the British people to the colonies give advantages for them by decreasing the number of population, but it has triggered disadvantages in the colonies land: ; namely social problems and environmental problems, such as land seizing, the expulsion of native people, the killing of the tribe and the exploitation of indigenous people. The depiction of those problems is also illustrated on the arrival of the Martians. The arrival of the Martians is the illustration of the entry of the British people to the British colonies. And before we judge of [the Martians] too harshly, we must remember what ruthless and utter destruction our own species has wrought, not only upon 98 Hamish Maxwell-Stewart, ”Convict Transportation from Britain and Ireland 1615 – 1870” in History Compass (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 2010), p. 23.

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 59 animals, such as the vanished bison and the dodo but upon its inferior races. The Tasmanians, in spite of their human likeness, were entirely swept out of existence in a war of extermination waged by European immigrants, in the space of fifty years. Are we such apostles of mercy to complain if the Martians warred in the same spirit? (WW, 7-8) The British people’s deployment mostly went to the less populated land such as mainland of Asia, the mainland of Australia, Africa, and American peninsula. The massive implementation of the British population need large-scale transportation; in that era, the most recognized transportation was a ship. Hence, there are a lot of ships that sail from the British mainland to the separate area in the British colonies. While the Martians use cylinders for their transport to the Earth with massively amount of cylinders, they came just like the falling stars; rapidly and massively, without any warning. Then came the night of the first falling star. It was seen early in the morning rushing over Winchester eastward, a line of flame high in the atmosphere. Hundreds must have seen it and taken it for an ordinary fallingstar. (WW, 13) The ships or the cylinders that the Martians or the British people use are completely in disguise. The people only notice that it is just the cylinders came from Mars and had a huge size compare to another ship. They are not aware of the danger of that cylinder (ships). The thing itself lay almost entirely buried in the sand…. The uncovered part had the appearance of a huge cylinder, caked over and its outline softened by a thick scaly dun-colored incrustation. It had a diameter of about thirty yards. (WW, 14) After the cylinders opened, they saw the creatures and their fighting machines that be the weapons to destroy the people. It is obscure for them to acknowledge the devices, with its tentacles, people only mention it as octopuses. The appearances of the Martians are the sign of the destroyer, which juxtaposed with the arrival of the British people to the new lands.

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 60 “Octopuses.” said he. “that’s what I call ‘em. (WW, 48) And this Thing I saw! How can I describe it? A monstrous tripod, higher than many houses….a walking engine of glittering metal. (WW, 57) Seen nearer, the Thing was incredibly strange, for it was no mere insensate machine driving on its way. Machine it was, with a ringing metallic pace, and long, flexible, glittering tentacles….swinging and rattling about its strange body. (WW, 58) The machines are equipped with weapons that destroying the Earthlings. In their backs, they carry a huge basket to store what they found in the Earth, to survive. That narration is the same as the way of the British convicts’ survival acts in their new lands. They are gathering the supply for their existences, which are animals and human for their blood. Behind the main body was a huge mass of white metal like a gigantic fisherman’s basket. (WW, 58) Aside from the basket, there is a box which radiates the heat and flames, which are dangerous and destructive. It has the capability to destroy an object within one second; it can erase human from their existences. The narrator narrates. “You’ll see, sir. They carry a kind of box, sir that shoots fire and strikes you dead.”(WW, 53) Whatever is combustible flashes into flame as its touch, lead runs like water, it softens iron, cracks and melts glass, and when it falls upon water, incontinently that explodes into steam. (WW, 23) It was a few minutes past nine that night when these three sentinels were joined by four other Martians, each carrying a thick black tube. A similar tube was handed to each of the three. (WW, 81) That behaviorism of the Martian is likely the same as the convicts who came to the New World land and expulse the native people from that land. They lead all the indigenous people to their extinction. They are vastly spread and growth which mostly occupied the area. John Darwin in his article,” Imperialism

(73) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 61 and the Victorians: The Dynamics of Territorial Expansion” as seen in English Historical Review and published in Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Canadian settlers colonized the Prairies (some 750,000 square miles) in a generation after 1885. European occupation of Australian and New Zealand hinterlands speeded up sharply after 1870. In Argentina and Chile, the annihilation of indigenous resistance in the 1880s opened up new tracts to European settlement.99 It is proven that European settlement has put aside the native people home to a remote area. At this moment they dominate the land and neglecting the native people who lived there. They came not by an empty hand but equipped with equipment that they used as the medium to take over the land. They use their tools to take down the trees, animals even the native people. These tools are the Martians’ weapons which produce poisonous gas that successfully killed animals and human, during their invasion. These canisters smashed on striking the ground... and incontinently disengaged an enormous volume of heavy, inky vapor, coiling, and pouring upward in a huge and ebony cumulus cloud...And the touch of that vapor, the inhaling of its pungent wisps, was death to all breathes. (WW, 114) Even though they carry a lot of equipment, they can move vastly and nearly unspotted by the people. It is like the nature of a hunter with its unspotted movement; they can kill their target. Naturally, when the settlers build their settlements, they also act like a hunter. They are not only using their weapons as a protection tool but also as collecting tools; to collect food and others to survive. All of the fighting machines’ equipment and abilities made them became perfect weapons that almost unbeatable for the people. Its motion was so swift, complex, and perfect that at first, I did not see it as a machine, in spite of its metallic glitter. The fighting-machines were 99 John Darwin, “Imperialism and the Victorians: The Dynamics of Territorial Expansion” in English Historical Review (Oxford: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1997), p. 630.

(74) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 62 coordinated and animated to an extraordinary pitch, but nothing to compare with this. (WW, 162) The first appearance of the Martians which different with the human is on the clothes, while the human is in clothes, the Martians are not. When it says that the Martians are not in clothes oppositely, it does not mean so. It is just a metaphorical agency of the British Empire who can deal with the climate and weather of the native environment (skin adaptively). By doing so, they can easily infiltrate and invade the native people. It can be seen in the quotation below. The Martians wore no clothing. Their conceptions of ornaments and decorum were necessarily different from ours, and not only were they much less sensible of the changes of temperature than we are, but changes of pressure do not seem to have affected their health at all seriously. (WW, 170) The way the Martians support their life, they do not use the same organs as the human have, but they support their life by suckling the blood of human and animals. They do not want to waste their time and energy by consuming and digesting. They get the energy from the blood. They did not eat, much less digest. Instead, they took the fresh, living blood of other creatures, and injected it into their own veins….blood obtained from a living animal, in most cases from a human being, was run directly by means of a little pipette into the recipient canal. (WW, 164) The suckling blood of human and animals mirrors the action of slavery by the European people or the British people. The way they survive and support their life by using another human as tools is an example of speciesism practice during the Victorian era. The speciesism thining practice also occurs in the term of fatigue. The Martians are never tired even though they are not sleeping, oppositely with the human habit, when they are not sleeping they will get fatigue. Those actions are mirrored as the different ability to work. The Martians (the British people) are categorized as the hard worker and diligent, while the human

(75) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 63 (the native people) are opposite; lazy and sloppy. Those differences reflect the classifications among human (the British people and the native people). Their organisms did not sleep, any more than the heart of man sleeps. Since they had no extensive muscular mechanism to recuperate, that periodical extinction was unknown to them. They had a little or no sense of fatigue, it would seem. (WW, 166) On the statement before that, the Martians are created with high and sophisticated brain and tentacles. Thus, they created fighting machines to support their brain and tentacles. Therefore, they using those fighting machines made them strong and invulnerable to any human weapons. That they were not merely a handful of small sluggish creatures, but that they were minds swaying vast mechanical bodies; and that they could move swiftly and smite with such power that even the mightiest guns could not stand against them. (WW, 99) Those fighting machines portray the quality weapons that the British possess which are physical and social weapons. The real threats are guns, swords or shield; the social arms are the divisive tactic and propaganda tactic to divide the native people. By applying those tactics, the British Empire has made people to fight each other and created the collateral damage. Many of the native people being killed. Therefore the dystopian ecology happened. Beside those fighting machines, the Martians bring along with them several species of Martian vegetation, one of which turns invasive. This plant is a kind of red weed which rapidly growing and spread near the water (WW, 78). The red weed has a devastating impact on the native landscape, behaving similar to English ivy, covering terrestrial ground and climbing up waterways, causing flooding — the red weed forms “[a] landscape, weird and lurid, of another planet” (WW, 190).

(76) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 64 Apparently, the vegetable kingdom in Mars, instead of having green for a dominant color, is a vivid blood-red tint. At any rate, the seeds which the Martians (intentionally or accidentally) brought with them gave rise in all cases to red-colored growths….It spread up the sides of the pit by the third or fourth day of our imprisonment, and its cactus-like branches formed a carmine fringe to the edges of our triangular window. And afterward, I found it broadcast throughout the country, and especially wherever there was a stream of water. (WW, 168) Those invasive species of that red-colored plant brought by the Martians is a kind of technology that destroys the human environment (especially in the New World), the way they build the artificial thing that they brought from England, for example, the mining technology, the displaced of native culture and economies for their benefits. Those are ecological and cultural disruption of the invaders, the complete displacement of the native inhabitants (both human and environmental sustainability) — the ecological devastation caused by the Martians to combine with the cratered, ruined landscape caused by battle to create an alien landscape devoid of human life. [W]hat ruthless and utter destruction our own species has wrought, not only upon animals, such as the vanished bison and the dodo but upon its inferior races. The Tasmanians, in spite of their human likeness, were entirely swept out of existence in a war of extermination waged by European immigrants (WW, 7) Above all of the strange physical appearance of the creature, the Martians, in the end, were killed by the bacteria found on Earth. It was odd because the Martians did not have any defensive system like a n antibody to prevent them from being ill. It was because, in Mars, there was not a single bacterium or microorganism alive. “But there are no bacteria on the Mars” (WW, 168). Because the Martians’ bodies had never been infected by bacteria, they did not have immunity against the bacteria. These bacteria became the source of

(77) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 65 the diseases that led the Martians to die after they came to invade the earth. The quotations below show us the fact that the Martians was killed by bacteria. Micro-organism, which causes so much disease and pain on earth, have either never appeared upon Mars or Martians sanitary science eliminated them ages ago. A hundred diseases, all the fevers and contagious of human life, consumption, cancer, tumors, and such morbidities never enter the scheme of their life. (WW, 125) The Martians-dead! – slain by the putrefactive and disease bacteria against which their systems were unprepared. (WW, 167) They had some advantages that were gotten from their body form and the fighting machines that help them won the war against a human. However, their invasion toward the Earth was failed as their lost against bacteria that killed them. The special classification is located in their superiority in the body, mental structure, and the ownership of sophisticated technology possession. The technological mastery of the fighting machines that the Martians had, explicitly said that the technology they had was far beyond the technology the human had. This technology gap was the reason why the Martians could invade and beat the earthlings easily. This technological superiority of the Martians mirrors that of the British Imperialism powers over native nations. Jared Diamond in his book; Guns, Germs, and Steel, draws five aspects of technological advancement differences between the European and the New World. In his book, he states that the first different advancement is located in the use of metals in mastery material technology. Hence, the Martians use aluminum as the essential ingredients for their armory, which drastically different with the human possess (wood and stone).

(78) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 66 In another second it had lifted a bar of white aluminum into sight, untarnished as yet, and shining dazzlingly, and deposited it…(WW, 176) The second technological mastery is located in the steel of sophisticated weaponry. The Martian possession of heat ray, black smoke with bullet-proof armor (mirrored in the British army with guns and mint armor), while against simple technology like bows and arrows with quilted armor (the native people). The third technological advantage is the use of transportation technology, the use of cylinders for Martians to transport which can fly and has lightning speed. Different from the human who had no access. The next advantage is the machinery during the Industrial Revolution, the replacement of human to machine. Nevertheless, mirrored by the Martians in term of robotics use, where native people manually human labor. The last advantage relies on the development of transportation technology, which most European countries including England have advanced transport especially mass transport like galleys, warships, and compass; in which related to the Martian transportation technology (the flying machines). Using those advantages, the Martian mirror the British Empire with their superior material, transportation, and armor technology. The Martian machines also described in great detail, the way it has sophisticated technology like the tripods, three-legged machines for hunting and collecting food. This development has made the British Empire be the greatest countries in Europe. The Martians mirror the British war machines; the fighting machines had a similar role with the battle rams, catapult or trebuchet and fire guns on that era. They have their type of fighting machines which equipped with advanced armor; heat ray and laser. This kind of weapon directed the energy to destroy the target, opposite with the

(79) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 67 native people guns which slow, inaccurate and simplicity. They also capture humans for food. The Martians’ second weapon is poisonous gas, which functions similar to chemical weapons like chlorine, these chemical weapons are similar to the weapon used to kill the indigenous people or native tribe. On how the British people drive away and kill the native people. The speciesism thinking of expanding their territory followed by a rationalist policy of conquest and possession resulting in the dystopian ecology as Ania Loomba states, “military violence was used almost everywhere ... to secure both occupation and trading ‘rights:’ the colonial genocide in North America and South Africa was spectacular”. 100 The sublimation of the industrial revolution onto the natural world also reflected in political and economic philosophies. The last technological marvel described is a robot, described as a spiderlike machine, using muscle-like structures, and capable of construction of other machinery, and mining and refining of aluminum. That kind of differentiation between the British Empire and the native people cause terra incognita that resulted in speciesism thinking. In which there is a prejudice of the British Empire towards native people, that they are reckless, dangerous, incompetent, wild, lazy and aggressive. While the Martians or the British Empire are diligent, chastity, modern and industriousness, those descriptions also a type of pessimism that experienced in the Victorian era. Ania Loomba has described the binary relation between the European and the native people. The construction consists of attributing (often contradictory 100 A. Loomba, Colonialism/Postcolonialism, p. 112.

(80) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 68 and inconsistent) qualities to non-Europeans and Europeans, in this pattern, accordingly the indigenous people could describe as double-edged characterizations. In the Western perspective the indigenous people could be perceived the Western ideals, but at the same time, they are depicted as lazy, aggressive, and immoral, which defy to Europeans characteristics, decency, industriousness, and peacefulness. 101 While, in The War of the Worlds Wells’ Londoners operate on this same principle of Othering, imagining the aliens as ‘sluggish,’ ‘crawling,’ and ‘creeping,’ as opposed to the self-image of everybusy, fast-moving inhabitants of the metropole of London, capital of the world’s greatest empire. B. Dystopian Ecology In Garrett Putnam Serviss’ Edison Conquest Of Mars Edison's Conquest of Mars is an 1898 science fiction novel by American astronomer and writer Garrett P. Serviss. It was known for its early employment of space journey terms, and themes that later be the genre’s mass. The book features Thomas Edison as the primary character, though he also H.G Wells was not involved in the story. The story begins with the condition after the “attack,” the earthlings especially the western countries build a summit to plan the revenge attack to the Martians, and the group was led by Thomas Edison. Edison and other scientist create a lot of inventions especially weapons and ships. One of the most potent weapons that have been invented is disintegration ray, a weapon that is used as the defense and also offense tools. Beside Edison, there are a lot of world leaders and scientists such as Queen 101 A..Loomba, Colonialism/Postcolonialism, p. 91

(81) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 69 Victoria, U.S President William Mckinley, Kaiser Wilhelm II, Emperor Mutsuhito, Lord Kelvin, William Rontgen, and Silvanus P. Thompson. The fight between earthlings and the Martians has placed a condition that triggered the dystopian sphere in Edison’s Conquest of Mars. Even though it is avenged mission, but it deals with the hidden meaning that the white or the western people feel threatening by the wilderness and savage of the native people. Therefore at once they invade and eliminate the threateners. As the story tells, Edison succeeds to make the disintegrators ray which is the powerful weapon that the Earthlings use for the battle. Therefore, the novel deals with the concept of technology and nature. Here, those concepts are contradictory each other; the idea of technology is inversely proportional to nature. The more advanced technology is, the less value is nature. There is a tendency that human use technology for their benefit, for example, mining mine until depleted, lumbering until barren, fishing until nothing left and many more. Serviss presents a conceptualization of whiteness that goes back to the Garden of Eden. In many ways, Serviss's text represents the peak of a larger body of postwar which is American science fiction. Moreover, Serviss used the real-life inventor as his protagonist rather than a fictional young inventor. The prevalence of these stories shows the willingness of late nineteenth-century Americans to embrace texts that portrayed the benefits of technology, particularly when tied to an adventure tale in which an American hero goes forth to use his inventions for conquest in remote parts of the globe and its intimate connection to Western imperialism.

(82) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 70 The environment that produced novels like Edison's Conquest of Mars developed because of three decades of anxiety regarding Darwinian evolution and its threat to existing concepts of history that were often informed by the Bible. Carter Hanson, for example, has linked the popularity of lost-race novels in Britain to the implications of Darwinism, arguing that these works "address profound anxieties about Darwinian relativism and the racial amalgamation of British society". 102 These novels engage not only in the "relativist notions" of Darwinism that Hanson notes but in the wider, the physical differentiation. On how history which related to the Bible portrays the whiteness of the Garden of Eden. While in real life the practice of Social Darwinism flourishes, Darwin said that human or species will always compete in the world and those who are strong, wealthy and powerful can win; that is the idea of “the fit of the fittest” (p. ix). Therefore the practice of Social Darwinism has led people to some disintegrations partita. The way Social Darwinism sees about the Western countries and The New World has made a terra incognita. On how Western society always wants to explore the other part of the world in the name of science has caused some severe issues that followed. The most critical question is exploitation and salvation. Therefore by looking in Edison Conquest of Mars, the main discussion in this subchapter is the portrait of the above actions. The act of proclaiming, the act of exploiting, the act of killing and the law of destroying are observed in this subchapter. The way the European countries unite to declare war with the Martians is the same way the European countries spread their existences and 102 Carter Hanson in Nathaniel Williams, Gears and God: Technocratic Fiction, Faith, and Empire in Mark Twain's America (Alabama: University of Alabama Press., 2018), p. 499.

(83) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 71 power to the New World. In the novel the term Edisonade is introduced, in 1993’s John Clute in Encyclopedia of Science Fiction defining Edisonade as Any story which features a young US male inventor hero who uses his ingenuity to extricate himself from tight spots . . . . The invention by which he accomplishes this feat is not, however, simply a weapon, though it will almost certainly prove to be invincible against the foe and may also make the hero's fortune; it is also a means of transportation--for the Edisonade is not only about saving the country (or planet) through personal spunk and native wit, it is also about lighting out for the Territory.103 The above quotation perpetuates the term Edisonades as a kind of technological creation deals with traveling to a distant location and combative adventures. The inventions could be it a spaceship, or other defensive and offensive protection such as machine guns, and bombs. Like commemorating of Edison’s inventions in the novel. “Now, rumor declared that Mr. Edison had invented and perfected the flying machine much more complete and manageable than those of the Martians had been.” (ECM, 7) "If necessary, we can quit the earth as the Athenians fled from Athens before the advancing host of Xerxes, and like them, take refuge upon our ships—these new ships of space, with which American inventiveness has furnished us." (ECM, 10) Garrett P. Serviss's Edison's Conquest of Mars (1898) recounts the aftermath of a Martian attack on Earth. The impact of those attack has made total destruction to the Earth, where most of the land are destructed and human lost their home. It shows hoe the irresistible the power of the Martians have, they can destroy most part of the Earth, where human weaponry technology is not capable against their weapon. The devastation was widespread. The death-dealing engines which the Martians had brought with them had proved irresistible and the inhabitants 103 John Cluster, The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (London: Orbit Books, 1999), p. 368.

(84) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 72 of the earth possessed nothing capable of contending against them. (ECM, p.4) Therefore, Thomas Alva Edison aids humanity by inventing spacecraft and weapons that enable a counterstrike against Mars. “Now, rumor declared that Mr. Edison had invented and perfected the flying machine much more complete and manageable than those of the Martians had been.” (ECM, 7) Human in that story is trying to find out the weapon that can destroy all the Martians. Therefore they develop the new weapon used by the Martians during their invasion on the Earth. That spirit to create and invent a new weapon has made human technocratic and militaristic. The very necessary acknowledgment of technocratic and militaristic, technology facilitates imperialism by providing the mobility needed to reach new territories and the military advantage are necessary to control populations. Moreover, it contributes to an imperial mindset by fostering in technology users a sense of superiority that justifies and legitimates the imperial endeavor. It reaffirms the sense that they have a more advanced culture worthy of leadership, justified in controlling others outside their group. The dystopian ecology in the novel is located in the way the human attack the Martians using their disintegrations ray. This kind of weapon symbolizes the mean used by the Imperial power to divide the unity of a tribe or a nation. The disintegration ray is the weapon that can be used to disintegrate the body of the victim. It is the same as the disintegration politic policy that is used to dissolve the people within society. “The vibratory energy, not only completely destroyed whatever it fell upon but it seared the veins and arteries of the dismembered bodies so that there was no sanguinary exhibition connected with its murderous work.” (ECM, 83)

(85) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 73 The disintegration ray also can be defined as the separating weapon between the Europeans and the native people. The practice of disintegration ray applied the concept of speciesism which related to the separation of races. The one who shoots by the disintegrator will vanish at once, that’s the way the Europeans political policy did. “Colonel Smith's disintegrator was heard and the creature vanished in the shadow.” (ECM, 121) The Martians’ distinctive description in both novels is the example of speciessim application. In The War of the Worlds, the Martiasn described as an octopus-like with v-shaped like mouth and have tentacles. Differently in Edison’s Conquest of Mars, the appearances of the Martians just like the human, with nose, ears, hands and legs; the different is located on the size of the Martians; its height reaches approximately 13 feet. “We were like pigmies to them; like little gnomes which had sprung out of the ground at their feet.” (ECM, 125) The different in appearances between the Martians show the different attitude from the writers towards the non-human like in their perceptions. Therefore the attitude of the writers shows their prejudice in describing the Martians (nonhuman). Both of them share the same perception on portrayal the Martians, Wells’ portray them as an animal-like, while Serviss portray them as a humanoid (human-like). Therefore it can be concluded that the spirit of that time when the writer uses non-human as the object of their writings, they actually support the speciesism thinking that non-human is different with the human. Human is apart from the non-human (nature).

(86) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 74 When human apart from nature, the tendency of feeling insecure with nature also arise. Mostly they build boundaries between them and nature, so they can live and feel secure. The fear of wilderness and savage have made them feel insecure. Therefore they think that the outside world with its inhabitants make the Europeans will do whatever they can to protect them from the nature threats. In Edison’s Conquest of Mars, human The spirit of speciesism that depicted in Edison’s Conquest of Mars leads to the creation of dystopian, whereas there is prejudice between human and nonhuman. The human and nature broken relationship. Wherein human feel superior then the non-human, the discrimination happens. In the Victorian era, the fear of wilderness and the threats from the non-Europeans have triggered the Europeans to ignore the nature’s existences. They do not care about nature, they just care for their own existences, as quoted below. “what had already been known upon the earth, where the older nations overflowing with population had sought new lands in which to settle, and for that purpose had driven out the native inhabitants, whenever those natives had proven unable to resist the invasion.” (ECM, 33) By means of the non-human threat, human invade planet mars, destroy the inhabitants and taking their resources for the human benefit. Yet although human see the logic in their reasoning of revenge. They cannot contain themselves and kill the alien in cold blood. The dystopian ecology in Edison’s Conquest of Mars mainly different with the one happened in The War of the Worlds. In Edison’s Conquest of Mars, the dystopian ecology happens as a result of human revenge and invade planet Mars, destroy everything in it. Those actions symbolize or represents the European expansion to the New Worlds, take and destroy the environment in the land where

(87) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 75 they build their settlements. Therefore, both of the dystopian ecologies occur in the novels should not be tolerated, the human need to change the way they treat the nature (non-human) drastically. The way they perceive the concept of nature also should be radically changed, because human is inseparable from nature. Because nature is a kind of independent sentient that can change the life of dying to depend on human treatments.

(88) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The analysis has shown that in the novels, alien and human demonstrate beliefs of humankind or European superiority over other races, and humankind's right to exploit nonhuman for the benefit of humanity, especially about exploitation and retaliation. These portray human's epitome of superiority thinking, putting his interests of becoming an esteemed scientist before the benefits of the reprisals and another unspecified nonhuman in the novel especially in Edison's Conquest of Mars. The function of the alien has proven to problematize human conceptions of nonhuman as insentient objects and utterly separate from the human species, an attitude which serves as a means to justify the exploitation of nonhuman characterization. The alien's lack of identity and his scrutiny of humankind's perception and treatment of them as non-human being characters, combined with their incapability to communicate through language, problematize humankind's justification of their sense of superiority. Alien's attributed qualities of reason and language directly in line with the Enlightenment conceptions of nonhuman as soulless machines, which Wells' criticism of speciesism draws on. The first subject to be analyzed in this study is the descriptions of the Martians that can be divided into three: physical traits, positive mental traits, and negative psychological traits. Physically, the Martians split into three: the settings, the creatures, and the red weeds. The first thing we can see about the Martians’ fighting machines is that they were huge machines. Each of them has an octopuslike form. 76

(89) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 77 They were also equipped with some weapons to fight the individual resistance. They brought something like huge baskets to store whatever they took from the earth. They also brought big black tubes that could emit poisonous gasses to kill every living thing they found. The fighting machines also carried weapons that could shot heat ray to destroy everything around them. The fighting machines could also move fast and swift. They could move from one place to another fast, and they could even avoid the canon shot by a human. Moreover, the depiction of the alien's humanity and human's inhumaneness blurs the boundaries between the species, highlighting their similarities. Thus breaking down the conceptualized boundaries of the fact that The War of the Worlds and Edison's Conquest of Mars were published in the same time but the different area with the human superiority constructed over other species was taken for granted. The alien's otherness can be analyzed regarding racism as well as speciesism because of their correlation; even though Wells and Serviss portray the alien as a human of other races and interweaves themes such as exploitation and retaliation in their novel is connecting to the social process of othering. In other words, The War of the Worlds and Edison's Conquest of Mars function as the means to criticize the way humankind perceives and treats nonhuman in the literary works. The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars portray one continues story unit, The War of the Worlds defines about the exploitation of human for the benefit of nonhuman while in Edison’s Conquest of Mars, the human does the opposite, they invade and destroy the nonhuman. Here the nonhuman character was created as the mean of the writers to show off the social

(90) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 78 problems that occurred in that era. There are some issues of exploration and exploitation of the Westerners to the New World. In The War of the Worlds, the story is taken from the Victorian era where the Industrial Revolution took place. As the pioneer of Revolution, the British Empire started to explore the other region of the World looking for the raw materials for their Industrious productions. Therefore, they need to make a journey to find a new place with its resources. By doing so, they need to make the land or area part of the British Empire. To do so, they need to practice the invader action which is invaded and conquer the land with its people. By doing so, they can legitimate their power and influences to that area. Just like what happens in the story when the Martians invade the Earth, they use the ability and weapons to control the human and get their blood for their consumption. While in Edison’s Conquest of the Mars, the act of invasion and conquest are different with H.G Wells’ novel. Human in the story invades and conquer Mars to eliminate the Martians on the excellent shake. They infiltrate Planet Mars to destroy it, as they are fearful of the dangerous act that is done by the Martians. It symbolizes how the Western people feel afraid of nature, fearful of its wilderness and brutal action that the native people had. They think that nature is harmful to them, therefore, they try to eliminate nature and its people for their benefit. Accordingly, the analysis of the novels is about the dystopian ecology as the effect of Speciesism and Pessimism fear of the native people (their wilderness and ferocious habit). The analysis uses ecocriticism as the platform to answer the critical thinking of ecological crisis occurs in the novels. Merely the concept of

(91) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 79 Speciesism and Pessimism are the being the devices to culminate the unbalancing ecological relationship. Analyzed from the representative of nonhuman in the novels, even though both novels represent human to nonhuman in the same way. They share the different result on their invasion story. The invasion story which always happens in the science fiction novels is often a reflection of human issues. It is, therefore, no surprise that in encounters with the alien, the writers often humanize alien individuals or races for readers to acknowledge and understand the alien point of view. Aliens that cannot communicate with humans are often portrayed as being incapable of reason or compassion and not as worthy of life as humans. I merely wanted to point out how anthropocentric (humans as the most important being in the universe) almost took place on every single science fiction novels. The analysis of Edison’s Conquest of Mars has triggered how non-human (alien) are being used as the object of invasion. With this in mind, I have been thinking a lot about speciesism (the assumption of human superiority over nonhuman animals), and science fiction - mostly because once your eyes have been opened to discrimination, it is difficult not to see it everywhere. And by the time, the exploitation of non-human for human benefit is everywhere in our culture. Here is where using non-human to illustrate human suffering becomes problematic. Without direct reference to non-human animals, most of the similarities go unnoticed; the way how human portrays or reflect nonhuman for their social problems. They use nonhuman as the representative symbol because they think that nonhuman is merely not a human.

(92) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 80 By using non-human to describe the experience of the human, the reader forgets that the non-human is an independent identity, thereby assimilating the original meaning of the alien’s fates into a human-centered hierarchy. The oppression of the non-human is therefore marginalized to accommodate the abuse of the human - the reader can acknowledge the immoral treatment of the protagonist but ignore the daily torment of the dairy cow. In this way, non-human animals are a tool to describe human suffering rather than to question the systematic oppression of other living beings. We shouldn't be exploiting the pain of one sentient being to highlight the unacceptable injustice for another face. In conclusion, the discourse in The War of the Worlds and Edison’s Conquest of Mars displays humankind's proneness to emphasize one group's value over another to substantiate the injustice exerted on those who are perceived to be weaker beings. The alien's ambiguous nature opens up for both pessimism and speciesism readings. To highlight the correlation between speciesism and pessimism, and the former concept as an extended form of the latter facilitates our understanding of why exploitation based on species differentiation is just as wrong as favoring one group over another based on ethnicity. As concluding remarks, this thesis states the limitation of this research and suggestion for future researchers. The weakness of this thesis is that it only focuses on dystopian ecology through the binary opposition between Speciesism and Pessimism. As the focus is on the binarism, this thesis also analyzes the ambivalent relationship between the human and nonhuman. In the analysis, this thesis focuses on only on how the Martians are symbolizing the British Empire

(93) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 81 imperialism. Therefore the future researchers can do the research based on the other object of presentation. The research could deal with feminism or Marxism as the novels serve the basic knowledge of those two approaches. About why the women in planet mars are different and why in The War of the Worlds there is no woman’s Martian. That topic should be extensively be learned. Lastly, this thesis concludes that British Imperialism can probe the effect on nonhuman representative implication behind literature. Furthermore, the study of dystopian ecology can also be applied in other texts. While this thesis focuses more on the British Imperialism during the Victorian era, the analysis of the textual narrative structure can be used to analyze subtler new Imperialism of the modern era. Although direct imperialism has mostly ended, new imperialism continues through economic exploitation of the former colonies. An analysis of the narrative form and structure can help probe the subtler imperialism and its effect on the ecological crisis in the contemporary world. As a suggestion for future researchers, it is hoped that this study can be enhanced by a contrapuntal reading of the text, as stated by Ashcroft et al., contrapuntal reading focuses on revealing the deep implication of texts in imperialism and colonial process which deal with ecological criticism. In the term of Ecological Imperialism and economic status of the third world countries.

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