Speech and thought presentation of the main male character in Ã…sne Seierstad`s "The Bookseller of Kabul": stylistic analysis - USD Repository

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(1)PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI SPEECH AND THOUGHT PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN MALE CHARACTER IN ÅSNE SEIERSTAD’S THE BOOKSELLER OF KABUL: STYLISTIC ANALYSIS AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By ALOYSIUS FEVRIERY BAGAS ADWIANDY PURYADI Student Number: 154214054 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019

(2) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI SPEECH AND THOUGHT PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN MALE CHARACTER IN ÅSNE SEIERSTAD’S THE BOOKSELLER OF KABUL: STYLISTIC ANALYSIS AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS Presented as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra in English Letters By ALOYSIUS FEVRIERY BAGAS ADWIANDY PURYADI Student Number: 154214054 DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA 2019 ii

(3) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcbaZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis SPEECH AND THOUGHT PRESENTATION OF TJIE MAIN MALE CHARACTER IN ASNE SEIERSTAD'Szyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgf THE BOOKSELLER OF KABUL: STYLISTIC ANALYSIS By zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcbaZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFE ALOYSIUS FEVRIERY BAGAS ADWIANDY PURY ADI Student Number: 154214054 Approved by Arina Isti' anah S.Pd., M.Hum. Advisor January 21, 2019 Anna Fitriati S.Pd., M.Hum. Co. Advisor January 21, 2019 1 ll

(4) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI A Sarjana Sastra Undergraduate Thesis SPEECH AND THOUGHT PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN MALE CHARACTER IN ASNE SEIERSTAD'S THE BOOKSELLER OF KABUL: STYLISTIC ANALYSIS ALOYSWS By FEVRIERY BAGAS ADWIANDY PURYADI Student~umnber: 154214054 Defended before the Board of Examiners and Declared Acceptable BOARD OF EXAMINERS SIGNATURE NAME Chairperson : Arina Isti'anah, S.Pd., M'Hum. Secretary : Anna Fitriati.SPd, M.Humn. Member 1 : Arina Isti'anah, S.Pd., M'Hum. Member 2 : Anna Fitriati, S.Pd, M.Humn. Member 3 : D r. Francis Borgias Alip, M.Pd., MA. ~ Yogyakarta, February 28, 2019 Faculty of Letters Universitas Sanata Dharma ~~.~ Dean / ~0zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcbaZYXWVUTSRQ j<.~ .~ f zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcbaZYXW fj u,} c.... ~)" ~ ,_ zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfedcbaZYXWVUTSRQPONMLKJIHGFEDCBA ~~ (fE.~:). ~ 7. ,? k.'::-~ " '!-o. "1_ i oc\,V"'(!r'" > l;' _. , . Tatanz Iskarna .....~.,..('J.<...~,\.-. 6 ,,-, t_~"l" .._ IV .~ ~ ~ ~

(5) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY I certify that this undergraduate thesis contains no m aterial w hich has been previously subm itted for the aw ard of any other degree at any university, and that, to the best of m y know ledge, this undergraduate thesis contains no m aterial previously w ritten by any other person except w here due reference is m ade in the text of the undergraduate thesis. Y ogyakarta, 19 January 2019 A loysius Fevriery Bagas A dw iandy Puryadi v

(6) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LEMBAR PERYAT AAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLlKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswa Universitas Sanata Dharma Nama Nomor Mahasiswa : Aloysius Fevriery Bagas Adwiandy Puryadi : 154214054 Demi pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul SPEECH AND THOUGHT PRESENTATION OF THE MAIN MALE CHARACTER IN ASNE SEIERSTAD'S zyxwvutsrqponmlkjihgfed THE BOOKSELLER OF KABUL: STYLISTIC ANALYSIS beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata Dharma hak untuk menyimpan, mengalihkan dalam bentuk media lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data, mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa perlu meminta ijin kepada saya maupun memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai penulis. Demikian pemyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenamya. Dibuat di Yogyakarta Pada tanggal 19 Januari 2019 Yang menyatakan, Aloysius Fevriery Bagas Adwiandy Puryadi VI

(7) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI For those who never give up on me _____ vii

(8) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This thesis was completed with supports from many people. Firstly, I would like to express my gratitude to God for His blessings in my life so that I can get through all obstacles and gain strength during the process of writing this thesis. I would like to express my gratitude also to my thesis advisor, Arina Isti’anah S.Pd., M.Hum. who had entrusted me with many responsibilities and encouraged me to finish this thesis in time. I would also express my gratitude to my thesis co-advisor, Anna Fitriati S.Pd., M.Hum. for her guidance in the process of making this thesis. I would like to extend my gratitude to my academic advisor Adventina Putranti, S.S, M.Hum. for her trust and support since the beginning of my college life. My gratitude also goes to my family for their support. I would like to thank especially to Mama and Papa for their faith in me even though I countlessly fail to exceed their expectations. In addition, I would like to express my gratitude also to dek Bayu and mbah uti for their willingness to listen to problems I have been through in my life. Without their support, I would never finish my study in time. Finally, I would like to convey my special thanks to all of my friends in English Letters Department, Universitas Sanata Dharma for their support. Aloysius Fevriery Bagas Adwiandy Puryadi viii

(9) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ...................................................................................................... ii APPROVAL PAGE ........................................................................................... iii ACCPETANCE PAGE ....................................................................................... iv STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY .................................................................. v LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH ........................................................................... vi DEDICATION PAGE ....................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .............................................................................. viii TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................... ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................ xi LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................. xii ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................... xiii ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................... xiv CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................... 1 A. B. C. D. Background of the Study ........................................................................... Problem Formulation ................................................................................ Objectives of the Study ............................................................................. Definition of Terms ................................................................................... 1 4 4 5 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................................... 7 A. Review of Related Studies ......................................................................... 7 B. Review of Related Theories ..................................................................... 10 1. Stylistics ............................................................................................. 10 2. Speech and Though Presentation ....................................................... 12 a. Direct Speech and Direct Thought ................................................ 13 b. Indirect Speech and Indirect Thought ........................................... 13 c. Free Direct Speech and Free Direct Thought ................................ 14 d. Free Indirect Speech and Free Indirect Thought ........................... 15 e. Narrative Report of Speech Acts and Narrative Report of Thought Acts ............................................................................ 16 3. Character and Characterization .......................................................... 16 C. Theoretical Framework ............................................................................ 18 CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY ................................................................ 19 A. Object of the Study................................................................................... B. Approach of the Study ............................................................................ C. Method of the Study ................................................................................ 1. Data Collection .................................................................................. 2. Data Analysis .................................................................................... ix 19 20 20 21 22

(10) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS...................... 23 A. Speech and Thought Presentation Techniques by Åsne Seierstad of Sultan Khan ......................................................................................... 1. Speech Presentation ........................................................................... a. Direct Speech (DS) ...................................................................... b. Free Direct Speech (FDS) ............................................................ c. Indirect Speech (IS)...................................................................... d. Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA) ................................... 2. Thought Presentation ......................................................................... a. Indirect Thought (DT) .................................................................. b. Direct Thought (IT) ...................................................................... c. Narrative Report of Thought Acts (NRTA) ................................. B. Åsne Seierstad’s Characterization of Sultan Khan .................................. 1. Direct Characterization ...................................................................... 2. Indirect Characterization .................................................................... 23 25 25 29 32 35 35 36 40 42 44 45 52 CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION ......................................................................... REFERENCES .................................................................................................. APPENDICES ................................................................................................... Appendix 1: Summary of Speech Presentation .................................................... Appendix 2: Summary of Thought Presentation .................................................. 60 62 64 64 67 x

(11) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS DS : Direct Speech DT : Direct Thought FDS : Free Direct Speech FDT : Free Direct Thought FIS : Free Indirect Speech FIT : Free Indirect Thought IS : Indirect Speech IT : Indirect Thought NRSA : Narrative Report of Speech Acts NRTA : Narrative Report of Thought Acts xi

(12) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI LIST OF TABLES No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Table Table 1. Levels of Language Table 2. Frequency of Speech and Thought Presentation Table 3. Verb Distribution in Direct Speech Presentation Table 4. Verb Distribution in Indirect Speech Presentation Table 5. Verb and Verb Phrase Distribution in Indirect Thought Presentation Table 6. Verb Distribution in Direct Thought Presentation Table 7. Verb and Verb Phrase Distribution in Narrative Report of Thought Acts Table 8. The Frequency of Speech and Thought Presentation as Direct Characterization Table 9. The Frequency of Speech and Thought Presentation as Indirect Characterization Table 10. Summary of Speech Presentation Table 11. Summary of Thought Presentation xii Page 11 24 29 34 39 41 43 51 58 64 67

(13) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRACT PURYADI, ALOYSIUS FEVRIERY BAGAS ADWIANDY. (2019). Speech and Thought Presentation of the Main Male Character in Åsne Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul: Stylistic Analysis. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Literature is a representation of human life. It is closely related to the life of human beings. In appreciating literature, linguistics provides an alternative way to scrutinize the works through stylistics. Stylistics aims to examine the relation between language and the artistic function in literature. This research focuses on a particular novel from Åsne Seierstad entitled The Bookseller of Kabul. The story revolves around Sultan Khan, a bookseller from Afghanistan, and his family. Sultan Khan as a male character and the head of the family living in Afghanistan is presented in a particular way by Åsne Seierstad and speech and thought presentation is seen as the most significant technique used by the author to characterize a male character. There are two main research objectives covering this research. The first is to find the speech and thought presentation techniques used by Åsne Seierstad. Moreover, the distribution of the speech and thought presentation within the novel is utilized to examine the characterization of Sultan Khan as a particular male character analyzed. Stylistic analysis is utilized in order to scrutinize the way the author characterize a male character in the novel. There are two particular chapters analyzed, which are “Burning Books” and “The Business Trip”. There are two findings in the research. The first finding is that there is a total of ninety four speech and thought presentations, with fifty eight presentations belongs to thought presentation and thirty six are speech presentation. Indirect Thought (IT) and Direct Speech (DS) are the two most occurred speech and thought presentation within the chapters analyzed. There are forty eight presentations in the form of IT and twenty presentations in a form of DS. The second finding is that IT, which occurs the most within the two chapters, creates an indirect characterization of Sultan’s dedicated-self, while the DS and Free Direct Speech (FDS) presentation technique present Sultan’s straightforwardness. Thus the characterization seen from the speech and thought presentation is both direct and indirect characterization. Key words: Speech, Thought, Presentation, Stylistics xiii

(14) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI ABSTRAK PURYADI, ALOYSIUS FEVRIERY BAGAS ADWIANDY. (2019). Speech and Thought Presentation of the Main Male Character in Åsne Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul: Stylistic Analysis. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma. Literatur adalah representasi dari kehidupan manusia dan sangat berelasi dengan kehidupan manusia. Ilmu linguistik dalam mengapresiasi literatur, memberikan sebuah cara alternatif untuk menganalisis karya tersebut lebih dalam melalui ilmu stilistika. Stilistika memiliki tujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan bahasa dengan fungsi artistiknya dalam literatur. Penelitian ini berfokus pada sebuah novel dari Åsne Seierstad berjudul The Bookseller of Kabul. Novel tersebut bercerita tentang Sultan Khan, seorang penjual buku dari Afghanistan, dan keluarganya. Sultan Khan sebagai karakter pria serta kepala keluarga yang tinggal di Afghanistan digambarkan melalui sebuah cara tersendiri dari Åsne Seierstad dan teknik penyajian ucapan dan pikiran terlihat sebagai teknik yang paling signifikan dalam menggambarkan seorang karakter pria. Terdapat dua rumusan masalah dalam penelitian ini. Yang pertama bertujuan untuk mengetahui teknik penyajian ucapan dan pikiran yang digunakan oleh Åsne Seierstad. Kemudian, teknik-teknik penyajian ucapan dan pikiran dalam novel tersebut digunakan untuk menganalisis karakterisasi dari Sultan Khan sebagai karakter pria yang dianalisis. Analisis stilistika digunakan untuk meneliti cara penulis menyajikan karakter pria dalam novel. Terdapat dua bab khusus yang dianalisa dalam penelitian ini, yaitu “Burning Books” dan “The Business Trip Terdapat dua temuan dalam penelitian ini. Temuan pertama menunjukkan bahwa terdapat sembilan puluh empat penyajian ucapan dan pikiran, dengan empat puluh delapan penyajian dalam bentuk penyajian pikiran dan tiga puluh enam dalam bentuk penyajian ucapan. Pikiran Tidak Langsung (PTL) dan Ucapan Langsung (UL) adalah dua teknik yang paling sering digunakan dalam bab-bab yang dianalisis. Terdapat empat puluh delapan penyajian dalam bentuk PDL dan dua puluh penyajian dalam bentuk UL. Temuan kedua menunjukkan bahwa PTL, sebagai teknik penyajian yang paling sering digunakan, membentuk sebuah karakterisasi tidak langsung dari kepribadian Sultan yang berdedikasi, sedangkan UL dan Ucapan Langsung Bebas (ULB) menyajikan keterusterangan Sultan. Maka dari itu, karakterisasi yang terdapat dalam bab-bab yang dianalisis menggunakan karakterisasi langsung dan tidak langsung. Key words: Ucapan, Pikiran, Penyajian, Stilistika xiv

(15) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Literature is a representation of human life. It is closely related to the life of human beings. According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, literature is the embodiment of author’s ideas in written form distinguished by author’s intention and the perceived aesthetic excellence of their execution (Rexroth, 2018). In literary study, criticizing literature as a work of art is also a form of appreciation towards the author and the work itself. Linguistics provides a way to criticize literary works using modern linguistic concept in the perspective of a linguist called stylistics (Leech & Short, Style in Fiction, 2007). To understand literature, a thorough scrutiny is needed. Spitzer, a literary critic, also suggests that: Therefore, the understanding of a literature in linguistic fields depends on the relation between the knowledge of linguistics science and its effect to create such works of art (Leech & Short, 2007, p.2). In that case, knowledge about linguistics is essential in order to analyse literary works through stylistics, so that the author’s style can be clearly revealed. In linguistics, the study of style aims to explain the relation between the language and its artistic functions in literature (Leech & Short, 2007). Stylistics covers the analysis of various branches of linguistics in discovering the language style which emerged from the authors that was poured into their literary works. Therefore, stylistics gives new insights in analysing literary works with 1

(16) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 2 specific branches of linguistics as the approach to reveal the style and the functions of particular linguistic features of literary works. In conducting stylistic study, Simpson proposes seven levels of language that can be used to analyse the style. The seven levels consist of Phonology or Phonetics, Graphology, Morphology, Syntax or Grammar, Lexicology, Semantics, and Pragmatics or Discourse analysis (Simpson, 2004). Each of them have their own focus. Phonology and Phonetics focus on the sounds of a language. Graphology focuses on the written language shape and pattern. Morphology focuses on word formation. Syntax and Grammar focus on the clause, phrase, and sentence structure. Lexicology focuses on the vocabulary of a language used by particular people. Semantics focuses on the word or sentence meaning. Pragmatics and Discourse analysis focus on the utilization of words and sentences in particular context. The analysis conducted in this research is in the discourse level, specifically in the speech and thought presentation technique of a male character in the novel. The analysis in the speech and thought presentation examines the way an author characterizes a character through character’s speech, thought and interaction to its surrounding and its effects on the characterization of a character in a literary work. Leech and Short suggest five category of speech presentation of a character and also five techniques of thought presentation (Leech & Short, 2007). The five categorization of speech presentation are Indirect Speech (IS), Direct Speech (DS), Free Direct Speech (FDS), Free Indirect Speech (FIS), and Narrative Report of

(17) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 3 Speech Acts (NRSA). The five categorization of thought presentation are Indirect Thought (IT), Direct Thought (DT), Free Direct Thought (FDT), Free Indirect Thought (FIT), and Narrative Report of a Thought Act (NRTA). This study analyses a novel by Åsne Seierstad, a Norwegian writer and journalist, entitled The Bookseller of Kabul. The novel was originally published in Norwegian in 2002 and translated to English in 2003. This novel was inspired by an Afghan family whom Seierstad lived with in 2001. According to the reviews in Goodreads.com, this novel gained 3.76 out of 5 in its rating with 2.854 reviewers from around the globe. This novel is a portrayal of an Afghan family’s life, how they live during the fall of Taliban. The story in The Bookseller of Kabul revolved around Sultan Khan, a bookseller, and his family where only three people are exposed to English. For more than twenty years Sultan Khan operates an underground business related to books which he loves, while also resists the authorities in supplying books to Kabul’s people. He is going through hard times in his life regarding of the business as the bookseller which he ran. He is arrested, interrogated and imprisoned by the authorities, and even sees the Taliban soldiers burned his books in the street. Aside from Sultan Khan’s affection for books, he had been a strict person in giving his view on his family and especially the role of women. Åsne Seierstad put herself in a unique position which is in the third point of view, while she stated that she experienced the life of an Afghan family. She was able to give detailed description in secluded, restricted domain of the women’s life and the more liberal lives of men in Afghan society.

(18) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 4 This study focuses on observing the language style of Åsne Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul seen from its speech and thought presentation in representing and characterizing a male character which is Sultan Khan. The study is intended to reveal the effect and meaning of the use of the speech and thought presentation techniques in characterizing Sultan Khan. The study will classify the speech and thought presentation techniques into different categories. Moreover, the thorough analysis of the data will be used to guide the research to the primary objective in analysing the language style in Åsne Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul. B. Problem Formulation This study has two problems that are formulated based on the background of the study, namely: 1. What speech and thought presentation techniques are used to represent a male character in Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul? 2. How do the techniques reveal the characterization of the main male character in the novel? C. Objectives of the Study This study focuses on the language style of Åsne Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul seen from its speech and thought presentation in representing and characterizing a male character which is Sultan Khan. The first objective of this study is to find what speech and though presentation techniques are used to represent Sultan Khan in the novel. The study will classify the speech and thought

(19) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 5 presentation techniques into different categories. Moreover, the thorough analysis of the first objective will be used to guide the research to the objective in finding the effects of the speech and thought presentation used in characterizing a male character in Åsne Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul. D. Definition of Terms In order to avoid misunderstanding about the terminology used, this section provides four definition of terms. The first term used is speech presentation. Speech presentation has the definition as the way an author characterizes a character through speeches. An author may distinguish a character from another with the presentation of speech alongside with the character’s presentation of thought to be interpreted by the reader (Leech & Short, 2007). The second term used is almost similar to the first term. It is thought presentation. Thought presentation shares the similar definition to speech presentation which is the way an author presents a character’s characterization using character’s thought. According to Leech and Short, thought presentation is the only way for readers to see through a character’s mind and as important as soliloquy on a stage performance (p. 270). This means that it has the purpose to describe what is inside a character’s mind. Thought presentation and speech presentation has different form but with the same purpose, to present a character in a way the author wants. The third term used is character. Character in a prose or novel can be defined as human beings, animals, or even plants who share the similar traits of

(20) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 6 human beings. Murphet proposes the idea that a character, including also the behaviour and motive, refers to an individual or the society of human being (2017). This means that a character must be presented as similar as it can to human traits in order to be categorized as a character. The fourth term is characterization. Characterization can be defined as the way a character is presented by the author. In this research the characterization of a character is seen from the speech and thought presentation. The way the author characterise a character may not be seen explicitly but rather through the way a character described by the author. Characterization assembled from various character-indicators distributed within the text (Rimmon-Kenan, 2002). In short, characterization can be seen from particular traits constructing particular character. The fifth term is stylistics. Stylistics is an approach in literary criticism by using branches of linguistics. According to Verdonk, stylistics is defined as the analysis of distinctive expression in language and the description of its purpose and effect (2002, p. 4). The study of style has the main goal to explain the relation between the language and its artistic functions in literature (Leech & Short, 2007). Therefore knowledge about the science of linguistics is essential in criticising literature.

(21) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE This section consists of three main parts, which are review of related studies, review of related theories, and theoretical framework. In the review of related studies, there are two journal articles and two thesis reviewed. In the next section, the review of related theories, there are four theories used as the approaches in this research discussed. The theoretical framework explains how the theories applied to the research. A. Review of Related Studies There are several related studies used as a reference in making this research due to the similarities that they have with this research. The first related study is a thesis of Anggraheni (2017) entitled “A Stylistic Study of the Interior Monologues in William Faulkner’s The Sound and The Fury”. The research discusses the use of interior monologue in the novel. Interior monologue is a unique narrative style which uses complicated and assorted language features that makes the readers to be confused with it. The researcher uses stylistics as the approach in analysing the language features in the interior monologue. The language features analysed are grammatical, lexical, figures of speech, and graphological features. The research concludes that by applying interior monologue as a technique in thought presentation of the characters creates an effect that enables the readers to get inside the characters’ thought without being interfered by the narrator. 7

(22) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 8 The thesis by Anggraheni is similar to this research due to the same purpose and object that the thesis which are the thought presentation technique of the characters’ in the novel and its effects in the novel. The difference between the thesis and this research lies in the novel analysed, which is William Faulkner’s The Sound and The Fury, and the range of the problem analysis. The thesis is only analysing the thought presentation technique and its effects, while this research conducts the analysis on not only thought presentation but also speech presentation techniques along with their effects in the characterization of a character in a novel. The second related study is a thesis of Pratama (2017) entitled “Noun Phrases of Jace Wayland’s Utterances in Mortal Instruments: City of Bones”. The thesis focuses on the analysis of the noun phrases and their role in characterizing Jace Wayland in Cassandra Clare’s Mortal Instruments: City of Bones. The thesis uses stylistics as the approach in finding out the effect of the noun phrase used in the novel. The researcher uses the population study as a method in collecting the data. The thesis suggests that the characteristics formed by the presentation by the means of noun phrases utilization are descriptive and direct character. The researcher concludes that noun phrase is essential in the characterization of Jace Wayland. The similarities between the thesis and this research are the object that is observed, which is a novel, and the aim of the research to reveal the effect of the speech presentation in the form of Jace Wayland’s utterances in characterizing a particular character. The thesis by Pratama differs from this research in the term of the novel’s title observed. Unlike Pratama’s thesis, this research not only analyses

(23) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 9 the speech presentation technique but also on the thought presentation technique of a particular character. The third related study is a paper by Isti’anah (2018) entitled “Speech and Thought Presentation in Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies”. The paper analyses both the speech and thought presentation techniques along with their effects in presenting some characters in Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies. There were one hundred and sixty one speech and thought presentation found in the short story and most of them categorized as speech presentation. The researcher found that Indirect Thought (IT) presentation, as last narrative presentation found in the short story, involves only one particular character, Mr. Kapasi and the technique indicates that Mr. Kapasi is an important character who needs to be acknowledged in terms of his position in career. The researcher suggests that further analysis on the findings of the research should figure out further analysis to find the meaning of its use by means of discourse analysis. The paper has a similarity to this research in the aim of the analysis, which is to reveal how the speech and thought presentation techniques affect the characterization of each character in the novel. The only difference between the paper and this research is the title of the object analysed, which entitled Interpreter of Maladies. The other related study is conducted by Guo (2017). The research focuses on the thought presentation in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. The paper offers a detailed description on the thought presentation used in the literary work by the means of Leech and Short’s model. The researcher suggests that types of thought

(24) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 10 presentation along with various reporting clauses are used to present the variation in the character’s mental state and the negotiation between the inner voice and the environment outside. This paper shares the same aim to this research to reveal the utilization of thought presentation in the term of characterization, while the differences lies in the object analysed and the data observed. The paper only analyses on the thought presentation only, while this research focuses on the speech presentation also. This research is going to develop the research of each related studies which are to find the effects of the utilization of both the speech and thought presentation to the characterization of a character. Leech and Short’s model of speech and thought presentation will be a base to analyse the speech and thought presentation for a character. B. Review of Related Theories This section will explain further about the theories that will be used in this research, which are stylistics, speech and thought presentation, and character with its characterization. 1. Stylistics The theory of stylistics is used in this research as a foundation of analysis in scrutinizing literature. Stylistic analysis focuses on the style of language and its effect to the literary works. In literature, particular form or style of language is used in order to arouse the senses of the readers to perceive the message or the effects given by the means of any linguistic features. Verdonk proposes an idea that

(25) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 11 “Stylistics, the study of style, can be defined as the analysis of distinctive expression in language and the description of its purpose and effect” (Verdonk, 2002, p. 4). From that idea, it is acknowledgeable that the study of style examines literary works by the means of linguistic features to know the effect and the purpose of the utilization of the styles used by the authors. Stylistics analyses literature using various branches of linguistics in discovering the language style which the authors give into their literary work. Stylistics give a different way to appreciate literary works with the critical evaluation using specific branches of linguistics as the approach to reveal the style and the functions of particular linguistic features of literary works. There are several levels of language that can be used in conducting stylistic analysis. Simpson proposes seven levels of language used to analyse the style. Below is the table explaining the seven levels of language (Simpson, 2004, p. 5). Table 1 Levels of Language Analysis Level of Language The sound of spoken language; the way words are pronounced. The patterns of written language; the shape of language on the page. The ways words are constructed; words and their constituent structures The way words combine with other words to form phrases and sentences. The words we use; the vocabulary of a language. The meaning of words and sentences. The way words and sentences are used in everyday situations; the meaning of language in context. Branch of Study Phonology, Phonetics Graphology Morphology Syntax, Grammar Lexical Analysis, Lexicology Semantics Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis.

(26) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 12 The purpose of this research is to identify the speech and thought presentation of a male character in a novel to reveal the purpose of the particular way that the author uses in characterizing the character. Therefore, the analysis is done within the utterances and the mind of the character using the discourse level of language and they are explained in the next part. 2. Speech and Thought Presentation The analysis conducted in this research is in the discourse analysis level, specifically in the speech and thought presentation technique of the main male character in the novel. The analysis in the speech and thought presentation examines the way an author characterizes a character through character’s speech, thought and interaction to its surrounding and its effects on the characterization of a character in a literary work. Leech and Short (2007) suggests five categorization of speech presentation techniques and also five techniques of thought presentation. The five categorization of speech presentation are Indirect Speech (IS), Direct Speech (DS), Free Direct Speech (FDS), Free Indirect Speech (FIS), and Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA). The five categorization of thought presentation are Indirect Thought (IT), Direct Thought (DT), Free Direct Thought (FDT), Free Indirect Thought (FIT), and Narrative Report of a Thought Act (NRTA) (Leech & Short, 2007). Below are the reviews of each speech and presentation techniques that the author used as the base in analysing the style in characterizing a character according to Leech and Short (2007):

(27) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 13 a. Direct Speech (DS) and Direct Thought (DT) Direct Speech (DS) is one of the speech presentation techniques used by authors in presenting a character to the reader in a literary work. The most significant characteristic of DS presentation technique is the use of quotation marks and the interference of the narrator in the utterance. Below is the example of DS technique. He said, “Are you kidding me?!” It is clear that the use of the quotation marks and the narrator’s description indicates that the speech presentation utilized is the direct speech. Direct Thought (DT) is almost similar to the Direct Speech (DS) presentation technique in characterizing a character. DT also uses the quotation marks and narrator’s contribution in presenting what the character thought. Below is the example of DT technique’s utilization. He thought, “For real? It’s not funny.” The utilization of DT is marked by the contribution of the narrator which can be seen clearly from the example (Leech & Short, 2007). From the excerpt above it can be seen that the narrator contributes in presenting how the character thought or let character’s thought expressed by the use of explanatory clause “He thought” preceding the thought. b. Indirect Speech (IS) and Indirect Thought Indirect Speech (IS) is one of the techniques of speech and thought presentation, which unlike the Direct Speech (DS), uses no quotation marks. The

(28) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 14 presentation uses the narrator as the presenter of what the character utters. Below is the example of IS utilization. He said that he would join John if he have enough time. IS, as seen in the example, uses no quotation marks and the narrator contributes to the whole utterance of the character. IS is basically the passive version of DS. Indirect Thought (IT) is almost similar to IS since the use of quotation marks is omitted. Unlike IS, IT presents what is inside the character’s mind. Below is the example of the use of Indirect Thought. He wondered if she still love his friend. From the example above, the character does not state his thought personally, but through the description by the author (Leech & Short, 2007). c. Free Direct Speech (FDS) and Free Direct Thought (FDT) Free Direct Speech (FDS) is the speech presentation technique that is almost similar to the Direct Speech (DS). FDS, unlike DS, removes either or both the quotation marks and the narrator’s intermediary to create a freer technique. This technique of speech presentation is considered as a freer form of DS (Leech & Short, 2007). Below are the examples of the utilization of FDS. “I’ll be back for sure.” I’m sure he’ll be back. The two examples above show the variety of FDS use in the speech presentation. The first example still uses the quotation marks, while the second example uses no quotation marks at all.

(29) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 15 Free Direct Thought (FDT) shares the similar form to the FDS. The only difference is that the FDT present the thought of a character instead of the speech. FDT shows the character’s thought immediately without the narrator as the media to present it. Below is the example of FDT’s utilization. I wonder if he will be back soon. The narrator is not involved in the presentation of the character’s thought in the example above, instead the character just states what is in his or her mind directly (Leech & Short, 2007). d. Free Indirect Speech (FIS) and Free Indirect Thought (FIT) Free Indirect Speech (FIS) is one of the techniques of speech presentation that is freer than the Indirect Speech (IS). FIS, unlike IS, omits its reporting clause. Below is the example of the use of FIS. He would come back here to see my dog next semester. The omission of the reporting clause in the example above resulted the freer version of an indirect form. Free Indirect Thought (FIT) is almost similar to the FIS since it shares the similarity which is the absence of quotation marks. This technique of thought presentation uses the third person point of view as the indirect feature. Below is the example of the FDT utilization. Did she still hate him? The FIT form is shown in the absence of quotation marks and the indirectness from the use of the third point of view in presenting one’s thought in a story (Leech & Short, 2007).

(30) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 16 e. Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA) and Narrative Report of Thought Acts (NRTA) Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA) is a form of a speech presentation technique utilizing minimum account of the statement in presenting a character’s speech. What makes it different from the Indirect Speech (IS) is that the reported speech acts are minimized and not stated specifically. It is also considered as the summarized report of the speech acts. Below is the example of the use of NRSA. She told everyone his secret From the example above, it can be observed that the narrator is only focusing on the summary of what the character told. Instead of telling what the secret is explicitly, the narrator only states ‘his secret’ to minimize the reported speech. Narrative Report of Thought Acts (NRTA) shares the similar characteristic to the NRSA. The reported thought is minimized to give a compact report of what being thought by the character. While NRSA focuses on the speech acts, NRTA concentrates on the thought acts. Below is the example of NRTA’s use. She keeps thinking about her decision earlier. The example above shows the summary of what the character thought. Instead of explaining the thought that the character had, the narrator only uses ‘her decision’ as the presentation of the thought in a summarized report (Leech & Short, 2007).

(31) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 17 3. Character and Characterization Character in a prose or novel can be defined as the representation of human traits in a form of human beings, animals, or even plants. Rimmon-Kenan proposes the idea: As emerges from Mudrick’s statement, the so called “realistic argument sees characters as imitations of people and tends to treat them with greater or lesser sophistication-as if they were our neighbours or friends, whilst also abstracting them from the verbal texture of the work under consideration (2002, p. 34). From that explanation, a character must share the similar traits or at least representing human traits to be considered as a character. Characterization is an essential part in building a character. Characterization can be defined as the way a character is presented by the author. In this research, the way the author characterises a character may not be seen explicitly but rather through the way a character described by the author. Characterization has two methods in presenting a character, direct characterization and indirect characterization. Direct characterization is the method of characterization involving any act performed by the author that develops the reader’s understanding of a character (Rimmon-Kenan, 2002). In direct characterization, the author just simply states or describes the character straight away in a story. It can be in a form of the appearance, the personality, or the speech and thought of the character. The indirect characterization, on the other hand, presents a complex way of characterizing a character. An author uses this method in order to show the mind and the personality of a character without even explicitly stating it. According to Rimmon-Kenan, instead of mentioning an action, indirect

(32) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 18 characterization shows the reader the character and exemplifies it in various ways. (2002, p. 63). The utterance “I love you”, for example, cannot just merely be said. However the statement can be shown through the actions of the character showing affection. C. Theoretical Framework This research has two problems scrutinized. It all leads to one main problem regarding the effect of the style used by the author of the novel in term of speech and thought presentation to the characterization of one male character. Thus, three theories mentioned in the section above are essential in revealing the answer of the problem formulations. The first problem, which is the distribution and frequency of the speech and thought presentation used in characterizing a male character, needs the speech and thought presentation theory to answer it. The clauses presenting the speech and thought presentation are collected and classified into five types of speech presentation and five types of thought presentation in accordance to Leech and Short’s model of speech and thought presentation. The second problem focuses mainly on the effect of the author’s style in the novel through the speech and thought presentation to the characterization of a male character. The problem needs stylistic study in order to reveal the style of the author. The style is analysed through the utilization of speech and thought presentation and the characterization of a character revealed through the frequency of the occurrence found in the presentation of speech and thought by the author.

(33) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 19 Thus, the theories of characterization and character used along with the speech and thought presentation model proposed by Leech and Short.

(34) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter is divided into three main parts consisting object, approach, and method of the Study. Object of the study is an elaboration of the object under scrutiny. The second is the approach of the study which explains the utilization of stylistics as the means to analyse the object of the study. The last one is the method of the study which gives details of the way the data are collected and examined. A. Object of the Study This study focused on the speech and thought presentation of Sultan Khan as a male character in Åsne Seierstad’s The Bookseller of Kabul. The novel was published in 2004 by Hachette Book Group, Inc. This novel gained 3.76 out of 5 in its rating with 2.854 reviewers from around the globe according to the reviews in Goodreads.com. The story in The Bookseller of Kabul revolved around Sultan Khan, a bookseller, and his family where only three people in that family were exposed to English, in Afghanistan. For more than twenty years Sultan Khan operated an underground business related to books which he loves, while also resisted the authorities by supplying books to Kabul’s people. In the novel, Åsne Seierstad used speech and thought presentation to characterize a particular character, in this study Sultan Khan’ 19

(35) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 20 There were total of nineteen chapters in the novel and only two chapters selected to be scrutinized. The two chapters were “Burning Books” and “The Business Trip”. The two selected chapters were chosen since Sultan Khan was presented clearly within the chapters. B. Approach of the Study This study utilized the study of stylistics as the approach of the study. The study of style has the main goal of explaining the relation between the language and its artistic functions in literature (Leech & Short, 2007). Stylistics covers the analysis of various branches of linguistics in discovering the language style which emerged from the authors that was poured into their literary works. Therefore, stylistics gives new insight in analysing literary works with specific branches of linguistics as the approach to reveal the style and the functions of particular linguistic features of literary works. C. Method of the Study In conducting this study, there were two ways taken which were data collection and data analysis. 1. Data Collection This study utilized the purposive sampling method by taking the utterances and thoughts of a male character, Sultan Khan, from particular chapters in the novel The Bookseller of Kabul since in accordance to Creswell (2007) the purposeful sampling strategy can be used by the researcher to select the central phenomenon

(36) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 21 of the study (p. 125). In this research, the data were not taken from the whole novel, but only from significant chapters only. Two chapters were selected from the total of nineteen chapters in the novel. In gathering the data of speech and thought presentation techniques, first the researcher read the whole novel and selected two chapters that represented the life of Sultan Khan very well. Then the researcher listed the utterances and thoughts of Sultan Khan found in the two chapters and put them into a particular table. After that the utterances and thoughts were categorized based on Leech and Short’s proposed speech and thought presentation techniques. 2. Data Analysis To answer the first problem, the collected utterances and thoughts of Sultan Khan within the two chapters were listed and categorized into Leech and Short’s speech and thought techniques in order to find out the distribution of the speech and presentation techniques used by the author. To figure out the style of the author, the collected data were analysed through their verbs and the author’s discourse within the particular frequency of the speech and presentation techniques. Thus, the author’s characterization of Sultan Khan is revealed. The list of the utterances and the thoughts was categorized in a form of tables. The first table contained the frequency of each techniques of speech and thought presentation.

(37) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 22 The Frequency of Speech and Thought Presentation Speech Presentation Types Frequency Percentage DS IS FDS FIS NRSA Total Thought Presentation Types Frequency Percentage Total The second table consisted of the lists of the utterances and thoughts of Sultan Khan and their categorization. The first column consisted of the number. The second column described the speech and thought presentation of Sultan Khan. The third column consisted of the type of the speech and thought presentation listed. The fourth column was the page the presentation belong to. The last column was for the chapter where the presentations distributed. The table below is the excerpt of the described table. Summary of Speech Presentation No. 1 2 Speech Presentation Types Page Chapter

(38) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter consists of two main parts which answer the problems in this research. The first part answers the first problem by discussing the distribution of each speech and thought presentation of the observed character by the author and categorizing them into techniques of presentation based on Leech and Short’s classification concept. The second part answers the second problem which focuses on the style of Åsne Seierstad by the frequency of the utilized speech and thought presentation techniques distributed in the novel to characterize a particular character. A. Speech and Thought Presentation Techniques by Åsne Seierstad of Sultan Khan This part deals with the distribution of the speech and thought presentation techniques used by the author to present Sultan Khan as a central part of the novel. The speech and thought presentations collected are seen from the utterances and thoughts of Sultan Khan. The speech and thought presentations are taken from two selected chapters which are “Burning Books” and “The Business Trip”. From the chapter “Burning Books”, a total of twenty three speech and thought presentation of Sultan Khan are found, in which twenty two of them are categorized as thought presentation and only one of them is in a form of speech presentation. In the chapter “The Business Trip”, there are total of seventy one utterances and thoughts of Sultan Khan. Thirty 23

(39) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 24 six of them are categorized into thought presentation technique and thirty five of them are speech presentation. The list of speech and thought presentation by Åsne Seierstad can be seen in the appendix. The table below summarizes the frequency of the speech and thought presentation techniques used from both chapters. Table 2. The Frequency of Speech and Thought Presentation Speech Presentation Thought Presentation Type Frequency Percentage Type Frequency Percentage DS 20 55.6% DT 5 8.6% IS 3 8.3% IT 48 82.8% FDS 12 33.3% FDT 0 0% FIS 0 0% FIT 0 0% NRSA 1 2.8% NRTA 5 8.6% Total 36 100% Total 58 100% From the table above, it can be seen that the thought presentations appeared the most within the two chapters with the total of fifty eight thoughts. The most appeared thought presentation is in the form of Indirect Thought (IT) with forty eight thoughts categorized in it. The Direct Thought (DT) and Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRTA) comes right after IT with five thoughts in each of the types. The most appeared speech presentation is the Direct Speech (DS) with the number of occurrences of twenty followed by Free Direct Speech (FDS) with twelve occurrences. Indirect Speech (IS) is the third highest speech presentation with three utterances tailed by Narrative Report of Speech Acts in the fourth most appeared techniques with the total of one occurrence. The analysis of each distribution is elaborated in the following parts to achieve the understanding on the

(40) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 25 techniques of speech and thought presentation given by the author in characterizing a particular character. 1. Speech Presentation Within the two chapters, Åsne Seierstad uses four speech presentation techniques in characterizing Sultan Khan, which are Direct Speech (DS), Indirect Speech (IS), Free Direct Speech (FDS), and Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA). The following parts explain the use and effect of speech presentation techniques used by the author. a. Direct Speech (DS) Direct Speech (DS) is the technique used by the author from the two chapters. Direct speech is the technique involving the narrator’s description of the way a character speaks and the quotation marks to mark the character’s utterance (Leech & Short, 2007). From the two chapters, only one utterance belongs to DS in the chapter “Burning Books”, while the rest are in the chapter “The Business Trip”. Below is the excerpt of the use of the DS technique by Åsne Seierstad within the chapter “Burning Books”. He answered proudly, “You can burn my books, you can embitter my life, you can even kill me, but you cannot wipe out Afghanistan’s history.” (p. 12) The excerpt above shows the clear characteristic of the utilization of DS as the technique in presenting what Sultan Khan utters which is the interference of the narrator in presenting the utterance by “He answered proudly,” and also the quotation marks to clarify the utterance of Sultan Khan. By the utilization of DS, Seierstad clearly describes that the Talibans can do anything to Sultan Khan, but

(41) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 26 not to the history of Afghanistan that Sultan preserve by providing the books as the source of knowledge. Thompson (1996) proposes that the use of quotation marks in it is utilized as an indicator that the utterance presented as if it was in an authentic event (Semino & Short, 2004, p. 89). In this case, the author wants to stimulate the readers’ senses to feel as if they were in the same situation as the character. This also means as the way an author creates an intimate closeness between the readers and the character. Below is another excerpt for the DS techniques used by the author taken from the chapter “The Business Trip”. “That’s what you say. You have no experience of Taliban. Pakistan would collapse if the Taliban came to power, don’t believe anything else,” Sultan thunders. (p. 62) The narrator described Sultan Khan’s utterance and how he utters it clearly using the verb “thunders”. Instead of utilizing “says”, Seierstad employs the verb “thunders”, which in accordance to Oxford Living Dictionaries means to speak loudly and forcefully or angry, especially to denounce or criticize, to describe how the speech is uttered. Thus, the description given by the narrator shows the enthusiastic way of Sultan Khan when it comes into his experience about living among the chaotic environment during the Taliban’s regime. Following is another example from the same chapter. “How is your cousin?” asks Sultan, laughing. (p. 50) The presentation is similar to the preceding examples by using both quotation marks and the reporting clause as the description of the utterance. In the speech presentation above, Seierstad uses an additional information in showing

(42) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 27 how Sultan Khan utters the speech. The use of verb “asks” describes the manner of speech being uttered by Sultan at that moment, which is asking or responding to an argument by asking a question. The action verb “laughing” also utilized in order to describe Sultan’s action which not only asking, but also making fun of the person. Another example from the same chapter can also be seen in the following excerpt. Sultan agrees. “He is trying to destroy our soul and he must me stopped before he corrupts others too. Not even the Communist went as far as that; they behaved with a certain amount of respect and did not try to trash our religion. Then you have this smut from someone calling himself a Muslim.” (p. 64) Unlike the examples before, the presentation above uses the introductory reporting clause preceding Sultan Khan’s utterance. This shows another variation of the utilization of DS technique in presenting a character. The verb “agrees” shows that Sultan shares the similar idea to the preceding opinion within the page about the corrupted party that is against Sultan’s design in preserving Afghanistan’s history since according to the Oxford Living Dictionaries the verb means having the same opinion about something. The following presentation shows another variation in the use of DS presentation technique. “You are unscrupulous,” Sultan teases him good-naturedly, now that he has vented his spleen on his loathing of the Taliban. (p. 63)

(43) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 28 It can be seen from the example above that the reporting clause by the narrator follows the utterance. It is the same as most examples given, yet it gives a more complete description of the circumstance and the context around the speech. The additional introductory reporting clause is not only focusing on the circumstances but also can be utilized to describe the way or the behavior of the character while delivering the utterance. “What a tart,” says Sultan, reclining on a pillow like a Roman emperor. (p. 49) The presentation above is an example showing the additional reporting clause by Seierstad in presenting how Sultan Khan responds to a particular situation in his speech. The variation of DS presentation technique shows that in the narrator always involved in its presentation by the author and that the author can have many ways in putting the reporting clause. It can be either precedes or follows the utterances of the particular character, in this case Sultan Khan. The verb “says” also indicates that the presentation is given while the speech is being uttered by the character. The following table explains the distribution of the verbs utilized by Seierstad in the speech presentation technique.

(44) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 29 Table 3. Verb Distribution in Direct Speech Presentation No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Verb answered asked said answer says snorts asks states thunders teases Total Frequency 1 1 1 1 7 1 2 1 1 1 20 Page 12 45 46 48 48, 49, 50,56,61 49 49,50 56 62 63 From the table above, it can be seen that “says” is the most frequent verb used by Seierstad in presenting Sultan Khan through DS presentation technique with total of seven speech within the chapters observed. This indicates that the narrator focuses on the words that the speaker utters rather than focuses on the content of the message since according to the Oxford Living Dictionaries it means to utter words also to convey information, an opinion, a feeling or intention or an instruction. The complete presentations using the verbs listed in the table above are in the appendix 1. b. Free Direct Speech (FDS) Free Direct Speech (FDS) is the second most occurred speech presentation technique utilized by the author within two chapters. The most significant characteristic of FDS is the absence of either the quotation marks or the introductory reporting clause (Leech & Short, p. 258). Since FDS technique can only found in one of the chapters, the following are the excerpts of the FDS used by the author within the chapter “The Business Trip”.

(45) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 30 “Do you think praying will help you?” Sultan asked contemptuously. “The Koran tells us that we must work, solve our own problems, sweat and toil. But we Afghans, we’re too lazy. We ask for help instead, either from the West or from Allah.” (p. 45) The presentation above shows the characteristics of FDS very clearly by the absence of the narrator’s reporting clause marks the significance of the FDS utilization. The author utilized FDS presentation techniques in order to leave the character to be independent and left the character to talk entirely on their own (Leech & Short, 2007, p. 260). Following is another excerpt of the FDS used within the chapter. “Don’t forget, two months,” he says. “If you cannot make the time limit, you’ll ruin my business, do you understand?” (p. 61) From the speech presentation, it can be seen once again that the narrator gives no introductory reporting clause, yet it still uses the quotation marks. The only clue about the FDS presentation is through the reporting clause “he says” which follows DS presentation and precedes FDS presentation. The unclear description missing in the presentation created a multi-interpretation to the way or manner of how the character utters the speech. Lodge also proposes an idea in his comment on Hemmingway’s A Clean, Well-Lighted Place’s FDS technique that an author arouses the readers’ sense to differ one’s speech to another in a difficult way, yet the character can have the freedom to express their idea on their own (Cited in Leech & Short, 2007, pp. 259-260) In the presentation, FDS can also use IS presentation as a clue in showing the manner of the speech in the utterance. The following excerpt is the variation of the presentation which has IS presentation preceding the FDS as a guide.

(46) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 31 But he adds grudgingly that if she’s the one Yunus wants, he’ll do his best. “Unfortunately they’ll end up saying yes. Our family is too good to turn down.” (p. 56) The presentation has IS preceding the utterance that can be considered to act as a form of reporting clause in a form of different technique since it gives the way Sultan speaks. The technique occurs only once in the chapter. The verb “adds” in the speech presentation shows the act that Sultan does. The verb “adds” in accordance to Oxford Living Dictionaries is defined as an act to say something as further remark. Right after Sultan Khan utters his words, he adds more information to show his concern to the issue being discussed. Thus, the preceding presentation gives clarification of FDS presentation coming after that along with FDS’s manner of speech. Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA) presentation technique also can be found preceding the IS technique. Similar to the IS presentation preceding the FDS presentation, the NRSA presentation becomes the guide for the FDS presentation also. The following is an excerpt for the variation. Sultan was shouting now, egged on by his own words. “We search blindly for a holy man, and find a lot of hot air.” (p. 45) The variation above shows the NRSA presentation “Sultan was shouting now, egged on by his own words” at the beginning and followed by FDS. The presentation has the reported speech act as the explanation of how Sultan utters the speech in FDS presentation technique. The verb “shouting” from the example above gives the manner of speech done by Sultan Khan. The directness given from the presentation describes how the speech is being uttered within the text. Therefore, similar to the IS presentation

(47) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 32 preceding the FDS, NRTA in this case is also becomes the description and the guide to how the following FDS is being uttered. c. Indirect Speech (IS) The third most occurred speech presentation technique is the Indirect Speech (IS) technique with only 3 utterances presented by Seierstad. Indirect speech major characteristic is on the narrator’s total control of the presentation (Leech & Short, 2007). The total control here is seen in the absence of the quotation marks which indicate that the presentation has direct quotation of the speech uttered by a character. From the two chapters observed, the IS technique can only be found in the chapter “The Business Trip”. IS as one of the presentation techniques employed by Seierstad uses narrator to describe how Sultan Khan uttered the speech. From the example below, the IS presentation is utilized to create a report of the speech. But when Sultan with a single word says it’s time to leave, the couple go home, daughter Shabham in tow. (p. 53) The part “when Sultan with a single word says it’s time to leave” in the presentation shows the focus of the presentation which is Sultan’s speech. The narrator is seen reporting Sultan’s utterance in a total control using no quotation marks to quote Sultan’s words directly, instead the narrator uses only reporting clause. This means that Sultan’s utterance is not directly mentioned. The verb “says” instead of “said” within the speech indicates that the narrator is giving the presentation at the exact time as the speech being uttered. This type of IS gives the directness from the form of the verb. Instead of using past form

(48) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 33 of the verb, Seierstad uses the infinitive form of the verb to show that the description is given in the same time as the character utters it. IS technique modifying another technique in order to make the presentation clearer. The technique employed is still reporting the utterance indirectly but at the same time gives cue to the following presentation technique of what the context is and the way the character utters it. The following excerpt shows the utilization in the modification. But he adds grudgingly that if she’s the one Yunus wants, he’ll do his best. “Unfortunately they’ll end up saying yes. Our family is too good to turn down.” (p. 56) Seierstad uses the total control as a narrator in presenting the utterance, yet she also uses the technique in giving description on how the following utterance should be uttered since the following FDS presentation shows the independence of Sultan Khan in expressing his utterance on his own. The verb “adds” in the presentation describes the act of speech done by Sultan, which Oxford Living Dictionaries defines as an act to utter something as a further remark. The manner shown from the adjective “grudgingly” helps the FDS presentation that comes right after IS technique. Therefore, in this variation, the IS presentation describes not only its own presentation, but also helps the readers to understand the manner of speech from the following FDS technique, which has no reporting clause describing the presentation. Another variation of the IS is in the presentation of an act that involves speech or utterance in the following or preceding sequence similar to a conversation. In the following example, the speech is not quoted directly and stated

(49) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 34 entirely. It only states the act of speech as detail as it can and to show that there is a speech involved within the presentation. The response of the other character is also stated in the following line. While the sound of the printing presses reverberates through thin walls in the little office, he tries to persuade Talha to put all other jobs aside. “Impossible,” says Talha. (p. 60) The presentation shows that IS technique focuses on the persuasive speech that Sultan did to convince Talha, a young man who is a third generation printer in Afghanistan, to prioritize his books to be printed. The part “he tries to persuade Talha to put all other jobs aside” is the focus of the presentation of the speech while the following part indicates that there is a conversation in a form of persuasion seen from Talha’s response in a form of DS. The verb “persuade” shows that the speech aims to motivate another character to do exactly what the character uttering the speech wants. The following table shows the distribution of verbs used in the IS presentation technique. Table 4. Verb Distribution in Indirect Speech Presentation No. 1 2 3 Verb says adds persuade Total Frequency 1 1 1 3 Page 53 56 60 The table shows that the verbs used in the presentations are distributed evenly. The three presentations utilize different verbs in the same form which is in infinitive form in order to indicate that the presentation is given by the time the speech is being uttered.

(50) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 35 d. Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA) The Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA) is the least occurred presentation in the chapters observed. There is only one presentation found in a form of NRSA and the occurrence was found in chapter “The Business Trip” only. NRSA is almost similar to the IS technique since both of them are reporting the utterance by the use of narrator’s total control in the presentation. The only difference is that NRSA presentation reduces its reporting clause and directly summarizes the content of the utterance in a form of noun phrase or pronoun. The following presentation provides the example of the NRSA employment. Sultan was shouting now, egged by his own torrent of words. The bolded part of the presentation shows the reported act of uttering a speech and the way Sultan express the speech. The noun phrase “his own torrent of words” shows the summarized reported speech content which is his words. It does not mention the content of the speech entirely but only using simplified reported clause using a noun phrase. 2. Thought Presentation Seierstad within the two chapters observed in this research uses four types of thought presentation technique, which are Indirect Thought (IT), Direct Thought (DT), Narrative Report of Thought Acts (NRTA), and Free Direct Thought (FDT). The following part explains the distribution and the use of each technique of thought presentation used by the author.

(51) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 36 a. Indirect Thought (IT) Indirect Thought (IT) technique is the most frequent presentation within the two chapters occurred with forty eight presentations. IT is a type of thought presentation technique which is similar to the IS since they present the character in an indirect way of presentation. The only difference lies in the object presented, which in IT are thoughts. The technique of IT requires no quotation marks in its employment since the narrator fully controls the presentation and excludes the particular character in as the participant. Isti’anah (2018) suggests that the absence of quotation marks shows the indirectness between the character and the readers. Sultan contemplates contentedly how large a cut he can demand of the $2 million. (p. 58) The absence of the quotation marks forms such an indirect form of the thought within Sultan’s head. Seierstad employs the verb “contemplates” to picture the deep thought Sultan has that moment. Instead of using verb “thinks”, Seierstad utilized verb “contemplates”. They share similar meaning to each other, yet the degree is different. “thinks” and “contemplates” share the similar idea of using one’s mind actively to form connected ideas. It can also refer to the opinion or belief within one’s mind. According to the Oxford Living Dictionaries, “contemplate” means to think deeply about something. It is not only just a surface thinking. It describes the carefulness of Sultan’s mind. Thus, the significance of the verb choices determines also the thought’s manner. IT presentation is also marked by the employment of the narrator in controlling the presentation of what the character thinks. Seierstad holds total

(52) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 37 control of the presentation in through narrator’s report. Similar to speech presentation techniques, there is an absence of quotation marks or italicized part which indicate the direct quotation Below is the presentation showing the example of the IT used He could not allow this collection, which he had built up over a period of thirty years, to be lost. (p. 21) The excerpt above shows that the narrator is responsible for the presentation of Sultan thought. The part “could not allow” in the presentation indicates the strong thought of Sultan to prevent something to happen. This can be seen from the modality. Seierstad employs modal “could” to show the ability of Sultan to avoid something to happen in the past since could is the past participle form of “can” and it expresses the ability to do something. Thus, the modality shows that Sultan was able to let his collection to be lost, but due to the existence of “not” as the negation to “could”, Sultan shows inability to let his collection lost. Within the presentation, the context shown from the adverbial clause “which he had built up over a period of thirty years” gives a clear explanation of the importance of the collection that Sultan has. Thus, the verb “allow” comes to present the mental-state of Sultan to forbid his collection vanished. Thought presentation obviously deals with thoughts. Therefore, it deals also with the mental verbs in its delivery to the reader through the narrator. Similar to the preceding excerpt which also focuses on the adverb as the modifier, the following presentation focuses more on the mental verb utilized within the thought presentation.

(53) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 38 He wanted freedom to travel and often visited Tehran, Tashkent and Moscow. (p. 15) From the example above, Seierstad utilizes mental verb “wanted” as the means to show Sultan’s thought. Since the verb “wanted” is categorized as mental verb, it emphasizes the will or a character’s state of mind to obtain or gain something. Seen from the context of the speech, it can be concluded that the freedom that Sultan Khan once had is going to be taken away soon. Unlike IS and NRSA, which have more compact reported clause, IT gives more information about the thought rather than the summary of the thought. The following excerpt gives more explanation about the concept. Sultan wanted to return to the books from the time of Zahir Shah, the king who ruled for forty comparatively peaceful years before he was deposed in 1973. (p. 58) The presentation above gives a complete description of the thought’s content. The part after the verb “wanted” shows the description of what Sultan wants. Instead of summarizing the description into “books”, Seierstad presents the entire content of Sultan’s thought. The following table presents the distribution of the verbs used in the IT presentation technique.

(54) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 39 Table 5. Verb and Verb Phrase Distribution in Indirect Thought Presentation No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Verb thought wanted convinced suffered lost decided knew allow promised expecting laid plans feels concentrating finds thinks care grieves dreads loves prefers agreed follows interprets wants contemplates decides reflects prays looking forward misses feels reconcile reminds Total Frequency 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 44 Page 10, 21 11, 15, 58 11 15 16 21 21, 45 21, 22 22, 65 22 22 43, 66 43 43 43, 53, 66 44 45 49 51, 60 53 54 57 57 57 58 58 58 65 65 66 66 66 66 The table above displays the distribution of the verbs that mostly only occurred once. They are almost evenly distributed within the presentations with the average frequency of 1.32 occurrence per word. The verbs used are not entirely discussed

(55) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 40 in this research. The complete version of the presentations using the verbs listed are in the appendix 2. b. Direct Thought (DT) Within the two chapters, Direct Thought (DT) has five presentation categorized in it that makes it become the second most occurred thought presentation technique. DT is a form of presentation which presents the thoughts or mental states directly. The examples of the presentation is as follows. Lucky the armed half-wits did not look behind the shelves, Sultan thought on his way to detention. (p. 10) From the presentation above, it can be seen that DT is similar to DS since both of them quotes the character’s thought directly and still uses the narrator’s role in reporting the thought of the character. The only difference lies in the quotation marks. DT presentation above utilizes no quotation marks, instead the original thought of Sultan Khan is italicized without having quotation marks on them. The verb “thought” also indicates that the presentation is a thought presentation. The adverbial clause “on his way to detention” also acts as an additional information to specify the place where Sultan had the thought. Sonya is no doubt angry, he thinks to himself and smiles. (p. 65) The above example points out narrator’s involvement by the use of the verb “smiles” as the additional information of what the character does while having the thought. The directness shown is similar to DS in the presentation which is the information given by the author through the employment of a narrator. Leech and Short (2007) propose that when DT is utilized, the author is aiming to deliver an idea that ‘this is what the character would have said if he had

(56) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 41 made his thought explicit’ (Leech & Short, 2007). Therefore, such directness of the character’s thought is employed in order to achieve the goal, yet the narrator is still given the responsibility to present the character’s thought. The time has come to be a wolf, thought Sultan. (p. 22) The example given above provides the form of a directness shows from the exact thought of Sultan presented in a form of DT. Similar to the first excerpt of DT presentation, the verb “thought” is employed to indicate that it is a thought presentation. The difference lies within the fact that the verb in this excerpt does not have any additional information of Sultan while having the thought. The italicized part of the DT marks the thought of what Sultan would have said if it can be uttered. Below is the summary of the verb distribution in DT presentation technique. Table 6. Verb Distribution in Direct Thought Presentation No. 1 2 Verb thought thinks Total Frequency 2 3 5 Page 10, 22 46, 65, 66 The most frequent verb used in the DT presentation is “thinks”. This is coherent to Leech and Short’s idea about directness of the presentation. Seierstad uses the verb in infinitive form in order to perform a direct quotation of Sultan’s thought the same time as Sultan had the thought. c. Narrative Report of Thought Acts (NRTA) Narrative Report of Thought Acts (NRTA) is the other second most occurred thought presentation technique along with DT with five presentations

(57) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 42 found within the two chapters. NRTA is similar to IT since both of them use no quotation marks and focuses on the verb utilized by the author. The only difference is that the NRTA sentence incorporates as minimum as it can in reporting what the character thinks using noun phrase or pronoun (Leech & Short, 2007). Anyhow, he had a secret plan, a dream, for his collection. (p. 22) The part “had a secret plan” indicates the thought act that Sultan had in mind, while the underlined part is the plan and also a dream to preserve his collection of books that Sultan had. The compactness of the information shown in by the use of the noun phrase “a secret plan” interprets as a representation of Sultan’s dream and plan that he had in mind that is kept from the readers. NRTA, similar to IT, has total control of the narrator and omits the participation of the character in its presentation. There is indirectness shown from the absence of the character and the presence of the narrator replaces the presenter of the thought. Sultan had expected this. (p. 10) The presentation above shows the indirectness which lies on the absence of the character and depends only on the narrator’s description. The use of “this” also indicates the compactness of the thought content’s information. The verb “this” refers to a certain condition that Sultan encounter during the time being, which in this case is the law enforcement against his illegal business. Sultan knows that he will someday sent to jail. Rather than describing what Sultan is expecting, Seierstad utilizes the NRTA technique in compressing the presentation into a pronoun. Sultan is disappointed by his compatriots. (p. 45)

(58) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 43 The above presentation simplified the account of the statement by only mentioning “his compatriots” instead of showing what happened behind Sultan and his company. This density of a presentation once again presents the exact difference between NRTA and IT in presenting thoughts indirectly. The use of the verb “disappointed” indicates that the presentation is a thought presentation since it is also a mental verb, which in accordance to Oxford Living Dictionaries means sad or displeased because someone or something failed to fulfil one’s expectation. The concept of NRSA and NRTA is similar. Both utilize minimum account of reporting clause in order to summarize relatively unimportant prolonged conversation or thoughts so that the only main point is presented (Leech & Short, p. 260). Below is the table of the distribution of the verbs used in the NRTA presentation technique. Table 7. Verb and Verb Phrase Distribution in Narrative Report of Speech Acts Presentation No. 1 2 3 4 5 Verb Expected had a secret plan Disappointed Prays Ponder Total Frequency 1 1 1 1 1 5 Page 10 22 45 65 66 The table above shows the even distribution of the verbs used in NRTA presentation. The complete version of the thought presentations using the verbs listed are in appendix 2.

(59) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 44 B. Åsne Seierstad’s Characterization of Sultan Khan The two chapters analysed are from “Burning Books” and “The Business Trip”. Chapter “Burning Books” focuses on Sultan’s life before marriage where he struggles a lot on the preservation of his books and Afghanistan’s history. The story begins with the fall of Sultan’s bookshop. The Taliban burns down every books in that bookshop. Then the story goes on with Sultan’s fight in preserving his books to be distributed around the area for the sake of preserving knowledge and history of Afghanistan. Then the chapter wraps everything up in Sultan’s determination to realize his dream to complete his collection and to aid the looted public library by giving some of his collection. “The Business Trip” revolves around Sultan’s present life where he is on his journey for the sake of his business. The story begins with Sultan’s preparation on his journey to Pakistan in order to complete his collection in his bookshop. The story goes on with Sultan’s journey in Pakistan on his hunt for books since Pakistan is known as the piracy printer’s paradise. The chapter then wraps the story with Sultan’s journey back to Kabul. This part focuses on how the speech and thought presentations reveal the characterization of Sultan Khan. The speech and thought presentations that have been categorized are analysed and categorized again into direct and indirect form of characterization in order to reveal the types of characterization used by Åsne Seierstad in presenting Sultan Khan as a male character in The Bookseller of Kabul. Characterization is a way an author presents a character within a story in a particular way. In this research, the characterization is observed through the thought

(60) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 45 and speech presentation given by Åsne Seierstad. There are two types of characterization of a character revealed in through the thought and speech presentation techniques used within the chapters observed which are direct presentation and indirect presentation. 1. Direct Characterization The first type of characterization is the direct presentation. According to Rimmon-Kenan, direct characterization is the method of characterization dealing with any act performed by the author that develops the reader’s understanding of a character (Rimmon-Kenan, 2002). Direct presentation technique in characterization gives a description to present the character directly. The presentation can be in a form of giving description about physical appearance, speech, or even thoughts of a character. There are total of eighty four speech and thought presentations of Sultan Khan used by Seierstad. The presentations are categorized into four speech presentation techniques and three thought presentation techniques. The verbs used in the presentations also one of the indicators that the characterization is in a form of direct characterization. In the following part, the types of presentation showing the directness of the characterization is explained. The following excerpt explains the role of the verb in forming the directness of an utterance. He answered proudly, “You can burn my books, you can embitter my life, you can even kill me, but you cannot wipe out Afghanistan’s history” (p. 12) Seierstad describes Sultan Khan’s pride in his love for books from the description by the use of “He answered proudly” as the reporting clause preceding the

(61) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 46 presentation to show the way Sultan Khan responds to someone in a way that he is neither scared or intimidated, instead he answered it proudly. It showed courage within Sultan Khan to preserve what he loves. The verb answered directly describes presentation since it explains in what context Sultan utters the speech, in this case it is to respond to a certain event or other character’s utterance. Another DS presentation technique used also presented in a different form of verb. While the example above uses simple past verb, the example below shows that the verb describes the time of the utterance directly by the time the speech being uttered. The example of the speech presentation is as follows. “Her attitude, her attitude,” says Sultan. (p. 49) The directness shown from the verb “says” is that the verb describes the presentation at an exact time with the utterance being said. The verb indicates the directness in terms of time. This is coherent to direct characterization since it deals with the clear description of certain circumstances or directly presented by the time the speech is being uttered. The speech above is motivated by the conversation ignited by Sharifa, Sultan’s wife about her relative, Saliqa. Sultan disagrees with Sharifa and mentions his opinion about Saliqa. Sultan is a straightforward person. He lets out every single word that he wants to utter, and to begin with his argument, he points out Saqila’s attitude to be blamed. Chapter “The Business Trip” focuses on the present day of Sultan Khan, while chapter “Burning Books” focuses on the days where Sultan was not yet married and still struggled with his business. This can be seen from the tenses used

(62) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 47 by Seierstad in making the reporting clause. The first example comes from chapter “Burning Books” while the second example comes from chapter “The Business Trip” DT presentation can also be seen presenting directness in characterizing Sultan through his thought. Similar to DS presentation technique, DT presentation shows directness from Sultan’s speech that is directly presented within the presentation. There is also a reporting clause given by Seierstad in order to describe how the thought be if it can be uttered. The following is the example of DT presentation with directness in it. The time has come to be a wolf, thought Sultan. (p. 22) The presentation above is similar to the DS presentation in the directness used by Seierstad in giving the exact thought of Sultan. Instead of putting the thought in quotation marks, Seierstad italicized the thought to make the thought distinguishable. Directness is seen from the thought that is directly presented as if it can be uttered. The use of the verb “thought” is also an indication that the presentation is directly presented as a thought. The speech above is a form of Sultan’s interpretation of a quotation by his favorite poet, Ferdusi, saying that to succeed one’s must be able to know when to act as a wolf or act as a lamb. This is motivated by his determination in pursuing his dream after he undergone Taliban’s regime. Sultan shows his awakened-self by his thought saying that it is the time to stop playing soft on those who are against him.

(63) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 48 Directness is also shown from the FDS presentation technique found in the two chapters. FDS presentation technique focuses on the speech uttered by the character only without the mediation of narrator. The example of FDS presentation technique found is as follows. “We search blindly for a holy man, and find a lot of hot air.” (p. 45) The presentation above shows no interference from the narrator in describing the speech. Even though the speech gives no clear description of how the speech is uttered, the directness is seen from the speech that is directly presented by the character. This is due to the freedom given by Seierstad to Sultan to express his own speech. Even though IS presentation technique is not a type of direct presentation technique, the presentation can give a clear description of the circumstance around the character affecting how the speech is being uttered. The description can easily be inferred by the readers due to the clear presentation. The following explains the presentation technique being discussed. But he adds grudgingly that if she’s the one Yunus wants, he’ll do his best. (p. 56) From the presentation above, it can be seen that the verb “adds” describes directly that Sultan’s speech being presented is an addition to his previous speech. The conditional clause added also indicates Sultan’s motive in adding the utterance, which is to convince him and his family that Yunus, his relative who will marry Belqisa, will give his best for his family. The directness can be seen from the presentation that directly state the motive of the speech reported.

(64) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 49 The speech above is motivated by the proposal done right before he utters the speech. Belqisa, the girl Yunus chose to be his wife, is afraid and refuses to marry at such an early age. She is also just like her mother, demanding and putting too much annoyance on the wedding. Sultan then comment on the fact by convincing himself that once Yunus chose her, he will overcome the problems regarding the unpleasing fact of Belqisa. IT presentation technique is also found to directly state the circumstances and also the motive of the thought. This is similar to the IS presentation technique, however, in this case, IT describes the thought instead of the speech. The presentation below is an example When the Taliban were gone and a reliable government returned to Afghanistan, he promised himself that he would donate the complete book collection to the looted public library in town, where once hundreds of thousands of books had adorned the shelves. (p. 22) The presentation above refers to an event motivating Sultan to give context on his state of mind. The presentation is considered as a direct characterization since it gives a clear description of the context of the thought being presented. The verb phrase “promised himself” shows his thought that he is committed to his promise he made when the Taliban and the authorities left Afghanistan. There is one significant characteristic of Sultan Khan seen from direct characterization, which is straightforward. Sultan Khan is represented as a person who let out any words that he wants. This is seen from Seierstad’s presentation that allows the character to utter the speech without sugar-coated speech. The presentation below shows the example of the straightforwardness seen from the speech presentation.

(65) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 50 “He’s a loser, he is. Ever since Saliqa could walk she’s been looking for someone to marry. By chance it was poverty-stricken, useless Nadim. First she tried Mansur, d’you remember?” Sultan asks. (Seierstad, 2004, pp. 49-50) All of Sultan’s thoughts is expressed as a speech that shows no sugar-coating on it. The verb “says” indicates the directness of the characterization since the infinitive form of the verb means that the narrator reports the speech while it is being delivered by Sultan. In the presentation, he describes Saliqa’s father, who is still a refugee in Belgium, as a loser straight away. Instead of sympathizing to Saliqa’s father, Sultan conveys all of the description of him. The characteristics of Saliqa’s father is directly stated as a direct description by Sultan Khan. Thus, creates a straightforwardness within the presentation of the thought. Saliqa’s father is described as a figure of an irresponsible father. He has been living as a refugee in Belgium for three years and still counting and cannot even take care of the papers regarding his homecoming to Afghanistan. He never seen home when he was still living in Afghanistan. Sultan is straightforward in giving opinions to anything he likes or dislikes. Hence, the description loser refers to Saliqa’s father directly when Sultan and Sharifa discuss about Saliqa’s life. The FDS technique combined with DS technique is also seen showing Sultan’s straightforwardness. The presentation gives the honest opinion of Sultan Khan in expressing what he has in mind. The excerpt for the characterization from the presentation is as follows. “I don’t like the family,” Sultan says. “They are greedy.” (p. 56) Sultan said that he do not like his family. This is uttered directly and presented by Seierstad utilizing the DS. The verb “says”, similar to the preceding excerpt, also

(66) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 51 indicate direct timing of the quotation. The straightforwardness continues with the FDS technique presenting the reason why Sultan dislikes the family. This is again stated by Sultan right away with no consideration of being rude to those who hear it. DT presentation presents straightforwardness within Sultan’s thought. Similar to DS and FDS, the presentation gives a direct description on what the character is thinking. The following presentation is an example of the DT presentation showing straightforwardness of Sultan Khan. Lucky the armed half-wits did not look behind the shelves, Sultan thought on his way to detention. (p. 10) Sultan shows his relief in his thought that the Taliban does not recognize that there is a hidden place to store Sultan’s exclusive collection. Sultan calls the Taliban as “the armed half-wits” instead of addressing the particular party directly. Sultan expresses his dislike to a particular group by degrading their name. This indicates that Sultan is not only straightforward in his speech but also in his thought. Below is the table of the presentation techniques’ frequency categorized as direct characterization. Table 8. The Frequency of Speech and Thought Presentation as Direct Characterization Speech Presentation Thought Presentation Type Frequency Percentage Type Frequency Percentage DS 20 57.1% DT 5 100% IS 3 8.6% IT 0 0% FDS 12 34.3% FDT 0 0% FIS 0 0% FIT 0 0% NRSA 0 0% NRTA 0 0% Total 35 100% Total 5 100%

(67) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 52 The table above displays the frequency of the presentation techniques used as direct characterization to Sultan Khan. All speech presentations including even the indirect speech and only five thought presentations belong to the direct characterization. The IS presentations overlap between direct and indirect characterization since they also have the quality of being direct in terms of the time of the report which the verbs indicated and of being indirect which will be discussed in the Indirect Characterization. 2. Indirect Characterization The second type of characterization is the indirect characterization. Unlike direct characterization, indirect characterization gives the description to present the character indirectly. The author left the description of the context, act, speech, and thought to be inferred by the readers. According to Rimmon-Kenan, indirect characterization utilizes various ways to exemplifies the characterization for the readers to be inferred by their own (2002, p. 63). Indirectness can be found in both the IT and IS presentation within the two chapters. IT presents the indirectness in terms of time and also place. The presentation given is not at the exact time or place and it is just a report of what being thought by the character at a particular time. The excerpt of the presentation is as follows. Then he thought of a better idea- he pasted his business cards over the pictures. (p. 21) From the example above, it can be seen that the thought is just a report from the narrator. The use of verb “thought” indicates that the thought is already conveyed before and the narrator is only reporting what thought did Sultan had that time since

(68) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 53 the verb is in a form of past participle which is used to report a preceding action. Therefore, it displays the indirectness in the terms of the time of the report. The moment before Sultan thought of the idea, the Taliban breaks into places and destroys every possible Afghan cultural heritage. Sultan cannot avoid the event, so Sultan thought that he could save parts of Afghanistan’s culture by hiding some of his collections in a particular way. As told in the story, Sultan is a person concerns a lot about the perseverance of Afghanistan’s culture and history. This fact indicates Sultan’s motivation in thinking of a way to prevent the Taliban from destroying them. Thus, Sultan thought an idea that he can cover the paintings with his business card so that the Taliban will not notice the presence of Afghanistan’s heritage IS presentation is similar to the IT presentation since both give indirectness in presenting a character. IS presentation focuses on the speech of the character that is presented in a form of a report just like IT presentation. The following is the example of the IS discussed. But when Sultan with a single word says it’s time to leave, the couple go home, daughter Shabnam in tow. (p. 55) The presentation above, similar to the IT presentation, shows indirectness in the indirect form of the presentation which gives the report of the speech instead of using the exact quotation from the character. The narrator employed total control over the character in presenting the report of the speech uttered by Sultan. It can be seen from the absence of direct quotation from the character. Instead of letting the character to utters the speech by his own, Seierstad employs narrator’s description of what is being spoken by Sultan.

(69) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 54 Unlike IT and IS, NRTA and NRSA are more compact in the presentation. Both presentations use noun phrases or pronouns as the reported object of the speech or thought presented. NRTA presentation focuses on the report of a character’s thought. NRTA presents indirectness in the implicit description given by the author for the readers to infer them by their own. The following is the excerpt for the explanation above. Sultan is disappointed by his compatriots. (p. 45) The presentation above shows that the indirectness lies on the reported thought of Sultan. Instead of giving description of Sultan’s thought, NRTA only utilize noun phrase “his compatriots” to minimize the reported object being thought. The use of the verb “disappointed” also marks the indirectness of the presentation, since it is a mental verb which reports Sultan’s state of mind that is sad or displeased because his compatriots cannot fulfil his expectations towards them. During that time, the people of Afghan show no will to rebuild the country after the war. They tend to fritter away their money and go to Mecca. Sultan however, is against the opinion. Sultan thinks that Afghan’s people have to rise to reestablish the country. Sultan shows disappointment since while he works at a steady pace to expand his business, other people he knew just spend their money on things that Sultan thinks are unnecessary. Hence, Sultan’s disappointment is driven by his fellow Afghan. NRSA, similar to NRTA, minimizes the reporting clause by the use of pronoun or noun phrase. The only difference is that it focuses on the speech’s report only. The indirectness shown from the presentation is only in the form of report

(70) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 55 without the direct quotation of Sultan’s speech. The excerpt of the indirectness of NRSA is as follows. Sultan was shouting now, egged by his own torrent of words. (p. 45) The presentation above employs the verb phrase “was shouting” in presenting the report. The verb phrase indicates that the speech had been uttered before it is reported by the use of the simple past form of the verb phrase. The object of the reported speech is also in a form of a noun phrase which is “his own torrent of words” and it only present Sultan’s speech with no detail information regarding the words that Sultan shouts. The noun phrase is also giving clue to the reader about the motivation of Sultan’s act, in this case shouting. Even though FDS is a direct form of speech presentation, it implicitly conveys the importance and the independence of Sultan Khan. It can be observed from the freedom given by Seierstad in expressing the speech without the involvement of the narrator. The following is the excerpt of the FDS utilization within the two chapters. “Like something you bought in a dirty bazaar.” (p. 48) The presentation shows no interference from the narrator in presenting the speech. However, the character is given a total control of his thought to convey what he wants to say. This is not explicitly described, yet implicitly this is observable. Thus FDS presentation also shows its indirectness though it is a type of a direct presentation. There is one significant characteristic of Sultan Khan that is shown by the indirect characterization, which is dedicated. Sultan Khan is portrayed as a man

(71) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 56 who is loyal and willing to give anything for what he believe in. He loves books that have been a part of his life. His dedication and commitment is mostly shown implicitly through either speech or thought presentation. The presentation below is the example of the characteristic shown through the presentations. While the sound of the printing presses reverberates through thin walls in the little office, he tries to persuade Talha to put all other jobs aside. (p. 60) Sultan Khan in the presentation above shows his effort to make Talha, a thirdgeneration printer establish his books seen from the use of the verb “persuade”. In order to come to Talha’s printing service, Sultan must travel from Kabul to Lahore through the border of Afghanistan, which is a risky journey, yet he still does that as his persistent effort in what he loves and fights for. Seierstad shows Sultan’s dedicated-self to the preservation of Afghanistan’s history and the love of books implicitly by the utilization of the indirect form of speech presentation. Sultan Khan is also a character who really committed to his family, but he rarely shows it directly. Seierstad uses thought presentation technique that allows Sultan to freely think about his state of mind. Some of the thought presentations displays Sultan’s expression about his family. Sultan never even once forgot about his family in every journey he took. The example of the presentation is as follows. He ponders on the difference between the two wives. (p. 66) The IT presentation is found in the end of chapter “The Business Trip” when Sultan is on his way home to Kabul. On his way, he thinks of the difference between his wives and how to cope with them. Sultan thinks deeply about Sonya since she is still an underage and still act as a child. He ponders on himself that he is not right

(72) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 57 for Sonya since the age gap is too big, but on the other hand, he is relieved that Sonya married him because he is sure that she will not found a man better than him that can give her a good prosper life. The verb “ponders” shows Sultan’s dedication and commitment to his family aside his love of books since he thinks of them carefully just because he misses Sonya. In accordance to the Oxford Living Dictionaries, “ponders” means to think carefully about something before making decisions or conclusions. It actually shares the idea to the verb “thinks” which is to think about something, but “ponders” is used instead as the means to show Sultan’s carefulness in thinking about something, especially his family. Sultan also shows his committed-self by employing his state of mind that showing a strong will in his mind to prevent the loss of Afghanistan’s history and his collection of books. A strong will cannot be obviously observable since will comes from one’s mind. Sultan in this case shows his willingness as a form of commitment and path that he chose over anything else. The example below shows the characteristics discussed. He could not allow this collection, which he had built up over a period of thirty years, to be lost. (p. 21) The presentation above comes from chapter “Burning Books”. That time Sultan is thinking a way to prevent more loss to his collection after the war in Afghanistan. Sultan brings his commitment into a tangible idea that he could not let anything happen to his collection, especially to Afghanistan’s cultural heritage and history. The modal “could” functions to show the ability of someone to do something in the past since it is in the form of past participle. The negation “not” modifying could indicates the inability of Sultan to allow something to happen. Thus, the verb phrase

(73) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 58 “could not allow” in the presentation displays the strong thought of Sultan to protect his collection of books. Hence, a strong-willed and dedicated Sultan is pictured by the characterization. Below is the table of the presentation techniques’ frequency categorized as indirect characterization. Table 9. The Frequency of Speech and Thought Presentation as Indirect Characterization Speech Presentation Thought Presentation Type Frequency Percentage Type Frequency Percentage DS 0 0% DT 0 0% IS 3 75% IT 48 90.6% FDS 0 0% FDT 0 0% FIS 0 0% FIT 0 0% NRSA 1 25% NRTA 5 9.4% Total 1 100% Total 53 100% The table above displays that thought presentations dominate the presentations categorized as indirect characterization with IT and NRTA included in it. It can be concluded in the table above that IT is the most frequent presentation which indirectly describe the character since the presentations mostly let the readers to interpret how the character’s thought is uttered if it can be spoken out. This is coherent to Rimmon-Kenan’s idea that it is indirect characterization whenever the characterization is not directly mentioned and instead it is described through actions or thoughts that cannot easily observed. The presentation involved in IT presentations needed the reader to interpret how Sultan’s inner-self through his state of mind that cannot easily observed in the surface (Rimmon-Kenan, 2002).

(74) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI CHAPTER V CONCLUSION This part of the research contains the answers to the problems obtained from the chapter IV. The research focuses on how speech and thought presentation given by Åsne Seierstad in The Bookseller of Kabul presented the characterization of Sultan Khan. There were seven types of speech and thought presentation found within the two chapters analysed. The most used presentation technique is the Indirect Thought (IT) presentation with forty eight presentations. Direct Speech (DS) presentation is the second most used presentation with twenty presentations. Free Direct Speech (FDS) in the third place with the total of twelve presentations. Then Direct Thought (DT) and Narrative Report of Thought Acts (NRTA) in the fourth most used presentation with five presentations in each types. In the fifth place is Indirect Speech (IS) with three presentations. And the least used presentation is Narrative Report of Speech Acts (NRSA) with only a presentation. It can be drawn into conclusion that IT and DS are the most common presentation employed by Åsne Seierstad in presenting Sultan Khan within chapter “Burning Books” and “The Business Trip”. From the result of the first research analysis, the researcher assumed that indirect characterization is more frequently used by Seierstad in presenting Sultan Khan’s straightforwardness and dedicated-self. This is seen from the result of the analysis of the indirectness and directness of the presentation by Seierstad. The 60

(75) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 61 characteristics are shown by the use of the verbs and the context of the speech and thought presentations. Sultan’s straightforwardness is seen through the direct characterization allowing the character to express things in his mind, while the dedicated-self is seen through the indirect characterization allowing the readers to infers the characteristics, in this case the “will”, by themselves. The researcher suggests the future researcher to analyze on the comparison between how male and female character portrayed in the novel and conclude how the diction affects the characterization of the characters.

(76) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI REFERENCES Add. [Def. 4]. (n.d.). in Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved January 23, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/add. Agree. [Def. 1]. (n.d.). in Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retrieved January 24, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/agree. Anggraheni, R. R. (2017). A Stylistic Study of the Interior Monologues in William Faulkner's The Sound and The Fury. Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta. Contemplate. [Def. 1.2]. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retreived January 24, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/contemplate. Could. [Def. 1.1]. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retreived January 25, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/could. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches . London: Sage Publications, Inc. Disappointed. [Def. 1]. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retreived January 24, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/disappointed. Guo, H. (2017). Isolation and Communication A Stylistic Analysis of Thought Presentation in Mrs. Dalloway. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(1), pp.167-175. http://dx.doi.org/10.7575/aiac.alls.v.8n.1p.167 Isti'anah, A. (2018). Speech and Thought Presentation in Jhumpa Lahiri's Interpreter of Maladies. ELITE, 5 (2), 111-123. Leech, G., & Short, M. (2007). Style in Fiction. In G. Leech, & M. Short, Style in Fiction (p. 2). Pearson Education Limited, Great Britain. Ponder [Def. 1]. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retreived January 25, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/ponder. Pratama, D. (2017). Noun Phrases of Jace Wayland's Utterances in Mortal Instruments: City of Bones. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma. Rexroth, Kenneth. (2018, June 28). Literature. https://www.britannica.com/art/literature 62 Retrieved from

(77) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 63 Rimmon-Kenan, S. (2002). Chapter 5: text: characterization. In S. Rimmon-Kenan, Narrative Fiction (pp. 61-72). London: Routledge. Say [Def. 1]. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retreived January 24, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/say. Seierstad, Å. (2004). The Bookseller of Kabul. New York: Hachette Book Group, Inc. Semino, E., & Short, M. (2004). Corpus Stylistics: Speech, writing, and thought presentation on a corpus of English writing. London: Routledge. Simpson, P. (2004). Stylistics: A Resource Book For Students. London: Routeledge. Think. [Def. 2]. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retreived January 24, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/think. Thunder. [Def. 2]. (n.d.). In Oxford Living Dictionaries. Retreived January 24, 2019, from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/thunder. Verdonk, P. (2002). Stylistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

(78) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI APPENDICES Appendix 1: Table 11. Summary of Speech Presentation No Speech Presentation 1 He answered proudly, “You can burn my books, you can embitter my life, you can even kill me, but you cannot wipe out Afghanistan’s history 2 “Do you think praying will help you?” Sultan asked contemptuously. 3 “The Koran tells us that we must work, solve our problems, sweat and toil. But we Afghans, we’re too lazy. We ask for help instead, either from the West or from Allah” 4 “The Prophet Muhammad would cry if he hears all the shouts, screams, and prayers in his name,” continued Sultan. 5 “It won’t help this country however much we bang our heads on the ground. All we know is how to scream, pray, and fight. But the prayers are worth nothing if we don’t work. We can’t just sit and wait for God’s mercy.” 6 Sultan was shouting now, egged by his own torrent of words. 7 “We search blindly for a holy man, and find a lot of hot air.” 8 “We might all go to Mecca,” Sultan said at last. 9 “But only when we deserve it, and then we go to give thanks, not to pray.” 10 “Beautiful scenery,” answer Sultan. Type DS Page Chapter 12 Burning Books DS 45 The Trip The Trip Business FDS 45 DS 45 The Trip Business FDS 45 The Trip Business NRSA 45 Business FDS 45 DS 46 FDS 46 DS 48 The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip 11 “Wonderful sunset.” FDS 48 12 “I don’t like glass plates, they look cheap,” he says. “Like something you bought in a dirty bazaar.” “That’s better. The food tastes better now,” he says. DS 48 FDS 48 DS 48 13 14 64 Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business

(79) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 65 DS 49 16 “What a tart,” says Sultan, reclining on a pillow like a Roman emperor. “That’s what she is, a tart.” FDS 49 17 “Her attitude, her attitude,” says Sultan. DS 49 18 DS 49 DS 24 “If she’s not a prostitute now, she could easily become one. Having chosen this useless boy, who’ll never get a job, how will she ever have enough money for the things she wants, like jewelry and pretty clothes? When a kettle boils without a lid, anything can fall into it. Rubbish, soil, dust, insects, old leaves,” he continues. “That’s how Saliqa’s family has lived. Without a lid. All sorts of muck has fallen on them. The father is absent, and even when he lived there he was never home. Now he’s been living as a refugee in Belgium for three years and still hasn’t been able to organize the papers to get them over.” Sultan snorts. “He’s a loser, he is. Ever since Saliqa could walk she’s been looking for someone to marry. By chance it was poverty-stricken, useless Nadim. First she tried Mansur, d’you remember?” Sultan asks. “How is your cousin?” asks Sultan, laughing. “She completely changed after the wedding. At last she was a woman. But she never had any children, so obviously she must have had her change of life before the wedding. No rest for the wicked, he’d be at it every night,” he says, laughing again. But when Sultan with a single word says it’s time to leave, the couple go home, daughter Shabnam in tow. I don’t like the family,” Sultan says. 25 “They are greedy.” 15 19 20 21 22 23 The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip Business 49 The Trip Business DS 4950 The Trip Business DS 50 Business DS 50 The Trip The Trip IS 53 The Trip Business DS 56 Business FDS 56 The Trip The Trip Business Business Business Business Business

(80) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 66 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 “As mother, so daughter. Belqisa’s a chip off the old block,” states Sultan. But he adds grudgingly that if she’s the one Yunus wants, he’ll do his best. “Unfortunately they’ll end up saying yes. Our family is too good to turn down.” While the sound of the printing presses reverberates through thin walls in the little office, he tries to persuade Talha to put all other jobs aside. “Don’t forget, two months,” he says. “If you cannot make the time limit, you’ll ruin my business, do you understand?” “That’s what you say. You have no experience of Taliban. Pakistan would collapse if the Taliban came to power, don’t believe anything else,” Sultan thunders. “Just imagine: all the advertising posters will come down, and there are at least one thousand on this street alone. All books containing pictures will be burned, and the same will happen to the whole of Pakistan’s film archive; music archive; all instruments will be destroyed. You’ll never again hear music, never dance again. All the Internet cafés will be closed, TV is prohibited and confiscated, and all you get on the radio will be religious programs. Girls are taken out of school; all women are sent home from work. What will happen to Pakistan? The country will lose hundreds of thousands of workplaces and sink into deep depression. And what will happen to all the superfluous people who lose their jobs when Pakistan is no longer a modern country? Maybe they’ll become warriors?” “You are unscrupulous,” Sultan teases him good-naturedly, now that he has vented his spleen on his loathing of the Taliban. “Like what?” Sultan laughs. DS 56 The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip Business IS 56 FDS 56 IS 60 DS 61 The Trip The Trip The Trip Business FDS 61 DS 62 FDS 6263 The Trip Business DS 63 The Trip Business DS 63 The Trip Business Business Business Business Business Business

(81) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 67 36 “He’s trying to destroy our soul and he must be stopped before he corrupts others too. Not even the Communists went as far as that; they behaved with a certain amount of respect and did not try to trash our religion. Then you have this smut from someone calling himself a Muslim.” FDS 63 The Trip Business Appendix 2: Table 12. Summary of Thought Presentation No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Thought Presentation Types Page Chapter Lucky the armed half-wits did not look DT 10 Burning Books behind the shelves, Sultan thought on his way to detention He brought them out only if someone IT 10 Burning Books asked specially for them and if he thought he could trust the person who asked. Sultan had expected this NRTA 10 Burning Books But along with peddling their gloomy IT 11 Burning Books doctrines, he also wanted to sell history books, scientific publications, ideological works on Islam, and not least, novels and poetry. Sultan was convinced that under the IT 11 Burning Books Taliban the country grew increasingly poor, dismal, and insular. He had nothing but contempt for the IT 12 Burning Books Taliban, whom he considered illiterate peasant priests; they originated form the poorest and most conservative part of the country, where literacy was low Sultan was not ready to start a family IT 15 Burning Books He wanted freedom to travel and often IT 15 Burning Books visited Tehran, Tashkent, and Moscow. He suffered from collecting mania and IT 15- Burning Books could not resist buying a few copies of 16 each and every book or periodical he came across, in order to sell them for a profit. Sultan was of the opinion that he was IT 16 Burning Books obliged to procure whatever anyone wanted. He lost himself in Persian poetry and the IT 16 Burning Books dramatic past of his country.

(82) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 68 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Then he thought of a better idea- he IT pasted his business cards over the pictures. That was when, in summer of 2001, he IT decided to leave the country. But Sultan knew he could not give up on IT his books He could not allow this collection, which IT he had built up over a period of thirty years, to be lost. He could not allow the Taliban, or other IT aggressors, to destroy even more of the Afghan soul. Anyhow, he had a secret plan, a dream, NRTA for his collection. When the Taliban were gone and a IT reliable government returned to Afghanistan, he promised himself that he would donate the complete book collection to the looted public library in town, where once hundreds of thousands of books had adorned the shelves. He was expecting some books, the IT bookshop was threatened, or a relative had died. He laid plans for how to realize his dream IT and thought of a quotation by his favorite poet, Ferdusi. The time has come to be a wolf, thought DT Sultan. He feels shaky. IT He is concentrating on his commission and the reins, and curses the Pakistani authorities. Sultan finds it degrading being smuggled into Pakistan; he feels he is being treated like a pariah dog. Pakistan supported the Taliban regime politically, with money and weapons, and he thinks they are now being two-faced, suddenly sucking up to the Americans and closing the border to Afghan. Sultan couldn’t care less what sort of blood flows in his veins, or in the veins of anyone else for that matter. 21 Burning Books 21 Burning Books 21 Burning Books 21 Burning Books 2122 Burning Books 22 Burning Books 22 Burning Books 22 Burning Books 22 Burning Books 22 Burning Books 43 The Trip The Trip Business IT 43 Business IT 43 The Trip Business IT 43 The Trip Business IT 44 The Trip Business

(83) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 69 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Sultan is of the opinion that it is high time IT for the Afghans to put war behind them and start rebuilding the country. Sultan is disappointed by his NRTA compatriots. While he works away at a steady pace, IT trying to expand his business, he grieves over those who fritter away their earnings and go to Mecca. He knew that he had provoked his cousin IT 4445 The Trip Business 45 The Trip The Trip Business The Trip The Trip Business 45 45 Business I suppose Wahid is on his way to Mecca, in his white flowing pilgrim robes, Sultan thinks now. Sultan dreads having to visit Sharifa’s sisters, brothers, in-laws, sisters’ in-laws, and cousins. Sultan loves the stories in the masterpiece Masnavi, written by the poet Rumi eight hundred years ago. He thinks they are mostly lazy and should help themselves. Sultan prefers to sit and listen. DT 46 Business IT 49 The Trip Business IT 51 The Trip Business IT 53 Business IT 53 This time Sultan has reluctantly agreed to accompany her, to add gravity to the situation. He follows the Prophet Muhammad’s advice with regard to alms, which he interprets thus: First take care of yourself, then your closest family, the other relatives, then neighbors, and the last the unknown poor. He wants to print Afghanistan’s new schoolbooks. Sultan wanted to return to the books from the time of Zahir Shah, the king who ruledfor forty comparatively peaceful years before he was deposed in 1973. Sultan contemplates contentedly how large a cut he can demand of the $2 million. He decides not to be greedy. IT 54 The Trip The Trip The Trip IT 57 The Trip Business IT 57 Business IT 58 The Trip The Trip IT 58 The Trip Business IT 58 The Trip Business Business Business Business

(84) PLAGIAT MERUPAKAN TINDAKAN TIDAK TERPUJI 70 42 43 44 45 46 He reflects as fields and plains whizz past along the road, which is the main thoroughfare between Kabul and Calcutta. Sultan loves the Lahore book markets; he has pulled off several coups here. Sultan is of the opinion that he owns the world’s largest book collection on Afghanistan, a collection of about eight or nine thousand volumes. He does mental calculations in rupees, dollars, days, and weeks. He prays for their souls and for himself. IT 58 The Trip Business IT 60 Business IT 60 The Trip The Trip IT 61 Business IT 65 The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip The Trip Business 65 49 Sultan prays by the spot where the NRTA journalists were killed Sonya is no doubt angry, he thinks to DT himself and smiles. He had promised to return within a week. IT 50 He is looking forward to seeing her. 65 51 Sultan misses Sonya too, in a way he IT never missed Sharifa. Sometimes he feels that she is too young IT for him, that she is like a child, that he must look after her, trick her into drinking milk, surprise her with little presents. He ponders on the difference between the NRTA two wives. There is only one thing he cannot IT reconcile himself to, the different hours they keep. Sometimes Sultan thinks he is not right IT for her; that he is too old. But then he reminds himself that she IT could never find anyone better than him. We’ve got ten to twenty happy years DT ahead, Sultan thinks and his face assumes a contented expression. He feels lucky and happy. IT 47 48 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 IT 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business Business The Trip The Trip The Trip Business The Trip Business Business Business

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